US2336146A - Firearm - Google Patents

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US2336146A
US2336146A US308929A US30892939A US2336146A US 2336146 A US2336146 A US 2336146A US 308929 A US308929 A US 308929A US 30892939 A US30892939 A US 30892939A US 2336146 A US2336146 A US 2336146A
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cartridge
actuator
bolt
spring
barrel
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US308929A
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David M Williams
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David M Williams
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Priority claimed from US49525643 external-priority patent/US2373622A/en
Priority claimed from US49525543 external-priority patent/US2377737A/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A5/00Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock
    • F41A5/18Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock gas-operated
    • F41A5/24Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock gas-operated by direct action of gas pressure on bolt or locking elements
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A19/00Firing or trigger mechanisms; Cocking mechanisms
    • F41A19/06Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms
    • F41A19/25Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms having only slidably-mounted striker elements, i.e. percussion or firing pins
    • F41A19/27Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms having only slidably-mounted striker elements, i.e. percussion or firing pins the percussion or firing pin being movable relative to the breech-block
    • F41A19/29Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms having only slidably-mounted striker elements, i.e. percussion or firing pins the percussion or firing pin being movable relative to the breech-block propelled by a spring under tension
    • F41A19/30Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms having only slidably-mounted striker elements, i.e. percussion or firing pins the percussion or firing pin being movable relative to the breech-block propelled by a spring under tension in bolt-action guns
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A19/00Firing or trigger mechanisms; Cocking mechanisms
    • F41A19/06Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms
    • F41A19/25Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms having only slidably-mounted striker elements, i.e. percussion or firing pins
    • F41A19/27Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms having only slidably-mounted striker elements, i.e. percussion or firing pins the percussion or firing pin being movable relative to the breech-block
    • F41A19/29Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms having only slidably-mounted striker elements, i.e. percussion or firing pins the percussion or firing pin being movable relative to the breech-block propelled by a spring under tension
    • F41A19/30Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms having only slidably-mounted striker elements, i.e. percussion or firing pins the percussion or firing pin being movable relative to the breech-block propelled by a spring under tension in bolt-action guns
    • F41A19/31Sear arrangements therefor
    • F41A19/32Sear arrangements therefor for catching the percussion or firing pin after each shot, i.e. in single-shot or semi-automatic firing mode
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A3/00Breech mechanisms, e.g. locks
    • F41A3/64Mounting of breech-blocks; Accessories for breech-blocks or breech-block mountings
    • F41A3/72Operating handles or levers; Mounting thereof in breech-blocks or bolts

Description

Dec. 7, 1943. D. M. WILLIAMS 2,336,145

FIREARMv Filed Deo. 13, -1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 lNvENTo dgld M. l hams ATTORNEY 7 mmm vm mm mm wm mm QN mw Il NN. h mm lim Dec. 7, 1943. D. M. WILLIAMS 2,335,146

FIREARM Fied Dec. 13, 1959 2. Sheets-Sheet 2 W93 W94 Z0 ZZ 74 7 5 73 '20 74.y 75 7577 634 Z8 wvl.;

rxamzm a; I

ao 66 H INVENTOR MM ATTORNEY x objectionable.

`previously been necessary to design the gun to Patented Dec. 7, 1943 Application December 13, 1939, Serial No. 308,929

Claims.

This invention relates to rearms and particularly those of the type wherein the energy of the explosion of cartridges of varying lengths or energy and power is used to perform the operations incident to reloading the rearm in preparation for the next shot. A

The conventional type ofiirearm employs a chamber carried in fixed relationship to the barrel. In Patent No. 2,090,656 issued August 24, 1937, a movable vibrator is shown which is used to initiate the operations in an autoloading iirearm wherein the energy of the recoiling parts after movement by explosion of the cartridge is imparted to springs which serve to close the bolt at the appropriate time. It is apparent that the inertia of the parts and the strength of the springs must be such that the explosion of the cartridge will perform the desired functions. If the cartridge is of the low power type, the springs must be light and/or the weight of the moving parts less. In the event the gun is designed for a higherpower cartridge, the springs and inertia of the moving parts must be made to t correspondingly. In the latter case, if they be made too light, thebreech may open too soon or it will be necessary to absorb the energyin some manner at the end of their stroke, which is usually It is seen therefore that it has correspond to the power of the cartridge to be used therewith.

This is a disadvantage when it is desired to use the same gun for cartridges of varying powers and/or energy. An example of this may be cited in the .22 caliber rimre type wherein cartridges of Varying lengths and corresponding powers are used, known commonly as the short, long rie, and extra long. The short is usually a low power cartridge and does not in general have sufficient energy to operate a gun designed for a long rifle. It is to be distinctly understood that the reference to .22 caliber rimfire cartridges is merely by way of example and is not limited thereto and may be applied to any caliber and type of cartridge or shot shell. The length of the shells` may also be made such as to obtain universal operation in a single gun by a predetermined variation thereof in accordance with the power. A

` It is to be understood that the invention may be applied to any type of rearm including, for example, ries, Shotguns, machine guns, hand guns, etc., these being merely illustrative.

In an autoloading rearm of the type wherein a single shot is to be fired at a. time, it is desired that positive means be provided to prevent more than one shot to be red -at a single pull of the trigger. l

It is also important and desirable that the firearm be so designed and constructed as to be easily and cheaply manufactured and assembled and simple to take apart'and reassemble.

These and other objects will appear in the following description and drawings which are merely illustrative.

In the drawings:

' Fig. 1 is a fragmentary sectional elevation with the action open and a cartridge ready to be carried into the chamber by the boltV on the closing motion thereof.

Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectional elevation with the action closed, along cartridge being shown in the chamber.

Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional elevation showing a short shell in the chamber immediately after it has been fired, the vactuatorin this instance being at the limit of its relative motion.

Fig. 4 is similar to Fig. 3 withV the exceptionl that a long shell is shown in the chamber.

Fig. 5 is a cross sectional view taken at line 5 -5 of Fig. 1. j

Fig. 6 is a.' cross lsectional view taken atr line 6--6 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 7 is a cross sectional view taken at line l--l of Fig. l, showing the bolt handle fastening means.

Fig. 8 is a vertical side view of the actuator.

Fig. 9 is an end view of the actuator.

Fig. 10 is a fragmentary sectional plan view of -`the bolt showing a cartridge case engaged by the extractors. l

Fig. 11 is a fragmentary View looking in the direction indicated by line Il-Ii of Fig. 6, showing the means for releasably holding the actuator in position.

Fig. l2 is a fragmentary view of a modication of a trigger-connection.

The invention in general provides a means for using the same gun to fire either short or long shells or shells of varying energy, the short cartridges generally being less powerful and therefore not capable of deliveringsuincient energy to the bolt or other working parts of a gun to properly actuate the same when the springs and parts are designed for operation with the long or more powerful cartridges. For purposes of illustration, for example, the conventional .22

caliber cartridges will he referred to, which may be obtained commercially in either the long cartridge or the short cartridge. It is to be distinctly understood that the invention is not limited to .22 caliber nor to the specific lengths indicated, but may be applied to diierent calibers and different lengths of cartridges.

An actuator, which may be supported in an enlarged bore or other suitable means at the breech end of the barrel, is provided in which the cartridges are chambered and which is allowed to have a limited relative movement to the barrel. The actuator is made of such a length that long cartridges having suilicient power to operate the springs oi the recoiling mechanism and overcome the inertia of the parts, have cases longer than the chamber of the actuator plus the relative movement thereof, so that a gas contact area at the forward end of the actuator is prevented from having access to the powder gases. The actuator is also made of such a length that the short cartridges or the cartridges that, due to their decreased charge, do not provide suillcierit energy upon firing to operate the springs and overcome the inertia, will have this energy supplemented by the powder gases acting upon the forward face of the actuator upon firing of the cartridge, the cartridge case being of such a length to allow said access.

As has been stated, one form of the invention will be described as applied to the conventional .22 caliber short and long cartridges, although it is distinctly understood not to be limited thereto. ing a threaded engagement 2| with the receiver 22, in which the bolt 23 is slidngly mounted. The bolt 23 is provided with extractors 24 and 24A (Fig. on either side of the bolt which are pivoted near 25' and spring pressed into engagement with the head of the cartridge by the springs 26 located in apertures 21 in the bolt. In the example shown, the extractors serve as trunnions, although it is to be understood that separate pivot pins may be used. The spring plungers 83 have enlarged heads 84 that are slidably mounted in apertures 21 and serve to transmit the spring pressure to the extractors and at the same time hold the extractors in place. A striker 28 (Figs. 1 and 2) is carried in a suitable aperture in the bolt 23, said striker having a head 29 that is engaged by the striker spring guide means 30. A striker spring 3| acting upon the head 30 of the guide means urges the striker to firing position, the opposite end of said spring abutting end 32 of the tubular guide means 35 located in the plug 33. The plug 33 may be removably connected by means of screw threads 34 to the receiver 22. The tubular guide means 35 is mounted in the plug 33 so that it may have a loose movement to properly allow for alignment thereof with the bore 36 of the bolt 23 and the other parts cooperating therewith. A bushing 33A may be placed inside of plug 33 if desired, which may be of metal or ber. A recoil spring 31, located on the outside of the guide means 3,5, surrounds the tubular guide means 35 and one end thereof has abutting engagement with the interior of the plug 33 as at 38 and the other end with the bolt at shoulder 39. The striker spring is located between the shank of the striker spring guide means 30 and the interior bore of the tubular guide means 3'5. In this manner, the springs are properly guided and conned in their motion.

In Fig. 1, the usual barrel 20 is shown hav-- Trigger and Sear The striker 28 is provided with a suitable sear notch 40 which is adapted to engage the pivoted sear 4|, said sear being pivoted on pin 42. The sear 4| has a spring 43 serving to rotate the sear to effective position holding the sear, said spring abutting the receiver at 44. The projection 41 of sear 4| is suitable for engagement with the notch 48 of the pivoted lever 49, said lever being pivoted as at 50 on the trigger 5I, a spring 52 serving to rotate the lever 49 in a counterclockwise direction, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 2. In Fig. 1, the lever 49 is shown as it has been rotated in a clockwise direction by retraction of the bolt 23. The notch 48 has converging upper and lower walls so that as projection 41 is moved therein there will be no play between these parts.

In Fig. 2, the' projection 41 is shown engaged in the notch 48 of the lever49, and the sear notch 40 engaged by the sear in cocked position, such that a pull upon the trigger will cause the pivoted lever 49 to be pulled downwardly, thereby rotating the sear 4| in a clockwise direction to disengage it from the notch 40 of the striker-28, thereby allowing the cocked striker spring to move the striker to fired position. The trigger spring 53 is carried in a suitable aperture 54 in the trigger.

Assuming that the parts are in the cocked position with the action closed, as shown in Fig. 2, a pull on the trigger 5| will rotate the trigger about its pivot 45, which will move lever 49 downwardly, thereby rotating sear 4| in a Yclockwise direction and disengaging it from the sear notch 40. Such disengagement allows the cocked striker spring 3| to move the striker to the fired position whereby the point thereof engages the cartridge in the chamber. Backward or retracting movement of the bolt 23 engages the tip 55 of the lever 49. rotating ,it in a clockwise direction, and disengaging the projection 41 of sear 4| from the notch 48 of the lever 49. This allows the sear spring 43 to rotate the sear 4| in a counterclockwise direction or to urge it to the eiective position so that, as the bolt goes forward to its closed position again, the sear notch 40 will engage the sear 4 I As the bolt goes forward, the spring 52 will cause the lever 49 to rotate in a counterclockwise direction until it again assumes the position in Fig. 2. However, it can be seen ,that if pressure has still been maintained on the trigger 5| that the lever 49 will be in a downward or pulled position and the notch 48 will not then register with the projection 41 of the sear 4| so that engagement will not take place, and therefore the weapon will not re a second time. Enga'gement of the notch 48 with the portion 41 will not then occur until the pressure on the trigger 5| is released, which will then allow the spring 53 to rotate the trigger 5| so that the notch 48 will again be aligned with the projection 41 of the sear and the spring 52 will complete the engagement thereof, and as the projection 41 of the sear moves into the converging notch 48, all the play will be removed from the connection and the action of the trigger will be directly transmitted to the sear without slack. It can be seen that he pulling of the trigger and maintaining it in the pulled or red position will pull the lever 49 downwardly so as ,-.to disturb the alignment of notch 48 with projection 41 of the sear after the sear has been released by the trigger through lever 49, thus making it necessary to release the trigger to fire each shot. The use of the con.-

verging walls, parts or similar means to take the play out of thetrigger mechanism train may also be applied to other portions of the connection and to other kinds of trigger connections. A modification of this'is shown in Fig. 12, wherein |04 maybe a trigger pivoted at |05 and having a connecting link |06 which may operate the sear. A converging wall aperture |01 is placed in the arm of trigger |04 and a pin |08 is mounted on link |06 which cooperates with the aperture |01. A springand plunger assembly |09 serves to rotate link |06. This also pushes the link to the left, forcing pin |08 into the converging wall portions in the direction of convergence of aperture |01, so that the play or slack'is removed from the .trigger mechanism train. It is evident that a connection such as this may be used inother portions of the trigger train and is not limited to that shown. It is also evident that the aperture or recess may have straight walls and the part cooperating therewith have diverging walls to take up the slack.

Actuator In the conventional gun, the cartridge chamber is a xed portion of the barrel or an exsion thereof. In a gun of the type disclosed in Patent No. 2,090,656, a vibrator is employed to provide the initial movement of the recoiling parts as the cartridge is fired. In the present invention, a chambered actuator 56 is employed whichy may be located in an enlarged bore 51 of the barrel 20.l This bore is not necessarily part of the barrel itself, but may be in an extension thereof; The actuator 56 has an internal bore 58 which serves as a chamber or a portion of the chamber into which the cartridge is inserted. In Figs. 8 and 9 may be seen detailed views of the actuator per se, having an enlarged portion 59 and a smaller portion 60 which slidingly fits the enlarged bore 51 of the barrel. Ears 6| and 62 are provided to guide and limit the motion of the actuator and to hold the same in position.

In the example shown, apertures 63 and 64 are provided in the-top and the bottom of the receiver 22 into which the ears 6| and 62 are adapt-l ed to fit. The apertures 63 and 64 are joined to the openings 65 and 66 in the receiver by means of longitudinal slots 61 and 68, so that the actuator ears 6| and 62 may be passed through the slots 61 and 68 and then the actuator rotated so that it will be held in the openings 63 and 64 and the motion rearwardly limited by the rear faces of these openings, such as by face 69 of opening 64 (Fig. 11). The actuator, when in the assembled position, may be held in place by means of the spring engaging means 10 located in a slot.1| of the receiver 22, said means being held in place, forexample, by closing in the edges of the slot 1| as at 12. 62A therein which is engaged by the end of the spring engaging means 10 preventing the actuator from being rotated when it is in its operative position, thereby preventing rearward movement of the ears 6| and 62 through the slots 61 and 68 until the spring 10 is disengaged and the actuator rotated for disassembly purposes. The movement forward of the actuator 56 is limited by the length of the enlarged bore 51, the length being correlated with the portion 60 of the actuator 56 so that there is no space between the forward face 13 (Figs. 3cand 4) of the actuator and the end 14 of the enlarged bore 51. The rear faces of the openings 63 and 64 are so correlated with the ears 6| and 62 of the actuator as to al- The ear 62 of the actuator 56 has a slot low the rearward motion of the actuator 56 as the cartridge is fired to give the' desired opening 15 between the forward face or gas contact area 13 of the actuator and the end 14 of the enlarged bore 51, for the purposes which will appear presently.

There are recesses. 50A cut into each side of `the enlarged cylindrical portion 59 -into which the ends of the extractors 24 and 24A are adapted to t. In Fig.`2 the actuator is shown held in its forward position by the bolt 23, there being a cartridge in the chamber 58. It is evident that the pressure of the bolt need not be exerted directly against the actuator when in the closed position. The cartridge shown in Fig. 2 is of the longer type which extends into the chamber 16 of the barrel, covering the joint 13, 1 4, 15 (Fig. 2) between the actuator 56 and the barrel 20.

In Fig. 4, the long cartridge (of Fig. 2) has just been fired and the projectile is some place within the b ore or has just left the muzzle of the gun.

. The actuator 56 has moved to the rearward limit of its motion under the inuence of the recoil energy of the cartridge, the motion being limited by contact of rear faces of the ears 6| and 62 of the actuator with the cooperating faces of the openings 63-and 64 in the receiver. The cartridge case' when fired vexpands and tightly grips the walls of the chambered actuator so that force is exerted rearwardly thereon, thereby moving the actuator to the rear under the force of the gases in the barrel. The portion of the case within the barrel slides therein. The bolt 23 has had its recoiling action initiated, starting to compress the recoil spring 31. It is noted that the cartridge powder case 11 still bridges the joint 13, 14, 15 between barrel 20 and actuator 56, so that the powder gases are sealed from said joint and do not affect the gas contact area and thereby the action of the actuator 56.

In Fig. 3 a powder case of a cartridge that is shorter than the chamber is depicted just after having been red, the actuator 56 v having been moved to the rearward limit of its position. It is to be noted that, as the short cartridge case 18 is shorter than the chamber 58 of the actuator, that the joint between the barrel 20 and the actuator 56, as seen in Fig. 3, will be subjected to the force of powder gases moving the projectile through the barrel. For this reason, therefore, the gas contact area of face 13 (Fig. 3) of the actuator 56 is affected by the pressure of the powder gases which, in conjunction with the recoil energy, moves the actuator backwardly, thereby initiating the movement of the recoiling parts. It can be seen that the gas area of face 13 of the actuator is of such proportions that considerable force will be transmitted to the actuator by the pressure of the powder gases. It is evident that the shorter cartridge, with less powder or a less powerful charge therein and which would have insuflicient energy to operate the spring and overcome the inertia of the recoiling parts, is assisted in the recoiling action by the pressure of the powder gases upon the gas contact area of face 13, providing the cartridge case is made of suchv a length that the gases will have access to this area. It is evident that the portion 60 of the actuator 56 may be varied in size, which will change the area of the gas contact face, this being done in accordance with the cartridge to be used therewith. In this manner, the actuator may be so designed as to give the desiredbreech opening force with cartridges of very low power. By thus increasing the area of the gas contact face, it is possible i to obtain a breech opening force with the shorter low power cartridge that will exceed that of a much higher power long cartridge, which powder case breaches the gap and prevents access of the powder gases tor the gas contact face. The length of the cartridge may be made of any suitable or desired amount, depending upon the power necessary to operate the parts, and it is not essential that it necessarily be shorter than the chamber of the actuator but merely that it be of such a length that access be given to the gas contact area on face 13. A powder case that is longer than the chamber of the actuator, but still gives access to the gas contact area, is shown in Fig. 4 of Patent No. 2,027,892. It can be seen that the powder case itself may project beyond the face of the actuator and still allow access to l the gas contact face. In the case of .22 caliber cartridges or low power cartridges, the crimp will not be expanded outwardly and therefore will not seal the gas contact face from the action of the powder gases. When it is desired to use a long cartridge having sucient power to actuate the recoiling parts and compress the necessary operating springs without the aid of the gas contact area, a cartridge is used such as seen in Fig. 2, which bridges the gap between theractuator and the barrel at all times and particularly after the actuator has completed its limited relative movement. It is to be understood therefore that the meaning of the words actuator being shorter than the powder case of the longest cartridge mean a powder case suiciently long to bridge the gap at all times and substantially seal the gas contact area of face 13 of the actuator 56 against the action of the powder gases. It is evident that control of the action of the gas pressure on the gas contact area can be regulated by the length of the cartridge cases.

Eiector An ejector 19 (Fig. 1, 2 and 5) is provided which may be fastened to the receiver by means of screw 89, the same screw holding the guard 8| and magazine spring retaining latch 82 in place. The extractors 24 and 24A hold the cartridge case againstthe face of the bolt, as seen in Fig. 10. The left hand extractor 24 may have an inclined face gripping the rim of the case and the right hand extractor 24A a square face. As the bolt moves backward, the ejector 19 will contact the case and the sloping face of the extractor 24 will release the case therefrom, the spring 26 yielding, and as the extractor 24A will maintain its hold on the rim due to the square surface thereof, the empty case will pivot about 24A and be thrown out of the ejection opening 85.

Cartridge feeding means For purposes of illustration, a box magazine feeding means is shown of conventional type, although it is to be understood that other feeding means may be used such as a tubular feeding means. The box magazine 85 i'lts into a suitable aperture 86 in the rearm, being guided into place by the guide means 81 and spring latch 82, said latch having engaging means 88 that fit into suitable notches in the edge of the box magazine, these features being conventional. A follower 89 and follower spring 98 serve to feed the cartridges upwardly against the turned-in ears 9| of the cartridge retainer 92, such that the rim 93 will be retained therein until the bolt 23 in its closing movement carried the rim 93 of the cartridge forward until said rim comes opposite the slots 94 in the cartridge retainer,

at which time the follower spring will push the cartridge up so that the bolt will move the cartridge into position in the chamber 58.

Bolt handle The bolt handle is carried in an aperture 96 in the bolt 23 (Fig. 7). A notch 91 in said bolt handle 95 cooperates with the striker 28 to hold said handle in position. In order to remove the handle, the striker 28 is removed from the bolt, whereupon it is disengaged from the notch 91 of the bolt handle 95 and the handle may be withdrawn.

Stock assembly The forward end of the stock and receiver assembly is held in position by screw thread means 98 engaging the lug 9'9 which may be fastened to the barrel or the forward end of the receiver. The rear end of the receiver may be held in position by engagement of the screw thread means |88 with the notch lill in the plug 33. It is evident that the screw thread means serves as an adjustment for the elevation or positioning of the receiver relative to the stock |02.

Summary of operation Assuming that the gun is in the position shown in Fig. 2 with the action closed and the cartridge within the chamber, release 0f the scar 4| by operation of the trigger 5|, such release taking place through the lever 49, notch 48, projection 81, will allow the striker spring 3| to force the striker forward and re the cartridge. Assuming further that a long cartridge is in the chamber having sufficient power to operate the parts satisfactorily, the explosion of the cartridge will force the actuator and bolt from the position in Fig. 21 to the position shown in Fig. 4, the cartridge case being carried therewith and the gas Contact area remaining sealed. The bolt 23, which is held against the actuator 56, is carried rearwardly therewith and has its recoil motion initiated thereby. The actuator is limited in its rearward movement by contact with the rear faces such as 69 of the slots 63 and 84. The bolt continues in its rearward movement, compressing the recoil spring 31, the recoil spring being so designed that the bolt is stopped approximately just before it reaches the bushing 33A, or, if it does contact the same, to hit the same with but little force, the energy of the recoiling bolt having been practically al1 absorbed in the compressionof the spring together with the compression of the striker spring 3|. The rearward movement of the bolt carries the striker 28 therewith, carrying the striker spring guide 38 rearwardly, thereby compressing the spring 3| and moving the striker far enough to the rear so that on the return motion the notch 40 will engage the sear 4| which has been released from engagement with lever 49 and carried to effective position by spring 43. The lever 49 has been rotated about its pivot 89 by the recoil of the bolt, thereby disconnecting the notch 48 from the projection 41.

During the recoiling movement of the bolt, the cartridge case 11 is gripped by the extractor 24 and 24a on either side, which hook over the rim of the case in the conventional manner, carrying the cartridge rearwardly, and is ejected by contact with the ejector 19.

'Ihe recoil spring having been compressed and the bolt having reached the end-of its travel, the energy stored in the recoil spring starts the bolt forward to closed position, and in this movement carries the fresh cartridge into the chamtion. The new cartridges contained in the magazine are moved upwardly by the follower `89 under the urgence of follower.spring"90, and held in position by meansi'bf the co-action of rim 93 (Fig. l) of the new cartridge with the inturned lips of the retainer.- Forward motion of the bolt 23 will engage rim 93, moving the new cartridge forwardly, and when rim 93 is opposite the slot 94 of the retainer, the spring and follower will move the new cartridge above the retainer and into alignment with the chamber, the bolt then in its continued closing motion carrying the cartridge into the chamber. The forward movement of the bolt allows the lever 49 to be ro tated in a counterclockwise direction so that when the trigger is released the notch 48 will be aligned with the projection 41 of the sear and place the gun in'readiness for the'next shot to be fired upon again pulling the trigger. In the event that a short cartridge is used, such as in Fig. 3, the same sequence of operations follows with the exception that the gas contact face 'I3 of the actuator 56 is uncovered so'that the gas pressure thereon as sists in the recoiling action of the actuator and the recoiling parts to insure that with the same breech bolt and recoiling springs and parts.- complete autoloading function of the weapon will be carried out.

It is apparent that the invention is not limited to the use in a shoulder rifle as shown, but may be used -in any type of rearm, such as a hand weapon -or a machine gun. It is seen by this invention that it is possible to use cartridges of varying lengths, powers and energy in a single autoloading firearm without adjustment or changing parts, which has not previously been feasible. A gun which is easy to manufacture and assemble and which has an improved trigger mechanism has been provided. The embodiments of the inventiof as herein described are to be understood as typical and illustrative only, said invention being susceptible to the embodiments in many forms. all falling within the scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. An autoloading rearm for indiscriminately firing standard long high energy cartridges and standard short low energy cartridges, including a barrel; a receiver secured to said barrel; a beech-bolt arranged for reciprocation in said receiver; a cartridge magazine; transfer means operable by movement of said breech bolt for transferring cartridges from said magazine to a cartridge loading position; a chambered actuator interposed between lsaid barrel and breech bolt and adapted to transmit' energy therebetween, said chambered actuator being arranged to' hold cartridges and being reciprocable relative to said barrel, said chambered actuator having a forwardly facing gas contact area, the length of said chambered actuator being such that the case of a long cartridge of high energy extends forward therefrom vand into said barrel far enough to effectively prevent admission of gas to said gas contact area, the length of the chambered actuator being not substantially longer than the case of a short cartridge of low energy so as to4 provide for the -admission of gas to said contact area to assist in the rearward movement of said chambered actuator; and a spring for propelling said breech block to breech closing position, said spring and breech block mass being selected and designed to receive through the chambered actuator the energy and velocity required for correct functioning when a long high energy cartridge Visiired and having too great an effective """inertia for actuation by a short low energy cartridge without assistance of combustion gases acting on said gascontact area.

2. An autoloading firearm for indiscriminately firing standard long high energy cartridges and standard short 10W energy cartridges, including a barrel; a receiver secured to said bar rel; a, breech bolt arranged for reciprocation in said receiver; a cartridge magazine; transferr means operable by movement of said breech bolt for transferring cartridges from said magazine to a cartridge loading position; a chambered actuator interposed between said barrel and breech bolt and adapted to transmit energy therebetween, said chambered actuator being arranged forward therefrom and into said barrel far enough to effectively prevent admission of gas to said gas contact area, the length of the chambered actuator being slightly less than the case of a. short cartridge of low energy so as to provide for the admission of gas to said contact area to assist in the rearward movement of said chambered actuator; and a spring for propelling said breech block to breech closing position, said spring and breech block mass being selected and designed to receive through the chambered actuator the energy and velocity requred for correct functioning when a long high energy cartridge is flred and having too great an effectivel inertia for actuation by a short low energy cartridge without assistance of combustion gases acting on said gas contact area.

3. An autoloading firearm for indiscriminately firing standard long high energy cartridges and Y standard short low energy cartridges, including a barrel; a receiver secured to said barrel; a breech bolt arranged for reciprocation in said receiver; a cartridge magazine; transfer means operable by movement of said breech bolt for transferring cartridges from said magazine to a cartridge loadng position; a chambered actuator in which cartridges are adapted to be held, said actuator being reciprocable relative to said barrel and being interposed between said barrel and breech bolt, said breech bolti operatively engaging said actuator when in a closed position,

said chambered actuator being adapted to transmit energy to said breech bolt and having a forwardly facing gas contact area, the length of said chambered actuator being such that the case of a long cartridge of high energy extends forward therefrom and into said barrel far enough to effectively prevent admission of gas to said gas contact area, the length of the chambered actuator being not substantially longer than the case of a short cartridge of low energy so as to provide for the admission of gas to said contact area to assist in the rearward movement of said chambered actuator; and a spring for propelling said breech block to breech closing position, said spring and breech block mass being selected and designed to receive through the chambered actuator the energy and velocity required for correct functioning when a long high energy cartridge is red and having too great an effective inertia for actuation by a short low energy cartridge wit-hout assistance of combustion gases acting on said gas contact area.

4. An autoloading rearm for indiscriminately iiring standard long high energy cartridges and standard short low energy cartridges, including a barrel having an enlarged bore at the breech; a receiver secured to said barrel; a breech bolt arranged for reciprocation in said receiver; a cartridge magazine; transfer means operable by movement of said breech bolt for transferring cartridges from said magazine to a cartridge loading position; a chambered actuator in which cartridges are adapted to be held. said actuator being reciprocable relative to said barrel and slidinglyviitting said enlarged bore in said barrel and being of substantially the same length as the bore when the breech block is in a closed position, said chambered actuator being interposed between said barrel and breech bolt and adapted to transmit energy therebetween, the length of said chambered actuator being such that the case of a long cartridge of high energy extends for ward therefrom and into said barrel far enough to effectively prevent admission of gas to said gas contact area, the chambered actuator being not substantially longer than the case of a short cartridge of low energi7 so as to provide for the admission of gas to said contact larea to assist in the rearward movement of said chambered actuator; and a spring for propelling said breech block to breech closing position, said spring and breech block mass being selected and designed to receive through the chambered actuator the energy and velocity required for 'correct functioning when a long high energy cartridge is fired and having too great an effective inertia for actuation by a short low energy cartridge without assistance of combustion gases acting on said gas contact area,

5. An autoloading firearm for indiscriminately firing standard long high energy cartridges and 'standard short low energy cartridges, including a barrel; a receiver securedto said barrel; a breech bolt arranged for reciprocation in said receiver; a cartridge magazine transfer means operable by movement of said breech bolt for transferring cartridges from said magazine to a cartridge loading position; a chamberedactuator in which cartridges are adapted to be held, said actuator being reciprocable a predetermined distance relative to said barrel, and being interposed between said barrel and breech bolt for transmission of energy therebetween, said chambered actuator having a forwardly facing gas contact area, the length of said chambered actuator being such that the case of a long cartridge of high energy extends forward therefrom and into said barrel far enough to effectively prevent admission of gas to said gas contact area, the chambered actuator being not substantially longer than the case of a short cartridge of low energy so as to provide for the admission of gas to said contact area to assist in the rearward movement of said' CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION.

Patent No. 2,556,1ti6.

DAVID M. WILLIAMS.

December 7, 1914.5

It is hereby certified that errorappears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 2, ond column, line 67, for 9that he" read --that the; umn, line 26-27, for1 "exsion" read --extension--g secpage 5, fir-st coland second column, line' 56, after "gas" insert contact; page b., second column, line 66,'for "expage 5, first column', line' 5l, claim l, for

"beech" read --breech--g and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.

signed and sealed this Lith day of April, A. D. 19thu (Seal) Leslie Frazer Acting Commissioner of Patents.

CERTIFICATE oF CORRECTION. patent No. 2,556,1LI6. December 7, 19M.

DAVID m. WILLIAMS.

It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 2, second column, li'ne 67, for "that he" read -l-that the page 5, first column, Aline 26-27, for "exsion" read --extension; and second column, lineA 56, after "gas" insert --contact; page h., second column, line 66,for "extractor" reed extractors; page 5, first column, line' 5l, claim l; for beech read breech; and that thesaid Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.

signed and sealed this Ith day of April, A. D. 191m.

Leslie Frazer (Seal) Acting Commissioner of Petents.

US308929A 1939-12-13 1939-12-13 Firearm Expired - Lifetime US2336146A (en)

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US49525643 US2373622A (en) 1939-12-13 1943-07-19 Firearm
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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2606382A (en) * 1948-11-29 1952-08-12 Wilbur A Schaich Two-piece firearm bolt
US5771620A (en) * 1995-11-20 1998-06-30 Crawford; Willard H. Magazine loaded pump action shotgun
US20050257682A1 (en) * 2003-12-03 2005-11-24 Jeffrey Hajjar Method and apparatus for an action system for a firearm
US20060260461A1 (en) * 2005-05-03 2006-11-23 Leonid Rozhkov Firearm apparatus and method
US20070251133A1 (en) * 2003-12-03 2007-11-01 Leonid Rozhkov Method of firing of firearms
US20080121096A1 (en) * 2002-03-14 2008-05-29 Jeffrey Hajjar System and method for loading and feeding a shotgun
US20100186581A1 (en) * 2003-12-03 2010-07-29 Snake River Machine, Inc. Method and apparatus for an action system for a firearm
US7823510B1 (en) 2008-05-14 2010-11-02 Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc. Extended range projectile
US7891298B2 (en) 2008-05-14 2011-02-22 Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc. Guided projectile
US20150135942A1 (en) * 2011-08-17 2015-05-21 Lwrc International Llc Bolt carrier and bolt for gas operated firearms
US9506711B2 (en) 2012-07-31 2016-11-29 Lwrc International Llc Barrel nut assembly and method to attach a barrel to a firearm using such assembly
US9506702B2 (en) 2014-01-10 2016-11-29 Jv Precision Machine Company Externally loading semi-automatic firearm with integral or non-removable feeding device
US9625232B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-04-18 Lwrc International Llc Firearm buffer system and buttstock assembly
US9658011B2 (en) 2011-08-17 2017-05-23 Lwrc International Llc Bolt carrier and bolt for gas operated firearms
US9772150B2 (en) 2012-07-31 2017-09-26 Lwrc International Llc Firearm receiver assembly
US9816546B2 (en) 2012-07-31 2017-11-14 Lwrc International Llc Barrel nut assembly and method to attach a barrel to a firearm using such assembly

Cited By (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2606382A (en) * 1948-11-29 1952-08-12 Wilbur A Schaich Two-piece firearm bolt
US5771620A (en) * 1995-11-20 1998-06-30 Crawford; Willard H. Magazine loaded pump action shotgun
US20080121096A1 (en) * 2002-03-14 2008-05-29 Jeffrey Hajjar System and method for loading and feeding a shotgun
US20050257682A1 (en) * 2003-12-03 2005-11-24 Jeffrey Hajjar Method and apparatus for an action system for a firearm
US20100186581A1 (en) * 2003-12-03 2010-07-29 Snake River Machine, Inc. Method and apparatus for an action system for a firearm
US20070251133A1 (en) * 2003-12-03 2007-11-01 Leonid Rozhkov Method of firing of firearms
US7299737B2 (en) * 2003-12-03 2007-11-27 Snake River Machine, Inc. Method and apparatus for an action system for a firearm
US7302773B2 (en) 2003-12-03 2007-12-04 Leonid Rozhkov Method of firing of firearms
US7770507B1 (en) 2003-12-03 2010-08-10 Snake River Machine, Inc. Method and apparatus for an action system for a firearm
US7398614B2 (en) 2005-05-03 2008-07-15 Leonid Rozhkov Firearm apparatus and method
US20060260461A1 (en) * 2005-05-03 2006-11-23 Leonid Rozhkov Firearm apparatus and method
US7823510B1 (en) 2008-05-14 2010-11-02 Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc. Extended range projectile
US7891298B2 (en) 2008-05-14 2011-02-22 Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc. Guided projectile
US20150135942A1 (en) * 2011-08-17 2015-05-21 Lwrc International Llc Bolt carrier and bolt for gas operated firearms
US9658011B2 (en) 2011-08-17 2017-05-23 Lwrc International Llc Bolt carrier and bolt for gas operated firearms
US9810495B2 (en) * 2011-08-17 2017-11-07 Lwrc International Llc Bolt carrier and bolt for gas operated firearms
US10309739B2 (en) * 2011-08-17 2019-06-04 Lwrc International Llc Bolt carrier and bolt for gas operated firearms
US9506711B2 (en) 2012-07-31 2016-11-29 Lwrc International Llc Barrel nut assembly and method to attach a barrel to a firearm using such assembly
US10240883B2 (en) 2012-07-31 2019-03-26 Lwrc International Llc Firearm receiver assembly
US9772150B2 (en) 2012-07-31 2017-09-26 Lwrc International Llc Firearm receiver assembly
US9816546B2 (en) 2012-07-31 2017-11-14 Lwrc International Llc Barrel nut assembly and method to attach a barrel to a firearm using such assembly
US9915497B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2018-03-13 Lwrc International Llc Firearm buffer system and buttstock assembly
US9625232B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-04-18 Lwrc International Llc Firearm buffer system and buttstock assembly
US9506702B2 (en) 2014-01-10 2016-11-29 Jv Precision Machine Company Externally loading semi-automatic firearm with integral or non-removable feeding device

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