US2599325A - Conduit construction - Google Patents

Conduit construction Download PDF

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Publication number
US2599325A
US2599325A US71177546A US2599325A US 2599325 A US2599325 A US 2599325A US 71177546 A US71177546 A US 71177546A US 2599325 A US2599325 A US 2599325A
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Prior art keywords
conduit
element
liquid
compressible
freezing
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Lawrence H Fritzberg
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Lawrence H Fritzberg
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F13/00Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing
    • F28F13/06Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing by affecting the pattern of flow of the heat-exchange media
    • F28F13/12Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing by affecting the pattern of flow of the heat-exchange media by creating turbulence, e.g. by stirring, by increasing the force of circulation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16LPIPES; JOINTS OR FITTINGS FOR PIPES; SUPPORTS FOR PIPES, CABLES OR PROTECTIVE TUBING; MEANS FOR THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16L53/00Heating of pipes or pipe systems; Cooling of pipes or pipe systems
    • F16L53/30Heating of pipes or pipe systems
    • F16L53/32Heating of pipes or pipe systems using hot fluids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16LPIPES; JOINTS OR FITTINGS FOR PIPES; SUPPORTS FOR PIPES, CABLES OR PROTECTIVE TUBING; MEANS FOR THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16L53/00Heating of pipes or pipe systems; Cooling of pipes or pipe systems
    • F16L53/70Cooling of pipes or pipe systems

Description

n 1952 L. H. FRITZBERG 2,599,325

CONDUIT CONSTRUCTION Filed NOV. 22, 1946 Patented June 3, 1952 UNITED vs'rsres PATENT OFFICE CON'DUIT CONSTRUCTION 7 Lawrence 'H. Fritzberg, MinneapoliavMinn.

Application November 22, 19.46, Serial No. 711,775

This invention relates to conduit constructions, and more particularly to conduits adapjtedfor use in heatexchange units.

One ofthe objects of the invention is to provide aconduit structure or an attachment for conduits wherein means is provided to prevent the conduit from being ruptured'from theexpansion of liquids therein due to variation in temperatures. For instance cooling coil heat exchangers which utilize water as an internal cool--' ing'mediumin a tube are-used in air'con'ditio'ning systems. Such coils are frequently subjected to abnormally low temperatures when cold outside air is taken into the system. The freezing of-the water and rupturingpfthe tube or pipes results through the omission of preheaterson' their iailure, failure of the'heating'medium or Stratification of air at freezing temperatures.

Ordinarily to protect :thesecoils against freezing it is necessary to take the coils apart and zo sired amount "of non-freezing "solution =may not reach all parts of the coil. Blowing out the coils also notentirely efiective-because ofcapillary attraction within the tube.

I propose to provide a compressible member whichwill allowfor the expansion of water upon freezing so-that the strength of the tubes or pipes will-not be affected. The compressible member or its support is further so constructed and arranged as to agitate the liquid in the conduit to someextent as it flows through them, and it has beenfound that I can'use a lower liquid velocity to secure the same heat transfer as that of a plain tube or other conduit at a higher velocity.

The above and other objects and advantages of the invention will more fully appear from the following description made in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein like reference characters refer to the same parts throughout the views, and, in which:

Figure 1 is a view partially in side elevation and partially in longitudinal vertical section of an embodiment of the invention installed in a tube or other conduit;

Figure 2 is a transverse vertical sectional view of the structure of Figure 1;

Figure 3 is a view partially in side elevation and partially in longitudinal vertical section of another form of the invention;

Ward each other.

-14 Claims. (Cl.- 138-28) Figure 4 is a transverse vertical section through the structure of Figure -3;

Figure 5 is a view partially in side elevation and partially in longitudinal vertical sectionof a thirdform'of the invention; and

Figure 6 Ba transverse vertical sectional'view through the structure of Figure 5.

In Figures 1 and 2 there'is shown a conduit-I which; if used in an ordinary heat exchange unit,

that liquid can flow-relatively'f-reely throug-h said conduit while at the same time -a certain -amount of -turbu lence or a itation is imparted thereto.

In the event the liquid such as water which passes through the I conduit 8 is subjected to less than-normal temperatures for which the apparatus is designed and thel-iquid'freezes, the eirpansionthereof 'will' compress the yieldable material 1 0 and press -themetal side strips "-9 inwardly-to- The degree of normal com- }pressive movement of the material ill obviously would be ascertained so that if the water in the conduit 1 should freeze solid there would "be sufficient compressibility'of the-material -.lflto prevent '-rupturing-- strain on the conduit: The

metal strips 9 are provided to hold the cornpressible member improper-shape in the conduit.

Not only does the element made-up of the members 9 andlfl eliminate rupturing due to expansion when the liquid freezes, but is sufiiciently agitates the liquid passing through the conduit to increase the internal heat transfer of the liquid through the conduit and it permits a lower velocity of liquid to compensate for the increased pressure drop due to friction as compared to a plain conduit without a compressible member therein.

In Figures 3 and 4 there is shown a conduit 1 1 within which is located a flattened hollow elongated tubular element I2 between the side walls of which is positioned an elongated rubber element l3. The outer sides of the flattened tubular element 12 are provided with oppositely directed and staggered angular vanes 14 which are directed outwardly and in a direction of flow of liquid through the conduit, such direction being indicated by arrows. Extending outwardly from the outer edges of the vanes [4 are legs 15 which, as best shown in Figure 4, are adapted to position the flattened tubular element [2 centrally in the conduit II.

The flattened tubular element I2 is capable of being compressed when liquid in the conduit H expands in freezing and as the sides of the tubular element l2 are compressed toward each other they will in turn press the elongated rubber filler l3 somewhat in the manner of the pressure of the metal strips 9 lying on either side of the compressible element 10 in Figures 1 and 2. The vanes [4 create a turbulence or an agitation of liquid flowing through the conduit, and the legs l5, as stated, are provided to position the unit in the conduit approximately in the center thereof.

In Figures 5 and 6 I, show a conduit 18 having one of a series of frusto-conical helices ll therein, the base I8 of the helix being approximately as large as the inner diameter of the conduit I6. It is preferred that the helix base l8 be capable of yieldable construction so that it will closely fit the inside of the pipe and may be adapted for pipes of slightly varying diameters. The upper end I!) of the helix I1 is the smaller end and forms an aperture through which an elongated compressible rod-like element 20 extends, the compressible element having a, stiffening wire 2| passing through its center as shown. It is intended that the helical support I! be placed at suitable intervals to maintain the compressible rod-like element 20 in the approximate center of the conduit I6.

The rod-like element 20 permits expansion of the freezing liquid without damage to the conduit and the helical support I1 for said rod-like element 20 not only serves as a support but as means for creating agitation or turbulence of liquid flow through the conduit for the purpose described above.

From the foregoing description it will be seen that I have provided a unit which is insertable in a conduit or combinate of such a unit and a conduit which allows for expansion of a freezing liquid inside the conduit without damage thereto. The uncompressed bulk of the compressible element so limits the cross sectional flow area of the conduit that when liquid therein freezes and expands the compressible element will be reduced in size and the walls of the conduit will remain undamaged. It is also clear from the description above that the entire unit inserted in the conduit is so constructed that it will create a turbulence of flow which increases the internal heat transfer capacity of the liquid as it passes through the conduit.

It will, of course, be understood that various changes may be made in the form, details, arrangement and proportions of the various parts without departing from the scope of my invention.

What I claim is:

1. In a conduit construction, a conduit section through which a liquid is adapted to pass, a flattened hollow tubular element lying generally longitudinally in said conduit, the walls of said element being flexible inwardly toward each other, and a compressible material placed within the tubular element, said element having outwardly directed vanes extending in the direction of fluid flow to agitate fluid flowing in the conduit, at least some of the vanes terminating in leg members to support the element in the conduit.

2. A conduit construction according to claim 1 in which the vanes are oppositely directed and staggered, the legs extending outwardly from the outer edges of the vanes to contact the inner walls of the tubular element.

3. A conduit construction according to claim 1 in which in cross-section one wall of the element is convex and the opposite wall of the element is concave.

4. A device for use in a liquid conduit which comprises a unit adapted to be placed in the conduit and having a portion thereof composed of an elongated mass of compressible material, a resilient relatively rigid framing for the compressible mass comprising a flattened, hollow tubular element enclosing the mass and. having outwardly directed vanes to agitate fluid flowing in the conduit, the compressible mass filling only a portion of the space within the element, and support members to support the framing in place within the conduit.

LAWRENCE H. FRITZBERG.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS

US2599325A 1946-11-22 1946-11-22 Conduit construction Expired - Lifetime US2599325A (en)

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Cited By (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3273596A (en) * 1966-09-20 Hydraulic pulsation absorber
US4321908A (en) * 1980-05-16 1982-03-30 Reed Robert S Prevention of freeze damage to liquid conduits
GB2176565A (en) * 1985-06-15 1986-12-31 Craig Hallam Horace Ernest Ric Ice expansion buffer arrangement
US4649959A (en) * 1985-10-11 1987-03-17 Wadleigh Edward R Antiburst system for water lines
US4823844A (en) * 1987-11-02 1989-04-25 Proprietary Technology, Inc. Fluid pressure surge damper for a fluid system
GB2213903A (en) * 1987-12-18 1989-08-23 John Peter Barrett Preventing pipe bursting
US4897906A (en) * 1987-11-02 1990-02-06 Proprietary Technology, Inc. Method of making a fluid pressure surge damper for a fluid system
US5538043A (en) * 1994-06-29 1996-07-23 Salazar; Dennis R. Method and apparatus for preventing pipe damage
US6009906A (en) * 1994-06-29 2000-01-04 Salazar; Dennis R. Method and apparatus for preventing pipe damage
US6119729A (en) * 1998-09-14 2000-09-19 Arise Technologies Corporation Freeze protection apparatus for fluid transport passages
US6119769A (en) * 1998-08-05 2000-09-19 Visteon Global Technologies, Inc. Heat transfer device
US6205979B1 (en) 1998-11-24 2001-03-27 Robert Bosch Corporation Spring locator for damping device
US6338364B1 (en) 1999-09-01 2002-01-15 Burke H. Mendenhall Insert for freeze protecting water pipes
US6390131B1 (en) 2000-09-15 2002-05-21 Siemens Automotive Corporation Retaining clip and assembly for internal dampening element
US6418909B2 (en) 1998-11-24 2002-07-16 Robert Bosch Corporation Low cost hydraulic damper element and method for producing the same
US6830063B1 (en) * 2003-10-09 2004-12-14 Wcm Industries, Inc. Freezeless protection device for wall hydrants/faucets
DE10251216B4 (en) * 2001-11-02 2005-02-17 Visteon Global Technologies, Inc., Dearborn Damper element for fuel lines and installation method therefor
EP1363081A3 (en) * 2002-05-13 2005-03-30 Wagner & Co. Solartechnik GmbH Solar installation
US20060196559A1 (en) * 2005-03-07 2006-09-07 Baker David L Valve pressure accumulator
US20070039649A1 (en) * 2005-08-22 2007-02-22 Wcm Industries, Inc. Yard hydrant with drain port air line
US20080006327A1 (en) * 2005-11-01 2008-01-10 Wcm Industries, Inc. Hydrant Roof Mount
US20080017443A1 (en) * 2004-04-12 2008-01-24 Takashi Hotta Delivery Pipe
US20080087253A1 (en) * 2004-10-15 2008-04-17 Robert Bosch Gmbh Hydraulic damper element
US20080142105A1 (en) * 2006-12-15 2008-06-19 Zdroik Michael J Fluid conduit assembly
US20100036327A1 (en) * 2008-08-08 2010-02-11 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Flow prevention, regulation, and safety devices and related methods
US20100206392A1 (en) * 2009-02-18 2010-08-19 Wcm Industries, Inc. Automatic Draining Freezeless Wall Faucet
US20110220208A1 (en) * 2010-03-15 2011-09-15 Wcm Industries, Inc. Sanitary Hydrant
US20120048259A1 (en) * 2010-08-26 2012-03-01 Wagner & Co., Solartechnik GmbH Solar installation
US8287495B2 (en) 2009-07-30 2012-10-16 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Infusion pump system with disposable cartridge having pressure venting and pressure feedback
US20120298340A1 (en) * 2011-05-25 2012-11-29 Al-Otaibi Abdullah M Turbulence-inducing devices for tubular heat exchangers
US8408421B2 (en) 2008-09-16 2013-04-02 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Flow regulating stopcocks and related methods
US8650937B2 (en) 2008-09-19 2014-02-18 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Solute concentration measurement device and related methods
US8986253B2 (en) 2008-01-25 2015-03-24 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Two chamber pumps and related methods
US9273816B2 (en) * 2014-06-12 2016-03-01 Verizon Patent And Licensing Inc. Compressible device for freeze mitigation
US9371633B2 (en) 2014-11-25 2016-06-21 Dennis R. Salazar Apparatus and method of freeze protection in fluid systems
US9890867B2 (en) 2016-02-29 2018-02-13 Wcm Industries, Inc. Sanitary hydrant
US9962486B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2018-05-08 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. System and method for detecting occlusions in an infusion pump

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US518016A (en) * 1894-04-10 Gabriel zahikian
US556630A (en) * 1896-03-17 Surface-condensing tube
US596062A (en) * 1897-12-28 Device for preventing bursting of freezing pipes
US1058582A (en) * 1912-03-01 1913-04-08 Leroy B Harris Irrigating apparatus.
US1931268A (en) * 1931-04-07 1933-10-17 Kelvinator Corp Refrigerating system
US2091274A (en) * 1932-06-20 1937-08-31 Blanche G Eggleston Heat radiating system
US2409304A (en) * 1943-04-01 1946-10-15 Joseph I Morrison Compressible core for cooling pipes
US2462838A (en) * 1945-04-03 1949-03-01 Ralph C Brierly Heat transfer augmenter

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US518016A (en) * 1894-04-10 Gabriel zahikian
US556630A (en) * 1896-03-17 Surface-condensing tube
US596062A (en) * 1897-12-28 Device for preventing bursting of freezing pipes
US1058582A (en) * 1912-03-01 1913-04-08 Leroy B Harris Irrigating apparatus.
US1931268A (en) * 1931-04-07 1933-10-17 Kelvinator Corp Refrigerating system
US2091274A (en) * 1932-06-20 1937-08-31 Blanche G Eggleston Heat radiating system
US2409304A (en) * 1943-04-01 1946-10-15 Joseph I Morrison Compressible core for cooling pipes
US2462838A (en) * 1945-04-03 1949-03-01 Ralph C Brierly Heat transfer augmenter

Cited By (53)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3273596A (en) * 1966-09-20 Hydraulic pulsation absorber
US4321908A (en) * 1980-05-16 1982-03-30 Reed Robert S Prevention of freeze damage to liquid conduits
GB2176565A (en) * 1985-06-15 1986-12-31 Craig Hallam Horace Ernest Ric Ice expansion buffer arrangement
US4649959A (en) * 1985-10-11 1987-03-17 Wadleigh Edward R Antiburst system for water lines
US4823844A (en) * 1987-11-02 1989-04-25 Proprietary Technology, Inc. Fluid pressure surge damper for a fluid system
US4897906A (en) * 1987-11-02 1990-02-06 Proprietary Technology, Inc. Method of making a fluid pressure surge damper for a fluid system
GB2213903A (en) * 1987-12-18 1989-08-23 John Peter Barrett Preventing pipe bursting
US5538043A (en) * 1994-06-29 1996-07-23 Salazar; Dennis R. Method and apparatus for preventing pipe damage
US6009906A (en) * 1994-06-29 2000-01-04 Salazar; Dennis R. Method and apparatus for preventing pipe damage
US6119769A (en) * 1998-08-05 2000-09-19 Visteon Global Technologies, Inc. Heat transfer device
US6119729A (en) * 1998-09-14 2000-09-19 Arise Technologies Corporation Freeze protection apparatus for fluid transport passages
US6205979B1 (en) 1998-11-24 2001-03-27 Robert Bosch Corporation Spring locator for damping device
US6418909B2 (en) 1998-11-24 2002-07-16 Robert Bosch Corporation Low cost hydraulic damper element and method for producing the same
US6338364B1 (en) 1999-09-01 2002-01-15 Burke H. Mendenhall Insert for freeze protecting water pipes
US6390131B1 (en) 2000-09-15 2002-05-21 Siemens Automotive Corporation Retaining clip and assembly for internal dampening element
DE10251216B4 (en) * 2001-11-02 2005-02-17 Visteon Global Technologies, Inc., Dearborn Damper element for fuel lines and installation method therefor
EP1363081A3 (en) * 2002-05-13 2005-03-30 Wagner & Co. Solartechnik GmbH Solar installation
US6830063B1 (en) * 2003-10-09 2004-12-14 Wcm Industries, Inc. Freezeless protection device for wall hydrants/faucets
US20080017443A1 (en) * 2004-04-12 2008-01-24 Takashi Hotta Delivery Pipe
US7882929B2 (en) * 2004-04-12 2011-02-08 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Delivery pipe
US7497202B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2009-03-03 Robert Bosch Gmbh Hydraulic damper element
US20080087253A1 (en) * 2004-10-15 2008-04-17 Robert Bosch Gmbh Hydraulic damper element
US20060196559A1 (en) * 2005-03-07 2006-09-07 Baker David L Valve pressure accumulator
US20070039649A1 (en) * 2005-08-22 2007-02-22 Wcm Industries, Inc. Yard hydrant with drain port air line
US20080006327A1 (en) * 2005-11-01 2008-01-10 Wcm Industries, Inc. Hydrant Roof Mount
US7730901B2 (en) 2005-11-01 2010-06-08 Wcm Industries, Inc. Hydrant roof mount
US20080142105A1 (en) * 2006-12-15 2008-06-19 Zdroik Michael J Fluid conduit assembly
US20110057017A1 (en) * 2006-12-15 2011-03-10 Millennium Industries Corporation Fluid conduit assembly
US7921881B2 (en) 2006-12-15 2011-04-12 Millennium Industries Corporation Fluid conduit assembly
US8458904B2 (en) 2006-12-15 2013-06-11 Millennium Industries Corporation Fluid conduit assembly
US8986253B2 (en) 2008-01-25 2015-03-24 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Two chamber pumps and related methods
US20100036327A1 (en) * 2008-08-08 2010-02-11 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Flow prevention, regulation, and safety devices and related methods
US8448824B2 (en) 2008-09-16 2013-05-28 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Slideable flow metering devices and related methods
US8408421B2 (en) 2008-09-16 2013-04-02 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Flow regulating stopcocks and related methods
US8650937B2 (en) 2008-09-19 2014-02-18 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Solute concentration measurement device and related methods
US20100206392A1 (en) * 2009-02-18 2010-08-19 Wcm Industries, Inc. Automatic Draining Freezeless Wall Faucet
US8298184B2 (en) 2009-07-30 2012-10-30 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Infusion pump system with disposable cartridge having pressure venting and pressure feedback
US8287495B2 (en) 2009-07-30 2012-10-16 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Infusion pump system with disposable cartridge having pressure venting and pressure feedback
US9211377B2 (en) 2009-07-30 2015-12-15 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Infusion pump system with disposable cartridge having pressure venting and pressure feedback
US8758323B2 (en) 2009-07-30 2014-06-24 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Infusion pump system with disposable cartridge having pressure venting and pressure feedback
US8926561B2 (en) 2009-07-30 2015-01-06 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. Infusion pump system with disposable cartridge having pressure venting and pressure feedback
US9593471B2 (en) 2010-03-15 2017-03-14 Wcm Industries, Inc. Sanitary hydrant
US20110220208A1 (en) * 2010-03-15 2011-09-15 Wcm Industries, Inc. Sanitary Hydrant
US8955538B2 (en) 2010-03-15 2015-02-17 Wcm Industries, Inc. Sanitary hydrant
US8474476B2 (en) 2010-03-15 2013-07-02 Wcm Industries, Inc. Sanitary hydrant
US9228327B2 (en) 2010-03-15 2016-01-05 Wcm Industries, Inc. Sanitary hydrant
US20120048259A1 (en) * 2010-08-26 2012-03-01 Wagner & Co., Solartechnik GmbH Solar installation
US9605913B2 (en) * 2011-05-25 2017-03-28 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Turbulence-inducing devices for tubular heat exchangers
US20120298340A1 (en) * 2011-05-25 2012-11-29 Al-Otaibi Abdullah M Turbulence-inducing devices for tubular heat exchangers
US9962486B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2018-05-08 Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. System and method for detecting occlusions in an infusion pump
US9273816B2 (en) * 2014-06-12 2016-03-01 Verizon Patent And Licensing Inc. Compressible device for freeze mitigation
US9371633B2 (en) 2014-11-25 2016-06-21 Dennis R. Salazar Apparatus and method of freeze protection in fluid systems
US9890867B2 (en) 2016-02-29 2018-02-13 Wcm Industries, Inc. Sanitary hydrant

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