US2421666A - Method of and apparatus for making concrete piles - Google Patents

Method of and apparatus for making concrete piles Download PDF

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Publication number
US2421666A
US2421666A US559168A US55916844A US2421666A US 2421666 A US2421666 A US 2421666A US 559168 A US559168 A US 559168A US 55916844 A US55916844 A US 55916844A US 2421666 A US2421666 A US 2421666A
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Prior art keywords
concrete
casing
ground
water
pipe
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Expired - Lifetime
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US559168A
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Maxwell M Upson
Edward A Smith
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RAYMOND CONCRETE PILE Co
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RAYMOND CONCRETE PILE CO
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/22Piles
    • E02D5/34Concrete or concrete-like piles cast in position ; Apparatus for making same
    • E02D5/38Concrete or concrete-like piles cast in position ; Apparatus for making same making by use of mould-pipes or other moulds
    • E02D5/385Concrete or concrete-like piles cast in position ; Apparatus for making same making by use of mould-pipes or other moulds with removal of the outer mould-pipes

Description

June 3, 1947.
M. UPSON ETAL 5 Sheets-Sheet l j INVENTORS a J W 1. 5%
BY W a.
a T fi ,4 NEW 21? v NT... 0 n2 n fl A h 4. ma a M 1 4 1 1 a (E 1 New M? a fle F \M Nu /am L 6 g Zu u WWHM a a Q14 1 5 u. Z/W/QM june 3, 1947. M. M, UPSON ETAL "2,421,666
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING CONCRETE FILES 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 18, 1944 tIllil'itivlllllla.I, nwill1151111141112 WW 6 M June 3, 1947. M. M. UPSON ET AL METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING CONCRETE FILES Filed 001;. 18, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 ATTURZYEY INVENTORS llll'iillllll. www m m n n .oooooo Mw June 3, 1947. M. M. UPSON EIAL METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING CONCRETE FILES Filed Oct. 18, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 div INVENTORS 2 MM 71- BY W 4.
ATTOR/VEY June 3, 1947 UPSQN ETAL 2,4212666 METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING CONCRETE FILES Filed Oct. 18, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented June 3,1947 i METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING CONCRETE PILES Maxwell M. Upson, Englewood, and Edward A. Smith, Chatham, N. J., assignors to Raymond Concrete Pile Company, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New Jersey Application October 18, 1944, Serial No. 559,168
11 Claims. (01. 61-57) Another object is to expedite the curing of the I concrete shell so as to require a minimum number of forms on a given job and to minimize deformation of the shell due to ground pressure.
Still another object is to facilitate removal of the form from the ground by jacking or hammering or by a combination of the two.
Various other objects and advantages will be apparent from the specification and claims, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings which illustrate what is now considered to be a preferred embodiment of the invention.
In the drawings,
Fi 1 shows a casing l and its shoe II ready to be driven to the desired depth in th ground I2 by the drive core I3, the pile hammer being omitted from the drawing in order to simplify the showing. A sleeve M, which may be-split, is preferably used at the surface of the ground I2.
Fig, 2 shows the next step in the process. Driving has been completed. Drive core I3 has been removed and a predetermined quantity of plastic concrete I5 has been placed in the bottom of the casing ID. This concrete may well contain an accelerant such as calcium chloride. A funnel I6 has been placed on top of the casing III to assist in the placing of the concrete I5. Later on, this funnel I6 serves as a reservoir to retain concrete which would otherwise overflow, as will be hereinafter described. Sleeve I4 has been driven into the ground a short distance by means of hand sledges or in any other convenient manner.
Fig. 3 shows the tapered, watertight, hollow form I8 being entered into casing II). The form I8 is suspended by means of theremovable hoisting plug I9. The lower end of form I8 carries a spider centering ring 20. If desired, the concrete I5 may be poured in after form I8 has been lowered into the casing, but in such case air pockets may form in the concrete.
In Fig. 4 the form I8 has entered into casing I0 and has been allowed to settle of its own weight into the plastic. concrete I5. Unless of unusually heavy construction, form I8 will'float in the concrete I5 without going all the way to the bottom.
Fig. 5 shows form I8 pushed to the bottom of the plastic concrete I5 by the cumulative weight of core I3 and the pile hammer acting through a pusher pipe 22. This pusher pipe 22 is held rigidly in line with form I8 by a close fit around hoisting plug I9 and is equipped with an integral spider guide 23 to hold the top of form I8 central with casing I0. Any excess concrete I 5. which rises above form I8 will be accommodated around pusher pipe 22 by the upper end of easing I0 and funnel I6. A shield 2| around the pusher pipe and below the spider guide 23 covers the top of the form I8 and prevents the concrete from covering or entering pipes provided within the form for purposes hereinafter made clear.
Fig. 6 shows the casing I0 being withdrawn after form I8 has reached the proper depth. The plastic concrete I5 fills the space vacated by casing I (l.v
After the casing 10 has been completely withdrawn, the plastic concrete I5 is leveled at the top of sleeve I4 and a stiff ring 24 is set on top, as shown in Fig. 7, so as to serve as a reaction for subsequent jacking operations. Form I81 may then be heated as described below, or by other suitable means, and the surrounding concrete I5 allowed to harden. Heating the form serves to hasten the setting of the concrete, thus reducing to a minimum the number of forms which must be used on any given construction job; it also makes possible the practice of the invention in cold weather which would otherwise freeze the concrete; it furthermore serves to expand the form I8 slightly, both horizontally and vertically,
with the result that when the form is later cooled, I
there is a tendency for it to free itself from the concrete.
Heating of the form I8 may .be continued actively during the setting of the concrete, after whichthe form may be cooled artificially in any suitable manner to assist in its removal. How.- ever, we have foundin practice that the most After the concrete I has set into a hard shell,
the form I8 is removed by jacking and hammering. Sometimes jacking alone is sufiicient; at other times hammering alone may be sufficient; usually a jacking load approaching the permissible bearing capacity of the concrete is used in combination with a hammer blow. In rare instances it may be necessary tocool the form artificially, as by refrigerating the interior of the form, to break it free.
Figs. 7 and 8 show the removal of the form IS. A heavy spring ring 25 is placed on top of ring 24. J acking equipment is then lowered over the head of form I 8 and engaged, by a suitable bayonet lock arrangement, with lugs 21 on the form.
The jacking equipment comprises a base 28, two jacks 29, a top cross yoke 30, two jacking collars 31, two fleeting pipes 32' with pins 33, and lifting bale 34 with bolt 35.
J acking pressure is applied up to the safe bearingcapacity of the concrete shell l5, thus compressing the spring 26. If the bond is broken, ja'ok'ingiis continued until the form i8 comes free and. can be lifted out. If jacking is insufficient, as is usually the case, a hammer built into the formis operated by compressed air through hose 31,- shown inFig'. 8. Inlet valve 38 is opened to adirii't air to strike a blow, and valve 39 is used for exhaust. Spring 26 increases the movement of iorr'n l8 ateachhammer blow.
Fig. 9 shows the completed pile. The form l8, ring 24, spring 26, and i311 jacking equipment have been removed, leaving the concrete shell 15, centering ring- 7 20 and shoe l l permanently in the'grou ndq After the center of the concrete shell. has beii inspected, it is filled with concrete 40. The sleeve #4 may be left in place, or it may be removed for reuse.
Fig. illustrates the construction and operation of the internal hammer referred to above, which isbuilt into the form l8. Ram 42 operates as a piston in cylinder 43 and is equipped with piston rings 44. Compressed air admitted through pipe 45 drives the ram upward to deliver a blow again-st anvil block 46. Before such a blow can be struck, hoisting plug l9'must be removed so as to permit the escape of air from above the rain. The pusher pipe 22 is also removed before hair iiner ing starts.-
Removable cylinder head 48 carries cup 49 containingcushion block or spring 50 to cushion the descent of ram 42. The blow delivered to anvil block 46' is transmitted by studs 5| to form. l8. Studs 5i and flanges 52 and 53, on top of anvil 4'6 andform [8, permit slight elastic deformation under the impact of the blow and prevent breakage of form l8. While an internal hammer is shown herein for purposes of illustration and is preferred, an external hammer connected to the form suitable linkage may be used instead.
Figs} 11, 12 and 13 show the piping arrangements for heating and cooling the form I8. Water may be introduced through any of the pipes shown, for example through pipe 6 l. Steam to heat thiswate-r is introduced under pressure through pipe 55-120, steam syphon 56'. Water is sucke in at the top of the'syphon through pas- 4 sage 51 and is driven down through pipe 58 and emitted through slots 59, as shown in Fig. 12. This produces a steady and even heating of the form throughout its length. The condensed steam may be allowed to overflow through pipe 69 or pipe 6|. Overflow from pipe 60 may be used to measure the temperature of the water near the top of the form. Overflow from pipe 6| may be similarly used to measure the temperature at the bottom of the form. We have found it most convenient in practice to continue admission of live steam through pipe 55 until the water in form i8 is heated to the boiling point or near it, at which time steam instead of water will issue from pipe 60. The steam supply is then shutoff, and, if necessary, additional water is added through pipe 60 to fill the form to the top. If later on it is desired to cool the form artificially, the heated water may be driven out by plugging the top of pipe 55 and supplying compressed air to pipe 60. This will force the water into slot 63 and out through pipe 61. If sudden cooling is required, cold water may then be'introduced through pipe 60. Pipes 58 and GI are supported by point 64, as shown in Fig. 12. Pipes 53 and iii are a close fit'infiange 52. Pipe 55 is rigidly attached to pipe 58 by radial web membars 62 (Fig. 11)'. This construction is adapted to prevent breakage of these pipes by the blow of the hammer. Pipe 6! being short and light, can be welded into flange 52.
Fig. 14 is a transverse section through top cross yoke so in Figs. 7 an 8, showing the bayonet lock lugs EEwhich engage with lugs 21 on form l8. J acking collars 3| are equipped with similar lugs 65, thus making it possible to catch lugs 21 on form i8 at any convenient height.
We have found in practice that the form l8 can be removed successfully without the use of any surface lubricant such as oil. Any such lubricant would be objectionable because it might weaken the bond between the shell concrete I5 and the concrete 48 in the center of the pile. We have further found that the form herein disclosed is self-cleaning because of friction with the concrete during withdrawal, and that no additional cleaning is necessary before reuse. 7
Although certain specific features have been shown and described herein forpurposesof illustration, it will be evident 'to those skilled in the art that the invention is capable of various modifications and adaptations Within the scope o f the appended claims.
What we claim is 1. Method of forming a concrete mold in the ground which comprises sinking a tubular casing into the ground, lowering into said casing a hollow Watertight'form of appreciably smaller diameter than said 'casing, filling the space between said casing and said form with concrete, remov ing said casing, admitting water into the hollow interior of said form, introducing live steam into said water to heat same and thereby assist in solidifying said concrete, and then removing said form. V g g 2. Method of forming a concrete mold in the ground which compriseslsinking a tubular casing into the ground, lowering into said casing a hol low watertight form of appreciably smaller diameter than said casing, filling the space between said casing and said form with concrete, removing said casing, admitting water into the hollow interior of saidform, introducing live steam. into saidwaterjtoheat same'andthereby assistin solidifying said concrete, allowing said water to cool gradually to assist in freeing said form from crete into said casing, lowering into said concrete,
9, hollow watertight form of appreciably smaller diameter than i ca n -there y a ng sa d concrete to rise into the annular space between said casing and said form, admitting water into the hollow interior of said form, heating said Water to assist in solidifying said concrete, and then removing said form.
4. Method of forming a concrete mold in the ground which comprises sinking a tubular easing into the ground, lowering into said casing a hollow closed form of appreciably smaller diameter than said casing, filling the space between said casing and said form with concrete, removin said casing, heating the interior of said form to accelerate solidification of said concrete, cooling said form to assist in freeing it from the concrete, and then hammering the interior of said form and removing it from the ground.
5. Method of forming a concrete mold'in the ground which comprises sinking a tubular easing into the ground, lowering into said casing a hollow watertight form of appreciably smaller diameter than said casing, filling the space between said casing and said form with concrete, removing said casing, admitting water into the hollow interior of said form, introducing live steam into said water to heat same and thereby accelerate solidification of said concrete, allowing said water to cool gradually to assist in freeing said form from the concrete, and then jacking said form and hammering the interior thereof to remove same from the ground.
6. In apparatus for forming a concrete mold in the ground and including a tubular casing adapted to line a hole in the ground, the combination comprising a hollow form of appreciably smaller diameter than said casing adapted to fit inside said casing with an annular space between the two fo the admission of concrete, means for freeing and extracting said hollow form from concrete between said hollow form and tubular casing, said means including a hammer in the interior of said form including a longitudinal cylinder, an anvil block at the top of said cylinder secured to said form, a ram freely movabl in said cylinder, and means for admitting compressed air to said cylinder to actuate said ram.
7. In apparatus for forming a concrete mold in the ground and including a tubular casing adapted to line a hole in the ground, the combination comprising a hollow form of appreciably smaller diameter than said casing adapted to fit inside the casing with an annular space between the two for the admission of concrete, means for heating said form, means for freeing and extracting said hollow form from concrete between said hollow form and tubular casing, said means including a hammer in the interior of said form including a longitudinal cylinder, an anvil block at the top of said cylinder secured to said form, a ram freely movable in said cylinder, and means for admitting compressed air to said cylinder to actuate said ram.
8. In apparatus for forming a concrete mold in the ground and including a tubular casing adapted to line a hole in the ground, the combination comprising a hollow watertight form of appreciably smaller diameter than said casing adapted to fit inside said casing with an annular space between the two for the admission of concrete, means for admitting water to the interior of said;-form; means for admitting steam to-the interiorof said form to heat said water, means for freeing and extracting said hollowform from concrete between saidhollow form and tubular casing, said means including a hammer in the interior of said form including a longitudinal cylinder, an anvil block at the top of said cylinder secured to said form, a ram freely movable in said cylinder, and means for admitting compressed air to said cylinder to actuate said ram.
9. In apparatus for forming a concrete mold in the ground a tubular casing adapted to line a hole in the ground, a hollow, tapered and noncollapsible watertight form of appreciably smaller diameter than said casing adapted to fit inside said casing with an annular space between the two for the admission of concrete, means for withdrawing said casing from th ground, means for admitting water to the interior of said form, means for admitting steam to the interior of said form to heat said water, a hammer in the interior of said form including a longitudinal cylinder, an anvil block extending into said cylinder from the largest end of said form, a cushioning block in said cylinder and located remote from the largest end of said form, a ram freely movable in said cylinder, and means for admitting compressed air to said cylinder to actuate said ram.
10. In apparatus for forming a concrete mold in the ground and including a tubular casing adapted to line a hole in the ground, the combination comprising a hollow tapered form adapted to fit inside the casing with an annular space between itself and the casing for the admission of concrete, means for admitting water to the interior of said tapered form, means for admitting steam to the interior of said tapered form to heat water contained therein, jacking means adapted to bear upon concrete surrounding,said tapered form and engage the upper end of said tapered form to assist in freeing said tapered form from the surrounding concrete, a hammer in the interior of said tapered form including a longitudinal cylinder, an anvil block extending into said cylinder and located adjacent the largest end of said tapered form, a ram freely movabl in said cylinder, and means for admitting compressed air to said cylinder to actuate said ram against said anvil block, whereby, through the cooperation of said jacking means and the actuation of said hammer against said anvil block, said tubular form is freed from the surrounding concrete.
11. In apparatus for forming a concrete mold in the ground, the combination comprising a hollow watertight tapered form having its small end closed and formed for advancing through plastic concrete, means attached to the larger end of said tapered form for receiving the impact of said second conduit and its other end discharging into the water contained in said form whereby the water in said form is circulated when steam is introduced into said second conduit, anoverfiow V conduit at'th'e upper end of' said form, and a. re-
movable shield covering the upper ends of'said conduits and surrounding said first-named means for preventing. the entry of foreign material to said conduits while' said' form is being driven. l MAXWELL M. UPSON.
EDWARD A. SMITH.
REFERENCES CITED 1 The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
Number Number France 193?
US559168A 1944-10-18 1944-10-18 Method of and apparatus for making concrete piles Expired - Lifetime US2421666A (en)

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2911795A (en) * 1955-12-07 1959-11-10 Walter H Cobi Mandrel for driving pile shells
US2952131A (en) * 1954-12-13 1960-09-13 Lyroudias Leonidas Apparatus for forming concrete piles
US3034304A (en) * 1958-12-29 1962-05-15 Raymond Int Inc Methods and apparatus for making concrete pile shells and piles
US3059436A (en) * 1956-03-19 1962-10-23 Jr George F Hermann Piling
US3090204A (en) * 1959-03-17 1963-05-21 Raymond Int Inc Method of forming concrete shell in ground
US3187513A (en) * 1962-08-24 1965-06-08 Shell Oil Co Method of driving piles
US3192292A (en) * 1961-12-07 1965-06-29 Joseph E Banks Method of forming hollow concrete bodies
DE1484572B1 (en) * 1963-02-15 1970-03-12 Stump Bohr Ag Tie rods, especially for anchoring components in the ground
US3736757A (en) * 1971-03-17 1973-06-05 Raymond Int Inc Cast-in-situ concrete piles
US5697734A (en) * 1993-07-05 1997-12-16 Beheersmaatschappij Verstraeten B.V. Method for forming a foundation pile in the ground utilizing a prefabricated pile shaft
US20050013889A1 (en) * 2003-07-17 2005-01-20 Jay Endre Method and apparatus for masonry chimney flue repair

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US500675A (en) * 1893-07-04 Clemens schnell
US1000638A (en) * 1910-10-10 1911-08-15 John H Stewart Sewer-pipe machine.
GB191513849A (en) * 1915-09-29 1916-07-13 Thomas Thomson Improvements in and relating to Mining for Military and other Purposes.
FR816086A (en) * 1936-04-06 1937-07-29 Pile system

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US500675A (en) * 1893-07-04 Clemens schnell
US1000638A (en) * 1910-10-10 1911-08-15 John H Stewart Sewer-pipe machine.
GB191513849A (en) * 1915-09-29 1916-07-13 Thomas Thomson Improvements in and relating to Mining for Military and other Purposes.
FR816086A (en) * 1936-04-06 1937-07-29 Pile system

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2952131A (en) * 1954-12-13 1960-09-13 Lyroudias Leonidas Apparatus for forming concrete piles
US2911795A (en) * 1955-12-07 1959-11-10 Walter H Cobi Mandrel for driving pile shells
US3059436A (en) * 1956-03-19 1962-10-23 Jr George F Hermann Piling
US3034304A (en) * 1958-12-29 1962-05-15 Raymond Int Inc Methods and apparatus for making concrete pile shells and piles
DE1292586B (en) * 1958-12-29 1969-04-10 Raymond Int Inc Method and device for manufacturing a concrete casing pipe
US3090204A (en) * 1959-03-17 1963-05-21 Raymond Int Inc Method of forming concrete shell in ground
US3192292A (en) * 1961-12-07 1965-06-29 Joseph E Banks Method of forming hollow concrete bodies
US3187513A (en) * 1962-08-24 1965-06-08 Shell Oil Co Method of driving piles
DE1484572B1 (en) * 1963-02-15 1970-03-12 Stump Bohr Ag Tie rods, especially for anchoring components in the ground
US3736757A (en) * 1971-03-17 1973-06-05 Raymond Int Inc Cast-in-situ concrete piles
US5697734A (en) * 1993-07-05 1997-12-16 Beheersmaatschappij Verstraeten B.V. Method for forming a foundation pile in the ground utilizing a prefabricated pile shaft
US20050013889A1 (en) * 2003-07-17 2005-01-20 Jay Endre Method and apparatus for masonry chimney flue repair
US7302779B2 (en) * 2003-07-17 2007-12-04 Jay Endre Method and apparatus for masonry chimney flue repair

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