US2408252A - Ammunition - Google Patents

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US2408252A
US2408252A US469871A US46987142A US2408252A US 2408252 A US2408252 A US 2408252A US 469871 A US469871 A US 469871A US 46987142 A US46987142 A US 46987142A US 2408252 A US2408252 A US 2408252A
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projectile
explosive
material
chamber
charge
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US469871A
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Ganahl Carl De
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KAISER CARGO Inc
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KAISER CARGO Inc
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B15/00Self-propelled projectiles or missiles, e.g. rockets; Guided missiles

Description

Sept 1946. c. DE GANAHL 2,408,252

AMMUNITION Filed Dec. 23, 1942 INVENTOR CARL de GANAHL BY ATTORNEYS I Patented Sept. 24,1946

AMIVIUNITION Carl de Ganahl, Trenton, N. J., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Kaiser Cargo, 1110., Bristol, Pa., a corporation of California.

Application December 23, 1942, Serial No. 469,871

8 Claims.

This invention relates to ammunition and particularly to projectiles carrying a charge of gasf orming material which may be ignited to afford a jet capable of accelerating the flight of a projectile after initial discharge thereof.

The invention may be applied to projectiles of various kinds, including shells, bombs and torpedoes. The flight of such projectiles may be initiated in any suitable manner. In the case of light artillery ammunition, the shell may be assembled with a casing carrying the usual powder charge. In heavy artillery, the shell may be separate from the powder charge which is introduced behind it in the gun. Bombs may be released in the usual manner, and torpedoes discharged in accordance with customary practice. In various types of ammunition as heretofore used, the velocity, trajectory, etc., have depended upon the charge employed for initial propulsion or upon gravity.

It is the object of the present invention to pro-- vide an improved type of ammunition in which acceleration is accomplished by the discharge of combustion gases afiording jet propulsion for the projectile.

Another object of the invention is to increase the mass of the combustion gases so as to aiford a substantial increase in the acceleration of the projectile.

Another object of the invention is to provide an additional quantity of high density gas in the products of combustion ejected from the projectile.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent as it is better understood by reference to the following specification and the accompanying drawing, in which Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section through a projectile and shell casing;

Fig. 2 is a section on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a section on the line 33 of Fig. 1; and

Fig. 4 is an enlarged transverse section through the charge of combustible material indicating the arrangement thereof.

In describing the invention, reference is made The application of the invention to the various forms of projectiles will be readily comprehended.

to a simple form of projectile associated with a casing carrying the powder charge to initiate the flight of the projectile. It is to be understood that the drawing is merely illustrative and that the invention may be applied as hereinbefore indicated to free shells, bombs and torpedoes. The details of construction of these various forms of projectiles form no part of the present invention, and such details are not, therefore, illustrated.

The invention depends upon the provision of a chamber within the projectile adapted to receive the charge of combustible material, as hereinafter more fully described, the chamber merging into a Venturi passage affording means for escape of the gases formed when the combustible material is ignited. The mass of the gases evolved by the combustion of ordinary powder is relatively slight in comparison with the mass of a projectile capable of enclosing the powder charge. In order to obtain the desired acceleration of the projectile, it is desirable to increase the mass of the combustion gases.

In my co-pending application Ser. No. 458,791, filed September 18, 1942, I have described means for increasing the mass of the combustion gases by the inclusion with the powder of oxides of metals of the highest available density. The most available metals for the purposeare mercury, lead and bismuth, all of which are members of series 11 of theperiodic system of elements having atomic weights of 200 or higher. Of these, the oxides of mercury afford the most desirable characteristics.

I prefer to employ the oxides of the heavy metals, and particularly mercuric or mercurous oxide, since these oxides are capable of giving up oxygen, thus affording an additional source of oxygen for the combustion of the gas-forming material, such for example as the cellulose compounds normally employed as explosives. Since these cellulose compounds are invariably deficient in oxygen, the additional oxygen supplied by the inclusion of a metallic oxide ensures rapid and complete combustion, provided a sufficient quanof the heavy metals as described provides a sur- There are numerous forms of carbon available which may be utilized to attain the desired results. When the carbon is consumed, carbon dioxide is formed and mingled with the combustion gases. The density of carbon dioxide is relatively high as compared, for example, with water, the combustion product of hydrogen. Hence the addition of carbon dioxide to the gases adds to the mass and thus to the propulsive efiect of the gases discharged.

The proportions of the several constituents employed in the rocket charge may vary over a wide range and will depend to some extent upon the type of explosive used. Nitrocellulose difiers in degree of nitration and it maybe desirable to employ deco-nitrocellulose or in some cases a product of lower nitration. In any event, the proportion of carbon to the heavy metal oxide hould be such as to utilize excess oxygen supplied by the metal oxide. Merely as an illustration of the invention, the following combinations may be employed, assuming the explosive to be deca-nitrO- cellulose. The quantities are expressed in mols.

Explosive Carbon ag-i The distribution of the combustible and oxidizing agents in the charge employed in the projectile is a matter of some importance since it is necessary to maintain as much uniformity as practicable and particularly to control the rate of combustion. The explosive is usually prepared in the form of extruded rods which are cut to afford relatively short elements. Since the explosive is a plastic, the carbonaceous material may be introduced as a filler and the explosive may be formed as desired. In various forms, the explosive material may be incorporated with the auxiliary oxidizing material consisting of the oxides of the heavy metals to afford mixtures as uniform as possible.

I find it desirable, however, to first form the explosive material with the carbonaceous filler into sheets. The plastic may be easily prepared in this form. Similarly the oxide or oxides of the heavy metals may be mixed with any suitable adhesive material and likewise formed into sheets. The sheets may be cut into pieces of suitable size and arranged to form a laminated structure in which the sheets containing the oxide or oxides of the heavy metal are interposed between the sheets consisting of the explosive and carbonaceeus filler. In this manner a charge of suitable size for the capacity of the projectile may be prepared readily.

To avoid premature contact between the explosive and the auxiliary oxidizing material, any suitable coating may be applied to the sheets before they are assembled. Paraffin may be employed as the coating composition. There are various other compounds of a comparable nature which may be utilized for this purpose. By adjustment of the thickness of the laminations and the amount and nature of the auxiliary oxidizing material in relation to the quantity of explosive and carbonaceous filler, sufficient oxygen may be supplied to ensure complete combustion both of the explosive and of the carbonaceous filler, and the rate of combustion can be regulated by such adjustment so as to afiord. the discharge gases of relatively large mass. The laminated arrangement as described ensures a uniform rate of combustion.

The application of the invention, for example to a shell of given size which is ejected from a gun at a predetermined muzzle velocity, will actually increase the velocity of the shell so that the energy of impact at the end of its flight for a given range will be at least twice the energy available if the flight were not assisted by jet propulsion.

As an example of the invention, reference is made to the drawing in which 5 indicates the shell casing and 6 the projectile which is assembled therewith. The details of an armor-piercing nose for the projectile form no part of the present invention and are not illustrated and described. Likewise it is unnecessary to describe the provision for high explosive in the nose of the projectile, this being common in some types of ammunition. It is to be understood that the projectile may be of any of the well known types. In the present case the projectile carries the usual band I of copper or other soft metal adapted to co-operate with the rifiing of the gun. This, of course, will be omitted in cases where it is unnecessary.

A chamber 8 is provided in the projectile and merges with a smooth curved surface 9 into a Venturi passage l0 which flares outwardly at the tail of the projectile. The inclusive angle of the walls of the passage should not exceed approximately 10-12". Preferably the walls of the chamber 8 and of the Venturi passage H! are lined with a suitable heat-insulating material II such as asbestos cement or the like. The outer wall 12 o'f the tail of the projectile should have a reduced cross-sectional diameter to avoid possible expansion under the eifect of pressure which might otherwise prevent the projectile from leaving the shell casing 5.

In order to permit the introduction of the powder charge in the form of a cylinder, the projectile may be manufactured in two parts, the rear end being threadedly or otherwise secured at 13 to the body of the projectile.

As hereinbefore indicated, the charge of explosive with the carbonaceous filler and the auxiliary and oxidizing material may be introduced to the chamber 8 in any suitable form. Preferably, as shown in Fig. 4, the explosive and carbonaceous filler are formed in sheets I4, and the oxidizing material in sheets I5 which are cut to propersize and laminated to provide a cylindrical body which is adapted to fill the chamber 8 of the projectile.

The powder IS used in the shell casing 5 may be of the usual kind employed for similar purposes and designed to permit increased rate of burnin following ignition, in order that pressure may be maintained in the gun barrel after the projectile leaves the shell casing. The powder may be ignited by a primer IT. The passage [0 is likewise filled with powder which becomes ignited and in turn ignites the combustible material within the chamber 8. The latter ignition should occur as the projectile commences its flight and ejection of the combustion gases through the passage Ill affords jet propulsion and accelerates the projectile. The provision of the high density auxiliary material consisting of 0xides of the heavy metal increases the density 'of the gases ejected. Likewise, combustion of the carbonaceous material affords carbon dioxide which also increases the density of the ejected g gases. This assures maximum available mass in the propelling jet and hence increased acceleration.

Among other advantages of the invention, it is possible to secure thereby the greatest possible propelling force (momentum reaction) from a given explosive-containing space within the rocket chamber of the shell. The presence of heavy metal oxide such as mercuric oxide will serve, by absorption of heat, to reduce the temperature of the explosive reaction within the rocket chamber to practicable limits. The inclusion of relatively large proportions of carbon and heavy metal OX- ide affords means of controlling the rate of burning and causing the charge to burn from its rearward face forwardly, in a uniform manner. If necessary, the speed of burning may be reduced by reduction of the degree of nitration of the explosive.

Owing to the increased acceleration, the trajectory will be flattened, the speed of travel to the target increased, and the available energy at the target for impact materially improved. The invention assures greater accuracy in firing because of the accelerated speed and flatter trajectory of the projectile. The increase in destructive hitting power for ammunition of a given weight alTords a substantial improvement.

While the invention has been described in connection with a light artillery shell, the shell casing may, of course, be eliminated in heavier types of artillery where the powder for initial ejection of the projectile is separately handled and introduced to the gun behind the shell. Likewise the principles employed in providing jet propulsion improved by the inclusion of high density material and particularly of oxides and carbonaceous material may be applied to projectiles of the bomb and torpedo types. The details of construction of these various forms of projectiles are not a part of the present invention except for the provision therein of a chamber and a Venturi passage through which combustion gases may be ejected.

Various changes may be made in the form, arrangement and construction of the projectiles, and in the nature of the added materials employed to improve the flight thereof without departing from the invention or sacrificing any of the advantages thereof.

I claim:

1. In a projectile, a chamber having a restricted outlet passage communicating therewith, a charge of combustible material including explosive and a non-explosive carbonaceous filler in the chamber, and auxiliary material comprising an oxide of a metal of the eleventh series of the periodic system of elements associated with the combustible material and adapted to increase the mass of the combustion gases ejected through the passage when the combustible material is ignited.

2. In a projectile, a chamber having a re-- stricted outlet passage communicating therewith, a charge of combustible material including 3.

explosive and a non-explosive carbonaceous filler in the chamber, and auxiliary material comprising a mercury oxide associated with the combustible material and adapted to increase the mass of the combustion gases ejected through 6 the passage when the combustible material is ignited.

3. In a projectile, a chamber having a restricted outlet passage communicating therewith, a charge of combustible material including explosive and a non-explosive carbonaceous filler in the chamber, and auxiliary material associated with and capable of supplying oxygen for combustion to the combustible material and adapted to increase the mass of the combustion gases ejected through the passage when the combustible material is ignited, the combustible and auxiliary material being arranged in alternating layers.

l. In a projectile, a chamber having a restricted outlet passage communicating therewith, a charge of combustible material including explosive and a non-explosive carbonaceous filler in the chamber, and auxiliary material comprising an oxide of a metal of the eleventh series of the periodic system of elements associated with the combustihis material and adapted to increase th mass of the combustion gases ejected through the passage when the combustible material is ignited, the combustible and auxiliary material being arranged in alternating layers.

5. In a projectile, a chamber having a restricted I outlet passage communicating therewith, a charge of combustible material including explosive and a non-explosive carbonaceous filler in the chamber, and auxiliary material comprising a mercury oxide associated with the combustible material and adapted to increase the mass of the combustion gases ejected through the passage when the combustible material is ignited, the combustible and auxiliary material being arranged in alternating layers.

6. In a projectile, a chamber having a restricted outlet passage communicating therewith, a charge of combustible material including explosiveand a non-explosive material in the chamber, and auxiliary material associated with and capable of supplying oxygen for combustion to the combustible material and adapted to increase the mass of the combustion gases ejected through the passage when the combustible material is ignited, the combustible and auxiliary material being arranged in alternating layer extending axially of the projectile.

'7. A propellant charge for rocket projectiles consisting of combustible material including explosive and a non-explosive carbonaceous filler and auxiliary material comprising an oxide of the eleventh series of the periodic system of elements associated with and capable of supplying oxygen for combustion to the combustible material and adapted to increase the mass of the combustion gases ejected when the combustible material is ignited.

8. A propellant charge for rocket projectiles consisting of combustible material including explosive and a non-explosive carbonaceous filler and auxiliary material comprising mercuric oxide associated with and capable of supplying oxygen for combustion to the combustible material and adapted to increase the mass of the combustion gases ejected when the combustible material is ignited.

CARL nu GANAHL.

US469871A 1942-12-23 1942-12-23 Ammunition Expired - Lifetime US2408252A (en)

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Cited By (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2499295A (en) * 1945-07-19 1950-02-28 David S Bruce Art of making propellant powder
US2548926A (en) * 1944-10-03 1951-04-17 Africano Alfred Insulated trap for rocket projectiles
US2574479A (en) * 1943-01-30 1951-11-13 Clarence N Hickman Propellant having an opacifier for preventing self-ignition by radiant energy radiations
US2628561A (en) * 1943-03-17 1953-02-17 Bruce H Sage Propellant powder grain for rocket motors
US2681619A (en) * 1954-06-22 Rocket projectile
US2713768A (en) * 1949-04-14 1955-07-26 Ici Ltd Power gas generating assemblies
US2922341A (en) * 1955-11-07 1960-01-26 Olin Mathieson Projectile propelling system
US2926613A (en) * 1955-05-23 1960-03-01 Phillips Petroleum Co Composite rocket-ram jet fuel
US3056701A (en) * 1958-04-30 1962-10-02 Reynolds Metals Co Combustion system comprising metal foil and solid perchlorate
US3056255A (en) * 1958-11-28 1962-10-02 Alfred M Thomsen Missile propulsion
US3067686A (en) * 1960-05-05 1962-12-11 Eastman Kodak Co Type of propellant grain
US3071617A (en) * 1948-06-01 1963-01-01 Purdue Research Foundation Nitro plastic propellants
US3130672A (en) * 1959-04-07 1964-04-28 Hexcel Products Inc Rocket grain construction
US3137127A (en) * 1961-03-28 1964-06-16 Res Inst Of Temple University Method of developing high energy thrust
US3159104A (en) * 1959-11-02 1964-12-01 Solid Fuels Corp Laminated tape propellants
US3163113A (en) * 1959-01-12 1964-12-29 Burke High energy fuel units and assemblies
US3183665A (en) * 1959-04-07 1965-05-18 Hexcel Products Inc Rocket grain and method of constructing same
US3326129A (en) * 1965-09-01 1967-06-20 Bert B Gould Miniature disappearing projectile
US3429265A (en) * 1960-12-30 1969-02-25 Exxon Research Engineering Co Solid propellant system for rockets
US3456042A (en) * 1946-06-07 1969-07-15 War Usa Stick smokeless powder manufacture by extrusion
US3486451A (en) * 1967-12-26 1969-12-30 Alvin E Moore Electrically-fired missile
US3722421A (en) * 1962-04-04 1973-03-27 Us Army Solid bipropellant
US3856590A (en) * 1945-04-18 1974-12-24 Director Office Of Scient Res Propellants and method of producing the same
US3913487A (en) * 1973-09-07 1975-10-21 George H Scherr Projectile
US3913482A (en) * 1974-01-02 1975-10-21 Buck K G Fa Manually-operated projectile-launching devices
US3995559A (en) * 1962-06-21 1976-12-07 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Propellant grain with alternating layers of encapsulated fuel and oxidizer
US5565649A (en) * 1994-03-31 1996-10-15 Ruggieri Projectile, in particular a non-lethal bullet
WO2002033343A2 (en) * 2000-10-19 2002-04-25 University Of Maryland New generation non-lethal and lethal projectiles for arms
WO2005095884A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2005-10-13 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd A projectile
US20060138715A1 (en) * 2004-12-01 2006-06-29 Lim Leong C Doped ceramic materials and methods of forming the same
US20090178585A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2009-07-16 Leslie Mervyn Harrison Projectile
WO2010142395A1 (en) * 2009-06-12 2010-12-16 Rheinmetall Waffe Munition Gmbh Caseless munition
US9429406B2 (en) * 2013-07-31 2016-08-30 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd Projectile body and corresponding ammunition round for small arms or a light firearm
WO2017191141A1 (en) * 2016-05-03 2017-11-09 Panousakis Dimosthenis Self contained internal chamber for a projectile

Cited By (40)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2681619A (en) * 1954-06-22 Rocket projectile
US2574479A (en) * 1943-01-30 1951-11-13 Clarence N Hickman Propellant having an opacifier for preventing self-ignition by radiant energy radiations
US2628561A (en) * 1943-03-17 1953-02-17 Bruce H Sage Propellant powder grain for rocket motors
US2548926A (en) * 1944-10-03 1951-04-17 Africano Alfred Insulated trap for rocket projectiles
US3856590A (en) * 1945-04-18 1974-12-24 Director Office Of Scient Res Propellants and method of producing the same
US2499295A (en) * 1945-07-19 1950-02-28 David S Bruce Art of making propellant powder
US3456042A (en) * 1946-06-07 1969-07-15 War Usa Stick smokeless powder manufacture by extrusion
US3071617A (en) * 1948-06-01 1963-01-01 Purdue Research Foundation Nitro plastic propellants
US2713768A (en) * 1949-04-14 1955-07-26 Ici Ltd Power gas generating assemblies
US2926613A (en) * 1955-05-23 1960-03-01 Phillips Petroleum Co Composite rocket-ram jet fuel
US2922341A (en) * 1955-11-07 1960-01-26 Olin Mathieson Projectile propelling system
US3056701A (en) * 1958-04-30 1962-10-02 Reynolds Metals Co Combustion system comprising metal foil and solid perchlorate
US3056255A (en) * 1958-11-28 1962-10-02 Alfred M Thomsen Missile propulsion
US3163113A (en) * 1959-01-12 1964-12-29 Burke High energy fuel units and assemblies
US3183665A (en) * 1959-04-07 1965-05-18 Hexcel Products Inc Rocket grain and method of constructing same
US3130672A (en) * 1959-04-07 1964-04-28 Hexcel Products Inc Rocket grain construction
US3159104A (en) * 1959-11-02 1964-12-01 Solid Fuels Corp Laminated tape propellants
US3067686A (en) * 1960-05-05 1962-12-11 Eastman Kodak Co Type of propellant grain
US3429265A (en) * 1960-12-30 1969-02-25 Exxon Research Engineering Co Solid propellant system for rockets
US3137127A (en) * 1961-03-28 1964-06-16 Res Inst Of Temple University Method of developing high energy thrust
US3722421A (en) * 1962-04-04 1973-03-27 Us Army Solid bipropellant
US3995559A (en) * 1962-06-21 1976-12-07 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Propellant grain with alternating layers of encapsulated fuel and oxidizer
US3326129A (en) * 1965-09-01 1967-06-20 Bert B Gould Miniature disappearing projectile
US3486451A (en) * 1967-12-26 1969-12-30 Alvin E Moore Electrically-fired missile
US3913487A (en) * 1973-09-07 1975-10-21 George H Scherr Projectile
US3913482A (en) * 1974-01-02 1975-10-21 Buck K G Fa Manually-operated projectile-launching devices
US5565649A (en) * 1994-03-31 1996-10-15 Ruggieri Projectile, in particular a non-lethal bullet
WO2002033343A2 (en) * 2000-10-19 2002-04-25 University Of Maryland New generation non-lethal and lethal projectiles for arms
WO2002033343A3 (en) * 2000-10-19 2003-04-17 Univ Maryland New generation non-lethal and lethal projectiles for arms
US20090178585A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2009-07-16 Leslie Mervyn Harrison Projectile
WO2005095884A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2005-10-13 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd A projectile
US7921780B2 (en) 2004-04-02 2011-04-12 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd Projectile
US20060230971A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2006-10-19 Harrison Leslie M Projectile
US7448325B2 (en) 2004-04-02 2008-11-11 Techventure Investments Pty. Ltd. Projectile
US20060138715A1 (en) * 2004-12-01 2006-06-29 Lim Leong C Doped ceramic materials and methods of forming the same
WO2010142395A1 (en) * 2009-06-12 2010-12-16 Rheinmetall Waffe Munition Gmbh Caseless munition
US9429406B2 (en) * 2013-07-31 2016-08-30 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd Projectile body and corresponding ammunition round for small arms or a light firearm
USRE47187E1 (en) * 2013-07-31 2019-01-01 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd Projectile body and corresponding ammunition round for small arms or a light firearm
WO2017191141A1 (en) * 2016-05-03 2017-11-09 Panousakis Dimosthenis Self contained internal chamber for a projectile
US10677574B2 (en) 2016-05-03 2020-06-09 Dimosthenis Panousakis Self contained internal chamber for a projectile

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