US3754507A - Penetrator projectile - Google Patents

Penetrator projectile Download PDF

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Publication number
US3754507A
US3754507A US3754507DA US3754507A US 3754507 A US3754507 A US 3754507A US 3754507D A US3754507D A US 3754507DA US 3754507 A US3754507 A US 3754507A
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United States
Prior art keywords
projectile
propellant
penetrator
uncured
housing
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Expired - Lifetime
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R Dillinger
H Payne
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US Secretary of Navy
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US Secretary of Navy
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42CAMMUNITION FUZES; ARMING OR SAFETY MEANS THEREFOR
    • F42C1/00Impact fuzes, i.e. fuzes actuated only by ammunition impact
    • F42C1/10Impact fuzes, i.e. fuzes actuated only by ammunition impact without firing-pin
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B12/00Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material
    • F42B12/02Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect
    • F42B12/04Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect of armour-piercing type
    • F42B12/06Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect of armour-piercing type with hard or heavy core; Kinetic energy penetrators
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B15/00Self-propelled projectiles or missiles, e.g. rockets; Guided missiles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S102/00Ammunition and explosives
    • Y10S102/702Compression ignition

Abstract

A projectile in which a combination of interior elements, including a penetrator, a pyrotechnic delay column and an ignition charge are utilized to ignite a viscous uncured propellant after the projectile has been fired. The thus ignited propellant increases the velocity and effectiveness of the projectile.

Description

mite States Patent [191 Dillinger et a1.

[ Aug. 28, 1973 PENETRATOR PROJECTILE [75] Inventors: Robert B. Dillinger; Howard H.

Payne, both of China Lake, Calif.

[73] Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D'.C.

[22] Filed: May 30, 1972 [21] Appl. No.: 257,559

[52] US. Cl. 102/52, l02/DlG. 5 [51] Int. Cl. F421) 11/14, F421) 13/04 [58] Field of Search 102/49.3, 49.7, 52,

1 02/DIG. 5; 149/42 [5 6] References Cited UNlTED STATES PATENTS 3,277,825 10/1966 Maillard 102/52 3,097,602 7/1963 Turner l02/D1G. 5

3,399,088 8/1968 Christian et al. 149/42 3,302,570 2/1967 Marquardt 102/52 2,419,414 4/1947 Mohaupt 102/52 X 982,402 l/l9ll Wells 102/52 X 36,686 10/1862 Callender 102/52 X Primary ExaminerBenjamin A. Borchelt Assistant Examiner-J1. J. Tudor Attorney-R. S. Sciascia, Roy Miller and Lloyd E. K.

Pohl

[ ABSTRACT A projectile in which a combination of interior elements, including a penetrator, a pyrotechnic delay column and an ignition charge are utilized to ignite a viscous uncured propellant after the projectile has been fired. The thus ignited propellant increases the velocity and effectiveness of the projectile.

3 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure PENETRATOR PROJECTILE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention.

This invention relates to penetrator projectiles. More particularly, this invention relates to penetrator projectiles of the type in which propellant is utilized to increase the projectile velocity.

2. Description of the Prior Art.

Penetrator projectiles, i.e., projectiles which contain penetrators for armor piercing purposes and the like are known. It is also known that the velocity and thus the effectiveness of such projectiles can be increased by utilizing propellants within the projectiles. However, in the prior art solid propellants which ignite almost instantaneously upon firing of the projectiles in which they are contained have generally been used.

The use of solid propellants which are ignited instantaneously upon firing of the projectile has several drawbacks. Firstly, it is well known that solid propellants are susceptible to cracking upon being subjected to'high axial acceleration and the like and that cracks which develop in solid propellants often lead to explosions when the propellant is ignited. Secondly, enough solid propellant to be of great significance can not be incorporated into small projectiles. Thirdly, when the propellant is ignited almost unstantaneously as the projectile is fired, added thrust is obtained only during thefirst moments ofthe projectiles flight and not later when it could be better utilized. For these and other reasons, research leading to. the present invention was conducted. I

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides a rocket assisted. penetrator projectile in which. uncured propellant is used in lieu of solid propellant and in which; the propellant I is ignited at a predetermined time well after the projectile has been fired. The propellantis-ignited by a combi-. nation. of events which include:

l. compression and heating of air inan adiabatic compression chamber by the penetrator when the projectile is fired;

2. actuation of a pyrotechnic delay column by the. heated air from theadiabatic compressionchamber;

3. actuation of an. ignition charge by, the pyrotechnic delay column; and

4. ignition. of the'propellant by the ignition charge.

The useof uncuredpropellant precludesthe possibility of propellant crackingtu nder thehigh axial accelerations encountered when the projectile isfired from a gun. Also, thepresent invention permits the use of a greater amount of propellant ina projectile ofagiven The single FlGUREisacross sectional view of a penetrator. projectile according to thisinvention,

DESCRIR IilON: OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT;

Going first'to'the drawingin which like numerals are used to indicate likeparts, thesingle-FIGURE'isa cross sectional view .of a penetratorprojectile 1-1: according to this invention prior to firing. The projectile is made to fit into and be fired from a cartridge (not shown) which may be of any convenient size such that it will fit into an existing gun. For example, projectiles for guns having calibers in the range of from about 20 mm to about mm may be conveniently manufactured.

The projectile 11 comprises a hollow projectile housing 12 closed at its rear by nozzle 13 and nozzle closure 14. It is preferred that the nozzle throat be of ablative material of a type commonly used in rockets.

Loaded within the projectile housing is propellant 15. In practicing this invention, the propellant is an uncured propellant mix of the type ordinarily used to fabricate solid rocket propellant grains with the exception that no curing agent is added. That is, the propellant contains oxidizer particles such as NI-I.,Cl0 or the like, fuel particles such as Al or the like and binder material such as hydrozy or carboxy terminated polybutadiene or the like but no curing agentsuch as toluene diisocyanate which would form cross-links between polymeric chains of binder material and cause the binder to set. This the propellant may be described as a viscous suspension of oxidizer and fuel particles in a matrix of uncured binder material. A forward ullage void I6 is insured by means of a frangible or deformable diaphragm 17 which may be fabricated of plastic, rubber or the like and fastened in place by means of a suitable adhesive.

Rotating band support 18 provides support for a rotating band l9'which interacts with rifling in the barrel of a gun from which the projectile is fired to impart spin. The rotating band support may be either a washer like article located in the indicated position or a washer like article with a plurality of projections extending inwardly and resting on penetrator 20.

The penetrator 20 extends longitudinally from the forward end of the projectile towards the rear of the projectile and the aft end of the penetrator, along with tubular housing 21. and a partition 30 dividing the tubular' housing describes an adiabatic compression chamber 22'. The'penetrator is retained in fixed position with respect, to tubular housing 21 by means of a shear pin '28 or other form of retaining device.

containing uncured propellant of the type described" above is fired from a cartridge case contained in a rifled gun barrel, several related events occur.

Firstly, spin-is imparted to the projectile by interaction of the rotatingband 19 with the barrel rifling. This spincauses the viscous uncured propellant to be forced outwardly toward the projectile housing 12. The force is sufficientto cause the diaphragm 17 to rupture or deform which, in turn, permits the propellant tohave access to space provided byullage void. 16. The extra space plus continued'spin permits a'central core tobeformed in the propellant. The thus formed centralcore surrounds the penetrator 20 and tubular housing 21 and acts in a manner similar to a core in a solid propellant grain. That is, the propellant can be ignited in the core and will burn outwardly towards the projectile housing in a manner similar to that in which a cored solid propellant grain would burn.

As the projectile is fired, inertia causes the penetrator 20 to be forced toward the rear of the projectile severing shear pin 28 and compressing air in adiabatic compression chamber 22. The compressioncauses the air to heat and hot air passes through opening 26 actuating pyrotechnic delay column 24. The pyrotechnic delay column burns, from the front toward the rear, for a predetermined amount of time depending upon its length and upon the material from which it is fabricated until the flame actuates ignition charge 25. Flames jetting out of openings 27 from ignition charge 25, in turn, ignite the now cored propellant.

Once the propellant is ignited, pressure begins to build up within the projectile. When the pressure is sufficiently built up, nozzle closure 14 is blown out of nozzle l3 and the escaping gases propel the projectile in a manner similar to that in which a rocket is propelled.

In the practice of this invention, a wide variety of choices exist insofar as the length and material of the pyrotechnic delay column and material of the ignition charge are concerned. Also, a wide variety of choices exist insofar as the material of the propellant is concerned. The propellant should have the property wherein solid oxidizer and fuel particles remain suspended in the binder material and do not settle out upon storage of a propellant filled projectile.

This invention is advantageous in that ignition of the propellant does not occur instantaneously upon firing of the projectile but is delayed until late in the flight of the projectile when the maximum benefit can be derived from it. Also, the use of uncured propellant permits more propellant to be loaded into a given amount of space than is possible with solid propellant. Further, uncured propellant does not develop flaws when it is subjected to high stresses and the like and can thus be stored indefinitely without inspection.

it will be apparent to the reader that if desired the nose end of the projectile could contain a small warhead or the like to further increase effectiveness insofar as penetration of armor is concerned.

We claim:

1. A projectile comprising:

a. a hollow projectile housing closed at its aft end by a nozzle and nozzle closure, said projectile housing having at least one rotating band around its outer periphery;

b. a penetrator and a tubular housing centrally and longitudinally located within the projectile housing with the forward end of the penetrator at the foward end of the projectile housing and the aft end of the penetrator resting in the foward end of the tubular housing and describing an adiabatic compression chamber therewith, the aft end of said tubular housing being closed;

c. a pyrotechnic delay column located within the tubular housing in a position where heated air from the adiabatic compression chamber can contact it;

d. an ignition charge located within the tubular housing to the rear of and in contact with the pyrotechnic delay column;

e. a plurality of lateral openings in the tubular housing leading from the area in which the ignition charge is located to the exterior of the tubular housing; and

f. a'propellant mix comprising oxidizer particles and fuel particles suspended in uncured binder material surrounding said penetrator and tubular housing within the projectile housing.

2. A projectile according to claim 1 in which said propellant comprises NH particles and Al particles suspended in a binder material selected from uncured carboxy terminated polybutadiene and uncured hydroxy tenninated polybutadiene.

3. A projectile according to claim 1 in which said nozzle is ablative.

1 i It i

Claims (2)

  1. 2. A projectile according to claim 1 in which said propellant comprises NH4ClO4 particles and Al particles suspended in a binder material selected from uncured carboxy terminated polybutadiene and uncured hydroxy terminated polybutadiene.
  2. 3. A projectile according to claim 1 in which said nozzle is ablative.
US3754507D 1972-05-30 1972-05-30 Penetrator projectile Expired - Lifetime US3754507A (en)

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Cited By (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4108073A (en) * 1975-02-27 1978-08-22 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Armor piercing projectile
US4213393A (en) * 1977-07-15 1980-07-22 Gunners Nils Erik Gun projectile arranged with a base drag reducing system
US4397240A (en) * 1977-12-06 1983-08-09 Aai Corporation Rocket assisted projectile and cartridge with time delay ignition and sealing arrangement
US4573412A (en) * 1984-04-27 1986-03-04 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Plug nozzle kinetic energy penetrator rocket
US4930420A (en) * 1988-06-09 1990-06-05 Rheinmetall Gmbh Seal for the nozzle opening of a projectile
US4964339A (en) * 1987-12-23 1990-10-23 General Dynamics Corp., Pomona Division Multiple stage rocket propelled missile system
US5216200A (en) * 1990-12-07 1993-06-01 Dynamit Nobel Aktiengesellschaft Device for igniting a propellant charge, a cartridge for the charge and a magazine for holding cartridges, especially for stud setting or driving tools
US5309712A (en) * 1991-05-03 1994-05-10 Mund Jr Charles J Solid fuel rocket motor seals
EP0886121A3 (en) * 1997-06-13 2000-07-05 Diehl Stiftung & Co. Projectile for a gun with a barrel
US6125763A (en) * 1998-08-14 2000-10-03 Environmental Aeroscience Corp. Integral solid booster and hybrid thrust sustaining system and projectile incorporating the same
US6158349A (en) * 1997-11-22 2000-12-12 Rheinmetall W & M Gmbh Gas generator for a projectile
WO2000075600A1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2000-12-14 Nammo Raufoss As Translation and locking mechanism in missile
WO2000075599A1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2000-12-14 Nammo Raufoss As Propelling device for a projectile in a missile
US6276277B1 (en) * 1999-04-22 2001-08-21 Lockheed Martin Corporation Rocket-boosted guided hard target penetrator
FR2821420A1 (en) * 2001-02-26 2002-08-30 Francois Louis Desire Ragache Self-propelled piercing tip for long-range shell has bolt in thermopropulsive tube of solid propellant set off by pyrotechnic system
US6745696B1 (en) * 1999-03-25 2004-06-08 Rafael-Armament Development Authority Ltd. Armor piercing projectile
US20060138715A1 (en) * 2004-12-01 2006-06-29 Lim Leong C Doped ceramic materials and methods of forming the same
US20060230971A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2006-10-19 Harrison Leslie M Projectile
US20080072782A1 (en) * 2004-06-08 2008-03-27 Denis Salignon Projectile In Particular An Anti-Infrastructure Penetrating Bomb And Method For Penetration Of Said Projectile Through A Wall
US20090178585A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2009-07-16 Leslie Mervyn Harrison Projectile
US7823510B1 (en) 2008-05-14 2010-11-02 Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc. Extended range projectile
US7891298B2 (en) 2008-05-14 2011-02-22 Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc. Guided projectile
US8397641B1 (en) 2006-07-01 2013-03-19 Jason Stewart Jackson Non-newtonian projectile
US9121679B1 (en) * 2013-05-07 2015-09-01 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Limited range projectile
RU181314U1 (en) * 2017-02-14 2018-07-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования Балтийский государственный технический университет "ВОЕНМЕХ" им. Д.Ф. Устинова (БГТУ "ВОЕНМЕХ") Hypersonic anti-tank rocket
US10254094B1 (en) 2015-11-16 2019-04-09 Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation Aircraft shroud system
RU2685610C1 (en) * 2018-07-03 2019-04-22 Акционерное общество "Федеральный научно-производственный центр "Алтай" Armor-piercing active-missile

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US36686A (en) * 1862-10-14 Improvement in compound explosive projectiles
US982402A (en) * 1910-05-28 1911-01-24 George E Wells Projectile.
US2419414A (en) * 1941-10-03 1947-04-22 Sageb Sa Projectile
US3097602A (en) * 1960-10-28 1963-07-16 Olin Mathieson Liquid propellant cartridge
US3277825A (en) * 1963-11-07 1966-10-11 Brevets Aero Mecaniques Self-propelled armor-piercing shells
US3302570A (en) * 1965-07-23 1967-02-07 Walter G Finch Armor piercing, fragmenting and incendiary projectile
US3399088A (en) * 1966-04-21 1968-08-27 Thiokol Chemical Corp Room temperature cured solid propellant

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US36686A (en) * 1862-10-14 Improvement in compound explosive projectiles
US982402A (en) * 1910-05-28 1911-01-24 George E Wells Projectile.
US2419414A (en) * 1941-10-03 1947-04-22 Sageb Sa Projectile
US3097602A (en) * 1960-10-28 1963-07-16 Olin Mathieson Liquid propellant cartridge
US3277825A (en) * 1963-11-07 1966-10-11 Brevets Aero Mecaniques Self-propelled armor-piercing shells
US3302570A (en) * 1965-07-23 1967-02-07 Walter G Finch Armor piercing, fragmenting and incendiary projectile
US3399088A (en) * 1966-04-21 1968-08-27 Thiokol Chemical Corp Room temperature cured solid propellant

Cited By (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4108073A (en) * 1975-02-27 1978-08-22 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Armor piercing projectile
US4213393A (en) * 1977-07-15 1980-07-22 Gunners Nils Erik Gun projectile arranged with a base drag reducing system
US4397240A (en) * 1977-12-06 1983-08-09 Aai Corporation Rocket assisted projectile and cartridge with time delay ignition and sealing arrangement
US4573412A (en) * 1984-04-27 1986-03-04 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Plug nozzle kinetic energy penetrator rocket
US4964339A (en) * 1987-12-23 1990-10-23 General Dynamics Corp., Pomona Division Multiple stage rocket propelled missile system
US4930420A (en) * 1988-06-09 1990-06-05 Rheinmetall Gmbh Seal for the nozzle opening of a projectile
US5216200A (en) * 1990-12-07 1993-06-01 Dynamit Nobel Aktiengesellschaft Device for igniting a propellant charge, a cartridge for the charge and a magazine for holding cartridges, especially for stud setting or driving tools
US5309712A (en) * 1991-05-03 1994-05-10 Mund Jr Charles J Solid fuel rocket motor seals
EP0886121A3 (en) * 1997-06-13 2000-07-05 Diehl Stiftung & Co. Projectile for a gun with a barrel
US6158349A (en) * 1997-11-22 2000-12-12 Rheinmetall W & M Gmbh Gas generator for a projectile
US6125763A (en) * 1998-08-14 2000-10-03 Environmental Aeroscience Corp. Integral solid booster and hybrid thrust sustaining system and projectile incorporating the same
US6745696B1 (en) * 1999-03-25 2004-06-08 Rafael-Armament Development Authority Ltd. Armor piercing projectile
US6276277B1 (en) * 1999-04-22 2001-08-21 Lockheed Martin Corporation Rocket-boosted guided hard target penetrator
US6640720B1 (en) 1999-06-04 2003-11-04 Nammo Raufoss As Translation and locking mechanism in missile
US6647889B1 (en) 1999-06-04 2003-11-18 Nammo Raufoss As Propelling device for a projectile in a missile
WO2000075600A1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2000-12-14 Nammo Raufoss As Translation and locking mechanism in missile
WO2000075599A1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2000-12-14 Nammo Raufoss As Propelling device for a projectile in a missile
FR2821420A1 (en) * 2001-02-26 2002-08-30 Francois Louis Desire Ragache Self-propelled piercing tip for long-range shell has bolt in thermopropulsive tube of solid propellant set off by pyrotechnic system
US8474380B2 (en) * 2004-04-02 2013-07-02 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd Projectile
US20110192309A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2011-08-11 Leslie Mervyn Harrison Projectile
US20060230971A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2006-10-19 Harrison Leslie M Projectile
US7921780B2 (en) 2004-04-02 2011-04-12 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd Projectile
US7448325B2 (en) * 2004-04-02 2008-11-11 Techventure Investments Pty. Ltd. Projectile
US20090178585A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2009-07-16 Leslie Mervyn Harrison Projectile
US8151712B2 (en) * 2004-06-08 2012-04-10 Tda Armements S.A.S. Projectile in particular an anti-infrastructure penetrating bomb and method for penetration of said projectile through a wall
US20080072782A1 (en) * 2004-06-08 2008-03-27 Denis Salignon Projectile In Particular An Anti-Infrastructure Penetrating Bomb And Method For Penetration Of Said Projectile Through A Wall
US20060138715A1 (en) * 2004-12-01 2006-06-29 Lim Leong C Doped ceramic materials and methods of forming the same
US8397641B1 (en) 2006-07-01 2013-03-19 Jason Stewart Jackson Non-newtonian projectile
US7823510B1 (en) 2008-05-14 2010-11-02 Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc. Extended range projectile
US7891298B2 (en) 2008-05-14 2011-02-22 Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc. Guided projectile
US9121679B1 (en) * 2013-05-07 2015-09-01 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Limited range projectile
US10254094B1 (en) 2015-11-16 2019-04-09 Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation Aircraft shroud system
RU181314U1 (en) * 2017-02-14 2018-07-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования Балтийский государственный технический университет "ВОЕНМЕХ" им. Д.Ф. Устинова (БГТУ "ВОЕНМЕХ") Hypersonic anti-tank rocket
RU2685610C1 (en) * 2018-07-03 2019-04-22 Акционерное общество "Федеральный научно-производственный центр "Алтай" Armor-piercing active-missile

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