US2337743A - Concrete building structure and method of making the same - Google Patents

Concrete building structure and method of making the same Download PDF

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US2337743A
US2337743A US348787A US34878740A US2337743A US 2337743 A US2337743 A US 2337743A US 348787 A US348787 A US 348787A US 34878740 A US34878740 A US 34878740A US 2337743 A US2337743 A US 2337743A
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concrete
reinforcing
panels
slabs
cementitious
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US348787A
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Deuel Clyde
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ED WESTBERG
HARRY NAFTALIN
LOUIS L SWARTHE
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ED WESTBERG
HARRY NAFTALIN
LOUIS L SWARTHE
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/16Structures made from masses, e.g. of concrete, cast or similarly formed in situ with or without making use of additional elements, such as permanent forms, substructures to be coated with load-bearing material
    • E04B1/161Structures made from masses, e.g. of concrete, cast or similarly formed in situ with or without making use of additional elements, such as permanent forms, substructures to be coated with load-bearing material with vertical and horizontal slabs, both being partially cast in situ
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S425/00Plastic article or earthenware shaping or treating: apparatus
    • Y10S425/121Projection

Description

C. DEUEL Dec. 2s, 1943.
CONCRETE BUILDING STRUCTURE ANDMETHOD OF MAKING THE SAME 5 Sheets-Sheet l Filed July 3 1, 1940 mw` n F. E m5 mm1@ y AMA .1L C
B33231943. C, DEUEL C 2,337,743
CONCRETE BUILDING STRUCTURE AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME 52 INVENTOR:
BY ,tlg ATTORNEYS.
Dec. 28, 1943. M N l DUEL V2,337,743
CONCRETE BUILDING STRUCTURE AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Fi-led July 31, 1940 Y 5 Sheet-s-Sheet 5 I6 /5-` vAs".
INVENTOR: i CL mi Dwi/ ATTORNEYS.
Patented Dec. 28, 1943 CONCRETE BUILDING STRUCTURE AND METHOD F MAKING THE SAME Clyde `Deuel,
Westberg,
Los Angeles, Calif.,
Harry Naftalin,
assignor to Ed and Louis L.
Swarthe, as trustees, Los Angeles, Calif. Application July 31, 1,940, Serial No.l 348,787 2. Claims. (,Cl. 'l2-16) This invention relates to building construction and the like and particularly pertains to a concrete building structure and method of making the same, and is a continuation of my cepending Aapplication entitled Concrete building structure," filed August 9, 1938, Serial No. 223,840, now Patent #2,217,675.
The present system of concrete building construction has been developed primarily with the objects of providing a method and type of construction permitting the use of concrete, with all of its inherent advantages, and which can be employed at no greater expense than conventional and structurally inferior materials in making a finished structure of greatly improved qualities from Various standpoints including strength, adaptability to all architectural designs, and resistance to weathering and disintegration over indefinitely long periods of time.' While these same general objectives have been sought in the past, the'invention is believed to mark the first instance in which they have been achieved to a degree at which first class concrete structures of this type can be said to have been brought within the field of low cost housing and general construction.
An understanding of the fundamental and distinctive aspects of the invention may perhaps be had to best advantage by first explaining the general nature of this type of construction, its similarities to conventional prior practices, and the improvements which have made it possible to accomplish results and advantages that past systems have not offered.
At the present time in erection and construction of buildings made of cementitious material it is the usual practice to erect preliminary forms into which a mass of cementitious material is poured and after which the cementitious material is allowed to set and the forms are then removed. In the event that hollow walls are required, it is also necessary to remove core elements so that the core cavities will be cleared. This proceduie requires a large amount of equipment which must be set up for producing the wall forms and which must be removed after this work has been cornpleted. Form material is expensive and the labor required in setting the forms up and dismantling them is a considerable item of expense in addition to the fact that the wear and tear upon the forms makes it necessary for them to require considerable repair in order to keep them in operating condition. It is also evidentthat the expense of delivering concrete to ,the forms is considerable, and that due to the'interlerence of the form structures and the bracing required to hold them in place, rapid procedure in constructing a building is not possible.
In some instances building structures have been made in which pre-cast load sustaining wall slabs of concrete .have been set up and secured together along their contiguous edges with `cernentitious materials. These wall slabs have been calculated for strength so as to constitute the entire or main load sustaining factor in the wall construction. In other instances preformed wall elements, including core-,forming units such as tile. have been made of plaster or like relatively weak materials having in themselves no appreciable load sustaining strength, and limited in their purpose and utility to provide permanent core or other shape forming elements around which is applied the concrete intended, with or Without added reinforcement, to provide a substantial wall body for sustaining the entire wall load.
In reinforced concrete structures in which the concrete is poured or applied on the job it is usual to erect and assemble the `structural reinforcing elements preliminary to the application of the concrete. This requires the services of structural steel workers who arrange the reinforcing elements, properly tie them or weld them together, and thereafter see that the elements are clean so that the cement will make a secure bond therewith. These operations require considerable time and delay construction work. They also make it necessary for the arrangement of the reinforcing steel to be made at the discretion of the steel workers.
The present invention has as a prime object the construction of combined form and reinforcing units which are made by arranging reinforcing steel elements selected to provide the necessary steel reinforcement for a wall of specified strength and thereafter to set said arranged reinforcing elements in a relatively thin slab of cementitious material, the thickness of the slab being sufficient to make the slab form-sustaining so that it can be utilized as a form element but said strength being materially less than would be consistent for the structural reinforcing elements imbedded therein. Generally considered, therefore, the present invention contemplates the provision and use of the aforesaid reinforced concrete preformed form and reinforcing shell or slab elements which when individually placed for the purpose of providing a permanent form will also place the structural steel reinforcement and hold it in position. at which time tie members are utilized to secure said form and reinforcing elements to horizontal bond beam and column reinforcing Steel, after which concrete is applied to the form elements and around the bond beam and column reinforcing to integrate all of the elements into a reinforced concrete monolithic structure in which the form elements have served their purpose as forms and have become a part of the monolithic wall structure providing a suitable bond for-the cementitious material applied thereto, while insuring that the structural steel elements will be properly positioned within the wall. It may be mentioned that as herein used the term Wall broadly includes side walls, floors, roofs and ceilings. Of particular importance is the construction and method of making the preformed slab elements, by reason of the characteristics which these must possess in order for this type of construction to be reduced to the desirable low cost and yet retain maximum structural values. Where precast Wall elements have been used in the past they have consisted of molded concrete or other cementitious materials, and when made of concrete they have been designed, as previously indicated, to take the entire wall load. Consequently, manufacture of the slabs has required large and expensive molding equipment, high labor costs, and obvious limitations upon the practicability of making the slabs outside a central plant specially equipped for the purpose. And by reason of their comparatively greater size and weight, transportation and erection costs have been correspondingly increased. These as well as other requirements accordingly have placed definite structural and cost limitations on the adoption of the preformed concrete wall section type of building structure.
' 'I'he present preformed wall elements differ characteristically from those heretofore used, in that they are made relatively light weight so as t be easily transported and erected, and also built to have a definite and structural relation to the later pneumatically applied wall section columns and beams. In addition to their functions as permanent form elements, the slabs, as previously described, are used as light-weight concrete envelopes containing the reinforcing steel for both the body of the wall and the structural association of the wall proper with monolithically formed concrete columns and beams. Accordingly, in a preferred form, the slabs consist of concrete elements sufficiently thin to be light-weight and easily handled, containing internal reinforcing, such as metal mesh, for the wall proper, and also steel arranged to be jointed or structurally tied in with reinforcing steel in the beams. Preferably, however, this slab course of the wall is in itself insufficient to sustain the entire load for which the wall is designed, and full support for the load is given only by application to the slab course of an outer layer of concrete pneumatically applied to the slabs.
In forming the slabs, the concrete preferably is pneumatically applied to the metal reinforcing, and herein lies a feature of considerable importance in the economy and value of the construction as a whole. By formingthe slabs of pneumatically applied concrete it is possibleto make a concrete of great strength. Consequently, the thickness and weight of the slab elements may be reduced to a 'minimum while forming strong and rigid binders for the reinforcing metal. Furthermore, this method of forming the slabs requires comparatively little equipment and the use of simple base forms that may be repeatedly used, so that the slab forming operations can be carried out at any suitable location, by easily portable equipment, and in fact directly on the job if desired. By forming the slabs of pneumatically applied concrete it is possible to enclose and contact the reinforcement more com pletely and closely, due to the fact that being projected at a high velocity against and about the steel, the concrete particles completely fill the voids and finally set to a hardened mass bonding tightly to the reinforcement. Where the slabs, as well as the surface concrete layer, are both formed of pneumatically applied concrete, they may be made to have corresponding densities and characteristics of expansion and contraction that eliminate shearing cleavages and other fractures that might otherwise occur in the composite wall. Moreover, a bond of maximum strength between the two courses of the wall is insured by reason of the fact that no ne cement particle glaze is permitted on the bonding surfaces of the slabs (as would be the case where the slabs are formed by the usual or vibration methods), since pneumatically applied concrete is characterized by the absence of such surface glaze.
In their preferred form the slab elements have angular marginal flanges which, when the slabs are placed in edge to edge relationship, form cavities opening from the surface of the slab course to which the outer concrete layer is to be applied. Thus with the slabs arranged to form a vertical side wall, these inter-slab cavities or 'recesses are adapted to receive pneumatically -outer surface concrete layer. The latter, in turn,
is built out to a thickness giving it load sustaining strength, with or without the incorporation of reinforcement, and to an extent such that the composite slab and outer concrete courses together will have the proper strength to support the entire wall load. Simultaneously with the application of the outer concrete layer, concrete may be pneumatically filled into spaces at or beyond the ends of the slabs to form horizontal bond beams, and these in turn may be structurally tied together with theslabs by interlocking reinforcing steel carried within and projecting from the slabs, with reinforcing steel in the bond beams. The nal result, therefore, is a unitized structure comprising a slab course containing a reinforcing steel that may be tied into reinforcement in the horizontal beam or beams, and an outer course of concrete applied pneumatically so as to form in one operation the vertical columns, horizontal beams and completed wall thickness, all in one monolithic assembly.
The invention is illustrated by way of example in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a view in perspective showing a corner of a typical building structure, indicating various stages in construction in accordance with the principles of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a view in vertical section through a wall showing the side wall, ceiling and iioor construction.
Fig. 3 is a view in transverse section through the lwall as seen on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4'is an enlarged transverse section show- 1ng a fragmentary portion of a wall construction r thereto. l
' Fig. 6 is a fragmentary view showing a horizontal bond beam and indicating the structural connections of a vertical wall panel.
Fig. 7 is a view in vertical section showing a roof and a wall joint structure.
Fig. 8 is a view in perspective showing one of the combined reinforcing and form panels with which the present invention is concerned.
Fig. 9 is a view in horizontal section showing an adaptation of the present invention to a hollow wall structure.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, I indicates a building element or unit with which the present invention is primarily concerned. This building element is here designated as a wall panel and is a separate article of manufacture. 'I'he wall panel has three major purposes. First, it is provided as a substitute for the usual building forms which must be erected and dismantled during construction of cementitious walls. Secondly, it is provided to `carry reinforcing material, both reticulated material and 4structural reinforcing steel by which strength will be given to a wall; In this connection it will be evident that the reinforcing materials may be set in place in a relatively thin sheet or wall of cementitious material which `will give form to the panel and will also hold the reinforcing material in position so that the structure may be woven wire lath or expanded metal lathing which gives strength and stability to the structure. Extending longitudinally of the panel either in the flanges I2 and I3 or the center panel I I, or both, are structuralsteel reinforcing elements I6. These elements project from one or both ends of the` panel I0 and may be connected to other reinforcing elements by wrapping or welding as may be desired in order to tie all ofthe elements of the structure together. It will be seen that when the 'panel I0 is made of cernentitious material with the reinforcing sheet I5 therein that the combination of the cementitious material and the reinforcing sheet will give the structure sufficient strength to make a form sustaining panel structure IU which will provide a form surface against which cementitious material may be placed pneumatlcally, and at the same time define the shape and size of cementitious reinforcing ribs or elements which will be produced when cementitious material is applied tothe form panels I0. vAttention is directed to the fact that the thickness and strength of the cementitious mate'ialformlng the panel when combnied with the reinforcing elements embodied therein is only sufficient for sustaining the form of the panel and withstanding the force of the cementitious material pneumatically applied thereto, and that the load sustaining properties of the finished wall isnot obtained until cementitious material has been applied thereto to supplementthe strength of conveniently set in place to become thereafter a part of the cementitious wall which is to be formed. Thirdly, the shape of the panels is such as to insure that when they are assembled with relation to each otherthey will cause reinforcing elements of cementitious material to be `formed such as vertical pilasters and horizontal y plied pneumatically. This insures that when the cementitious material is set it will be a highly compacted mass of very smooth and ilne texture,
and therefore, will provide a. relatively thin wall of light weight which will hold the structural reinforcing elements in position until the Wall is completed, and will at the same time provide a form against which cementitlous material may be pneumatically placed.
Thepanels I 0 may be of any desired configuration although it has been found preferable to construct them with a main flat panel surface II having opposite side flanges I2 and I3, and an end flange Ill. This will cause the structure to be of pan shape. The side flanges are of a desired thickness to receive structural wall reinforcing elements and preferably flare outwardly and oppositely for a purpose to be hereinafter described. The end flange I4 may be similarly formed as indicated in Fig. 2 of the drawings or may have a substantially square outer face as indicated in Fig. 7. l
Incorporated within the center panel II and the flanges I2, I3 and I4 is a sheet of reticulated material I5. This sheet` of material may be the panels in a manner to be hereinafter described.
The wall construction embodies the useof the panels I0 and an additional portion of cementitious material which `is pneumatically applied. By reference to Fig. 2 a typical wall construction i is disclosed. Here it will be seen that a `floor I'I lis poured integral with a :foundation footing is.
A sub-floor I9 is also provided. Resting upon the upper face 23 of the floorA structure and above 4the shoulder portions 2I and 22 the panels III are disposed. These panels extend vertically so that preferably their central panel portions II are presented outwardly in the wall although the panels will function similarly if reversed. The' lower endof the panels is the end which is not formed with 'an end flange'corresponding with the flange I4.A Theupper endof aupanel is disposed with its end flange I4 extending upwardly and inwardly. The opposite edges of the panels I0 are defined by the vertically disposed ilange portions I2 and I3. The contiguous flanges I2 and I3 are placedso, that their marginal edges are adjacent to each other. This will cause av V-shapedspace 24 to occur between the flanges as indicated in Figs. 2 and 3 of the drawings. The V-shaped space in thlepfside walls extends vertically and thus provides a space into which cementitious material may be placed to produce definite structural elements having the .function of vertical pilasters or wall columns.
Positioned within these spaces may be steel reinforcing elements 25, which elements cooperate with the vertical reinforcing element I6 carried in the contiguous flanges I 2 and vI3 of the panels. The projecting ends of the reinforcing l,rods I 6 may extend upwardly above the end of the panel flange I4, as shown-in Fig. `2 of the drawings, where it will be seen that they may be placed in interengagement with horizontal reinforcing elements26. These various structural elements may also be inter-Wound or engaged with structural elements I6 of ceiling or roof panels I0 which are of the same construction as the wall panels.
" In Fig. 2 of the drawings a roof panel is shown which is disposed with its side flanges directed downwardly and its outer flange I3 resting upon the upper edge of an end fiange I4 of a wall panel. As shown in both Figs. 2 and 6 the position of the outer flange I3 of a 'ceiling or roof panel is offset from the outer vertical face of the wall panels so that a space will occur above the Wall panels and outwardly of the ceiling or roof panels within which a bond beam may be subsequently formed. After the wall and ceiling or roof panels'have been assembled, as particularly 'designated in Figs. 1 and 3, and While they are supported by suitable scaffolding, concrete may Vbe applied to them in order to produce a wall 4 cated at 28.
In making a roof it is desirable to apply reinforcing rods as indicated at 29 and to then place Vacomplete roof surface of cementitious material thereover, whichv is applied at the same time as the bond beams 2B and side wall portions 21 areapplied. This may include the overhanging eave portions 30 and does include the V-shaped vertical pilasters 3I occurring in the spaces 24 between the panels. By this arrangement it will be recognized that since the wall panels and ceiling or roof panels are all cornbined with the outer mass of cement in a substantially short periodof time there will be no seams in the cement work and the entire structure will be monolithic and of uniform strength.
Attention is directed to the fact that when the wall is built the initial structure comprising the panels I is not of suiiicient strength to sustainaI building load or comply with building requirements, but that wherithe mass of concrete is applied thereto sufficient additional strength n is obtained to bond all of the panel units I0 together and to create vertical columns 3| tied together by the bond beamsy 28 and cast integrally with the outer wall section 21, so that the finished structure will comply with all building requirements,
Referring to the form of the invention shown in Fig. 7 of the drawings, it will be seen that the roof panels lie in a horizontal plane and are not inclined as indicated in Fig. 2, and that further- V more, the bond beam structure extends horizontally therealong and may provide a finished facing forthe top of a horizontal roof or a footv ing for a, second story. l
Referring more particularly to Fig. 4 of the drawings, a view of the wall structure in horizontal section is disclosed. 'In this particular view'the side flanges I2 and I3 of panel sections ID are indicated. Here it will be seen that extending transversely between the contiguous faces of the flanges I2 and I3 is a sheet of reticulated material 32. These extend at right angles to the plane of the central panels II and the plane of the edges of the iianges I2, I3 and I4.-
Disposed exteriorly of the central panels II is a sheet of reinforcing mesh 33 through which the outer end of the member 32 projects and after which the r'outer end of the member 32 is bent over, as indicated at 34, to hold the reinforcing member 33 in position and provide an additional bond for the exterior mass of cementitious material 21. The inner end of the transversereinforcing member 32 projects between the contiguous faces of the panel fianges I2 and I3 and through interior lath 35. The member 32 is bent over as indicated at 36 to hold the interior lath in position. It will also be understood that the retlculated material I3 which is incorporated withinthe panels IU may project from the edges of the iianges I2 and I3 and be used to tie the panels III together or to secure metal lath, plaster-board, or other suitable plaster base to the inner faces of the panels. In the latter instance it will be recognized that plaster may be applied to the metal lath or plaster-board to provide an interior wall finish.
By reference to Fig. 1 of the drawings, it will be seen that the finished wall comprises a continuous outer surface 21, a. plurality of vertical columns or pilasters 3I, a horizontal bond beam 28 and the form panels IIl, all cast in one monolithic structure.
Figure 5 is a-view in horizontal section taken at the corner of a building structure and discloses the manner in which a vertical corner column is tied into the structure and the concrete is applied thereto to produce a monolithic wall including the column reinforcing and the Wall reinforcing elements.
In ,li-ig. 6 of the drawings a construction is indicated whereby the second story of a building is constructed. In ythis figure it will be seen that the bond beam 28 is formed and that the horizontal panels form a floor 39 while vertical panels It) iorm the side walls.
As shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings, the present invention is particularly adapted to accommodate wall openings such as windows and doors without the necessity oi' casting separate elements for this purpose. This is due to the fact that since the cementitious slab is relatively thin it is possible to cut it to dimensions which may be accommodated inwall spaces around a wall opening. It is obvious that slabs may be cast to a dimension to satisfy any condition.
Attention is further called to the fact that by stretching a reinforcing mesh 33 across the outer surfaces of the panels after they have been erected, and if desired, around the corner columns, it is insured that a continuous reinforcing element will be provided which is imbedded within the outer mass 21 of cementitious material. This will prevent checking or cracking of the surface of the Walls. It is to be understood that while wire mesh has been vshown as incorporated in the panel structure for reinforcing purposes, that other structural reinforcing elenkents might be used, such as pencil rods and the Attention is further directed to the fact that since it is not necessary in the present instance to erect forms between which cement is poured, it is possible to obtain straight and properly aligned outer walllsurfaces due to the fact that after the mass of concrete constituting the thickness 21 has been applied and the necessary mass of concrete filling into the column areas has been placed, it is possible to thereafter scrape and smooth the wall surfaces in accordance with guide means, whereby the wall surfaces will be properly aligned even though the form panels have not been exactly placed.
By particular reference to Fig. 1 of the drawings, it will be seen that a simple framework may be set up to hold the .frames for thewall openings in position and to provide a skeleton support be done with suicient rapidity to make it possible to form the walls, floors and ceilings in one operation so that the cement for the entire structure will set simultaneously and thus create a monolithic building structure which does not have any y seams or joints in its concrete work.
From the foregoing description it will be evident that the present invention provides a new and novel method of building construction and a new building element which is in itself a separate article of manufacture, the said building element comprising structural steel calculated to provide the necessary strength for a reinforced concrete structure, and which structural steel is incorporated within a relatively thin slab of cementitious material which will act yto hold the structural reinforcing elements in a suitably arranged position, and will also provide a form surface against which a suflicient additional amount of cementitious material may be ap ied lori the job to create a wall consistent wit the structural reinforcing elements which have been carried in the panels. It will also be recognized that while these panels have been described as carrying marginal flanges that they may constructed as fiat sheets of material against/which or around which cementitious material may be applied, and that if desired they may be of various shapes and configurations as required. In this connection it will be understood that the mass o1' concrete applied may be caused to accumulate upon the slabs to any desired thickness in order to give wall strength, and that /while the thickness of the slabs or panels will be relatively thin and possibly not over an inch in thickness that the amount of concrete applied to these panels is/of considerable thickness, making it possible for the applied concrete to be leveled ofi. and shaped as desired over the supporting surface of the precast panel viously described. IIhis makes it possible to provide nller walls, and also to flreproof columns and other structural elements by housing them between complementary panels.
It 'will thus be seen that the invention here disclosed provides simple and effective means for 5 creating form panels, which panels are relatively light in weight, may be manufactured and easily transported to the point of buildi g construction, may be easilyand convenierlxy assembled for buil-ding purposes, and will ins `re that when l0 the desired cementitious mass is applied thereto a strong and suitable monolithic building structure will be produced.
While I have shown the preferred construction of a building form and the preferred method of using the same in producing a new and novel building structure, it is to be understood that various changes in the combination, construction and arrangement of parts of the form and the final structure and various changes in the steps` of the methdd for producing the same may be made by those skilled in the art Without departing from the spirit of the invention as claimed. Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: 1. The method of forming a composite course reinforced concrete wall that includes placing in the same wall plane a series of concrete slabs containing reinforcing metal for the wall and arranged to provide elongated spaces between adjacent edges of the slabs, and pneumatically projecting concrete againstthe slabs to ll said spaces and in the same operation apply to the surfaces of the slabs a continuous load sustaining course of concrete integrated with the slabs and the columns formed within said spaces, said courses individually having less than the required strength to support the load to be imposed on the wall.
,2. The method of forming a composite course o reinforced concrete wall that includes pneumatically projecting concrete against reinforcing material to form dense slab elements having said material imbedded therein, placing in the same wall plane a series of said slabs arranged to provide elongated vertical spaces between adjacent edges of the slabs and afhorizontally extending space above the slabs, interconnecting reinforcing metal projecting from within the slabs with reinforcing in said horizontally extending space, pneumatically projecting concrete against the slabs to fill said elongated and horizontally extending spaces, and thereby form vertical wall columns and a horizontal tie beam, and in the same operation pneumatically applying to the surfaces of the slabs a continuous load sustaining course of concrete integrated with the slabs and the columns and beam formed within said spaces.
CLYDE DEUEL.
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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2602322A (en) * 1946-08-02 1952-07-08 Andrew Y Preble Method of wall construction and skeleton therefor
US2645114A (en) * 1945-10-18 1953-07-14 Amirikian Arsham Hollow structure
US5338499A (en) * 1989-09-26 1994-08-16 Gerestek Oy Method for the fabrication of a composite structure
WO2003021056A2 (en) * 2001-09-04 2003-03-13 Dani Shlezinger Construction system and method for its use
US20040020149A1 (en) * 2000-11-13 2004-02-05 Pierre Messiqua Concrete formwork wall serving also as reinforcement
US20100162658A1 (en) * 2008-12-31 2010-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Modular concrete building
US20100162651A1 (en) * 2008-12-31 2010-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Concrete roof panel
US20100162655A1 (en) * 2008-12-31 2010-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Methods and apparatus for concrete panel connections
US20110047928A1 (en) * 2009-08-27 2011-03-03 Eugenio Santiago Aburto Concrete rib construction system
US8490363B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2013-07-23 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Modular concrete building
EP3461971A1 (en) * 2017-09-29 2019-04-03 Holcim Technology Ltd. Method for joining two elements

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2645114A (en) * 1945-10-18 1953-07-14 Amirikian Arsham Hollow structure
US2602322A (en) * 1946-08-02 1952-07-08 Andrew Y Preble Method of wall construction and skeleton therefor
US5338499A (en) * 1989-09-26 1994-08-16 Gerestek Oy Method for the fabrication of a composite structure
US20040020149A1 (en) * 2000-11-13 2004-02-05 Pierre Messiqua Concrete formwork wall serving also as reinforcement
US7162845B2 (en) * 2000-11-13 2007-01-16 Coffor Internacional-Exploracao De Patentes Lda Concrete formwork wall serving also as reinforcement
WO2003021056A2 (en) * 2001-09-04 2003-03-13 Dani Shlezinger Construction system and method for its use
WO2003021056A3 (en) * 2001-09-04 2003-11-06 Dani Shlezinger Construction system and method for its use
US20100162655A1 (en) * 2008-12-31 2010-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Methods and apparatus for concrete panel connections
US20100162651A1 (en) * 2008-12-31 2010-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Concrete roof panel
US20100162658A1 (en) * 2008-12-31 2010-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Modular concrete building
US8763317B2 (en) * 2008-12-31 2014-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Concrete roof panel
US8132388B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2012-03-13 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Modular concrete building
US8397467B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2013-03-19 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Methods and apparatus for concrete panel connections
US8490363B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2013-07-23 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Modular concrete building
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