US3618278A - Multiple story multiple unit building - Google Patents

Multiple story multiple unit building Download PDF

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US3618278A
US3618278A US35656A US3618278DA US3618278A US 3618278 A US3618278 A US 3618278A US 35656 A US35656 A US 35656A US 3618278D A US3618278D A US 3618278DA US 3618278 A US3618278 A US 3618278A
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panels
unit
walls
floor
building
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William J Mouton Jr
Will A Stacy
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William J Mouton Jr
Will A Stacy
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/04Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stone-like material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/34Extraordinary structures, e.g. with suspended or cantilever parts supported by masts or tower-like structures enclosing elevators or stairs; Features relating to the elastic stability
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F11/00Stairways, ramps, or like structures; Balustrades; Handrails
    • E04F11/02Stairways; Layouts thereof

Abstract


A MULTIPLE STORY MULTIPLE UNIT BUILDING IN WHICH EACH UNIT IS CONSTRUCTED OF PREDOMINANTLY RECTANGULAR PRECAST SEMI-LIGHWEIGHT STRUCTURAL CONCRETE PANELS WHICH PREFERABLY ARE PRESTRESSED, OF UNIFORM THICKNESS, AND FREE OF ANY OPENINGS OR APERATURES, WHEREBY THEY MAY READILY BE FORMED BY GENERALLY ACCEPTED CONVENTIONAL CONCRETE PRECASTING PRACTICE IN A CONTINUOUS CATSINT OR EXTRUSION OPERATION AND WITHOUT THE NEED FOR INCORPORATING SPECIAL JOINT CONSTRUCTIONS OR CONNECTING MEANS IN THE RESPECTIVE PANESL. EACH UNIT COMPRISES AT LEAST SEVERAL RELATIVELY PARALLEL MULTI-STORY WALLS WHICH ARE FORMED BY MONOLITHIC WALL PANELS EXTENDING CONTINUOUSLY FROM END TO END OF THE UNIT. EACH OF THE UPPER FLOORS IS COMPRISED BY A PAIR OF MONOLITHIC FLOOR PANESL, EACH COEXTENSIVE IN WIDTH WITH THE UNIT AND EXTENDING BETWEEN AND SUPPORTED ON THE WALL PANEL, THE TWO FLOOR PANELS OF EACH FLOOR BEING RELATIVELY SPACED APART LONGITUDINALLY OF THE UNIT TO PROVIDE AN OPENING WHICH RECEIVES A PREFABRICATED MULTIP-STORY UTILITY CAPSULE OR CORE CONTAINING THE VARIOUS KITCHEN, BATHROOM,
HEATING AIR CONDITIONING, ELECTRICAL AND OTHER EQUIPMENT. MONOLITHIC RIGID STABILIZER PANELS COEXTENSIVE IN HEIGHT WITH THE BUILDING UNIT, ARE LOCTED AT EITHER END OF THE UNIT IS SPACED APART RELATION TO PROVIDE A MULTI-STORY WINDOW AND DOORS OPENINGS, AND ARE FIXEDLY CONNECTED TO THE RESPECTIVE WALL PANELS AND FLOOR SLABS TO IMPART LATERAL STABILITY TO THE UNIT. THE ROOF ALSO WITH THE WIDTH OF THE BUILDING AND SPANNING ALL OF THE WALLS THEREOF TO BE SUPPORTED ON THE UPPER EDGES OF SAID WALLS. THE INTERCONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE VARIOUS PANELS AND SLABS MAY BE SIMPLY ACHIEVED BY CONVENTIONAL EXPANSION BOLTS, WITHOUT NECESSITY FOR PROVISION OF SPECIAL JOINT CONFIGURATIONS OR INSERTS FOR CONNECTING PURPOSES. PRECAST UNITARY STAIR FLIGHTS EXTENDING DIAGONALLY BETWEEN THE BASE SLAB AND WALLS OR WELL AS DIRECTED BETWEEN THE WALLS DURING THE ERECTION THEREOF AS WELL AS THEREAFTER.

Description

NOV. 9, 1971 W J, MOUTON, JRH E'TAL 3,618,278
MULTIPLE STORY MULTIPLE UNIT BUILDING Filed May 8, 1970 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 WML/4M J Mavim Je. /V/a 4. 5r/MEV 5)/ uw, Mina/ ATO/VEYS NOV. 9, 1971 WHL MOUTON, JR ETAL 3,618,278
v v MULTIPLE STORY MULTIPLE UNIT BUILDING Filed May 8, 1970 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 BEDQOOM BEDROOM NOV. 9, 1971 W MOUTON, JR EVAL 3,618,218
MULTIPLE STORY MULTIPLE UNIT BUILDING Filed May 8, 1970 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Nov. 9, 1971 w.J. MOUTON, JR.. EVAL MULTIPLE STORY MULTIPLE UNIT BUILDING 4 Sheets-Sheet 4.
Filed May 8. 1970 e. @w M mm l@ UY E E0 N WMM d MM United States Patent O 3,618,278 MULTIPLE STORY MULTIPLE UNIT BUILDING William J. Mouton, Jr., P.O. BX 10515, New Orleans, La. 70121, and Will A. Stacy, 604 Mansfield Road, Silver Spring, Md. 20910 Filed May 8, 1970, Ser. No. 35,656 Int. Cl. E04f 11/00; E04h 1/04 U.S. Cl. 52-185 10 Claims ABSTRACT 0F THE DISCLOSURE A multiple story multiple unit building in which each unit is constructed of predominantly rectangular precast semi-lightweight structural concrete panels which preferably are prestressed, of uniform thickness, and free of any openings or apertures, whereby they may readily be formed by generally accepted conventional concrete precasting practice in a continuous casting or extnusion operation and without the need for incorporating special joint constructions or connecting means in the respective panels. Each unit comprises at least several relatively parallel multi-story walls which are formed by 'monolithic wall panels extending continuously from end to end of the unit. Each of the upper floors is comprised by a pair of monolithic floor panels, each coextensive in width with the unit and extending between and supported on the wall panels', the two floor panels of each fioor being relatively spaced apart longitudinally of the unit to provide an opening which receives a prefabricated multi-story utility capsule or core containing the various kitchen, bathroom, heating, air conditioning, electrical and other equipment. Monolithic rigid stabilizer panels coextensive in height with the building unit, are located at either end of the unit in spaced apart relation to provide a multi-story window and doors openings, and are lixedly connected to the respective wall panels and floor slabs to impart lateral stability to the unit. The roof also with the width of the building and spanning all of the walls thereof to be supported on the upper edges of said walls. The interconnections between the various panels and slabs may be simply achieved by conventional expansion bolts, without necessity for provision of special joint configurations or inserts for connecting purposes. Precast unitary stair flights extending diagonally between the base slab and walls as well as directly between the walls during the erection thereof as well as thereafter.
This invention relates to improvements in a building unit constructed of precast concrete panels.
It has heretofore been known to form buildings of precast concrete slabs or panels interconnected to form all of the major components of the structure, including the floors, walls and roof. However, in the past, it has been customary to form each of the walls of a plurality of comparatively small interconnected panels or slabs of varying shapes and sizes, some of which are required to be moulded or cast with window and door openings therein, as well as with special structural provision for joining or connecting them to adjoining panels. This has required expensive production equipment and the complex assembly of a great number and variety of Prefabricated slabs and panels, many of which due to their special configurations, must be especially located and oriented in the building structure. In addition, there are required numerous interconnections of these parts often by special means requiring the expenditure of considerable time and effort.
With these considerations in mind, it is the broad primary object of the present invention to provide an extremely economical and simplified construction of a multiple unit building, in which each unit is constructed of ice a minimum number of monolithic concrete panels or slabs capable of assembly by a minimum number of operations, all of which may be formed free of any door or window openings, such as might interfere with the prestressing wires or cables embedded in and extending longitudinally of the respective panels.
It is a particular object to provide such a construction in which the various slabs and panels may be of uniform thickness and formed on a simple casting and prestressing bed by a conventional paving machine, by continuous casting or concrete extrusion operations, the panels being preferably of semi-light Weight, employing expanded clay or other insulating aggregate, while yet being waterproof, whereby they may be assembled to form a structure which is weatherproof, fireproof, and vermin proof, as well as one in which the surfaces of the panels require but a minimum of pointing and finishing operations such as painting in order to provide the finished interior and exterior wall, ceiling and oor surfaces for the structure.
In accordance with the invention, all of the panels or slabs are of a length coextensive with either the length or width of the building unit, and all wall panels are equal in height to a single story of the unit so that all panels are at least room size and but a minimum number of panels and joints are required. The panels or slabs are predominantly of rectangular configuration of uniform thickness and free of any openings therethrough, to facilitate their production by continuous concrete casting operations. Only the gable panels are other than rectangular and these are capable of formation by the use of temporary mould inserts along one edge of the mould or casting bed, without interruption of the continuous casting process.
Endwise stability of each unit is achieved by the monolithic wall panels extending parallel to each other from end to end of the unit, with the monolithic floor panels or slabs spanning and supported on the upper edges of the wall panels and extending between the wall panels of the several stories of the structure.
Sidewise, stability is achieved by a novel arrangement of monolithic end panels, each extending for the full height of the unit and bolted or otherwise connected to the several vertically aligned wall panels of the respective side walls as Well as to the several adjacent floor slabs.
Relative lateral spacing of the end panels or stabilizer panels at opposite ends of the unit affords provision for door and window openings. Similarly, each of the upper floors comprises a pair of relatively spaced apart ioor panels or slabs defining between them a central opening coextensive in height with the building to define a stair well and also affording space for reception of a prefabricated multi-story core or capsule containing the Ikitchen, bathroom, heating and air conditioning equipment and the like and which, by virtue of its central location, is accessible to the rooms at both the front and rear of the unit.
The use of post-production drilled-in expansion bolts for connecting the various panels and slabs eliminates the necessity for formation of special joints or connecting means in the panels and slabs.
The panels and/ or slabs are all prestressed in the direction of their length, to provide maximum strength, and to take up shrinkage of the semi-light weight concrete. When used as floor slabs, such panels are medially supported by the intermediate wall panels therebeneath, thus creating a reversal of stress at their mid-portions.
By Way of exemplification of the invention, the preferred embodiment thereof is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. l is a plan of the first dioor of a building unit of the invention, together with parts of adjacent units.
FIG. 2 is a plan of the second floor.
FIG. 3 is a front elevation.
FIG. 4 is an enlarged front elevation.
FIG. 5 is an enlarged vertical section on the line 5-5 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 6 is an enlarged rear elevation.
FIG. 7 is an exploded perspective view of the stair assembly.
FIG. 8 is an enlarged fragmentary side elevation of the roof construction.
FIG. 9 is a rear elevation prior to installation of the door and window panels.
FIGS. 10, 11, 12 and 13 are all greatly enlarged detail sections in a vertical plane through the juncture of one of the walls with a tioor.
FIGS. 14 and 15, respectively, are detail plan elevations on a large scale showing how the stabilizing panels are secured to the adjacent wall and lloor panels.
Referring now in detail to the accompanying drawings, FIG. l is a oor plan of the first floor of a building unit U, in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention. The unit is shown as being divided into a pair of identical symmetrically arranged town houses H-H, separated by a vertical wall 14 along a vertical plane of symmetry, the unit being interposed in a row of similar units which are respectively offset in an endwise direction with respect to each other whereby the outside side-walls of each unit may be buttressed by the end walls of adjoining units, the adjoining units being shown but fragmentarily in the accompanying drawings.
It will be seen that the building unit of the preferred embodiment includes a rectangular horizontal base slab of concrete which may either be precast or poured in place in accordance with generally conventional practice.
The major structural components of the units which rests on the base slab 10, including the bearing walls, oors and roof all comprise precast concrete panels which may be formed by a conventional concrete casting or extrusion process through the use, for instance, of conventional road paving machinery, without the necessity for provision of any holes or openings in the panels, the various panels and slabs being assembled in a manner to leave spaces between certain of them to provide door and window openings at the ends of the unit and to provide between the oor slab and roof a yvertical well for reception of stairs and a utility capsule containing kitchen, bathrooms and utilities.
lhe panels are poured or extruded by the paving niachine onto a rectangular casting bed having longitudinal prestressing cables or wires supported thereover under tension, to be embedded in the panels. Tensioning of the wires or cables is maintained until the concrete has substantially cured, following which the poured concrete may bte cut,d by saving, Lo the desired lengths to form the pres resse pane s o t e inven i those Skilled in the art' ton, all as will be apparent to All that is then necessary to adapt the respective panels for assembly in the building unit is the boring of properly located holes whereby the panels and slabs may be interconnected to each other in the unit by the use of large expansion bolts. Such assembly method eliminates the need for placing of embedded inserts in the slabs and is of iniportance as making possible a continuous casting technique and resulting mass production. Preferably, the panels are formed of waterproof light weight concrete having substantial soundproofing and heat insulating properties as well as being fireproof, vermin and termite proof. For forming such panels, it is desirable to employ as aggregate such light weight insulating materials as expanded clay, shale or ily ash, in place of the conventional gravel. There is thus achieved the objective of a building unit constructed predominantly of precast imperforate bearing walls, floors and roof, all of which may be formed by a continuous extrusion operation and cut to size as required without the provision therein of door, window openings, stair WellS, 0f
the like, which might interfere with or interrupt the pretensioning Wires, or the embedding of connecting members.
Now referring particularly to FIGS. 1 and 5, the unit U therein illustrated is a multiple story unit comprised of at least several relatively parallel and identical multistory walls 12, 14 and 16, extending from end to end of the base slab in spaced relation. In the completed unit each such Wall comprises a plurality of single story precast monolithic wall panels each coextensive in length with the unit U. Each of the walls is identical with the illustrated in FIG. 5 in which the wall 12 coinprises vertically supei'posed monolithic panels 121, 122, and 123, coextensive in length, respectively, with the first, second and third floors of the unit. The base slab 10 defines the first oor of the unit and the second and third floors thereof, respectively, are defined by rectangular floor slabs or panels 18-18 and 20-20, each of which is of similar construction to the wall panels and precast in the same manner as such panels. Each such oor slab 18 and 20 is coextenesive in width with the unit U. 4It spans all of the walls 12, 14 and 16 of the unit, extending between the vertically superposed panels of each wall in a manner such that each floor slab 18 and 20 is supported on the wall panels therebeneath and serves as `a base or support for the wall panels thereabove.
Where the roof of the unit is to be other than fiat and horizontal, the upper panel of each wall will have its upper edge cut or sawed to shape accordingly. Thus, where a gable roof is employed, the several uppermost or third floor wall panels will be gable panels identical to the gable panel 123 of FIG. 5, in which the two oppositely pitched upper end edges of the panel converge upwardly to a peak or ridge at 24. The roof panels 22 span the upper edges of of the several walls 12, 14 and 16. Where the oppositely sloping roof panels meet at the ridge 24, their adjacent edges, each being at right angles to the panel, form a V- shaped groove which preferably is filled with expansive cement grout 25. After being applied to the building and as illustrated in FIG. 8, the roof panels 22 and the joints therebetween are preferably covered with rigid sheet insulation 27 which, in turn, is covered with conventional shingles 29 or other roofing material.
In the building unit as thus far described, the several walls 12, 14 and 16, are each constructed of vertically superposed monolithic panels, each extending continuously from end to end of the unit U and parallel to each other. They thus afford ample endwise stability for the structure.
For interconnecting the several vertically supei'posed panels of each of the relatively remote side-walls 12 and 16 to maintain them rigidly in common vertical planes, there are provided, at the opposite ends of the unit, pairs of front and rear end panels or stabilizer panels 26-26 and 28-28 respectively. Each stabilizer panel 26 and 28 is of rigid unitary or monolithic construction extending continuously from the base slab 10 to the roof slabs 22. It will be seen from FIG. 4 that the rear stabilizer panels 28-28 are disposed normally to their respective walls 12 and 16 in endwise abutment therewith. They are corinected to each of the panels of such walls by suitable means such as conventional expansion bolts 31, whereby to strongly reinforce such walls against lateral deflection. The front stabilizer panels 26-26 are in overlapping relation with their associated walls 12 and 16, respectively. and also are connected to the respective panels of each wall by expansion bolts or other conventional means. As may be seen in FIGS. 1-4, the stabilizer panels 26`26 and 28-28 of each pair extend toward each other in a common plane, with their adjacent inner edges spaced substantially from each other and from the intermediate wall 14, to cooperate with the wall 14 in defining multistory door and window openings 30-30 and 32-32, at opposite ends of the unit (as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2) extending from the base slab 10 to the overlying roof panels 22 of the unit, and on opposite sides of the vertical plane of symmetry defined by the wall 14. In the lower portion of each such opening 30-30 may be disposed a prefabricated panel structure including a front entrance door 36 and adjoining windows 38 opening into each of the dwellings on opposite sides of the medial wall 14, all as shown in FIG. 3.
Referring to FIGS. 1-4, the upper portions of the front openings are framed on opposite sides b-y forwardly projecting panels 40 secured to and projecting forwardly from the relatively opposed inner vertical edges of the front stabilizer panels 26-26, and the corresponding portions of the intermediate wall 14 similarly are projected forwardly to define bay windows having floor portions 42 of similar shape and size and consisting of small auxiliary concrete slabs extending between and secured to the respective panels 40 and their immediate wall 14. The upper portions of the front openings 30 between the walls 12, I14 and 16 are then occupied by prefabricated front wall land window panels 44 for the two upper stories of the front of the building unit. The openings 32 at the rear end of the unit may have disposed therein suitable door and window panels such as 46, 48 and 50, respectively.
An important feature of the building unit is the arrangement of the two floor slabs 18-18 of the second floor, and the two floor slabs 2020 of the third floor in such manner that each pair 18-18 and 20-20 of slabs above the base slab 10 are relatively spaced apart in an endwise direction to leave vertical openings or wells 52 (FIG. 5) for the full height of the unit between the base slab and the roof for the respective dwellings H-H on opposite sides of the intermediate wall 14. Each such opening 52 1s employed in part to define a stair well for its associated dwelling and in part for reception of a multi-story rig1d utility capsule, generally designated 54, extending for the full height of the opening 52 and adapted to contain bathrooms, kitchen, heating and air conditioning eq-uipment, water, gas, sewer piping, and all electrical wiring for the dwelling.
`One outer side of each capsule 54 is disposed flush against an outer or relatively remote Wall 12 or 16 of the unit and, though not necessarily affixed to said wall, may serve as a means for initially positioning and supporting the respective wall panels during building of the unit.
It will be appreciated that the capsule '54 of each unit occupies only a portion of the area of the opening or well of its respective unit, being flush against the outer wall thereof, but spaced from the intermediate wall 14 thereof to provide a hall way establishing communication between the front and the rear of the dwelling. To provide a floor for this space in each of the symmetrically arranged dwellings of the unit and as shown in FIG. 5, a small rectangular floor slab `56 common to both dwellings extends through the space between the relatively spaced apart portions of the wall panels -141 and 142 and 142 and 142 of the intermediate wall 14, being rigidly affixed to the underlying wall panel 141 or 142 as by means of the expansion bolts or in other conventional manner.
The remaining portion of each vertical opening 52 is occupied -by stairs which, in the present invention, are comprised of separate monolithic precast reinforced concrete structures or flights, each of which includes one or more landings as an integral portion thereof.
Referring specifically to the arrangement of the stairs as illustrated in FIGS. and 7 of the drawings, the stairs which extend from the first floor or base slab to the second floor 18 of each dwelling H, comprise two relatively reversely arranged flights 62 and 66, respectively. The lower end of the first flight 62 is secured or anchored in suitable manner to the base slab 10 in spaced relation to the adjacent intermediate wall 14 and has an integral landing `64 which is securely anchored to the adjacent outer wall midway between floors. The lower flight 62 thus constitutes a diagonal brace between the floor slab 10 and its associated outer wall.
The second stair flight 66 includes a lower landing 68 which is anchored to the outer wall at the level of and contiguously with the landing 64, while its upper landing 70, at a common level with the floor slabs 1^8-18 and 56, is firmly anchored to the inner or intermediate wall 14, the flight 66 thus diagonally interconnecting and mutually crossqbracing the inner and outer walls 12 and 14, respectively.
The third stair llight 72 has its lower landing also at the level of the slabs 18-18 and 56 and the landing 70, and is firmly anchored or secured to the medial wall 14 contiguously to the landing 70. By reference to FIG. 5, it will be apparent that the landings 70 and 74 together with the slab 56, jointly span the space between the front and rear second floor slabs 1-8-18.
The third flight of stairs 72 extends diagonally upwardly from the second floor and medially between the second and third floors is provided with a horizontal upper landing 76 which is anchored to the outer wall 12 at the same level as the lower landing 78 of the fourth stair flight 80. This last mentioned flight 80 extends diagonally between the outer wall 12 and intermediate wall 14 and has its upper horizontal landing 812` anchored to the inner wall 14 at the level of the floor slabs 20-20 and the intervening slab 56. The distance or space between this landing Y82 and the front floor slab 20 is then occupied by a small slab 84 which extends horizontally 'between the relatively vertically spaced apart wall panels 142 and 142 of the intermediate wall, resting on and anchored to the upper edge of the intermediate wall panel 142 in the same manner as the adjoining slab 56, so as toy be common to the dwellings on opposite sides of the intermediate wall.
It will thus be seen that all of the stair flights, except for the lowermost flights 62 extend diagonally between and interconnect the opposite side walls of each dwelling H to contribute substantially to the lateral stability of these walls.
It will be readily apparent that a building having its various interconnected units U constructed in the manner and by the means above described is capable of a novel and extremely simplified method of assembly by comparatively unskilled workmen and from a minimum number of components, of which the primary structural components consist of precast monolithic concrete parts, capable of formation by a continuous casting process in which all of the components, except for the gable panels of the Walls, are of rectangular configuration and coextensive in either length or breadth with the unit. Further, it is of considerable importance that it is unnecessary to provide window or door openings in the respective slabs or panels or to position inserts therein for use in subsequent assembling of the parts.
Reverting briefly to the description of the stairs, it will Ibe noted that, in the preferred embodiment, for anchoring each landing to one of the building walls, the landing may be arranged as exemplified in FIG. 7 of the drawings in which it will be seen that the end edge of each landing is castellated or notched as at 86 and is spanned by a rigid metal anchor plate y88 adapted to rest flush against the wall and having bolt holes therein abreast of the notches or castellation 86 through which expansion bolts or other connectors may be inserted and embedded within the building walls, the notches or castellations 86 thereafter being filled with grout.
It has previously been explained that the various panels may be interconnected to each other by the use of expansion bolts or the like disposed in bores which are drilled in the respective panels subsequent to their casting or moulding.
For more specific examplifications of such interconnections reference lis made first to FIG. l0 of the accompanying drawings exemplifying the interconnection between one of the iloor panels or slab 18 and the intermediate wall panels 141 and 142. As previously explained, the
floor slab or panel 18 passes over and has its mid-portion resting on and supported by the lower intermediate wall slab 141 whereas the second story wall panel 14.2 rests on and is supported on the floor panel 18 in vertical registry with the wall panel 14.1. Suitable metal studs or dowels 92, located at suitable intervals extend vertically through an enlarged bore in the floor 18, with the opposite ends of each such dowel received in relatively aligned blind bores extending into the edges of the respective wall panels 141 and 142. The bores preferably are filled with grout to firmly anchor the stud therein. It will be seen that the vertically superposed sect-ions of each intermediate wall 14 are interconnected through the intervening floor slabs or panels 18 by the studs 92.
FIG. 11 shows how the end of the adjoining floor slabs 18-18 of relatively adjacent building units U are fixed in and terminate between the vertically superposed wall panels such as 121 and 122 of one of the relatively remote walls of each unit where such wall is a party wall between adjoining units. In this arrangement, the adjoining ends of the floor slabs 18-18 are slightly spaced apart and firmly united by grout 93, lead shims being employed as in FIG. 10.
FIG. 12 shows the juncture between the floor panel 0r slab 18 and the wall panels 121 and 122 where the latter are employed in an outside or end wall of the building structure rather than in a party wall. In such event, the slab 18 is interconnected to both of the walls 121 and 122 by a rigid metal dowel or stud 92 in the same manner above described in connection with FIG. 10, the outer end edge of the oor slab extending to a location nearly flush with the outer surfaces of the wall panels 121 and 122 and preferably begin covered with a fiber glass flashing 94.
FIG. 13 shows the juncture between the floor panel 18 and wall 16, where the wall 16 projects beyond the adjoining unit. In such case, since the fioor panel 18 extends only part way through the space between wall panels 161 and 162, the rest of such space is occupied by a suitable fillet 95.
FIG. 14 is a plan section at the juncture of one of the front stabilizer panels 26 with one of the relatively remote side wall panels 121, showing how the expansion bolts 31 are employed to connect the stabilizer panel 26 with both the wall panel 123 and the floor panel 18, when the stabilizer panel 26 is in overlapping relation to the wall 12.
In FIG. 15, on the other hand, there is shown the manner in which the stabilizer panel 28 is connected to the wall panel 122 and adjacent floor 18 by means of the expansion bolts or studs 31, when the stabilizer is in buttressing relation of the wall 12 as at the rear of the lefthand dwelling H of FIG. 1.
PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION In erecting a building unit accordance with the invention, after firstpouring or placing the base slab 10, the utility capsules 54-54 are installed in free standing relation on the slab and accurately located -with respect to the dwellings or dwelling units which they are to serve, the capsule 54 preferably being firmly anchored 0r secured to the base slab 10 in any suitable manner.
The plefabricated first floor wall panels 121, 141 and 161 are then successively positioned in any desired order on the slab 10 and firmly connected thereto as by expansion bolts, anchored in the slab and extending into the edges of the said panels at suitable intervals.
The relatively remote or outer walls 121 and 162, respectively, of the unit are positioned flush against the relatively remote outer faces of the earlier installed utility capsules 54. The capsules thus aid in the accurate location and positioning of the respective outer walls. Both the outer wall panels and the inner wall panel 141 are then temporarily held in fixed upright position, while the stair fiights 62 and 66 are installed, the stair flights 62 serving as diagonal braces between the base slab 10 and the outer walls 12 and 16, while the fiights 66 serve as diagonal connections between the upper edge of the intermediate walls panel 141 and each outer wall panel to thus provide a rigid means for supporting the respective panels in proper vertical positions during subsequent erection operations, as well as to afford permanent braces for said wall panels.
Preferably the stabilizer panels 2626 and 28-28 are then accurately positioned and securely connected by expansion bolts or otherwise to the respective outer sidewall panels 121 and 161 to afford further lateral reinforcing and stabilization for these panels as well as to facilitate accurate placement of the further slabs and panels. As has been heretofore mentioned, it will be noted that all of the panels 121, 141 and 161 are of monolithic construction and coetxensive in length with the building unit so as to extend continuously from front to rear thereof, these panels being of rectangular configuration and preferably being free of any openings or 4insert except for prestressing or tensioning means contained therein.
Then the fioor panels 18-18 are lifted into place by a suitable crane or other power equipment and installed in relatively endwise spaced apart relation at the front rear respectively, of the said unit, on opposite sides of the previously installed utility capsules and stair flights. Also at this time the auxiliary or hall fioor panel 56 is disposed across the upper edge of the underlying intermediate wall panel 141 and spans the distance between the relatively spaced-apart utility capsules 54, being suitably anchored by expansion bolts 58 to the underlying wall panel 141 and also being secured at its ends to the respective utility capsules 54.
The second story wall panels 122, 142 and 162 are then placed in vertical position on the floor slabs 18-18 in vertical planes common to the respective wall panels therebeneath. It will be apparent that in the installation of the relatively remote second story wall panels 122 and 162 these panels may be guided accurately into their proper positions by bringing each such panel into fiush abutting engagement of its inner face with its cooperating utility capsule 54 and stabilizer panel 26, and bringing the rear end of the said panel into abutting relation with its other associated stabilizing panel 28. Following this, the wall panels 122 and 162 are then firmly bolted or otherwise secured to the stabilizing panels 26 and 28 and their underlying lioor panels or slabs 18-18.
The intermediate panel 142 will be temporarily supported in its proper vertical position while the second floor stair-flights 72 and 80 are then installed, the stair flights 72, respectively, serving as diagonal braces for their respective outer wall panel 162 and the stair flights 80 serving as diagonal braces between the outer wall panels and the intermediate wall panel 142 to hold the latter firmly in place during subsequent installation of the overlying third floor slabs 20-20. The slabs 20-20 then are accurately placed in position. The floor slabs 20-20 are connected to the upper edges of the intermediate panel 142, as well as to the stabilizing panels 26, 28. The floor panels or slabs 20-20 thus firmly secure the intermediate panel 142 in its proper upright position. The hall slab S6, as well as an additional auxiliary slab 82, are then supported across the upper edge of the wall panel 142 and bolted thereto at the level of the panels 20--20 and 82 so as to cooperate with the hall slab 56 and stairlanding 84 in defining a continuous passage between the floor slab 20-20 from front to rear of the structure. It will be noted that on the second floor, the hall slab 56 and the two stairlandings and 74 cooperate to define a continuous passageway between the relatively spaced floor slabs 18-18.
Thereafter, the gable panels 123, 143 and `162 Iare lifted into place and the outer gable panels 123 and 163 are secured to their cooperating front and rear stabilizer panels 26 and 28, and in flush engagement with the utility capsules 54. The roof slabs 22 are then applied and bolted in place in the positions indicated in FIG. 6, wherein each slab is coextensive in width with the entire unit, resting on and connected to the upper edges of all of the gable panels 123, l143 and 163.
It will be apparent that the primary construction will have been completed with the application of the roof and that the remaining finishing steps may be completed in any desired order. These will include installation of the bay window side panels 40-'40 and fioor segments 42, and subsequent installation of the front and rear prefabricated door and window panels 36, 38, 44 and 46, 48 and 50, respectively.
The roof panels 22 after being applied and secured in place, will preferably be covered by suitable sheets of insulation material applied thereto in any suitable manner and, in turn, covered by shingles or other appropriate roofing material -which will cover and waterproof both the insulation as well as the joints between adjoining roof panels.
The structure may be completed by painting both interd sound insulated. It will manifestly be fire-proof, wateru proof and vermin proof.
It will be readily apparent that because of the novel construction above described, buildings incorporating the construction units of the invention may be rapidly and economically assembled primarily from precast, prestressed concrete slabs formed by a continuous casting process and sawed or otherwise cut to size as desired, without the necessity for formation of any window or door openings or the positioning therein of any onsertes or other connecting means.
The prestressing of the panels makes possible their casting or moulding with ample strength in extremely large sizes from a semi-light weight concrete which, because of its lightness, permits ready handling and assembly of panels of very large sizes. Moreover, use in the concrete of an aggregate of relatively light weight and comparatively soft material, such as expanded clay, greatly facilitates the sawing and drilling operations used for cutting the panels to the desired sizes and subsequently assembling them in the building structure. Use in the structure of the gable panels, such as 123, 143 and 163 produces a gable or cathedral ceiling effect which cannot be as easily accomplished in conventional construction. At the same time, such ceiling effect provides a space for hot and stale air to gather while also affording additional insulation in the air space thus provided.
With the multiple story-multiunit building or buildings in accordance with the invention, it will be apparent that adequate provision is made for private front and rear entrances, for private vertical access to all spaces, and for both vertical and horizontal cross ventilation during appropriate seasons without the use of mechanical blowers.
The building system herein described is especially adapted for efficient use of approved baseboard electrical systems so that electrical conduits do not have to be cast into the walls and slabs, but rather the electrical baseboards may all readily be connected to the electrical terminals within the utility capsule or core.
Manifestly, two-story iand three-story units, in accordance with the invention, can be added or mixed to provide a means for varying the architectural theme. Other varrations may include varying roof slopes, varying set backs, the interspersing of two-story roof lines between threestory structures and also the variation of both the width and length of the units and their respective wall panels so that the areas of the respective oor plans may be easily changed as desired.
`Configuration of basic plan and panel deslgn allows for economic mass production of prestressed concrete panels at high volume rate. The panel design also facili- 10 tates production by slip forming panels on long beds using automatic equipment and sawing 4finished panels to exact lengths for post application of bolted connections, as above described.
Having thus described our invention, we claim:
1. A multistory multiple unit building in which each unit comprises a horizontal base slab, at least several relatively parallel multistory walls extending from end to end of said base-slab in spaced relation, each such wall cornprising a plurality of single-story panels in vertically superposed relation, each said panel being of monolithic concrete construction and coextensive in length with said unit, a plurality of monolithic floor slabs, each coextensive in width with the unit, each floor slab spanning all of said walls and extending between the superposed panels thereof to be supported on the wall panels therebeneath and to support the wall-panels thereabove, a roof comprising a plurality of rectangular monolithic concrete roof slabs, each coextensive in width with said unit, each roof slab spanning and supported on the upper edges of said walls, a pair of concrete stabilizer panels respectively connected to the relatively remote said walls at each end of the unit, said stabilizer panels of each pair extending inwardly toward each other normally to said walls and being relatively spaced apart to define multistory door and window openings at opposite ends of the unit, said stabilizer panels being of rigid monolithic construction, extending continuously from said base slab to the roof slabs, each said stabilizer panel being fixedly connected to all of its relatively adjacent slabs and wall panes to provide lateral stability for said building.
2. A building structure as defined in claim 1, further including prefabricated door and window panels respectively disposed in said openings at the ends of the respective building units.
3. A building construction as defined in claim 1, in which the floor slabs of each floor above said base slab are relatively spaced apart in an endwise direction to leave vertical wells in said building between said base slab and the roof and extending between adjacent walls of the building, and means within said wells abutting against and bracing said relatively remote walls.
4. A building construction as defined in claim 3, wherein said last-mentioned means comprises rigid stairways extending diagonally between and anchored to each said relatively remote wall and said base slab, to provide diagonal and vertical truss-like bracing of said walls.
5. A building construction as defined in claim 3, wherein said last-mentioned means includes a pair of rigid utility capsules coextensive in height with said walls, each said capsule abutting against one of said relatively remote walls and affording lateral stabilization therefor.
6. A building construction as defined in claim 3, including rigid stairways within said well, respectively extending diagonally between each said relatively remote wall panel and a floor slab and fixedly connected to each, and a pair of rigid utility capsules coextensive in height with said relatively remote walls, each capsule abutting against one of said relatively remote walls.
7. A building construction as defined in claim 3, in which each of said fioor slabs extends continuously from said vertical wells to an end ofthe unit.
8. A building construction as defined in claim A1, in which each building unit is offset in an endwise direction with respect to adjacent said units, the said stabilizing panels at one end of each but the endmost units abutting against said side-walls and the stabilizing panels at the other end of said last mentioned units overlapping and secured to the ends of said side-walls.
9. A building construction as defined in claim 1, in which all of said panels and slabs are of prefabricated and pre-stressed construction, free of openings and free of inserts other than pre-tensioning means.
10. A building construction as dened in claim 1, in 2,497,887 r- 2/ 1950 Hilpert 52-236 which all of said panels and slabs, except for the upper-v 3,304,675 2/1967 Graham-wo0d 52` 236 most wall panels, are of rectangular configuration. 3 533 204 11/1970 Wallace 52 236 References Cited 5 JOHN E. MURTAGH, Primary Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 952,985 3/1910 Ernsberger 52136 U-S- Cl- X-R- 2,139,623 12/1938 Marston 52-236 52-206, 220, 236, 262, 264
2,222,037 1l/l940 Lalferty 52-234
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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3720024A (en) * 1970-10-19 1973-03-13 J Theisen Prefabricated stackable stair unit
US3805461A (en) * 1972-10-10 1974-04-23 A Jagoda Modular building system
US3835601A (en) * 1971-08-31 1974-09-17 E Kelbish Modular construction system
US3948008A (en) * 1973-06-25 1976-04-06 Werner Goetz Prefabricated structural element, especially balcony element
US3971174A (en) * 1972-01-17 1976-07-27 Lely Cornelis V D Prefabricated buildings
US4060948A (en) * 1973-09-06 1977-12-06 Brownlee Robert O Structural frame for a building
US4214413A (en) * 1978-06-08 1980-07-29 Monteros Emilio Gonzalez Espin Building structure
US20040006940A1 (en) * 1999-11-22 2004-01-15 Gray Bruce W. Methods and apparatus for a multi-story dwelling with attached garages
US20040068944A1 (en) * 2002-10-09 2004-04-15 Dalton Michael E. Concrete building system and method
AT507650B1 (en) * 2007-02-26 2012-09-15 Kirchdorfer Fertigteilholding Gmbh FERTIGTEILWERK CONSTRUCTION
CN104032905A (en) * 2014-06-20 2014-09-10 山东科技大学 Upper staircase section sliding type reinforced concrete shock absorbing staircase

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3720024A (en) * 1970-10-19 1973-03-13 J Theisen Prefabricated stackable stair unit
US3835601A (en) * 1971-08-31 1974-09-17 E Kelbish Modular construction system
US3971174A (en) * 1972-01-17 1976-07-27 Lely Cornelis V D Prefabricated buildings
US3805461A (en) * 1972-10-10 1974-04-23 A Jagoda Modular building system
US3948008A (en) * 1973-06-25 1976-04-06 Werner Goetz Prefabricated structural element, especially balcony element
US4060948A (en) * 1973-09-06 1977-12-06 Brownlee Robert O Structural frame for a building
US4214413A (en) * 1978-06-08 1980-07-29 Monteros Emilio Gonzalez Espin Building structure
US20040006940A1 (en) * 1999-11-22 2004-01-15 Gray Bruce W. Methods and apparatus for a multi-story dwelling with attached garages
US20040068944A1 (en) * 2002-10-09 2004-04-15 Dalton Michael E. Concrete building system and method
US7661231B2 (en) * 2002-10-09 2010-02-16 Michael E. Dalton Concrete building system and method
AT507650B1 (en) * 2007-02-26 2012-09-15 Kirchdorfer Fertigteilholding Gmbh FERTIGTEILWERK CONSTRUCTION
CN104032905A (en) * 2014-06-20 2014-09-10 山东科技大学 Upper staircase section sliding type reinforced concrete shock absorbing staircase

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