US3894373A - Industrialized building construction - Google Patents

Industrialized building construction Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3894373A
US3894373A US36277473A US3894373A US 3894373 A US3894373 A US 3894373A US 36277473 A US36277473 A US 36277473A US 3894373 A US3894373 A US 3894373A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
channel
channels
legs
cells
building
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
John H Willingham
Original Assignee
John H Willingham
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US8064170A priority Critical
Application filed by John H Willingham filed Critical John H Willingham
Priority to US36277473 priority patent/US3894373A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US3894373A publication Critical patent/US3894373A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B1/34815Elements not integrated in a skeleton
    • E04B1/34823Elements not integrated in a skeleton the supporting structure consisting of concrete

Abstract

The building construction disclosed employs elongated Channel elements or modifications thereof and precast or cast in place slab elements. In one embodiment, vertical tiers or ranks of Channels are erected in spaced relation separated by vertical tiers of slabs. Alternatively, tiers of interleaved slabs and Channels are justaposed with the slabs and Channels respectively in diagonally adjacent relationship in adjacent ranks. The legs of the Channels form opposite side walls of internal cells with the webs of the Channels and the slabs forming floors and ceilings. Additional superposed Channels form vertically aligned hallways and elevator lobbies. An elevator tower is provided by a Channel disposed on one end with its legs attached to the elevator lobby Channels. The slabs and Channels are secured by welding or have poured in place concrete jointery to form a rigid unitary structure. In a variation of the above construction, modified Channel members having elongated transversely extending flanges coplanar with the Channel webs are utilized with or without slabs in forming the internal cellular portions of the building. Several variations in construction employing the aforementioned construction elements are also disclosed.

Description

[ July 15, 1975 IN DUSTRIALIZED BUILDING CONSTRUCTION [76] lnventor:

[57] ABSTRACT The building construction disclosed em John H. Willingham, [280 Estate ploys elon- Drive, Memphis, Tenn. 381 I7 gated Channel elements or modifications thereof and [22] Filed: May 22, 1973 precast or cast in place slab elements. In one embodiment, vertical tiers or ranks of Channels are erected in spaced relation separated by vertical tiers of slabs. Alternatively, tiers of interleaved slabs and Channel justaposed with the slabs and Channels res diagonally adjacent relationsh [21] Appl. No.: 362,774

5 are pectively in ip in adjacent ranks. The

Related US. Application Data Continuation of Ser No. 80,64l, abandoned. which is a Oct. 14, I970, continuation-in-part of Ser.

s b wa .m e m s "d an wa eh de .mh 0C We m f mo s Pa 8 MW e mm h ew k l m m l a .r n d e n o d n a b a 9 6 9 h c r a M 7 0 8 o N dr e mmmmma O a ri hha T u am Sn a dnu s ali v. hhD. adC .ww n uuumu .l dav n w emu .ns a fim nm l e F a wmm v fll o Tm C I man-G d eO nn n 3 8 n v w mmm S I d r l. mm m n fl O W k.- b ea ob mmemfl ma pom r b m mCimdvC 945 704 mu 5 3 6M2 SE, 2 6 ..3 5 2 W n/ 2 T "5 MA mm" G mm. 3 Ht e 6 WWW M e an T u m Huh 8 ac D "M E ..8 "H T -.S l m N Cm U d 5nd UI .F 1]] l. 2 8 6 555 5 [.ll

jointery to form a rigid unitary structure. In a variation S .t c mmwmm b v, mod- C! O e m m m u s m grn dn am nah" n flak O n 0.] .m ru b" w m fi wo m a u c c 0 e n me n 8 tmsrn n 0& e i .I "I tswa on 1| uaemm wfimlv nda ..l omhm m aC m W m ere mb a mam m Mm m v-l faa mu ohnsb 696 66 QZHZQQ 252522 5.5 55

m M M u" "r e u w ia hn km am? R mccwwm a co LWZLWM 295690 335667 999999 HHHHH 4 83 223584 647603 648720 85986 22333 the aforementioned construction elements are also disclosed.

431,023 8/1967 Switzerland............MW ..52/236 3 Claims, 25 Drawing Figures Primary Examiner-John E. Murtagh lllll si eaagl wnasmaws WNW-Mm 15 ms SHEEI INDUSTRIALIZED BUILDING CONSTRUCTION This application is a continuation of Application Ser. No. 80,641 filed Oct. 14, 1970, now abandoned, which Application Ser. No. 80,641 was filed as a continuation in part of Application Ser. No. 807,217 filed Mar. 14, 1969, now abandoned.

The present invention relates to an industrialized building system and particularly relates to a construction system employing generally Channel shaped elements and elongated slabs which are uniquely formed and assembled to provide a substantial and varied degree of design flexibility. The system is equally adaptable, for example, to business or office buildings, residential buildings such as apartments, dormitories, etc., institutional buildings such as schools, hospitals, or any other construction calling for a plurality of separate internal units.

In the aforementioned copending application, Ser. No. 807,217, there is disclosed an industrialized building system employing building elements in the form of modified Tee and Channel shaped members which are erected and interconnected in a new and improved manner. This system, hereinafter referred to as the Tee and Channel System provides substantially improved industrialized construction with a degree of structural and architectural flexibility vastly beyond that obtainable with heretofore known techniques. The construction system disclosed in the present specification is a variation of and complementary to the aforementioned Tee and Channel system.

In the present invention, unique combinations of Channel shaped elements, either of simple U-shaped cross section, or having a modified cross section with transversely extending flanges, are provided alone or in combination with elongated slab members in an industrialized construction system complementary to the Tee and Channel System, and having special advantages under certain circumstances.

As explained in the aforementioned application, Ser. No. 807,217, current practice in concrete construction generally involves poured in place column-and-slab techniques or skeletonized construction employing a framework of steel girders as a support for precast concrete members.

These construction techniques possess significant disadvantages. For example, all are quite time consuming and require fabrication and erection of a great number of diverse elements. Inherent low dimensional tolerance and other inflexibilities require involved and expensive plumbing, electrical, heating and air conditioning work after the building is partially completed. Of course, the entire interior wall structure must be erected and finished separately, further increasing the cost and time involved in the project.

As a result of these known difficulties, intensive effort has been made over several decades to mechanize or otherwise improve the techniques of building construction. In most of the systems which have evolved, the construction elements are precast at a remote prefabrication site. Separately precast wall, ceiling and floor elements, or even entire rooms are preformed in a factory and brought to the construction site for erection.

Such modular-type construction possesses many theoretical, economic and technical advantages. Yet in practice, many problems typical of conventional construction remain unsolved. For example, effective integration of the basic structure with mechanical, electrical, etc. subsystems has not been achieved, costs remain high, and in general the economic and other realities of the American construction industry have not been taken into account in a satisfactory manner. Moreover, proposed systems utilizing precast or preformed modular type units are severely limited in flexibility of design from both functional and aesthetic viewpoints.

Because of remote fabrication, large storage areas adjacent to the fabrication plants and building sites are necessary. Additionally, when the precast or preformed units are assembled, the large number of pieces requires considerable finishing. For example, in the case of precast concrete units, much time is consumed in welding, grouting, and calking of the modules. Often the precast parts must be partially destroyed and therafter repaired in the course of installation of the electrical, mechanical and plumbing subsystems.

As a result, the known modular-type construction systems fail to provide the anticipated reduction in costs, labor, construction time, etc. Of equal importance, such known modular-type units lack the functional versatility and flexibility in building design necessary to justify the substantial capital investment in equipment, etc. required for the use of these systems.

The need for improvements has become acute, and even critical with growing demands for low cost mass produced high quality housing. Yet even these demands, and concommitant federal and other financial assistance has heretofore failed to stimulate success.

The Tee and Channel System disclosed in the aforementioned copending Ser. No. 807,217, eliminates or minimizes the above discussed and other shortcomings of heretofore proposed building systems and provides an entirely new concept of building construction.

A broad spectrum of building designs can be achieved with the Tee and Channel geometry by variously juxtaposing the two basic elements and variations thereof. For example, by disposing a pair of Tees in side-by-side relation with adjoining flanges attached, the stems of the Tees form the oppositely disposed side walls of a cell and the attached flanges form a ceiling for the room. By locating a Channel adjacent to like ends of a plurality of laterally adjacent Tees, there is provided a hallway, and doorways can be provided through a leg of the Channel to afford access between the hallway and the various cells defined by the Tees. By superposition of the Tees, there is formed a plurality of superposed and laterally adjacent cells, with the stems of laterally adjacent Tees forming common walls between laterally adjacent cells. The flanges of the laterally adjacent Tees form common floors and ceilings for the superposed cells. Likewise, the Channels are superposed to form hallways, with the web portions of the superposed Channels forming common floors and ceilings for the hallways.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION In contrast to the foregoing, the present invention constitutes an alternative line of development in which the above described Tee shaped elements are not employed. Instead, only Channel shaped elements, as previously described, and interconnecting preformed or formed in place slabs are employed. According to the present invention, the Channel shaped members are erected in spaced vertical tiers, or ranks to form spaced vertical ranks of cells. Channel webs for a particular level of the building are interconnected by slabs which in turn define vertical ranks of cells between the Channels. Alternatively, each rank of cells may be erected with alternating slabs and Channels. Here the adjacent ranks are staggered, whereby slabs and Channels are respectively in diagonally adjacent relationship.

As in the Tee and Channel System, additional ranks of Channel elements may be located adjacent to one end of the ranks of Channels defining the cells to form corridors or hallways and elevator lobbies on each level of the multistory building. The corridors may be located centrally as well as peripherally of the building. Enlarged Channels members positioned on one end in abutting relation to the elevator lobbies are utilized as elevator towers, and communicate with the lobbies through doorways cut in the legs of the lobby Channels.

Likewise, as in the Tee and Channel System, the Channel elements in accordance with the present system are such that the height of the Channel legs are comparable to the height of an erect human, whereby the basic construction elements alone are employed to define the internal compartmentalization or cellular configuration of the building. correspondingly, the horizontal dimensions of the web portions of the Channels and interconnecting slabs are sufficient to provide cells and hallways without need of intervening like or different elements.

According to this invention, the slabs and Channels are preferably large enough to permit subdivision of the large cells for additional design flexibility. Even further flexibility may be achieved by provision of passages through the slabs, and through the webs and legs of the Channels, allowing construction of two story cellular units, or large one story units in which a Channel leg serves as an internal subdividing wall.

As a variation of the above, some or all of the U- shaped Channel members may be replaced by modified Channels having transversely extending flanges in coplanar relationship with the Channel webs. By juxtaposing the modified Channels in vertical tiers, additional functional and aesthetic variations may be achieved. As in the case of U-shaped Channels, intervening slabs may also be provided to increase the Channel to Channel spacing.

The Channel and slab elements are preferably formed of reinforced. and pre-lor post-stressed concrete in accordance with accepted practices in the precast concrete industry. However, it should be understood that a significant feature of the new practices disclosed herein is the direct adaptability to continuing advances in materials sciences and other related fields. For example, Portland cement, sand and/or gravel, may be mixed to produce conventional heavyweight con crete or lightweight foamed concrete. Alternatively, any other structurally suitable material may also be employed.

The Channel members are precast in properly shaped forms, preferably on the construction site. The forms are adjustable to provide variations in length, width, and height for the Channel elements in accordance with a particular building design. This also permits use of one form for the Channels forming the internal cells, as well as the hallways, the elevator lobbies, and the elevator tower. To facilitate use during cold weather, the forms preferably include heating apparatus to promote rapid curing of the concrete. After curing, the elements are stripped from the forms for immediate use. Cranes are provided at the construction site for lifting the finished elements from the forms and directly disposing the same in their final position in the building structure.

Preforming the construction elements at a remote plant is feasible, but location of the forms and other equpiment at the construction site eliminates hauling the preformed elements. Immediate use also eliminates the need for large storage areas either at the construction site or at a remote plant. Moreover, formation of the basic elements needed in the erection of the building eliminates concern for delivery schedules.

The forms are readily modified to provide additional components of the building structure as needed in a specific building design. For example, elongated L- shaped members are formed by blocking off one of the Channel legs and a portion of the base of the form. The L-shaped members are used primarily to close off end portions of the building where walls are not formed by Channel legs. Cell walls transverse to the Channel members may also be formed by the Lshaped members, with one leg forming the wall and the other leg forming the ceiling and floor portions of superposed hallways or balconies.

Flange forming portions may be provided on the Channel forms in coplanar relationship with the web forming portions if the modified Channel configuration mentioned above is to be utilized. Such flange forming portions are preferably made adjustable like the rest of the form so that flange width, as well as leg spacing (i.e., web width) may be adjustable over a wide range.

Electrical wiring and outlets are integrally cast with the slabs and Channels thus eliminating the need for later costly and time consuming installation. Alternatively, the electrical outlets may be subsequently surface mounted for example by utilizing pressure sensitive tape or by utilizing printed circuits on side or under wall or ceiling coating. Piping or ducting for heating, ventilating, air conditioning, or in the case of hospitals, oxygen, may also be integrally cast in the leg or web portions of the Channels, or along the juncture of the legs and the web. Voids in the leg or web portions of the Channels may be provided for the same purpose.

Precast facade panels at the ends of the Channels may also be provided. Vertically extending ducts may be formed in the facades communicating with the longitudinally extending ducts in the Channels or directly opening into the space behind the facade. The vertical ducting may run the full height of the building. Suitable vent openings in communication with the ducts are formed with the member is cast to provide circulation into the various cells and hallways.

Like the Tee and Channel System, and important feature of this invention is the ready adaptability to a systemized approach to subsystem installation. This means that heating, ventilation, air conditioning and plumbing layouts may be preplanned for maximum speed and ease of installation without fear that low dimensional tolerance or other inaccuracy in the casting of the construction elements will cause difficulties during subsystem assembly. Moreover, certain prefabrication techniques known in modular construction have been adapted to use in the present system whereby complete plumbing subassemblies may be preassembled at ground level on the construction site and lifted into place immediately upon erection of the associated structural components.

Also like the Tee and Channel system, the construction disclosed herein produces significant savings in time, labor space and expense. For example, in a multistoried building, the Channels forming the elevator lobbies are first poured and erected to form a plurality of 5 superposed elevator lobbies. The elevator tower is next poured and vertically positioned on one end adjacent the previously erected elevator lobbies. The elevator structure is then complete and ready to be turned over to the mechanical trades for elevator runway rail installation. After the foregoing has been completed, individual vertical ranks or tiers of cells are preferably constructed up to the entire height of the building before the next tier or sets of tiers are begun.

According to one aspect of the invention, after the elevator core has been erected, a plurality of Channels are superposed in four spaced ranks, two on each side of the elevator core, extending transversely tothe longitudinal axis of the elevator lobbies. As the spaced ranks are being erected, a succession of precast slabs are inserted in coplanar abutting relationship with the webs of the Channels at a given level to form another two ranks or vertical tiers of cells between the two pairs of ranks formed by the superposed Channels. Alternatively, the slabs may be poured in place as the vertical erection of adjacent Channels proceeds.

As a further alternative, the entire height of the spaced ranks of Channels may be completed before placement of the intervening slabs commences. The latter actually represents one important significant feature of this invention in that it permits placement of a tower crane or similar lifting apparatus in the space between the ranks of Channels being erected. This is especially useful in some instances, and may in fact be critical where substantially 100 percent of the construction site is to be occupied by the building being erected.

Yet another alternative involves erection with juxtaposed ranks of Channels having Slabs and Channels in both vertical and horizontal alternation. Slabs are therefore both horizontally and vertically adjacent to Channels and vice versa. Such an arrangement will here be denoted as a diagonally adjacent relationship.

Irrespective of which of the foregoing approaches is taken. the Channels forming hallways in addition to the elevator lobbies are formed and erected one over the other in endwise registry with the elevator lobbies as the vertical erection proceeds. Thereafter, additional cells in vertical ranks or sets of ranks are erected on one or both sides of the hallways according to the building design with each rank or set of ranks being fully erected before the next rank is begun.

The above described erection procedure for the ranks of Channels and Slabs progresses toward one end of the building from the central elevator region or from one end toward the other when a central elevator configuration is not employed. The foundation and related work may immediately precede the erection of the ranks of Channels etc. This provides adequate operating room for cranes as well as minimizing construction time. Moreover, as soon as the first sets of adjacent ranks of Slabs and Channels are erected, the finishing trades may enter the practically completed portion of the building to commence their work. Thus, the finishing work follows closely behind the erection of the building structure effecting further savings in construction time and craftsmen are not endangered because of construction taking place above them.

If construction commences at the center, effecting further savings in construction time after one end of the building is completed, additional ranks of hallways and cells are constructed outwardly from the elevator core assembly toward the opposite end of the building. In this manner, the total erection is accomplished in an orderly, safe and efficient manner with a minimum expenditure of time and money.

The system disclosed herein provides an excellent complement to the Tee and Channel System disclosed in copending application Ser. No. 807,217. Like the Tee and Channel System, the present system is adaptable to a wide variety of functional and aesthetic demands. For example, buildings of circular or polygonal shape having a wide variety of other configurations may readily be constructed. In addition, because the ranks of Channels may be erected in spaced relationship without concurrent erection of the intervening rank of slabs, placement apparatus and other equipment necessary for use in construction may temporarily be located in the spaces between the ranks being erected thereby conserving space on the construction site. As mentioned above, this would be particularly advantageous where substantially the entire construction site is to be occupied by the building.

Another particular advantage of the system disclosed herein is the high level of stability of the individual Channel shaped elements. This facilitates superposition during erection and combined with the advantageous load bearing characteristics of the Channel configuration, simplifies construction for ultra high rise buildings or skyscrapers" i.e., buildings of 20 stories or more in height.

Accordingly, it is a primary object of the present invention to provide a novel cellular industrialized building system and method providing optimum flexibility in building design, fully responsive to current demands for mass produced, low cost, high quality housing, and complementary to the system disclosed in copending US. Patent Application Ser. No. 807,217.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a novel industrialized building system and method utilizing only two basic shapes with certain modifications for forming both the structural components and main partition walls, floors, and ceilings of buildings.

It is still another object of the present invention to provide a novel industrialized building system and method which minimizes costs, construction time, space and labor.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide an industrialized building system and method for multi-level buildings utilizing basic Slab and Channelshaped elements for forming cells, hallways, elevator lobbies, and elevator tower assemblages.

It is another object of the present invention to provide such an industrialized building system and method employing modified Channel shaped elements having a pair of legs and an interconnecting web and transversely extending flanges coplanar with the Channel web.

It is also an object of the present invention to provide an industrialized building system utilizing laterally spaced vertical ranks or tiers of Channel shaped elements connected by ranks or tiers of Slab elements to form a building characterized by plurality of superposed and laterally adjacent cells. It is a related object to provide an array of laterally adjacent cells having common walls formed by the legs of a Channel with superposed cells having common floors and ceilings defined by the interposed slabs and by the webs of the laterally adjacent Tees. It is a related object to provide such an array of cells having passageways through the slabs and/or Channels to provide multi-storied and multi-roomed cells.

It is an additional object of this invention to provide a precast concrete construction system employing precast Channel shaped elements erected in vertical tiers with interleaved slab elements. It is a related object of this invention to provide such a construction system in which the Channel elements and the slab elements are respectfully in diagonally adjacent relationship.

It is another object of this invention to provide a construction system as described above in which the Channel shaped elements are formed of a pair of spaced legs connected by a web member with a pair of transversely extending flanges in coplanar relationship with the web portion of the Channel.

It is still a further object of the present invention to provide an industrialized building system utilizing Channel shaped elements superposed one over the other to form a rank of superposed hallways and/or elevator lobbies with the web portions of the Channels forming a common ceiling and floor of next adjacent superposed hallways and/or elevator lobbies.

It is another object of this invention to provide an industrialized building construction utilizing modified Channels and/or L-shaped elements to form an array of cells, and an interconnecting network of hallways.

It is yet another object of this invention to provide an industrial construction system utilizing interconnected slates and channels and/or L-shaped elements in combination with an industrialized approach to installation of electrical, plumbing and heating subsystems.

A further object of this invention is to provide a method of constructing a building formed of slabs and Channel elements which minimizes construction time and space requirements and provides for concurrent assemblage of the structural components. exterior walls and primary interior partition walls. A related object is to provide such a construction method which is fully compatible with electrical, mechanical, and plumbing subsystems thereby resulting in a completely integrated and self consistent approach to mass produced and systematized high quality low cost construction.

These and further objects and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent upon reference to the following specification, claims, and appended drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective view, with portions in exploded juxtaposition, illustrating a building constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary top plan view thereof;

FIGS. 3 and 4 are enlarged cross-sectional views thereof taken about on lines 3-3 and 4-4 respectively in FIG. 2;

FIG. 5 is a side elevational view of a Channel em ployed in the building construction illustrated in FIG. 1 withparts broken away for ease of illustration;

FIG. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary cross-sectional view showing the interconnection of a slab with a pair of spaced channels;

FIG. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary cross-sectional view illustrating the joint between the leg of a channel and an underlying channel as well as the lateral joint formed between a laterally disposed channel and a channel end;

FIG. 8 is an enlarged fragmentary horizontal crosssectional view taken on line 88 of FIG. 7;

FIGS. 9A 9C are fragmentary perspective views of a plurality of channels illustrating alternative end facade configurations;

FIGS. 10 13 are schematic perspective illustrations of the method of constructing the building illustrated in FIG. 1 hereof, the figures showing the sequence of assembly steps with the final structure being illustrated in FIG. 1;

FIG. 14 is a fragmentary enlarged perspective view illustrating a further form of building construction hereof utilizing channel and slab construction with integrally formed heating and air conditioning ducts;

FIG. 15 is a perspective view illustrating another form of the channel and slab construction hereof;

FIG. 16 is a fragmentary perspective view illustrating a cored channel construction useful in the building construction hereof;

FIGS. 17 and 18 are fragmentary cross-sectional views illustrating superposed channels and adjacent slabs with vertical and horizontal post tensioning techniques applied;

FIG. 19 is a plan view ofa building constructed in arcuate form utilizing the channel and slab construction hereof;

FIG. 20 is a front elevational view of the building il' lustrated in FIG. 19;

FIG. 21 is a cross-sectional view thereof taken about on line 2l-2l in FIG. 19;

FIG. 22 is a fragmentary perspective view of another form of channel and slab construction hereof illustrating channels and slabs in diagonally adjacent relation and modified channels forming the building ends; and

FIG. 23 is a fragmentary plan view of another form of channel hereof.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION As noted above, the systematized industrialized building construction system of the present invention employs two basic element configurations, the slab and the Channel. In various arrangements and configurations as hereinafter amplified, the slabs and Channels are utilized in all of the constructions according to this invention. Several different constructions following the basic principles of the invention are shown and described herein.

The two basic elements are illustrated in perspective in FIG. I. The first element is an elongated rectangular slab such as that denoted 2. The other basic element is a channel such as 4 having legs 6 and 8 and a web 10. Channel 4 is utilized to form the floors, ceilings and walls of the cells comprising the buildings as further amplified below. Other channels such as those denoted 12, 14, and 16 serve to form hallways, elevator lobbies, and the elevator tower respectively. The elements in their various assemblages provide both structural support for the building and the exterior facades and interior partition walls.

Of special significance is the fact that the Channels constituting the primary building blocks of the system are of such dimensions that the Channel elements themselves form full sized side and end walls, floors and ceilings of cells such as halls comprising a building without the need for further components. In other words, the slabs and Channels are of a minimum height, width, and length sufficient to comprise the structual walls dividing the building into separate units, together with connecting hallways and the like suitable for human occupancy and/or movement. Also, the slabs are provided to form common floors and ceilings between adjacent superposed cells, as hereinafter described, with a length and breadth extending between the side and end walls of the cells.

Referring now specifically to FIGS. 1-4, there is illustrated a multi-story building erected utilizing one basic slab and Channel construction of the present invention, the method of construction of this building being described hereinafter. Particularly, the building, generally designated 18, is formed on a foundation including, for example, a plurality of pilings (HO. 3), and a foundation floor or slab 22, constructed in the usual man ner, and having a plurality of upstanding columns 24 arranged in a manner compatible with the slab and Channel construction system as amplified below. Columns 24 may be precast or poured in place, concrete or steel columns may be employed as desired, the columns extending vertically to provide support for a sub or first floor of building 18 as well as for the assembly of slab and Channel elements which form the remainder of the building upwardly from from the sub or first floor. The column type construction illustrated is employed for example to provide an enlarged lobby and- /or parking area in the specific building illustrated. This type of structure may also occur at the top or any intermediate level of the building.

Building 18 of FIG. 1 essentially comprises four functional elements; elevator lobbies E.L., and elevator tower T, hallways H connecting with the elevator lobbies, and a plurality of internal cells C off the hallways and elevator lobbies. These elements are formed solely of the two basic components of the present construction system, i.e., preformed slabs and Channels.

To form elevator lobbies, E.L., a plurality of preformed Channels 14 are stacked one on top of the other to form a rank of superposed Channels with the legs thereof in vertical alignment. Elevator tower T is formed by an elongated Channel 16 preferably having an enlarged width disposed on its end on a previously prepared elevator pit E.P. (See FIG. 3). Channel 16 is erected so that its legs 16a and 16b abut the sides of the stacked Channels 14 forming the elevator lobbies E.L. Openings are provided through the legs of the stacked Channels 14 into the vertically extending Channel 16 to provide access to one or more elevator cabs later to be installed within the elevator tower.

Hallways H are formed of a plurality of vertically aligned elongated Channels 12 extending longitudinally from the open ends of the elevator lobbies E.L. As illus trated in FIGS. 1 and 3 the width of hallway Channels 12 is less than that of elevator lobby Channels 14, whereby the elevator lobbies are wider than the adjacent hallways. This is useful in certain instances, e.g., in hospitals, hotels, etc. to provide extra freedom of movement in the vicinity of the elevators. However, it should be understood that the elevator lobbies and hallways may be made of equal width simply by adjustment of the forms in which the Channel elements are cast.

Also, as previously noted, the height of the legs forming elevator Channels 14 and hallway Channels 12 is sufficient to provide the full wall height for each story of the building whereby stacking of the Channels and proper interconnection as explained below immediately results in a completed structure for the lobbies and hallways.

Internal cells C are formed by interconnection of a plurality of slab elements such as 2, and Channel elements like 4 illustrated in FIG. 1. The slabs and Channels are superposed to form a plurality oflaterally adjacent ranks or tiers of cells. In the illustrated construction, the Channels and slabs forming cells C directly abut the hallways, elevator lobbies and the web elevator tower Channel 16. The spaced legs of the Channels form sidewalls for adjacent cells such as C, C in FIG. 1 while the legs of the hallway or elevator lobby Channels 12 and 14 form third interior walls for the cells. Doorways are preformed in the legs of the hallway and Channels to provide access between the hallways and the cells.

It will be appreciated that the legs of the superposed Channels illustrated in the construction of FIG. 1 lie in respective vertical alignment and thus serve as basic structural components of the building. Accordingly, the foundation columns 14 for the building illustrated in FIG. 1 are arranged in spaced laterally extending column lines to provide underlying structural support for the legs of the channels forming the sidewalls of the cells C, the hallways H, and the elevator lobbies E.L.

The Channels and slabs may be formed of conventional heavyweight concrete. Regular or quick setting concrete formulations may be used. Low density aerated or foamed concrete, such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,062,669 dated Nov. 6, l964 or U.S. Pat. No. 3,144,346 dated Aug. ll, 1964 may be employed. The disclosures of the foregoing patents are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety as though fully set forth herein. The foregoing materials are generically denoted hereinafter as concrete, and the following description is written with specific reference to concrete materials. However, it will be understood that the slab and Channel elements can be formed of other materials. For example, the elements may be formed of molded or extruded reinforced plastic. The elements may also be formed by providing cores of foamed urethane or frameworks comprised of metal beams with sheet metal plates forming the skin for the foamed core or metal framework. Various other materials or combinations of materials may likewise be utilized as will become apparent to those skilled in the art.

For casting concrete Channel elements, suitably shaped forms of generally conventional nature may be employed. As a further alternative, prestressed concrete extrusion techniques may also be employed.

Referring now to FIG. 5, there is shown an elongated preformed Channel element 4 constructed in accordance with the present invention and comprising a web portion 10 having a pair of legs 6 and 8. To provide sufficient strength, Channel 4 is, in one form, cast with a plurality of integral longitudianlly spaced, inverted L- shaped reinforcing rods 30. Rods 30 extend vertically within legs 6 and 8 and are bent at their upper ends to extend within a part of Channel web 10. For short buildings, wire reinforcing mesh 32 is provided throughout legs 6 and 8 and through the web portion 10 in lieu of the reinforcing bars.

For forming doorways through the sidewalls of cells C, hallways H, or elevator lobbies E.L., i.e., doorways through the legs of the associated channel, a plurality of door bucks may be integrally cast in openings in the Channel legs 34 (FIG. 4) at selected positions therealong in accordance with the building design. As seen in FIG. 5, longitudinally extending reinforcing bars 36 are provided along lower edge portions of legs 6 and 8.

When the Channels are cast of concrete material, the legs 6 and 8 may be tapered to facilitate removal of the Channel from its form. However, it should be understood that legs having a constant width throughout their height can be formed and that either tapered or constant width legs may be utilized.

Various supports and connectors are carried by the Channels for respectively carrying the building load and connecting the Channels one to the other in a particular building design. Supports, generally indicated at 38, are provided at longitudinally spaced positions along the lower edge portions of legs 6 and 8. The supports are cast integrally with the Channels, and protrude outwardly into rectangular cutouts or recesses 40.

With reference to FIG. 7, supports 38 each comprise an elongated plate 42, welded or otherwise secured to the upper end of a vertically extending cylindrical coupler 44. Coupler 44 is internally threaded to receive a bolt 46 about which is threaded a lock washer 48 and lock nut 50 whereby bolt 46 can be threaded into and locked in selected axial positions relative to coupler 44. A bolt head 52 is located on the lower end of bolt 46. The extension of bolts 46 from coupler 44 within recesses 40 provide access to bolt head 52 and lock nut 46 from either side of legs 6 and 8 during construction of the building as amplified below.

Referring still to FlGS. and 7, a plurality of angle brackets 54 are formed at longitudinally spaced positions along the upper lateral edge portions of Channel 4. The upper flanges 56 of brackets 54 lie flush with the upper face of web and their side flanges 58 are flush with the side faces of the associated legs 6 and 8. Brackets 54 are welded to reinforcing rods, not shown, which extend transversely between the brackets 54 on opposite sides of the Channel.

As an illustrated example of the dimensions of the Channels employed in the construction of the building illustrated in FIG. 1, the channels may be about 12 ft. 8 in. wide between opposite legs and about 7 ft. 1 l in. in height from the lower edge of the legs to the underfaces of the webs. The width of a room formed by a Channel would therefore be about 12 ft. with each leg having a preferred thickness which concrete material is utiilized of about 4 inches. The thickness of the channel webs are also preferably about 4 inches when concrete material is utilized, and when a l inch layer of grout is disposed between the vertically aligned Channels as noted below, provide a room or cell height of 8 ft. The Channel may have an overall length of about 35 ft. in the illustrated building construction and may be longer or shorter depending upon the particular building design. The slabs 2 which are interposed between spaced adjacent Channels may be of equal length and width as the Channel or greater or lesser in width as the Channel to form larger or smaller cells between adjacent Channels. Also, for rooms or cells of like width as the Channels, the slabs may be reduced somewhat in width depending upon their connection with the adjacent slabs.

In utilizing the Channels to form hallways for the building illustrated in FIG. 1, the legs of the hallway Channels are of the same height as the Channels, i.e. 7 ft. 1 1 in., plus a 1 inch layer of grout between vertically aligned Channels as explained below. When formed of concrete material, the web portion 10 has a preferred thickness of about 4 inches providing an overall hallway or Channel height of about 8 ft. 4 in. The web and wall thicknesses may vary depending upon the height of the building and the width of the Channel. The hallway Channel is preferably about 6-8 feet wide. The thicknesses of the Channel legs may taper from about 7 inches adjacent the juncture with the web portion 10 to about 4 inches at their lower edges. The Channels may be formed in lengths of approximately 40 feet with the particular length utilized depending upon the particular building design. The doorways provided in the legs of the Channels are preferably 5 feet or less in width, and 6-8 feet in height. In the building construction illustrated in FIG. 1 utilizing slab and Channel elements having the foregoing dimensions, a typical Channel formed to the foregoing dimensions and of similar material weighs about 1,320 pounds per lineal foot. The elevator tower, 10 ft. 8 in. in width, weighs about 1,5 l 3 pounds per lineal foot.

It will be understood that the foregoing is offered not by way of limitation on the various dimensions and weights of the elements forming the slab and Channel elements, but only as exemplary of their use as full sized components of the building illustrated in FIG. 1. The dimensions may be changed as desired in accordance with various building designs, for example, the designs illustrated in FIGS. l5, l9 21 and 22 described hereinafter. The width and height of the Channels may also be altered to provide larger cells, hallways, or elevator lobbies, and, as noted previously, the width of a Channel element can be modified to form elevator tower T. It will be further appreciated that the lengths of the various slabs and Channels as well as other dimensions may be changed in accordance with a particular building design.

Referring back to FIG. 1, it will be recalled that the Channels are disposed in spaced lateral juxtaposition with slabs therebetween, the legs of each Channel forming the oppositely disposed side walls of a cell defined therebetween with the legs of each pair of adjacent Channels forming the oppositely disposed side walls of a cell therebetween. The webs of such Channels form common ceilings and floors for the vertically superposed cells formed by the individual Channels while the slabs form common ceilings and floors for the cells formed by each pair of spaced next adjacent Channels. In an embodiment hereof, the slabs 2 are precast to a width slightly smaller than the width between adjacent channels as to provide spaces for joining the slabs to the channels along its opposite side edges. Also, the slabs are precast with a plurality of transversely extending reinforcing rods 60 disposed therein and extending beyond the lateral edges of the slab. When this form of construction is utilized, the transverse reinforcing rods in the web 10 of the Channels are disposed such that their ends extend beyond the sides of the Channels. When the precast slab is disposed between adjacent Channels, the slab and Channels are joined to one another by poured-in-place concrete 64 along each side of the slab with the concrete joint thus forming a continuation of the slab. Alternatively, the slabs can be formed by conventional pouredin-place concrete with suitable forms being constructed after the spaced adjacent channels are positioned.

Referring back to FIG. 1, it will be recalled that the Channels are superposed one over the other with the respective legs 6 and 8 lying in vertical alignment to support the aggregate compressive load of the structure. Referring to FIG. 7, the lower edge of each superposed leg is spaced from the upper face of underlying channel along a corresponding edge with the supports 38 and plates 54 providing a temporary load bearing connection. At each support 38, the bolt 46 is threaded within its coupler 42 and locked by lock washer and nut 48 and 50, respectively, such that the head 52 of bolt 48 extends below the lower edge of the channel leg.

When a Channel is placed in position, the bolt heads 52 register vertically with and bear against the plates 54 of the underlying Channel. The bolt heads 52 are tack welded to plates 54 to provide a temporary connection with access to the weld joints from either side of the superposed Channels being provided through recesses 40.

After the supports 38 are properly adjusted and tack welded. a layer of grout 70 preferrably about 1 inch thick is dry packed in the space between the undersurface of the legs and the upper edges of the underlying Channel. Then, with the grout providing a support for the weight of the upper Channel, the tack weld between plate 54 and bolt head 52 may be broken and the bolt 46 backed off slightly to transfer the entire weight of the Channel to grout layer 70. Recesses 40 are then completely packed with grout to seal off support 38 and to provide a finished appearance for the channel to channel connection. The superposed channels are thus anchored vertically with the plates 54 and the dry packed grout distributing the load of the bolt heads 52. This avoids undue load concentrations and cracking and/or chipping of the concrete material. It will be appreciated that the Channels forming the cells, hallways and elevator lobbies are superposed and interconnected as previously described.

The connection between the ends and sides of the Channels, for example, when a Channel forms a hallway for the rooms formed by channels angularly disposed in relation to the hallway channels, i.e., as normally disposed in the construction of FIG. 1. Here, plates 72 are welded to overlie the ends of support plates 74 spaced transversely along the end portion of the cell forming channel and the brackets 54 spaced along the side of the hallway forming Channel. Plates 74 carry rods 76 whereby the plates 74 are secured to the Channels. At the cell to hallway or lobby Channel connections, plates 74 also provide support for the superposed channels in a manner as previously described with respect to brackets 54. The joint there formed is completed by grout as before upon erection of the overlying channel.

The procedure for erecting a building such as illustrated in FIG. 1 hereof, utilizing the slab and Channel system is best understood from reference to FIGS. -13. In FIG. 10, there is illustrated schematically the initial stages of construction wherein the pilings have been set in place and an initial concrete floor slab S and elevator pit E.P. have been poured and allowed to achieve about 40% design strength, e.g. about 3 days. These phases of construction are conventional, and it should be understood that other types of foundations may be employed as necessary or desirable in accordance with local soil conditions, etc.

As an initial step in providing the Tee and Channel building construction hereof and with particular reference to FIG. 10, four colums 78a-78d are erected on the foundation adjacent the elevator pit HP. in vertical alignment with pilings below the slab 8 (see FIG. 3) to provide column support for the superposed elevator lobbies as below-amplified. Columns 78a-78d may be steel, or precast or poured in place concrete. Note that the columns are spaced both longitudinally and laterally in accordance with the respective length and width of the elevator lobbies. A plurality of steel, or precast or poured in place concrete beams 80 are located on top of columns 78a-78d. The beams and columns may be connected by weld plates or by suitable poured in place concrete jointery. A concrete floor slab 82, either precast or poured in place, is located within the column supported beam layout to provide a floor for the first elevator lobby Channel.

Referring next to FIG. 11, a plurality of precast Channels 84a-84c are lifted into place, e.g. by means of cranes to form a rank of elevator lobbies E.L. This affords early access to the subsequently erected elevator tower for installation of the pre-assembled elevator cab, equipment room floor, controls and rails. As each Channel is lifted into place, it it tack welded, and then finally secured to the underlying Channel in the manner previously described with reference to FIG. 7. Channels 840-840 may be poured the previous day, or earlier, and retained in the forms pending use. Actually for sufficiently long forms, e.g. as used in pouring the elevator tower Channels, all three lobby Channels 84a84c may be poured in a single form. Longitudinally spaced bulkheads would be used to divide the form into sections of the proper length,

To assure adequate resistance to lateral loadings, such as wind loading for the elevator tower later to be erected the height of the initially erected elevator lobbies should be at least 40% and preferably about 60% of the height of the tower. Thus, for a 40 foot tower, preferably two or even three Channels should be erected initially. The remaining Channels forming additional elevator lobbies may be erected later as described below. Alternatively, the elevator tower may be post tensioned to the foundation whereby prior erection of the channel shaped elevator lobbies is not required.

Concurrently with the formation and erection of lobby Channels 840-84C, a plurality of additional columns are erected transversely along opposite sides of the columns 78a-78supporting the elevator lobbies 84a-84c. Five laterally extending column lines, each comprising four columns are erected spaced by the distance between the legs of the channels to provide lines of supporting columns for the Channels later to be erected. One such column line, comprising columns 782-7811 is shown at the left end of FIG. 11. Part of the adjacent column line including columns 78i, and 78j is also shown, along with the front columns 78k, 78! and 78m of the third, fourth and fifth column lines respectively. As in the case of columns 78a through 78d, the additional columns may be formed of steel, or precast or poured in place concrete.

Adjacent columns in a colum line, are connected together by a plurality of beams to support the weight of the slab and Channel elements later to be erected. Several beams are shown in FIG. I1, vis., beam 86a connecting columns 78g-78h, beam 86b connecting columns 78: and 78j, beam 86c connecting columns 78h and 781', etc. The beams are formed of steel, or precast or poured in place concrete and may be secured to the associated columns by welding or poured in place concrete jointery.

After the above described columns and beams have been erected and interconnected, a flooring 88 is either poured in place or assembled from precast slabs over the beam and column array. Flooring 88 is provided with a rectangular aperture 90 aligned with elevator pit E.P. to receive the elevator tower Channel which is now ready for erection.

Accordingly, as shown in FIG. 12, elevator tower I6 is lifted into position behind the elevator lobbies 840-840 and is lowered into place through aperture 90. Channel 16 is positioned vertically on its end and bears against the concrete facing at the top of previously prepared elevator pit E.P. with Channel legs 16a and 16b bearing against the back legs of elevator lobby Channels 840-840. Elevator tower Channel 16 is connected to elevator lobbies 84a-84c by suitable weld plates (not shown) provided along the edges of the tower Channel and the end edges of the lobby Channels.

If a single Channel form is used to pour both the elevator tower and the lobbies, the elevator tower Channel may be poured immediately upon removal of the lobby Channels 84a84c, cleaning and other necessary preparation of the forms. Alternatively, additional lobby Channels may be provided, then put aside temporarily pending use. Elevator tower Channel 16 may be cast as a single unit of sufficient length to extend the full distance from elevator pit E.P. to the top of the building. For taller buildings, one of more additional lengths of enlarged Channels may be provided.

After elevator tower 16 has been erected and secured, one or more additional lobby Channels such as 84d are erected to provide a complete rank of lobbies extending up to the full heights of the elevator tower.

A plurality of doorways 92 are preformed through both legs of the elevator lobby Channels 84a84d (FIG. 12). The doorways through the back leg form the elevator doorways for providing access between the elevator lobbies and the cabs of the elevators. The doorways through the front legs provide access to the building cells formed by the slab and Channel construction as described below.

Erection of the channels is shown in FIG. 12 with the first erected channel 94a being illustrated in final position with its legs being superposed on floor 88 over the column lines respectively starting with columns 781 and 78m. In FIG. 12, the second channel 96a is shown being lifted into place by a crane 98 and positioned on floor 88 with its legs above the column lines beginning with columns 78k and 781' respectively. The inner end of channel 960 abuts the front leg of Channel 84a. It will be appreciated that the inverted channel shape is inherently stable when the channels are disposed as illustrated and the partially completed building structure is thereby very stable during erection of the building. The inner end of channel 96 is secured to elevator lobby 84a in the manner shown and described in connection with FIG. 7.

Referring next to FIG. 13, additional laterally spaced channels are erected over floor 88 along similar column lines on the opposite, i.e., back side, of elevator tower l6 and along the rear side of the building, the channels butting the elevator tower 16 being suitably secured thereto. The channel abutting the elevator tower has a portion of its web and leg removed to provide a slot for receiving the rear corner of tower 16. After a pair of spaced channels have been formed and erected, i.e., channels 94a and 96a, the slab construction therebetween can be initiated. Particularly, a precast slab 100a can be disposed between channels 94a and 96a and connected thereto as described with respect to FIG. 6. Likewise, a slab can be disposed and joined between the first floor channels on the rear side of the elevator tower. As noted previously, the slabs can be poured-in-lace in lieu of using precast slabs.

As will be appreciated from the foregoing, construction of two ranks of channels with a slab therebetween on each side of the building has now begun. These ranks are now completed, one level at a time until the top of the building is reached. The time involved in removing the Channels and, slabs as applicable from the forms, lifting and interconnecting the elements is such that an entire level may be erected in a single day. Accordingly, to achieve best utilization of time, four separate channel forms and a pair of slab forms should be provided. The forms may be prepared and the concrete poured one day, and the next morning the forms may be stripped, and the two channels and slab on each side erected and interconnected. Finally, before work condludes that day, the forms may be cleaned and prepared, and four new channels and two slabs poured for erection the next day.

Although not illustrated, it should be appreciated that two channel forms and a slab form may be located on each side of the building, i.e., to the left and right in FIGS. l0-l3. One or preferably two cranes are used to lift the slab and Channel elements out of the respective forms and to position them for attachment to the adjacent elements, with the two cranes moving back and forth from one side of the building to the other as necessary, during erection. Alternatively, it should be understood that four cranes, two on each side of the building may be employed if desired and available. It will be appreciated that separate forms may be employed for casting the slabs or channel forms and can be utilized to form slabs by suitably blocking off the leg portions of the forms.

Still referring to FIG. 13, it should be noted that elevator tower l6 and the hereinafter described rank of hallways l02a-l02e cause a distortion in the longitudinal symmetry of the building. To accomodate this, the outline of the channel elements is varied as noted previously. Thus, to accomodate the fact that the rank of hallways will be erected in alignment with the front legs of elevator lobby Channels 84a-84d, channel element 104 and its underlying counterparts are cast in a modified configuration with a rectangular cutout 106 which engages with leg 16b of elevator tower 16. Likewise, slab I08 is also cast in a modified configuration with a rectangular cutout 110. These modifications of the slab and channel elements may readily be accomplished by blocking off portions of the slab and channel forms when the modified elements are being poured.

Still referring to FIG. 13, concurrently with the erection of the first ranks of slabs and channels, two additional column lines including columns 78n-78s and the associated beams are poured and appropriately interconnected in preparation to receive the overlying rank of hallways 1020-102d. The flooring 112 is poured on the beam and column array or precast to serve as the floor for the hallway defined by Channel 1020. Preferrably, the beam and column array and floor 112 are completed at least three days prior to erection of the rank of hallways l02al02d to allow the underlying structure to achieve at least about 40% of its ultimate design strength.

As soon as the column, beam and floor array underlying the hallways has reached its proper strength, erection of the rank of hallways may commence utilizing one of the channel forms for precasting the same. The hallway Channels may be erected substantially concurrently as the levels of channels are erected, the hallways being joined one to the other in the manner previously described.

As will be understood, the underlying beam and column array and the precast or poured in place flooring for a particular rank of Channels should be completed several days before erection of that rank of Channels to allow the underlying structure to obtain the desired strength. As a practical matter, the substructure for two ranks may be prepared at one time, although it should be recognized that early construction of too large a portion of the substructure may require that the assembly cranes be spaced undesirably far from the point of erection.

Accordingly, additional column lines together with the associated beams and flooring are then prepared. After these have reached about 40% of their ultimate design strength, the associated ranks of channels and slabs may be erected in the manner previously described. The channels and slabs are poured one day, allowed to set overnight, and are stripped from the forms and erected the next day thus providing expeditious construction.

The foregoing procedure continues with the substructure of columns, beams and flooring followed by the ranks of slabs and channels erected vertically until the end of the building has been reached. Note that the outer legs of the end channels form the outer building walls. Thus, the entire structure of the left side of the building has been completed. However, as shown in FIG. 13, the ends of the hallways l02a-102d as well as various portions of the first floor, i.e., below the slab and Channel construction remain uncompleted. Thus, as illustrated in FIG. 1, a plurality of precast end hallway facades ll4 may be provided for closing the hallway at the left hand end of the building. A stairway, preferably formed of precast slabs 116 and preformed stairs may be provided along the end of the building. The stairway may be enclosed, as for example, by a stair tower 118 in a form of a Channel positioned on end in the same manner as the elevator tower only with its leg foreshortened, As an alternative for providing precast slabs for stairs, the end edges of the hallway channel webs may be extended beyond the end edges of the legs. These extended or cantilevered end web portions then form the landings for the stairway.

At this point, construction on the opposite side of the building, i.e., on the right hand side in FIGS. 1 and 13 may commence. Prior to this, however, it is preferred to complete the erection and installation of the elevator equipment including the elevator cabs, the elevator equipment floor, and the elevator penthouse which can be accomplished in the manner set forth in my copending application Ser. No, 807,217 filed Mar. 14, 1969,

whereby all of the advantages attendant to completing the elevator structure prior to completion of the building also accrued to the present construction as set forth in that application.

Following installation of the elevator mechanism and penthouse, construction commences on the uncompleted half of the building. Construction proceeds in precisely the manner described for the first half of the building with one rank each of channels and slabs on each side of the elevator being constructed vertically to the full height of the building before the next rank of slabs and channels are commenced. Additional columns lines for supporting hallways together with the associated beams and slabs are pre-erected and al lowed to set for a sufficient time to achieve the desired percentage of design strength and a rank of hallways 102 are erected. Likewise, additional column lines along with the beam and floor structure is prepared to receive the ranks of slabs and channels on the right side of the building.

Then the ranks of slabs and channels forming the cells and the rank of channels forming the hallways proceeds as described for the left side of the building, and the ranks of slabs and channels on opposite sides of the building with the vertical erection of the succeeding opposed ranks until the desired longitudinal extent ofthe building has been reached. This completes the entire structural assembly of the building.

It will be noted that the webs of the channels forming the cells can be extended byond the end edges of the channel legs and this, with a concomitant extension of the slab between adjacent channel elements provides a cantilevered balcony with the cantilevered webs and slabs forming common floors and ceilings for superposed balconies. While it will be appreciated that the specific erection procedure described may be subject to some variation without substantial departure from the concepts hereof, it should be recognized that the basic approach, i.e., vertical erection outwardly from a central elevator core, possesses several distinct advantages. By this method, it is possible to erect the entire first half of the building and turn the same over to the finishing trades (and even to occupancy) during erection of the second half of the building. Actually, the carpenters, electricians, and painters may begin their work as soon as the first two pair of laterally adjacent ranks of Tees have been erected. In this way, the work of the finishing trades follows immediately behind the work of the erection trades thereby facilitating completion of the entire building very rapidly after the basic structural components have been erected. Likewise, as explained above, the elevator core comprising the tower and elevator lobbies may be quickly turned over to the elevator assembly trades so that the installation of the elevators may be rapidly completed.

While the foregoing constitutes the detailed description of the components employed in the industrialized building system of this invention, and the method of utilization thereof, it should be understood that the flexibility of this system is such as to permit wide and substantial variation in the type of buildings which may be constructed and in internal arrangement of the buildings.

The cells formed by the slab and Channel construction described may be provided with partition walls inset from the edge of the building to form private balconies. Likewise, it should be understood that internal partitions may also be provided. This may be by use of conventional stud and wall board construction, plastering, or in any other desired fashion. Doorways may be precast in the legs of a Channel to provide an enlarged cell having the leg as a central dividing wall. Passages through the web of a Channel may also be provided whereby stairways can be installed to form a cell having two or more levels.

Referring now to FIGS. 9A-9C, end facades generally indicated la-l20b in the respective FIGURES may be precast with the channels. In FIG. 9A, the facade 120a comprises an end wall structure formed to extend from the channel leg 8 toward the longitudinal centerline of the channel, thereby blocking off and forming an end wall for about one half of the width of the cell formed by the channel. In the form illustrated in FIG. 9B, the facade l20b is formed to extend on opposite sides of the channel leg 6 as to provide an end wall structure for a portion of the cell defined by the channel as well as an end wall structure for the portion of the cell defined by the illustrated channel, the adjacent slab and the next adjacent channel. In the form illustrated in FIG. 9C, a central facade 120C is formed to depend from the web 10 of the channel to provide a pair of end openings to the cell formed by the Channel. In each of the illustrated facade treatments, the openings left in the channel ends can be adapted for sliding doors, elongated windows, or otherwise treated as desired. The facades need not be structural and can be cast to a lesser thickness than the webs and legs of the channels. Also, the facades provide a decorous treatment of the external portion of the building as illustrated in FIG. 1.

Electrical conduits, outlets and fixtures may be precast in the slabs and Channels as previously noted. Also, heating ventilating and air conditioning ducts may also be precast in the slabs and Channels as desired.

Referring now to FIG. 14, and embodiment of the slab and channel construction hereof utilizing precast heating and ventilating ducts is illustrated. A pair of longitudinally extending ducts or passages 130 are integrally cast on opposite sides of the channel at the juncture of the channel legs with its web. The ducts may extend the full length of the channel with suitable openings I32 formed through the inner walls of the ducts at longitudinally spaced positions along the channel affording communication between the duct and the cell formed by the channel. As illustrated, openings 134 may also be provided through the legs 6 and 8 at longitudinally spaced positions along the channel affording communication between the duct and the cell formed by the spaced channels and the slab construction therebetween. Alternatively, ducting may extend only along one side of the channel with openings through its opposite sides and it need not extend the full length of the channel. The inner ends of the ducts 130 formed in the channels communicate through lateral openings 136 formed in the sides of the channels forming the hallways 102. The hallway channels are similarly constructed with ducts 138 extending lengthwise preferably for the full length of the hallways. It will be appreciated that vertically extending ducts can be formed in the legs of the channels, either in the hallway or the cell forming channels as desired to provide supply and return ducts between the cells on the various levels of the building and centrally located heating and air conditioning units.

As a further alternative and referring specifically to FIG. 23, there is illustrated a channel 133 having side walls 135 externally fluted as at 137. The flutes provide vertically extending recesses for receiving heating, ventilating and air conditioning ducts and also provide passages for plumbing. As will be appreciated, when the channels are superposed one over the other, the vertically extending flutes of the various superposed channel lie in vertical registry with one another whereby heating, ventilating, air conditioning and plumbing passages may be provided throughout the full vertical extent of the building. Alternatively or conjunctively, the underfaces of the webs of the channels may be likewise fluted with the passages defined thereby extending either longitudinally or transversely as desired. In either instance, conventional wallboard 139 may be applied to the channels to overlie the fluted portions of the legs or webs and provide a smooth wall surface.

As a further example of the versatility of the channel and slab construction hereof, there is illustrated in FIG. 15 channels formed to enlarged widths to provide enlarged cells. In this form, the transversely spaced channels are erected similarly as previously described with the elongated slabs 182 secured therebetween. In this form, a pair of channels are arranged in end to end relation on each level of the building to form elongated cells as the building design dictates. The rank of slabs disposed between the adjacent channels may form a hallway between the cells formed by the channels 180 at each level or another cell as desired. It will be appreciated that doorways are formed in the legs of the channels as previously described for access between the cells formed by the channels and those cells or hallways formed by the slab and channels.

Where cells of enlarged width or buildings of significant height, e.g. six or seven stories or greater are constructed, the overall weight of the concrete construction material becomes prohibitive as increasing web and leg thicknesses are required to support the greater weight. Accordingly, a variation of the present invention and per se useful for the Tee and Channel system ofmy application, Ser. No. 807,2 I 7 filed Mar. 14, 1969 as well as with the invention hereof provides for channels having voids or cores running either laterally through the webs or vertically through the legs or both as desired to minimize the weight of the entire structure. In fact, by properly sizing the cores or voids, channels having web and leg thicknesses about double the thickness of the web and legs of a specified channel can be formed with both channels having approximately the same weights. Accordingly, it has been found possible to extend the width of a particular channel to provide enlarged cells and/or concomitantly permitting the construction of multi-level buildings to increased heights. To accomplish this, channels may be formed as illustrated in FIG. 16 with cores I90 extending vertically through the legs at longitudinal spaced positions therealong. Alternatively, channels may be provided with cores or voids 192 extending transversely through the web 10 at longitudinally spaced positions along the length of the channel. As illustrated in FIG. 16, both vertically and horizontally extending cores or voids and 192 respectively may both be employed. In this form illustrated in FIG. 16, the vertically extending cores 190 are staggered with respect to the horizontally extending cores 192. Obviously, the vertical and transversely extending cores may be aligned one with the other and like longitudinal positions along the channel as desired.

The cored channel construction readily adapts the structure to post tensioning techniques vertically and- /or horizontally. Particularly, and referring now to FIGS. 17 and 18, there is illustrated a pair of superposed channels with a core through the superposed channel leg lying in vertical registry with the core through the underlying channel leg. To effect vertical post tensioning, an anchor plate, not shown, may be integrally cast in the floor beams at predetermined points therealong in alignment with the legs of the channels to be superposed thereon. A plurality of rods 196 may then be threaded into the threaded openings in the anchor plates to upstand from the beams a height slightly greater than the height of the channel to be set on the beams. The first level channel may then be disposed as previously described with the rods being received within the voids 190 in each of the channel legs. Alternatively the channel can first be disposed on the beams with the rods inserted downwardly through the voids and threaded from above the channels into the threaded openings of the anchors. To post tension the channel, bearing plates 198 are disposed over the rods and nuts 200 are threaded over the upper threaded ends of the rods. Suitable jacking apparatus now shown is then applied to the rods. After the appropriate tension is applied, the nuts 200 are tightened down against the bearing plates leaving the rods and concrete in a stressed condition.

To post tension the next level channel, a plurality of rods can then be threaded into the upper ends of nuts 200 to upstand from the first channel. The second channel is then superposed on the first channel as previously described with the rods being received in the voids of the legs thereof. Alternatively, the second channel can be disposed over the first with the rods being inserted through the voids from above the second channel for threaded engagement at their lower ends with nuts 200. A similar post tensioning procedure as previously described is applied with respect to the rods through the legs of the second channel. Subsequent channels are likewise post tensioned vertically with the result that each vertical rank of channels is post tensioned throughout its height. Alternatively, the post tensioning can be accomplished after the entire rank of channels is erected as access to the lower edges of each channel leg is available through the recess formed along the lower edges of the legs.

Each channel can also be horizontally post tensioned by utilizing the horizontally extending cores 190. Specifically, reinforcing rods can be inserted through the transversely extending cores 192 and anchored at one end. Suitable jacks may then be applied to the other end of the rods and after a predetermined tension has been applied, the rods anchored at the opposite end.

As yet further examples of the design flexibility afforded by the channel and slab construction hereof, an arcuately shaped building as viewed in plan may be constructed. Referring to FIGS. 19-21, there is illustrated a multi-story building construction comprised of a plurality of tiers or ranks of superposed channels 220 connected vertically one to the other in the manner previously described. In this form, however, the center lines of the channels 220 are arranged to lie on different radii of a circle having a large radius of curvature. The channels are also circumferentially spaced one from the other with the result that the legs of adjacent channels diverge one from the other from the front side of the building illustrated in FIG. 20 to the rear side thereof. Consequently, a plurality of cells alternately having parallel sidewalls formed by the legs of the individual channels and diverging sidewalls formed by the pairs of adjacent channels and slabs are provided. Thus, the channel forms need not be altered to form an arcuately shaped building. The sides of the forms for the slabs are, however, blocked off such that the edges of the slabs diverge one from the other to form the truncated pie-shaped sectors indicated at 22. The slabs are of course secured to the channels in the manner previously described. Alternatively, the channel forms can be altered to form truncated pre-shaped channels (not shown) in plan view with the opposite walls of the channel diverging one from the other.

It will be appreciated that various facing effects can be provided rather than the polygonal edge illustrated in FIG. 19 formed by the straight edges of the channels and slabs. For example, the channel forms can be blocked off to provide an are along the edge of the web portion with the slab forms being similarly blocked off to provide a continuation of such arc whereby a circular building in plan form can be provided. Alternatively, other types of facing configurations can be provided, for example, a scalloped effect.

It will be noted in this form that the upper level of channels and slabs are reduced in length as compared with the two lower level slab and channel constructions whereby the end portions of the webs of the channels in the second level and the end portions of the slabs in the second level form a balcony 224 for the third level cells, as particularly illustrated in FIG. 21.

A yet further example of the design flexibility afforded by the slab and channel construction hereof is the building construction illustrated in FIG. 22. In this embodiment, the first level channels and slabs are formed and interconnected in a manner as previously described in accordance with the overall building design. When constructing the second building level of slab and channel construction, rather than superpose the second level channel directly over the first level channel, the second level channel may be disposed to bridge the space between the channels in the first level. That is to say, the legs 230 and 232 of the second level channel may be superposed over the near legs 234 and 236 of a pair of underlying channels 238 and 240 respectively. The slabs 242 between the channels on the second level of the building would then overlie the web of the underlying channel whereby a diagonal relation ship is provided between the channels of adjacent levels and the slabs in adjacent levels. To complete the sides of the building in the construction illustrated in FIG. 22, a modified channel can be employed by blocking off one of the legs in the channel form to provide a substantially inverted L-shaped or modified channel element as illustrated at 244. This element can then be disposed similarly as a channel with its leg being superposed over the outermost leg of the underlying channel with the web portion joined to the adjacent channel on the same level similarly as a slab is joined to the channels as illustrated in FIG. 6. Thus, the basic slab and channel construction is maintained throughout the entire construction.

The invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The present embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being in dicated by the appended claims rather than by the fore going description, and all changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced herein.

What is claimed and desired to be secured by United States Letters Patent is:

l. A building construction for human occupancy having a plurality of superposed internal cells each including at least a floor, a ceiling, and a pair of oppositely disposed side walls, comprising:

a plurality of discrete enlongated channel-shaped elements forming portions of said cells and including first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth elements of said plurality of elements, each of said elements being precast of concrete material and having a web and a pair of legs integral with and extending substantially normal to said web along opposite sides thereof, the legs and web of each said element defining respective opposite wall and ceiling portions of a cell, the legs of each said element extending substantially the entire distance between the floor and ceiling of said cells sufficiently to at least accommodate a human being standing in an erect position on the floor of said cell and for a distance at least 7 feet, each of said elements having a length greater than the width thereof between said legs, said second channel-shaped element being superposed over said first channel-shaped element to form a pair of superposed cells with the legs of said second element lying in substantial vertical alignment with the respective legs of the underlying first element, the web of said first element forming a floor for the second cell defined by said second element, said fourth channel-shaped element being superposed over said third channel-shaped element to form a pair of superposed cells with the legs of said fourth element lying in substantial vertical alignment with the respective legs of the underlying third element, the web of said third element forming a floor for the fourth cell defined by said fourth element, said sixth channel-shaped element being superposed over said fifth channel-shaped element to form a pair of superposed cells with the legs of said sixth element lying in substantial vertical alignment with the respective legs of the underlying fifth element, the web of said fifth element forming a floor for the cell defined by said sixth element, the cells defined by said first, third and fifth elements lying at a common elevation while the cells defined by said second, fourth and sixth elements lie at a common elevation above the first-mentioned elevation, said third and fourth elements being angularly disposed relative to said first and second elements such that the end edges of the legs and webs of said third and fourth elements at like ends thereof lie in respective close juxtaposition with one of the legs of each said first and second elements on like sides thereof, means connecting the end of said fourth element to said second element and connecting the end of said third element to said first element, the one leg of each said first and second elements being superposed one over the other, the one leg of said first element having an opening providing for access between the adjacent cells formed by said first and third elements including through the end of said third element, the one leg of said second element having an opening providing for access between the adjacent cells of said second and fourth elements including through the end of said fourth element, said fifth and sixth elements being angularly disposed relative to said first and second elements such that the end edges of the legs and webs of said fifth and sixth elements to like ends thereof lie in respective close juxtaposition with said one leg of each said first and second elements, means connecting the end of said sixth element to said second element and connecting the end of said fifth element to said first element, said one leg of said first element having an additional opening providing for access between the adjacent cells formed by said first and fifth elements including through the end of said fifth element, and said one leg of said second element having an additional opening providing for access between the adjacent cells of said second and sixth elements including through the end of said sixth element.

2. A building construction according to claim 1 including seventh and eighth elements of said plurality of channel-shaped elements, said eighth channel-shaped element being superposed over said seventh channelshaped element to form a pair of superposed cells with the legs of said eighth element lying in substantial vertical alignment with the respective legs of the underlying seventh element, the web of said seventh element forming a floor for the cell defined by said eighth element, the cells defined by said seventh and eighth elements lying at respective common elevations with the cells defined by said first and second elements, said seventh and eighth elements being angularly disposed relative to said first and second elements such that the end edges of the legs and webs of said seventh and eighth elements at like ends thereof lie in respective close juxtaposition with said one leg of each said first and second elements, means connecting the end of said eighth element to said second element and connecting the end of said seventh element to said first element, the one leg of said first element having an additional opening providing for access between the adjacent cells formed by said first and seventh elements including through the end of said seventh element, the one leg of said second element having an additional opening providing for access between the adjacent cells of said second and eighth elements including through the end of said eighth element.

3. A building construction according to claim 1 including seventh and eighth elements of said plurality of channel-shaped elements, said eighth element being superposed over said seventh channel-shaped element to form a pair of superposed cells with the legs of said eighth element lying in substantial vertical alignment with the respective legs of the underlying seventh element, the web of said seventh element forming a floor for the cell defined by said eighth element, said seventh and eighth elements being angularly disposed relative to said first and second elements such that the end edges of the legs and webs of said seventh and eighth elements at like ends thereof lie in respective close juxtaposition with the other leg of each said first and second elements, means connecting the end of said eighth

Claims (3)

1. A building construction for human occupancy having a plurality of superposed internal cells each including at least a floor, a ceiling, and a pair of oppositely disposed side walls, comprising: a plurality of discrete enlongated channel-shaped elements forming portions of said cells and including first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth elements of said plurality of elements, each of said elements being precast of concrete material and having a web and a pair of legs integral with and extending substantially normal to said web along opposite sides thereof, the legs and web of each said element defining respective opposite wall and ceiling portions of a cell, the legs of each said element extending substantially the entire distance between the floor and ceiling of said cells sufficiently to at least accommodate a human being standing in an erect position on the floor of said cell and for a distance at least 7 feet, each of said elements having a length greater than the width thereof between said legs, said second channelshaped element being superposed over said first channel-shaped element to form a pair of superposed cells with the legs of said second element lying in substantial vertical alignment with the respective legs of the underlying first element, the web of said first element forming a floor for the second cell defined by said second element, said fourth channel-shaped element being superposed over said third channel-shaped element to form a pair of superposed cells with the legs of said fourth element lying in substantial vertical alignment with the respective legs of the underlying third element, the web of said third element forming a floor for the fourth cell defined by said fourth element, said sixth channel-shaped element being superposed over said fifth channel-shaped element to form a pair of superposed cells with the legs of said sixth element lying in substantial vertical alignment with the respective legs of the underlying fifth element, the web of said fifth element forming a floor for the cell defined by said sixth element, the cells defined by said first, third and fifth elements lying at a common elevation while the cells defined by said second, fourth and sixth elements lie at a common elevation above the first-mentioned elevation, said third and fourth elements being angularly disposed relative to said first and second elements such that the end edges of the legs and webs of said third and fourth elements at like ends thereof lie in respective close juxtaposition with one of the legs of each said first and second elements on like sides thereof, means connecting the end of said fourth element to said second element and connecting the end of said third element to said first element, the one leg of each said first and second elements being superposed one over the other, the one leg of said first element having an opening providing for access between the adjacent cells formed by said first and third elements including through the end of said third element, the one leg of said second element having an opening providing for access between the adjacent cells of said second and fourth elements including through the end of said fourth element, said fifth and sixth elements being angularly disposed relative to said first and second elements such that the end edges of the legs and webs of said fifth and sixth elements to like eNds thereof lie in respective close juxtaposition with said one leg of each said first and second elements, means connecting the end of said sixth element to said second element and connecting the end of said fifth element to said first element, said one leg of said first element having an additional opening providing for access between the adjacent cells formed by said first and fifth elements including through the end of said fifth element, and said one leg of said second element having an additional opening providing for access between the adjacent cells of said second and sixth elements including through the end of said sixth element.
2. A building construction according to claim 1 including seventh and eighth elements of said plurality of channel-shaped elements, said eighth channel-shaped element being superposed over said seventh channel-shaped element to form a pair of superposed cells with the legs of said eighth element lying in substantial vertical alignment with the respective legs of the underlying seventh element, the web of said seventh element forming a floor for the cell defined by said eighth element, the cells defined by said seventh and eighth elements lying at respective common elevations with the cells defined by said first and second elements, said seventh and eighth elements being angularly disposed relative to said first and second elements such that the end edges of the legs and webs of said seventh and eighth elements at like ends thereof lie in respective close juxtaposition with said one leg of each said first and second elements, means connecting the end of said eighth element to said second element and connecting the end of said seventh element to said first element, the one leg of said first element having an additional opening providing for access between the adjacent cells formed by said first and seventh elements including through the end of said seventh element, the one leg of said second element having an additional opening providing for access between the adjacent cells of said second and eighth elements including through the end of said eighth element.
3. A building construction according to claim 1 including seventh and eighth elements of said plurality of channel-shaped elements, said eighth element being superposed over said seventh channel-shaped element to form a pair of superposed cells with the legs of said eighth element lying in substantial vertical alignment with the respective legs of the underlying seventh element, the web of said seventh element forming a floor for the cell defined by said eighth element, said seventh and eighth elements being angularly disposed relative to said first and second elements such that the end edges of the legs and webs of said seventh and eighth elements at like ends thereof lie in respective close juxtaposition with the other leg of each said first and second elements, means connecting the end of said eighth element to said second element and connecting the end of said seventh element to said first element, the other leg of said first element having an opening providing for access between the adjacent cells formed by said first and seventh elements including through the end of said seventh element, and the other leg of said eighth element having an additional opening providing for access between the adjacent cells of said seventh and eighth elements including through the end of said eighth element.
US36277473 1970-10-14 1973-05-22 Industrialized building construction Expired - Lifetime US3894373A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US8064170A true 1970-10-14 1970-10-14
US36277473 US3894373A (en) 1970-10-14 1973-05-22 Industrialized building construction

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US36277473 US3894373A (en) 1970-10-14 1973-05-22 Industrialized building construction

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3894373A true US3894373A (en) 1975-07-15

Family

ID=26763754

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US36277473 Expired - Lifetime US3894373A (en) 1970-10-14 1973-05-22 Industrialized building construction

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3894373A (en)

Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
USRE29249E (en) * 1969-06-02 1977-06-07 Unicon Parking Structures, Inc. Precast concrete building construction
US4078345A (en) * 1972-12-29 1978-03-14 Pietro Piazzalunga Prefabricated building and method of making same
FR2400595A1 (en) * 1977-08-17 1979-03-16 Gestion Int Brevets Sa modular prefabricated element for constructions
US4211043A (en) * 1978-01-06 1980-07-08 Coday Jerry F Precast concrete building module form
US4724640A (en) * 1984-03-02 1988-02-16 Fred Patane Storage facility
EP0520084A1 (en) * 1991-06-27 1992-12-30 Eberhard Schrade Method and prefabricated module for the production of structures and buildings
US5491942A (en) * 1991-09-16 1996-02-20 Prokasky; Thomas W. Multi-story building construction employing prefabricated elements
US5829212A (en) * 1994-12-14 1998-11-03 J.H. Turkington & Sons (Contractors) Limited Blast-proof building
WO2000034593A1 (en) * 1998-12-07 2000-06-15 John Sergio Fisher Construction system for modular apartments, hotels and the like
WO2000049240A1 (en) * 1999-02-19 2000-08-24 Allen Bradford W Modular building construction
EP1063363A2 (en) * 1999-06-22 2000-12-27 Antonella Bigi System of prefabricated tunnel and portal elements and accessories made of structural light concrete for the total erection of 1 to 8 storey buildings for any use
US20050262778A1 (en) * 1999-02-19 2005-12-01 Allen Bradford W Modular building construction
CN100424312C (en) * 2006-05-29 2008-10-08 巴硕建筑设计咨询(上海)有限公司 Spatial hotel type rooming houses
US7581363B2 (en) * 2001-03-05 2009-09-01 Mawby Walter H Method for constructing a multistory building
US20090249708A1 (en) * 2005-11-28 2009-10-08 Flyport Development Entwicklungs Und Betreuungsgesellchaft Mbh Passenger Terminal Consisting of Mobile Room Units
US20120110928A1 (en) * 2009-06-22 2012-05-10 Liberman Barnet L Modular Building System For Constructing Multi-Story Buildings
US20140352232A1 (en) * 2012-01-23 2014-12-04 Inter Hospitality Holding B.V. Method and system for construction of a building
US20150252558A1 (en) * 2012-07-27 2015-09-10 Jerry A. Chin Waffle box building technology
USD765266S1 (en) 2013-07-22 2016-08-30 Vastint Hospitablity B.V. Prefabricated module design
US9464436B2 (en) 2012-01-23 2016-10-11 Vastint Hospitality B.V. Prefabricated panel for a building
WO2016174614A1 (en) * 2015-04-28 2016-11-03 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana Prefabricated modular constructive system
US9631359B2 (en) * 2012-01-23 2017-04-25 Vastint Hospitality B.V. Prefabricated module for a building
US9963877B2 (en) * 2016-05-18 2018-05-08 David R. Hall Modular prismatic box-like structure-based building method and infrastructure
WO2019023608A1 (en) * 2017-07-27 2019-01-31 Randall Miller Block construction of prefabricated buildings
US10704251B1 (en) * 2017-07-25 2020-07-07 Vessel Technologies, Inc. Modular housing system and methods for using the same

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1886962A (en) * 1929-02-02 1932-11-08 Roche Heinrich La Building construction
US2154142A (en) * 1937-07-08 1939-04-11 Copper Houses Inc Mobile building
US2698973A (en) * 1949-12-22 1955-01-11 Webb & Knapp Inc Multistory building structure
US3287865A (en) * 1962-11-05 1966-11-29 Frederick V Lockman Sectional tiered vault structure
US3462908A (en) * 1967-08-24 1969-08-26 Jerzy Wysocki Method for erecting buildings
US3710534A (en) * 1970-03-16 1973-01-16 Namara J Mc Method of forming building units and assembling same with lateral displacement

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1886962A (en) * 1929-02-02 1932-11-08 Roche Heinrich La Building construction
US2154142A (en) * 1937-07-08 1939-04-11 Copper Houses Inc Mobile building
US2698973A (en) * 1949-12-22 1955-01-11 Webb & Knapp Inc Multistory building structure
US3287865A (en) * 1962-11-05 1966-11-29 Frederick V Lockman Sectional tiered vault structure
US3462908A (en) * 1967-08-24 1969-08-26 Jerzy Wysocki Method for erecting buildings
US3710534A (en) * 1970-03-16 1973-01-16 Namara J Mc Method of forming building units and assembling same with lateral displacement

Cited By (36)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
USRE29249E (en) * 1969-06-02 1977-06-07 Unicon Parking Structures, Inc. Precast concrete building construction
US4078345A (en) * 1972-12-29 1978-03-14 Pietro Piazzalunga Prefabricated building and method of making same
FR2400595A1 (en) * 1977-08-17 1979-03-16 Gestion Int Brevets Sa modular prefabricated element for constructions
US4263757A (en) * 1977-08-17 1981-04-28 Gestion Internationale De Brevets S.A. "G.I.B." Modular element for prefabricated buildings
US4211043A (en) * 1978-01-06 1980-07-08 Coday Jerry F Precast concrete building module form
US4724640A (en) * 1984-03-02 1988-02-16 Fred Patane Storage facility
EP0520084A1 (en) * 1991-06-27 1992-12-30 Eberhard Schrade Method and prefabricated module for the production of structures and buildings
US5491942A (en) * 1991-09-16 1996-02-20 Prokasky; Thomas W. Multi-story building construction employing prefabricated elements
US5829212A (en) * 1994-12-14 1998-11-03 J.H. Turkington & Sons (Contractors) Limited Blast-proof building
WO2000034593A1 (en) * 1998-12-07 2000-06-15 John Sergio Fisher Construction system for modular apartments, hotels and the like
US6393774B1 (en) * 1998-12-07 2002-05-28 John Sergio Fisher Construction system for modular apartments, hotels and the like
WO2000049240A1 (en) * 1999-02-19 2000-08-24 Allen Bradford W Modular building construction
US20050262778A1 (en) * 1999-02-19 2005-12-01 Allen Bradford W Modular building construction
EP1063363A2 (en) * 1999-06-22 2000-12-27 Antonella Bigi System of prefabricated tunnel and portal elements and accessories made of structural light concrete for the total erection of 1 to 8 storey buildings for any use
EP1063363A3 (en) * 1999-06-22 2001-08-01 Antonella Bigi System of prefabricated tunnel and portal elements and accessories made of structural light concrete for the total erection of 1 to 8 storey buildings for any use
US7581363B2 (en) * 2001-03-05 2009-09-01 Mawby Walter H Method for constructing a multistory building
WO2006063143A3 (en) * 2004-12-07 2006-12-21 Cathartes Invest Modular building construction
WO2006063143A2 (en) * 2004-12-07 2006-06-15 Cathartes Investments Modular building construction
US20090249708A1 (en) * 2005-11-28 2009-10-08 Flyport Development Entwicklungs Und Betreuungsgesellchaft Mbh Passenger Terminal Consisting of Mobile Room Units
CN100424312C (en) * 2006-05-29 2008-10-08 巴硕建筑设计咨询(上海)有限公司 Spatial hotel type rooming houses
US20120110928A1 (en) * 2009-06-22 2012-05-10 Liberman Barnet L Modular Building System For Constructing Multi-Story Buildings
US8919058B2 (en) * 2009-06-22 2014-12-30 Barnet L. Liberman Modular building system for constructing multi-story buildings
US9243398B2 (en) 2009-06-22 2016-01-26 Barnet L. Liberman Modular building system for constructing multi-story buildings
US20140352232A1 (en) * 2012-01-23 2014-12-04 Inter Hospitality Holding B.V. Method and system for construction of a building
US9631359B2 (en) * 2012-01-23 2017-04-25 Vastint Hospitality B.V. Prefabricated module for a building
US9556632B2 (en) * 2012-01-23 2017-01-31 Vastint Hospitality B.V. Method and system for construction of a building
US9464436B2 (en) 2012-01-23 2016-10-11 Vastint Hospitality B.V. Prefabricated panel for a building
US20150252558A1 (en) * 2012-07-27 2015-09-10 Jerry A. Chin Waffle box building technology
USD765266S1 (en) 2013-07-22 2016-08-30 Vastint Hospitablity B.V. Prefabricated module design
USD867616S1 (en) 2013-07-22 2019-11-19 Vastint Hospitality B.V. Prefabricated module
WO2016174614A1 (en) * 2015-04-28 2016-11-03 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana Prefabricated modular constructive system
US20180223520A1 (en) * 2015-04-28 2018-08-09 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana Prefabricated Modular Constructive System
EP3290605A4 (en) * 2015-04-28 2019-01-09 Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana Prefabricated modular constructive system
US9963877B2 (en) * 2016-05-18 2018-05-08 David R. Hall Modular prismatic box-like structure-based building method and infrastructure
US10704251B1 (en) * 2017-07-25 2020-07-07 Vessel Technologies, Inc. Modular housing system and methods for using the same
WO2019023608A1 (en) * 2017-07-27 2019-01-31 Randall Miller Block construction of prefabricated buildings

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
AU2016206222B2 (en) Unitised building system
US10190309B2 (en) Slab construction system and method for constructing multi-story buildings using pre-manufactured structures
US20160160515A1 (en) System for modular building construction
US8826600B2 (en) System for modular building construction
US3510997A (en) Building system of preformed units
US6237297B1 (en) Modular structural members for constructing buildings, and buildings constructed of such members
US5924254A (en) Modular precast wall system
US6493996B1 (en) Modular building construction system
US4364206A (en) Prefabricated building units for constructing building, and buildings whose fabric comprises assembled units of this kind
US3638380A (en) Modular high-rise structure
US5526625A (en) Building panel and buildings using the panel
US3872636A (en) Light weight load bearing metal structural panel
CN100365229C (en) Constructing the large-span self-braced buildings of composite load-bearing wall-panels and floors
US2883852A (en) Masonry building construction
US3568380A (en) Prefabricated buildings
US7121061B2 (en) Reinforced concrete building system
US4514950A (en) Building framing system and method
ES2281289B1 (en) Prefabricated single family housing of reinforced concrete and assembly procedure of the same.
US4454702A (en) Building construction and method of constructing same
US7086209B1 (en) Method for constructing a building and resulting building
US5881524A (en) Composite building system and method of manufacturing same and components therefore
US3331170A (en) Preassembled subenclosures assembled to form building construction
US20060260238A1 (en) Refinement to the construction systems for structures in reinforced concrete or some other material of high-precision intergral modular forms
US6543195B2 (en) Composite structural framing system
US5195293A (en) Structural system for supporting a building utilizing light weight steel framing for walls and hollow core concrete slabs for floors and method of making same