US2277984A - Furnace construction - Google Patents

Furnace construction Download PDF

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US2277984A
US2277984A US296565A US29656539A US2277984A US 2277984 A US2277984 A US 2277984A US 296565 A US296565 A US 296565A US 29656539 A US29656539 A US 29656539A US 2277984 A US2277984 A US 2277984A
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refractories
bars
hanger
furnace
hangers
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US296565A
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Seymour M Jenkins
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Armstrong Cork Co
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Armstrong Cork Co
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23MCASINGS, LININGS, WALLS OR DOORS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, e.g. FIREBRIDGES; DEVICES FOR DEFLECTING AIR, FLAMES OR COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN COMBUSTION CHAMBERS; SAFETY ARRANGEMENTS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR COMBUSTION APPARATUS; DETAILS OF COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F23M5/00Casings; Linings; Walls
    • F23M5/04Supports for linings

Description

March 31, 1942- s; M. JENKINS 2,277,984
FURNACE CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 26, 1939 ZSheets-Sheet 1 March 31;, 1942. g. M; JE KiNs 2,277,984
FURNACE CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 26/1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Mar. 31, 1942 FURNACE CONSTRUCTION Seymour M. Jenkins, Forest Hills, N. Y., assignor to Armstrong Cork Company, Lancaster, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application September 26, 1939, Serial No. 296,565
14 Claims.
This invention relates to furnace constructions and, more particularly, to wall and arch constructions including a lightweight hanger of sufiicient strength and rigidity to support refractories, such as insulating fire bricks, blocks or tiles, forming walls of the structure, of such design that repairs can be made quickly and with slight expense without dismantling such structures, thus considerably increasing the life of the furnace.
The chief object of this invention is to provide a furnace structure possessing great durability and stability, which will facilitate installation and repair, and which Will contribute materially to the efficiency of operation of the furnace. An object of this invention is to provide a furnace construction wherein fire resistant refractories which are directly exposed to the heat within the furnace chamber, are not subjected to any weight or pressure other than their own. A further object is to provide a furnace construction wherein refractories may be installed, removed or replaced in any limited area without requiring extensive dismantling or removal of refractories in other areas. A still further object is to provide means for mounting refractories in furnace construction so that the refractories are permitted to adjust themselves readily under the changing conditions in the furnace; this, of course, aids in preventing breaking, cracking or spalling due to the refractories being placed under strain by a change in temperature. A still further object is to provide a hanger for use in furnace construction which is of light Weight, possesses sufficient strength and rigidity to effectively and securely support or carry refractories, and decreases heat losses by conduction; of such design that repairs to the furnace structure can be made readily and quickly with slight expense and little delay.
The attached drawings illustrate a preferred embodiment of my invention, in which- Figure 1 is a view, partly in elevation and partly in section, illustrating my preferred furnace construction Figure 2 is a plan view of my hanger;
Figure 3 is aview in elevation of the hanger shown in Figure 2, serving to illustrate the strengthening braces and the end support;
tion and partly in section, of the Wall structure shown in Figure 1;
Figure 5 is a plan View serving to illustrate a preferred form of hanger for use in arch construction;
Figure 4 is an enlarged View, partly in eleva- Figure 6 is a view in elevation of a sectional Wall, illustrating the manner in which the joints between refractories may be staggered to increase the strength of the wall and to prevent heat losses;
Figure '7 is a sectional view of a furnace arch illustrating a modified form of my invention; and
Figure 8 is an isometric view of the modified form of hanger used in the arch illustrated in Figure 7.
Referring to the drawings, there is shown a furnace construction comprising a supporting framework consisting of vertical column members 2 and transverse frame members 3 joining and connecting the column members 2. The transverse members 3 are bolted to the column members 2 thus forming a secure and satisfactory supporting structure for the inner walls of the furnace. The roof or arch of my furnace construction is of the suspended type and comprises'girders 4 extending transversely across the furnace and supported by the Vertical column members 2. Angle irons 5 are secured to the column members 2 by means of bolts 6 and extend transversely along the sides of the furnace, the girders 4 resting on the angle irons 5 and being secured thereto by bolts 1.
In a sectional wall-construction as shown in Figures 1 and 4, hangers 8 are'supported by the transverse frame members .3, being secured thereto by bolts 9. The hangers 8, preferably, are formed of a heat resistant metallic alloy. In some cases, only the portions of the hanger exposed to high temperatures need be formed of such material while the remainder of the hanger may be formed of lower cost metals. Each hanger 8 comprises a plurality of longitudinally extending rods, pipes, or bars l0 and Illa of any suitable length and thickness positioned in separate planes and outlining a trapezoid, as viewed from an end of the hanger or in cross section. The short parallel side of the trapezoid is formed by the bars l0 while the longer parallel side of the trapezoid is formed by the bars I Do. The bars Illa. are adapted to fit within slots formed in refractories to support the same when the hanger is in use. A plurality of rod-shaped braces H extend laterally of the bars [0 and Illa in spaced relationship to one another and are welded or brazed thereto to support the bars in fixed relationship to one another and to strengthen the hanger structure. At the base of the hanger an end support [2 is provided which is welded or brazed to the bars I!) and Illa and to the lowermost brace H. The end support [2,
preferably, extends outwardly and downwardly from the bars 10 at an obtuse angle thereto to the bars Illa, thus strengthening the hanger.
Spaced plates l3 are welded to the bars Iii and have openings therein through which the bolts 9 may be inserted to secure the hanger to the supporting framework.
Refractories 14-, such as insulating fire bricks, blocks or tiles, are provided with slots therein adapted to receive the bars lila, of the hanger 8, so that the refractories are seated on the bars Illa and are thus securely supported by the hanger. The bars Illa prevent horizontal movement of the supported refractories while permitting vertical expansion or movement thereof, assuming, of course, the hangers extend vertically of the wall. In some cases, the hangers may extend horizontally of the wall so that the supported refractories are free to slide horizontally while being prevented from vertical movement. In all cases, the refractories are slidable along the hanger but are restrained from movement across the hanger. It will be understood, refractories supported by each hanger form separate, independent units, and may be removed and replaced without necessitating removal or replacement of separate units, by merely being slid along the hanger to an end thereof.
A stop 15 is placed at the bottom of each independent unit formed by refractories l4 supported on a hanger 8. The stop 15 is provided with a horizontal shelf portion it, upon which the supported refractories rest and which prevents downward vertical movement of such refractories, and with a portion at right angles to the shelf portion I6, which has an opening therein through which a bolt may be inserted to secure the stop IE to the supporting framework. Preferably, separate stops B5 areused with each independent unit although, if desired, the stop I5 may be made sufficiently large to support several units. Vertically adjacent units are spaced a slight distance apart, the space between such units being filled with a resilient, fire resistant material shown at ll (Figure 4) such as Coprtex, an insulating cement composed of copper slag fibers, which serves as an expansion joint for adjacent vertical sections of refractories and permits expansion thereof when' the refractories are subjected to heat.
It will be noted, the uppermost refractory of each unit rides substantially free upon the hanger 8 in order to permit ready and rapid assembly of refractories upon the hanger. In other words, the bars lila of the hanger 8 extend for only a short distance within the slots of the uppermost refractory, as best shown in Figure l, so that such refractory may be raised slightly, since adjacent units are spaced a short distance apart, thereby detaching or disengaging it from the hanger 8 and permitting its removal from the structure. The next refractory of the unit may then be removed by merely sliding it along the hanger to such vacant space, the'remainder of the refractories of each unit being removable similarly. The uppermost refractory of each unit may ride substantially free upon the next adjacent refractory or may be cemented or otherwise secured in the structure to securely hold it as an integral portion of the unit until removal thereof is desired.
If desired, the joints between refractories may be staggered since staggered joints prevent heat losses to some extent and greatly strengthen the wall structure. The hangers 8 may be staggered either vertically or horizontally along the supporting framework, thus insuring the joints between independent units being staggered. If desired, hangers may be spaced a sufficient distance apart to permit independent refractories to be positioned between supported refractories. A structure of such type is shown in Figure 6. For example, assuming the lowermost refractories Ma of each unit, supported by bars Illa of the hangers 8 and resting upon the shelves N5 of stops l5 abut, the next layer of refractories Mb may be so positioned on the bars I 0a of the hangers 3 as to leave a space therebetween into which an independent refractory I4c may be inserted. The next layer of refractories Md is then positioned in abutting relationship and the units, or a complete wall, are built in the same manner.
The hangers l8 used in construction of the furnace arch are similar in design to the hangers 8 used in the construction of the sectional walls of the furnace. The hangers l8 extend across the furnace in a direction normal to the direction of the girders 4 and are bolted to the flanges of such girders. Refractories 19, similar to refractories l4, form the roof of the furnace construction and are suspended from the hangers I8. Preferably, the refractories l9 are suspended from adjacent hangers, as shown in Figure 1, so that each refractory is suspended from and is supported by two hangers.
It will be noted (Figure 1.) that the hangers 13 do not completely fill the slots in the refractories l9 even though satisfactorily maintaining the refractories in proper position. When the refractories are under expansion caused by high temperatures, they are free to slide upwardly on the hangers thus insuring that the refractories are properly positioned in the roof structure under normal and high temperatures. Such arch construction provides a flexible structure and permits rapid repairs.
In assembling my preferred wall structure, hangers 8 are bolted to the supporting framework formed by column members 2 and transverse frame members 3, in predetermined spaced relationship to one another. Stops l5 are then placed in proper position in the wall structure and are secured to the supporting framework. Slotted refractories I4 are then placed on the hangers 8 and slid downwardly on each hanger until the lowermost refractory of each independent unit rests on the stop l5. Preferably, in the structure so constructed, vertically adjacent units, each composed of a hanger 8, a stop l5 and refractories M, are spaced a slight distance apart to provide space in which expansion joint I! may be placed. In forming the arch structure, hangers [8 are bolted to the flanges of the girders 4 in predetermined spaced relationship to one an other, and preferably, extend in a direction normal to the direction of the girders 4. Refractories l9- are slid on adjacent hangers l8 and are suspended therefrom. If desired, layers of. insulating material may be used at the rear of the side walls and at the rear of the arch to assist in preventing air infiltration into the furnace.
In some cases, when the side walls of the furnace are formed and it is desired to build the arch, a hanger of the type shown in Figures '7 and 8 may be used. The side walls are already constructed and the hangers 22, similar to that illustrated in Figures 2, 3 and 4, are placed in position in the arch structure and are so arranged as to leave a central open space. Refractories 23 are then slid toward the right and toward the left on such hangers until the spaces on each side of the central opening are filled. Refractories 24 are then positioned on the hanger 25 and the hanger 25 placed in position in the arch assembly completely closing the central opening, and is bolted to the support members 26. The hanger 25 is best illustrated in Figure 8 and comprises a plurality of longitudinally extending rods, pipes or bars 21 and 21a positioned in separate planes. A plurality of braces 28 extend laterally of the bars 21 and extend downwardly and inwardly to the bars 21a, thus forming a support for refractories. The braces 28 are welded or brazed to the bars 21 and 21a. Spaced plates 29 are welded to-the bars 21 and if desired, to adjacent braces 28, and have openings therein through which bolts may be inserted to secure the hanger to the support members 26.
I provide a furnace wall construction in which the refractories are free to expand vertically but arenot free to move horizontally. Many advantages are provided by such structure'due to its light weight, low cost, flexibility, and accessibilityfor the purpose of making necessary repairs. The refractory walls' of the arch are made up of independent units which may be readily removed and replaced independently of each other. Ready and quick repairs to the structure may be effected with but slight expense and little delay. The wall and arch structures are durable and stable and contribute materially to the efficiency of the operation of the furnace. By utilization of my hangers, the weight of the arch and walls is substantially reduced, permitting lighter and less expensive metallic framework or suporting structure. The manner of mounting refractories permits such refractories to adjust themselves readily under the changing conditions in the furnace, and this aids in preventing breaking, spalling or cracking due to the refractories being placed under strain by a change in temperature. My prefered form of hanger permits repairs to the structure to be made quickly and at slight expense without dismantling the walls or arch, thus considerably increasing the life of -the structure, while reducing heat losses due to conduction.
While I have described and illustrated a preferred embodiment of my invention, it will be understood my invention is not so limited since it may be otherwise embodied within the scope of the following claims.
I claim:
1. A furnace wall construction including, in
combination, a supporting structure, hangers carried thereby, a sectional refractory wall carried by said hangers, and means securing said wall against vertical displacement therefrom, each of said hangers including longitudinally extending bars spaced in separate planes, bars in one plane being adapted to carry refractories forming said wall, and braces extending laterally of said bars serving to unite and support the bars as a single integral unit.
2. A furnace wall construction including, in combination, a supporting structure, hangers carried thereby, a sectional refractory wall carried by said hangers, and stops securing said wall against vertical displacement, each stop including a horizontal shelf portion adapted to retain said refractories against vertical displacement, and a vertical portion adapted to engage said supporting structure, each of said hangers including longitudinally extending bars spaced in separate planes, bars in one plane being adapted to carry refractories forming said wall, and braces extending laterally of said bars serving to unite and support the bars as a single integral unit.
3. In furnace construction, column members, transverse frame members joining said column members to form a self-sustaining frame structure, hangers engaging said transverse members laterally of the frame structure, and refractories carried by said hangers forming independently supported wall sections, said sections being associated to form a furnace chamber wall, each hanger including longitudinally extending bars spaced in predetermied relationship to one another, at least one of said bars being adapted to support refractories carried thereby, and braces extending laterally of said bars serving to unite and support the bars as a single integral unit.
4. In sectional wall furnace construction, column members, transverse frame members joining said column members to form a self-sustaining frame structure, vertically extending hangers secured to said transverse members laterally of the frame structure, each hanger including longitudinally extending bars spaced in separate planes, bars in one plane being adapted to carry refractories, and braces extending laterally of said bars serving to unite and support the bars as a single integral unit, refractories carried by said hangers to form independently supported wall sections, said section being associated to form a furnace chamber wall, said refractories being anchored to their supporting hangers to retain the refractories against displacement inwardy thereof, and stops preventing vertical movement of the supported refractories.
5. In furnace arch construction, column members, frame members extending across the furnace and joining said column members to form a self-sustaining arch construction, hangers depending from said frame members, said hangers extending across the furnace in a direction normal to said members, and a plurality of refractories suspended from said hangers, said refractories being associated to form the furnace roof, each hanger including longitudinally extending bars spaced in predetermined relationship to one another, at least one of said bars being adapted to support refractories carried thereby, and braces extending laterally of said bars serving to unite and support the bars as a single integral unit.
6. In furnace arch construction, column members, frame members extending across the furnace and joining said column members to form a self-sustaining arch construction, a plurality of spaced apart hangers depending from said members, said hangers extending across the furnace in a direction normal to said members and being supported by more than one of said members, and a plurality of associated refractories suspended from said hangers to form a fire resisting arch, each refractory being supported by more than one hanger, each hanger including longitudinally extending bars spaced in predetermined relationship to one another, at least one of said bars being adapted tosupport refractories carried thereby, and braces extending laterally of said bars serving to unite and support the bars as a single integral unit.
7. A hanger adapted for use in furnace constructions comprising a plurality of longitudinally extending bars, braces serving to join and support said bars in fixed position, said braces being mounted on certain of said bars and extending downwardly and inwardly to join certain other of= said; bars, and means adapted to secure. the. hanger to a; support.
8. Ahanger; adapted for use in furnace construotion comprising a plurality of rod-shaped bars placedirr fixediposition with respect to one another, said bars; outlining a. trapezoid, in cross section, certain. of: saint bars being, adapted to enage support refractories, a. plurality of rodshapecl braces; extending transversely of said bars and: serving to support and join thesame, an end suppnrt in; engagement with an end; brace, said end'support. being mounted on certain. of said bars and extending: outwardly and, downwardly thereirom at an obtuse angle to engage certain other bars thereby strengthening. the assembly, and a plurality of similar plates seated on the parallel-short sideof the trapezoid in spaced apart relationship, said plates being adapted to retain means securing the hanger to a support.
9. furnace construction, column members, transverse frame members joining said column membersto form a self-sustaining frame structure,hangers; engaging said transverse members laterally of the frame structure, each hanger including. longitudinally extending bars spaced in predetermined relationship to' one another, and braces extending laterally of said bars serving to unite and support the bars as a single integral unit, refractories supported by said hangers, and independent refractories interposed between adjacent supported refractories and anchored by said supported refractories.
- 10. In sectional wall furnace construction, column members, transverse frame members joining said column members to form a self-sustainin-g frame structure, vertically extending hangers secured to said transverse members laterally of the frame structure, each hanger including longitudinally extending bars spaced in separate planes, and braces extending laterally of said bars serving torunite and support the bars as a single integral unit, refractories carried by said hangers forming independently supported wall sections, said refractories being anchored to said supporting hangers thereby being retained against displacement inwardly of the wall,, independent refractories interposed: between adjacent supported refractories and restrained from vertical movement. by said supported refractories, said supported refractories: and said independent refractories being associated to form a furnace chamber wall, and stops preventing downward I increment of the supported refractories.
11'. A, refractory supporting hanger adapted for use in furnace constructions comprising a plurality of longitudinally extending bars d-isposed in position to outline a trapezoidin cross section and serving, as a foundation, a plurality of braces, extending laterally of said bars and secured: thereto to hold the bars as a single integral unit, and means for securing the hanger to a support,
12:. A hanger adapted for use in furnace, construc-tions comprising longitudinally extending bars spaced in parallel planes, bars in one plane fitting within refractories when the hanger is in use to hold, the refractories against horizontal movement, braces extending laterally of sai-dbars and servingto unite and support the bars as a single integral unit, and means adapted to secure the hanger to a support.
13. A hanger adapted for use in furnace constructions comprising a plurality of longitudinally extending bars outlining a trapezoid in cross section, braces serving to unite and support said bar as a single integral unit and means adapted to secure the hanger to a support.
14. A hanger adapted for use in furnace con structions comprising longitudinally extending bars spaced in separate planes, bars in one plane fitting within refractories when the hanger is in use to hold said refractories against horizontal movement, a plurality of braces extending laterally of the bars and serving to unite and support the bars in spaced relationship to one another to form. a single integral unit, and means adapted to secure the hanger to a support, said means being mounted on bars which do not fit within refractories.
SEYMOUR M. JENKINS.
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2457201A (en) * 1943-08-13 1948-12-28 Gen Refractories Co Furnace arch and wall structure
US3140565A (en) * 1961-03-13 1964-07-14 Cold Spring Granite Company Wall construction
US4083155A (en) * 1977-03-14 1978-04-11 Lampert Albert J Thermally insulated enclosure

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2457201A (en) * 1943-08-13 1948-12-28 Gen Refractories Co Furnace arch and wall structure
US3140565A (en) * 1961-03-13 1964-07-14 Cold Spring Granite Company Wall construction
US4083155A (en) * 1977-03-14 1978-04-11 Lampert Albert J Thermally insulated enclosure

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