US2213572A - Typewriting machine - Google Patents

Typewriting machine Download PDF

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Publication number
US2213572A
US2213572A US155842A US15584237A US2213572A US 2213572 A US2213572 A US 2213572A US 155842 A US155842 A US 155842A US 15584237 A US15584237 A US 15584237A US 2213572 A US2213572 A US 2213572A
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United States
Prior art keywords
escapement
carriage
rack
lever
pawls
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Expired - Lifetime
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US155842A
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Torkelson Torkel Edwin
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International Business Machines Corp
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International Business Machines Corp
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Priority to US155842A priority Critical patent/US2213572A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J19/00Character- or line-spacing mechanisms
    • B41J19/18Character-spacing or back-spacing mechanisms; Carriage return or release devices therefor
    • B41J19/60Auxiliary feed or adjustment devices
    • B41J19/64Auxiliary feed or adjustment devices for justifying

Description

Sept. 3, 1940. 'r. E. TORKELSON 2,213,572

TYPEWRITING MACHINE Filed Jul 27, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Tamra. E. TamrEL'saA/ ATTORNEY Patented Sept. 3, 1940 UNITED STATES 2,213,572 TYPEWRITING MACHINE Torkcl Edwin Torkelson,

to International Bus tion, New York, N. York Baldwin, N. Y., assignor iness- Machines Corpora- Y., a. corporation of New Application July 27, 1937, Serial No. 155,842

4 Claims. This invention relates to typewriting machines.

The broad object of the present invention is to provide novel means for producing justified typewritten copy.

Another object is to vice which is extremel ing parts.

An object is to provide a justifying mechanism which utilizes a carriage feed rack in the form of a worm in cooperation with capement mechanism.

An object is to provide a justifying mechanism for typewritten lines which does not require mul- 5 tiple escapement mechanism, inclinable tracks, or complicated lever systems for obtaining a variable feed of the' carriage.

Further objects of the instant invention reside in any novel feature of construction or operation or novel combination of parts present in the embodiment of the invention described and shown. in the accompanying drawings whether within or Without the scope of the appended claims and irrespective of other specific statements as to the scope of the invention contained herein.

In the drawings: Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the typing mechanism and portions of the carriage of a machine embodying the present invention.

Fig. 2 is a front elevation on a large scale of the mechanism for effecting justification.

Fig. 3 is a side elevation, partly in section, of the mechanism shown in Fig. 2.

In Fig. 1 there is shown diagrammatically a portion of typing mechanism and universal bar of the well known International electric writing machine, formerly known as the Electromatic, together with portions of the carriage. While the present invention has been illustrated in the drawings and will be described herein as applied to the above machine, it is to be understood that it is not limited in its application to the specific machine or type of escapement mechanism se- 65 lected for the purposes of illustration, but may be applied to other typewriting machines, whether manually or power operated, and may be used with other types of escapement mechanism.

The numeral I 0 in Fig. 1 designates one of the character keys which, when depressed, causes a cam unit II, pivoted on rod l2, to become operatively engaged with the power roller I3. The

latter rotates constantly in the direction of the arrow when the machine is in use. Each cam unit is connected by a link I4 to a sub-lever I5 provide a justifying dey simple and has few worka conventional espivotedon the rod I5a. The sub-lever I5 has a link connection I6 to one of a pair of toggle links I! connected to the type bar H3. The engagement of the cam unit II with the power roller I3, asis well known in the art, causes the cam unit to 5 become rocked in a clockwise direction (Fig. I) thereby, through .the link I4, similarly rocking the sub-lever l5. The type bar I8 is thus operated through the link connection I6 to the subv lever I 5 and prints on a work sheet on the platen '10 (not shown) through the usual inking ribbon.

When the type bar is very close to the printing point, it engages the universal bar I9 and moves it in a direction downwardly and to the left in Fig. 1. The universalbar I9 is connected by alink 20 to a lever 2| which is pivoted on a stud 22 fixed relative to the machine frame. Thus, each time a type bar I8 is operated, the lever 2| is rocked in'a clockwise direction (Fig. 1) on stud 22, thereby operating the escapement 23. The latter is of the form described inPatent No. 1,994,544 comprising two pawls 24 which alternate in engagement with the teeth of the escapement rack 25. It will be understood that the usual spring motor is provided which always tends to draw the carriage to the right in Figs. 1 and 2.. With the exception of the escapement rack 25, which is herein shown as taking the form of a screw or worm, the mechanism so far described is 'old and well known in the art.

The escapement rack 25 is rotatably mounted in the end plates 26 of the carriage which plates are integrally joined by the channel-shaped member 21. The latter is formed with grooves in which ride the usual carriage supporting anti friction roller trucks cooperating with grooves in the front rail '28 and-the rear rail 29 which are rigidly mounted on the frame of the machine. Assuming, for the moment, that the rack 25 remains fixed against rotation in its bearings in the plates 26, the depression of any character key II] will cause the type bar I8 associated therewith to operate as described above, thereby, through the universal bar l9, link 20, and lever 2 I, operating the escapement mechanism 23. The pitch of the threads on the rack 25 is the same as the pitch of the teeth on the rack disclosed in the above patent, whereby the carriage will be uniformly spaced one-tenth of an inch in the case of a pica machine, or one-twelfth of an inch in the case of an elite machine, for each character typed and for each operation of the space bar (not shown).

In the preparation of justified typewritten copy, it is usually necessary to first type the copy the escapement 23 in the usual way tion of scale 33 in Fig. 3,

in a rough-draft form on relatively cheap paper, trying, so far as possible, to terminate each line as close to the desired margin as possible. The rough draft thus obtained is re-copied on higher grade paper and, in order to justify the lines it is necessary, to vary the spacing of the characters so as to increase or decrease the spacing to an extent which will cause those lines which do not terminate at the desired margin to expand or contract to-the extent necessary to cause them to terminate at the margin.

It has been discovered that by both operating and by rotating the rack 25 the spacing may be automatically increased or diminished according to the direction of rotation of the rack. In order to effect the rotationof the rack, there is provided a ratchet and pawl of the carriage, which is best shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Adjacent one of the end plates 26 of the carriage there is secured to the worm 25 a pair of ratchets 30 and 3| having closely spaced teeth which face in opposite directions. Loosely mounted between the ratchets 30, 3| is a control lever 32 which has a pointer 32a formed in the free end thereof cooperating with a scale 33 secured to the adjacent plate 26L The control lever 32 is so shaped as to constitute a cam 321) having a high portion 320 and two low portions 32d and 32e. Loosely mounteddon rack 25 arfiacent the plates 26 are two arms} 34, (Fig. l) and 35 (Figs. 2 and 3), which arms, with a rod 36, constitute a bail which is rockably mounted in the plates 26 with rack 25 as a pivot. The arm 35 has a stud 360 on which are mounted two feed pawls 31, 38 facing in opposite directions and interconnected between the stud 36a and the rack 35 by a spring 39, whereby the pawl 31 tends to engage the ratchet wheel 30 and the pawl 38, the ratchet wheel 3|. The lever 21 has a link 46 (Fig. 1) connected thereto andsaid link is provided with a slot embracing the rod 36, the link being held in engagement with rod 36 by a spring 4|.

It is apparent from Fig. 1 that every time the escapement is operated the bail, comprising arms 34, 35 and rod 36, will be oscillated from the position shown in. Fig. 3 to the right and back. The pawls 31, 38 are wide enough to engage both their respective ratchets and the cam 32b whereby said cam controls the engagement of the pawls 31, 38 with the respective ratchets.

With the hand lever 32 set in the zero posithe pawls 31, 38 will merely ride idly over the periphery of the high part 320 of the cam 32?) without engaging the teeth of either of the ratchets 30, 3|. Thus, as long as the lever 32 remains in the zero position, the escapement mechanismwill cause the carriage to be moved with the standard spacing of one-tenth or one-twelfth of an inch according to whether the machine is a pica machine or an elite machine.

If it should happen that the line as first typed terminates short of the desired margin, the normal spacing must be increased an extent which will bring the line flush with the margin. The

graduations on the scale 33 indicate the number of letter spaces that the line is to be increased in order to make the line terminate flush with the margin. The words Shorten and Lengthen in Fig. 3, together with the arrows adjacent thereto, indicate'in which direction the lever 32 must be moved to cause the typewritten line to terminate flush with the margin in the respective be moved clockwise mechanism atone end the pawls cases where the line is too long or too short. For instance, if in re-typing the draftit is found that a given line is three letter spaces short of the marginal point, the lever 32 is moved in a clockwise direction until the index pointer 32a corresponds with the graduation designated 3. Conversely, if the line term ted the same distance beyond the margin, the lever 32 would to the other graduation designated 3.

Taking the first case, where the line is too short by three units, the cam 32b will be positioned in a clockwise direction to permit the pawl 38 to engage the ratchet 3| and rotate it in a counterclockwise direction for a distance of three tooth spaces. Thus, when the line is typed, for each operation of the escapement mechanism in typing a letter the carriagewill receive an additional feed owing to the fact that the rack 26 will be rotated an extent suflicient to increase the spacing of each letter by an amount necessary to cause the retyped line to terminate flush with the margin. I

Taking the second case, where the line is too long and it is desired to decrease the spacing,

the lever 32 is positioned in a counterclockwise direction to register with 8 on the scale. The cam 32b is rotated in a counterclockwise direction to an extent to permit the pawl 31, on the restoring movement of the bail including rod 35, to rotate the ratchet wheel 36 three tooth spaces. This will cause the rack 25 to rotate sufliciently to decrease the normal spacing an extent suflicient to cause the re-typed line to terminate flush with the margin.

It will be understood that one or the other of pawls 24 functions like the nut of a screwfeed escapement which supplements the escapement 23. v

In order to prevent overthrow of the ratchets 30, 3| and the bail including rod 36, there are provided pins 42 at the terminating positions of 31, 38, which pins, in a well known way, tend to force the pawls deeper into the teeth of the ratchet and thereby prevent over rotation.

While there has been shown and described and pointed out the fundamental novel features of the invention with reference to a preferred embodiment, it will be understood that various omissions and substitutions and changes in the form and details of the invention illustrated and in its operation may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. It is the intention therefore to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the following claims.

What is claimed is as follows:

1. In combination with the carriage of a typewriting machine, escapement mechanism including an escapement rack in the form'of a worm, means to operate the escapement mechanism, means connected with the operating means for automatically rotating the worm each time the escapement mechanism is operated, and means including a control lever for determining both the extent of rotation and the direction of rotation of the worm.

2. In combination with the carriage of a typewriting machine, a pair of escapement pawls, a rack cooperating with the escapement pawls,- said rack consisting of. a worm, a ratchet and pawl device for rotating said worm, means to operate the escapement pawls and the ratchet and pawl device concomitantly, and a control lever for Cal writing machine, a rack rotatably mounted on the carriage, a pair of ratchet wheels fixedly mounted on said rack and having their teeth facing in opposite directions, a bail mounted on the carriage for oscillatory movement, a pair of pawls each engaging one of said ratchet wheels and mounted on the bail, a camlever for controlling the engagement of the pawls with the ratchets to both determine the extent and direction of rotation of said ratchets, a hand lever for rotating said cam, a scale cooperating withsaid hand lever, a conventional escapement mechanism mounted independently of the carriage and engaging said rack, and means for operating both the escapement mechanism and oscillating said bail during the course of the carriage movement caused by an operation of the escapement mechanism.

4. In combination with the carriage of a typewriting machine, escapement mechanism therefor, including feeding pawls, a feed screw r0- tatably mounted in the carriage and functioning as a rack in cooperation with said feed pawls, means for operating the pawls to feed the carriage in cooperation with the screw, means connected to the operating means for rotating the screw to obtain a supplemental feed of the carriage independently of the feed efiected by said pawls, and means to control the rotation of the feed screw whereby to vary the feed of the carriage.

TORKEL EDWIN TORKELSON.

US155842A 1937-07-27 1937-07-27 Typewriting machine Expired - Lifetime US2213572A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3346091A (en) * 1965-06-30 1967-10-10 Ibm Tabulation apparatus for typewriter
US3346088A (en) * 1965-06-30 1967-10-10 Ibm Carrier mechanism for proportional escapement typewriter
US3346089A (en) * 1965-06-30 1967-10-10 Ibm Carrier mechanism for proportional escapement typewriter
US3648816A (en) * 1969-01-29 1972-03-14 Addressograph Multigraph Carriage for embossing machine

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3346091A (en) * 1965-06-30 1967-10-10 Ibm Tabulation apparatus for typewriter
US3346088A (en) * 1965-06-30 1967-10-10 Ibm Carrier mechanism for proportional escapement typewriter
US3346089A (en) * 1965-06-30 1967-10-10 Ibm Carrier mechanism for proportional escapement typewriter
US3648816A (en) * 1969-01-29 1972-03-14 Addressograph Multigraph Carriage for embossing machine

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