US2176586A - Heating apparatus - Google Patents

Heating apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
US2176586A
US2176586A US191373A US19137338A US2176586A US 2176586 A US2176586 A US 2176586A US 191373 A US191373 A US 191373A US 19137338 A US19137338 A US 19137338A US 2176586 A US2176586 A US 2176586A
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room
air space
wall
side wall
heating
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Expired - Lifetime
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US191373A
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Goerg Bernard
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American Radiator and Standard Sanitary Corp
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American Radiator and Standard Sanitary Corp
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24DDOMESTIC- OR SPACE-HEATING SYSTEMS, e.g. CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEMS; DOMESTIC HOT-WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; ELEMENTS OR COMPONENTS THEREFOR
    • F24D3/00Hot-water central heating systems
    • F24D3/12Tube and panel arrangements for ceiling, wall, or underfloor heating
    • F24D3/14Tube and panel arrangements for ceiling, wall, or underfloor heating incorporated in a ceiling, wall or floor
    • F24D3/147Tube and panel arrangements for ceiling, wall, or underfloor heating incorporated in a ceiling, wall or floor arranged in facades
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B30/00Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC]

Description

HEATING APPARATUS- I I l Filed .Feb 19, 1938v Y 2 sheets-sneu 1 lig'. 5. 40
z'sheets-sheet i H /l [41% 17, 1939;` s. GoERG *l I HEATING APPARATUS Filed Feb. 4 19, 1938 Patented Oct. 17, 1939 UNITED :STATES PATENT OFFICE HEATING APPARATUS Bernard Goerg, Scarsdale, N. Y., assignor, by mesne assignments, to American Radiator & Standard Sanitary Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware Application February 19, 193s, serial No. 191,313 l v Claims.
will be particularly pointed out and distinctly claimed.
` In the accompanying drawings, to be taken as a part of this specification, I have fully and clearly illustrated a preferred embodiment of my invention, in which drawings- Fig. 1 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view showing a building structure with my improved form of heating apparatus forming a part thereof;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1, with parts being broken away to illustrate more clearly certain of the detail features of my improvement;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary horizontal section taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is a detail view illustrating partly in side elevation and partly in vertical longitudinal section one form of a tubular heating element forming a part of my improvement;
Fig. 5 is a vertical section of the tubular heating element shown in Fig. 5, the view being taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. 4; and
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary perspective view, partly in section, showing another form of'heating element used in my improved heating apparatus.
Referring now vin detail to the construction illustrated and rst to Figs. 1, 2 and 3, it will be observed that I have shown my invention as embodied in a building structure indicated in general by the reference character III. In so far as the present invention is concerned, the
- building I Il may be of any suitable type and size. The building structure shown in the drawings is of the one-story frame type and comprises a basement space II I, an attic space I2 and one or more room spaces. In the drawings, I have shown two room spaces I3 and I4. The room space I3 is defined by a floor I5, a ceiling I6 and four upright side walls. Only three of the side walls appear on the drawings and they are indicated, respectively, by the reference character I1, I8 and I3. The side wall I1 forms a part of the outside side wall of the building and the side wall I8 functions as an inside or partition wall dividing the room spaces I3 and I4. One oi' the other defining side walls of the room space I4 is indicated at 20.
The inside partition Wall I8 iis here shown as being composed of upright spaced substantially parallel wall members -2I and 22, which define therebetween a closed air space 23. Each of the wall members 2| and 22 is shown as being formed of a conventional type of metallath 24 to which 6 is applied a covering of plaster 25. T'he lower parts of the wall members 2| and 22 terminate short ofthe oor to provide openings 26 and 21, lrespectively, and these openings are closed by baseboard members 28 and 29.
The air space 23 is closed at its upper side by an upper closure member or partition cap 33, which extends entirely across the upper part of Y the partition wall, as shown. The lower part of.
the air space 23 is closed by a lower closure 15 member 34, commonly referred to as a shoe or sole piece. I'he shoe piece 34 extends entirely across the lower end of the partition wall. The air space 23 is divided vertically into a plurality of sections 35 by the usual studs 36 equally spaced 20 apart and arranged between the partition cap 33 and shoe piece 34 and between the inside surfaces of the wall members 2i and 22. The studs 36 serve to space the wall members 2| and 22 apart and to separate the several sections 35 25 one from the other.
Arranged within each of the sections 35 of the air space 23 is a partition 38 which extends in the same general direction as the plane of the partition wall and which is spaced from the 30 inside surfaces of the wall members A2I a-nd 22 to provide parallel upgoing and downcoming passages 4Ii and 4I, respectively. The partitions 38 terminate at their upper and lower ends short of the partition cap 33 and shoe piece 34, respec- 35 tively, to provide communication between the upgoing and downcoming passages 40 and 4I of their respective sections 35 at the upper and lower ends of such passages.
The upright longitudinal edges of the partitions 40 38 are secured, respectively, to the adjacent faces of the studs 36 by any suitable means, such, for example, as nails 43. In so far as certain aspects of the present invention are concerned, the
partitions 38 may be formed of any suitable ma- 45 of each of the sections 35 and at the lower ends of the downcoming and upgoing passages thereof, are heating devices 44. The heating devices may be installed in their several sections through 50 Arranged, respectively, within the lower partsA either the opening 26 or the opening 21, pre- '.'ously referred to, and when installed, the opening selected is closed by its respective baseboard member. In certain installations it may be found that the openings 2B and 2'I are not necessary.V
erably comprising tubular heat exchange elements which are connected together for series -iiow of heating uid therethrough by short connecting pipes 45. Where necessary, the studs 38 may be notched to receive the pipes 45. The elements may be connected by supply and return pipes 43 and 41 into a. conventional type of heating apparatus; for example, a steam or hot water boiler (not shown).
Each of the tubular heat exchange elements 44 is shown as comprising an integral cast-metal hollow body 50 which is L-shaped in vertical cross-section (see also Figs. 4 and 5). Each of the heat exchange elements is shown as being provided. with extended external heating surface in the form of fins 5| cast integral with its hollow body 50. The-heat exchange elements 44 are shown as being arranged in their respective sections 35 with their horizontal legs extending across the lower ends of the passages .40 and 4| and with their vertical legs extending upwardly into the upgoing passage 40. 'Ihe purpose of this arrangement is to provide more external heating surface in the upgoing passages 48 than in the downcoming passages 4I, so that the air within each section 35 will circulate continuously therethrough by gravity, the air flowing upwardly from the elements 44 through the passages 4II and then downwardly through the passages 4| to the elements 44. The fins 5I are so arranged that they extend in the general direction of flow of the air so as to offer the minimum of resistance to such flow.
With the construction thus far described and with a heating fluid. such as steam or hot water, supplied to the heat exchange elements 44, the
wall members 2| and 22 will become heated as the air i'iows continuously'by gravity over the heat exchange elements and along the inside surfaces of such wall members. When the wall members 2| and 22 become heated, such heat will be transmitted to the room spaces I3 and I4 and to the occupants therein, largely by radiation.
For this reason, the temperature of the room spaces I l and I4 may be carried at a substantially lower value than is possible with the prior art heating systems, and the occupants of the room spaces will feel comfortable at all times. For example, in a room heated mainly by convection air currents flowing over a radiator or other sourceof heat and around the interior of the room, it is necessary for comfort to maintain the temperature of the room between '70 and 73 F.; but in a room heated by the structural arrangement described herein, which is largely by radiation from the walls, the occupants of the room spaces will be comfortable at lower temperatures, such for example, as 65. For this reason, by the use of my improved construction, room spaces can be heated with a substantially less amount of fuel than is possible with the prior art structures. Furthermore, the temperature of the rooms will be maintained at a relatively. eyenvaiue, and there will be little as the entire side wall I8 is heatedwfk or no cold draft condition adjacent to the floor, such as is common with some convection heating systems when there are off-periods when no heat vis supplied'to the room from the source of heat. Another advantage of the present construction is that the heat is not cut oif suddenly from the room during off` periods. 'I'his is because the relatively heavy walls 2| and 22 lose their heat slowly, thereby maintaining convection circulation along their mirfaces and preventing stratification and cold floors. Y
\ So far, I have described an improved form of apparatus for heating adjoining rooms I3 and I4 by radiation from their common dividing or partition wall I8. In accordance with the pres` ent invention, other side walls of the rooms may also be heated by apparatus similar to that already described. It will be appreciated that the number of side walls heated or the number of heated sections of the closed air space in a given side wall will depend upon the prevailing weather conditions where the house is located, the particular location of the roomto be heated, and the structural details of the building. In the drawings, I have shown the outer side wall I'l of the room space I3 as being heated in the same manner as the partition wall I8.
The outer side wall I-'I of the room is shown as being provided with a closed air space 23a and as being heated by the circulation of heated vair in such closed airspace. The wall I'I is shown in Fig.` 1 as being composed of an outside wall member 38 andan inside wall member 8| arranged in spacedsubstantially parallel relation' and 3| are a series of spaced vertical studs 36a- (only one being shown) which close the upright sides of the air space and divide the latter into sections a (only one shown) in the same manner as the studs 36 of the partition wall I8.
I'he outer wall member 30 is here shown as being composed ofthe usual sheathing 83, to the exterior of which is applied siding 54. 'Ihe inside surface of this outer wall 88 is shown as being lined with a heat-insulating material 85, so as to prevent the loss of heat to the outside atmosphere. In so far as the present invention is concerned, the insulating material may be of any suitable type. In the drawings, I have shown the material 65 as being preferably composed of a plurality of layers of corrugated paper or sheet asbestos 88, to the inside surface of which is applied a covering of aluminum foil 81, the latter functioning to reflect the heat back towards the room space I3.
The inside wall member II is shown as being composed of metal'lath 24a to which isapplied the plaster 254s 'I'he sections 35a of the air space 23a are divided, respectively, by upright partitions 38a (only one shown) into upgoing passages 40a extending along the inside surface of the wall member 3| and into downcoming passages 4|a extending along `the inside surfaces provided by the aluminum foil 61. The.upright partitions 38a are of the same construction andare arranged with respect to their adjacent wall surfaces in the same manner as the partitions 38 of the previously described partition wall I8. The
partitions ila terminate short oi' the plate 32a and sole piece a to provide communication between the passages 40a and lla oi' 'each section at the upper and lower ends, respectively, of such passages.
Arranged. respectively, within the lower parts of the upgoing passages 40a of the sections 35a are tubular heat exchange elements 44a. As shown in Figs. 1 and 6, the elements a are of slightly diiferent construction from the elements 44 of the partition wall I8. Each of the elements a comprises an integral cast-metal hollow body member 50a on which is formed integral castmetal ns Sla. arranged in parallel relation and extending in the general direction of flow of the air through the passages a and lla. 'nie elements a are arranged within the lower ends of their respective upgoing passages 40a. The elements a do not extend across the down-coming passages because they only serve to keep warm the inside wall member 6I; whereas, the heat exchangers 44 of the partition wall I8 keep warm both the wall member 2| and the wall member 22.v It is to be noted that the purpose of the heating elements a in the outside wall I1 is not so much to transmit heat to the room space as it is to prevent heat loss from the room space to the outside atmosphere. (.tonsequently, the temperature of the outside wall is kept above the room temperature, but is not kept as high as the partition wall I8. Therefore, less heat is required, and the heating element a can be smaller.` l
It will be appreciated that the heat exchange elements a are arranged across their respective sections 35a of the wall I1 and are connected together in series and to the supply and return mains of a heating system in the same manner as the heat exchange elements M of the wall. I8. The inside wall member 6I terminates short of the floor I5 to provide 'openings 21a in the several sections .35, through whichthe heat exchange elements a may be inserted when installed. When the partitions 28a and heat exchange elements a are installed, the openings 21a are closed by a baseboard member 29a so that there will be little or no air leak between the air space 22a and the room space I3.
From the above, it will be apparent that I have shown apparatus for heating room spaces ol building structures by radiation, which apparatus is very simple and can be readily installed with only slight changes in conventional building structures. For this reason, the apparatus can be readily embodied either in existing building structures or in new structures. Side walls of room spaces in buildings are usually formed by spaced wall members, partition caps, sole pieces, baseboards and vertical studs as described above. As this is true, all that need be done in order to apply the present invention to an existing building is to remove one of the side wall members, cut the partition to proper size, install the partitions between the studs, and insert and connect the heat exchange devices into the existing heating system. In installing my apparatus in an outside wall of a building, the procedure outlined. above will also befollowed, with the addition that a lining of heat insulating material, such as is indicated at 65, will be applied to the inside surface of the outside wall member.
As stated above, by reason of the fact that the room is heated mostly by radiation, a comfortable and more even temperature can be maintained within the room at a lower operating cost than by prior systems relying mainly on convection air currents in the room. I am aware that I am not the first to heat room spaces by circulating warm air through the hollow defining walls thereof and transferring the heat from the warm air to the occupants of the room by radiation. However, the novel structural arrangement disclosed above is believed to be more simple, more compact, more effective and capable of being more readily installed with fewer changes in building structures, than the structures of this type previously known.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is as follows:
l. In heating apparatus, the combination of an upright defining side wall for a room comprising a pair of upright side wall members arranged in spaced substantially parallel relation and dening a closed air space therebetween, upper and lower members closing the upper and lower sides of said air space and upright spacing members extending between the side wall members and closing the upright sides of said air space; an upright partition arranged within said air space and .in spaced relation with respect to the inside surfaces of said side wall members to define therewith an upgoing passage along the inside surface of one side wall member and a downcoming passage along the inside surface of the other of said side wall members; said partition terminating short of said upper and lower members to provide communication between the passages at their upper and lower ends; a tubular heating element arranged in the lower end of said 'upgoing passage and in the lower end of said downcoming passage and being so constructed that a larger external heating surface is provided in the upgoing passage than is provided in the downcoming passage; and means for supplying a heating uid to said heating element.
2. In heating apparatus, the combination of an upright dening side wall for a room comprising a pair of upright side wall members arranged in spaced substantially parallel relation and defining a closed air space therebetween, upper and lower members closing the upper and lower sides of said air space and upright spacing members,
extending between the side wall members and closing the upright sides of said air space; an upright partition arranged within said air space and in spaced relation with respect to the inside surfaces of said side wall members to define therewith an upgoing passage along the inside surface of one side wall member and a downcoming passage along the inside surface of said other side wall member; said partition terminating 4short of said upper and lower members to provide communication between the passages at their upper and lower ends; and a tubular heating element arranged within the lower part of said air space and extending in the general direction of said side wall and between the inside surfaces of the spacing members; said tubular heating element being L-shaped in vertical cross-section and arranged with its horizontal leg at the lower ends of both said upgoing and said downcoming passages and with its vertical leg arranged in said upgoing passage; and means for supplying a heating fluid to said heating element.
3. Heating apparatus for a room comprising an upright hollow side wall extending along one side of the room and between the floor and ceiling thereof and being composed of parallel inner and outer wall members spaced from one another to define an air space therebetween; a bottom closure member extending across the lower part of said side wall at the floor level and closing the lower part of said air space; a top closure member extending across the upper part of said side wall at the ceiling level and closing the upper part of said air space; an upright partition arranged within said air space and in the general plane of said side wall and being spaced from the inner and outer wall members to deiine therewith parallel upgoing and downcoming passages,
respectively, connected at their lower and upper ends to provide for continuous circulation of air through said space; and a. tubular heating device arranged within the lower end of said upgoing air space and adapted to be supplied with a heating iiuid.
4. Heating apparatus for a room comprising an upright hollow side wall extending along one side of the room and between the floor and ceiling thereof and being composed of parallel inner and outer wall members spaced from one another to define an air space therebetween; a bottom closure member extending across the lower part of said side wall adjacent the level of the floor and closing the lower part of said air space; 'a top closure member extending across the upper part of said side wall and adjacent the level of the ceiling and closing the upper part of said air space; an upright partition arranged within said air space and in the general plane of said side wall and being spaced from the inner and outer wall members to define therewith parallel upgoing and downcoming passages, respectively, connected at their lower and upper ends to provide for continuous circulation of air through said space; a tubular heating device arranged within the lower end of said upgoing air space and adapted to be supplied with a heating fluid; the lower part of said inner wall member having an opening therein providing access to said heating device; and av baseboard member normally closing said opening.
5. Heating apparatus for a room comprising an upright hollow side wall extending along one side of the room and between the floor and ceiling thereof and being composed oi' parallel inner and outer wall members spaced from one another to denne an air space therebetween; a bottom beam member extending across the lower part of said side wall adjacent the level of the floor and closing the lower part of said air space; a top beam member extending across the upper part of said side wall and adjacent the ceiling level and closing the upper part of said air space; a pair of spaced upright studs arranged between the inner and outer members and'extending between the two beam members and providing side closures for said air space; an upright partition arranged within said air space between studs and spaced from the inner surfaces of the inner and outer wall members to divide said air space into upgoing and downcoming passages, respectively, connected at their lower and upper ends to provide for continuous circulation of air through said air space; and a tubular heating device arranged in the lower end of said upgoing passage andl adapted to be supplied with a heating fluid.
.6. Heating apparatus for a room comprising an upright hollow side wall extending along one side o! the room and between the floor and ceiling thereof` and being composed of parallel inner and outer wall members spaced from one another to define an air space therebetween; a bottom beam member extending across the lower part of said side wall adjacent the level of the floor and closing the lower part of said air space; a top beam member extending across the upper part of said side wall and adjacent the ceiling level and closing the upper part oi said air space; a pair of spaced upright studs arranged between the inner and outer members and extending between the two beam members and providing side closure members for said air space; an upright partition arranged within said air space between studs and spaced from the inner surfaces of the inner and outer wall members to divide said air space into upgoing and downcoming passages, respectively, connected at their lower and upper ends to provide for continuous circulation of air through said air space; a tubular heating device arranged in the lower end of said upgoing passage and adapted to be supplied with a heating fluid; said inner wall member having an opening therein adjacent the lower part of said air space and providing communication with said heating device; and a baseboard member normally closing said opening.
7. Heating apparatus for a room comprising an upright hollowside wall extending along one side of said room and between the iloor and ceiling thereof and being composed of parallel inner and outer wall members spaced from one another to define an airA space therebetween; a bottom beam member extending across the lower part of said side wall adjacent the level of the oor and closing the lower part of said air space; a top beam member extending across the upper part of said side wall and adjacent the level of the ceiling and closing the upper part of said air space;
.a plurality of upright spaced studs resting at I to provide for continuous circulation of air; a
tubular heating device arranged in the lower end of the upgoing passage of each section and adapted to be supplied with a heating iluid; the lower part of said inner wall member having an openingv providing access to said heating device; and a baseboard vmember normally closing said opening.
BERNARD GOERG.
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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2427673A (en) * 1942-05-15 1947-09-23 Motorola Inc Air-heating system
US2598842A (en) * 1949-04-13 1952-06-03 Lewis L Scott Radiant heating system
US3020384A (en) * 1959-04-20 1962-02-06 Maxwell K Murphy Dual radiant heater
US3563305A (en) * 1969-04-14 1971-02-16 Harold R Hay Process and apparatus for modulating temperatures within enclosures
US4735257A (en) * 1982-03-08 1988-04-05 Future Energy Ab Arrangement in internal panels for eliminating cold radiating surfaces on walls, ceilings and floors

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2427673A (en) * 1942-05-15 1947-09-23 Motorola Inc Air-heating system
US2598842A (en) * 1949-04-13 1952-06-03 Lewis L Scott Radiant heating system
US3020384A (en) * 1959-04-20 1962-02-06 Maxwell K Murphy Dual radiant heater
US3563305A (en) * 1969-04-14 1971-02-16 Harold R Hay Process and apparatus for modulating temperatures within enclosures
US4735257A (en) * 1982-03-08 1988-04-05 Future Energy Ab Arrangement in internal panels for eliminating cold radiating surfaces on walls, ceilings and floors

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