US2110371A - Product and process for the manufacture thereof - Google Patents

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US2110371A
US2110371A US20368A US2036835A US2110371A US 2110371 A US2110371 A US 2110371A US 20368 A US20368 A US 20368A US 2036835 A US2036835 A US 2036835A US 2110371 A US2110371 A US 2110371A
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fibre
felting
fibres
deformations
cutter
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US20368A
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George S Radford
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Hat Corp
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR MAN-MADE THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01CCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF NATURAL FILAMENTARY OR FIBROUS MATERIAL TO OBTAIN FILAMENTS OR FIBRES FOR SPINNING; CARBONISING RAGS TO RECOVER ANIMAL FIBRES
    • D01C3/00Treatment of animal material, e.g. chemical scouring of wool
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/29Coated or structually defined flake, particle, cell, strand, strand portion, rod, filament, macroscopic fiber or mass thereof
    • Y10T428/2913Rod, strand, filament or fiber
    • Y10T428/2933Coated or with bond, impregnation or core
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/29Coated or structually defined flake, particle, cell, strand, strand portion, rod, filament, macroscopic fiber or mass thereof
    • Y10T428/2913Rod, strand, filament or fiber
    • Y10T428/2973Particular cross section

Description

G. S. RADFORD March 8, 1938. 2,110,371

PRODUCT AND PROCESS FOR THE MANUFACTURE THEREOF Filed May 8, 1935 no 5 /14 W 5 115 $IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIVIIIIAR INVENTOR 6EORGE' 5. RADFORD ORNEYI;

j v i a IaALIiB-LE COPY UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE PRODUCT AND PROCESS FOR THE MANU- FACTURE THEREOF George S. Radford, Norwalk, Conn., assignor to Hat Corporation of America, Norwalk, Conn, a corporation of Delaware Application May 8, 1935, Serial No. 20,368

11 Claims.

The great variety of fibres used in the textile arts may be considered, for our present purpose, as separable into two groups, namely felting and 1() non-felting fibres, depending on Whether they do or do not possess the property of felting; either in the manufacture of a felted cloth by applying the fulling and milling processes to a woven or knitted fabric, or in the manufacture of true felt 5 in which the constituent fibres are moved from a loosely arranged layer into a closely intermingled, intermeshed, and interlocked relationship without recourse to spinning, weaving, or knitting. Thus, the felting property of the felting fibres enables them-under the repeated pressure, manipulation, flexing, and rubbing of the felting processesto move from a more or less loose arrangement into the much closer, denser, and intertwined and interlocked felted positions in which they are given a permanent set. The felting property is limited to a relatively small group of fibres, such for example, as the wool of sheep and certain fur fibres of other animals; and varies widely in intensity.

The felting property is dependent on a number of interrelated factors such as the shape of the fibre, its diameter, length, density, plasticity, elasticity, and resilience, plus one essential and distinguishing characteristic, namely, the possession of an outer surface covering of a multitude of minute scales or serrations. The tips or edges of these scales project only slightly, but they point in the same direction, i. e. toward the tip of the fibre. They result in an obviously greater friction lengthwise of the fibre from tip to base, and thus provide a multiplicity of tiny fulcrum points which favor mono-directional motion under the action of the felting processes.

The partial destruction of these scales on fur, 45 as for example by chlorination, causes a corresponding loss in felting property. Similarly, when non-felting fibres are mixed with felting fibres and subjected to the felting processes, the

ited and restricted to the class of fibres which naturally possess the characteristics essential to felting. The purpose of this invention, as hereinafter described and claimed, is to widely extend the field of textile fibres available for use in making felt and felted fabrics, and thereby to secure the many economical, technical, and fashion advantages accruing to the creation of a new and novel class of articles of commerce.

In general terms, this invention relates to imparting to any fibre (such as fibrous thread, cellulose acetate, and other synthetic fibres, and Various filar materials) the characteristics essential to felting or a partial degree of felting, mainly by creating mono-directional deformations or projections on the surface of said fibre; or when advisable, on a suitable surface coating applied to said fibre; it being noted that the fibre may be first formed into a fine thread for this processing and later cut to a suitable length of staple.

In natural fur the scales point toward the tip of the fur and tend to inch or push the butt end rather than the pointed end forwardly in the mass. It is an object of the present invention to provide a fibre having a scale like structure or serrations leaning away from the point so that their fulcrum like action will inch the pointed end forwardly rather than the butt end and thereby improve the processing.

An advantageous feature of the present invention is the provision of felting fibres which entirely eliminate the costly and uncertain operation of carroting wherein fur is treated with solutions of nitric acid and nitrate of mercury or various other chemicals.

Heretofore all felting fibres were essentially of a circular shape. A feature of the present invention is the provision of fibres of rectangular and other irregular cross sections having felting characteristics, as well as the usual circular shape.

At the present time there are many synthetic fibres such as rayon, acetate cellulose, and the like having certain physical, chemical, and dyeing characteristics, which are desirable in felted material for various reasons but such fibres cannot be felted by themselves alone. It is an important object of the present invention to provide synthetic fibres of this type with felting characteristics.

In meeting this object the present invention provides the advantageous feature of a new material capable of effecting economies in the cost of materials in various products, and the advantageous feature of a new material making possible entirely new products, and new and novel results such as new color effects and new surface appearance and feel in old or well known products.

Other objects, features, and advantages will appear hereinafter.

The term fibre as used herein is intended to include any filamentous material (whether it be short or long) such as cotton, wool, or linen thread, possibly impregnated with a stiffening agent or covered with a plastic such as cellulose acetate; or such as complete rayon, cellulose acetate, and other synthetic fibres of round, tubular, square or other irregular cross section. Further,

it may include fibre such as animal fur and hair,

for it is within the purview of the present invention to change the surface characteristics of fur and hair to improve its felting properties.

In the drawing:

Fig. 1 is a plan view of one form of fibre made in accordance with the present invention, having fabricatedsmall semi-circular deformations.

Fig. 1A is an end view of Fig. 1.

Fig. 2 is a plan view of another form of fibre with fabricated annular deformations.

Fig. 2A is an end view of Fig. 2.

Fig. 3 is a plan view of a fibre with angularly disposed deformations.

Fig. 3A is an end view of Fig. 3.

Fig. 4 is a plan view of a flat fibre with fabricated deformations.

Fig. 4A is an end view of Fig. 4.

Fig. 5 is a plan view of another form of fibre.

Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic view of one form of apparatus for producing fibres according to the present invention.

Fig. 7 is a fragmentary detail of a modified form of cutter to be used with the apparatus shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic view of a modified form of apparatus in which circular cutters are employed.

Figure 9 is a diagrammatic view of another form of apparatus.

Fig. 10 is a detail of one form of cutter.

Fig. 10A is an end view of Fig. 10.

Fig. 11 is a detail of another form of cutter.

Fig. 11A is an end view of Fig. 11.

Fig. 12 is a detail of a bristle with duo-directional deformations made in accordance with the present invention.

Fig. 12A is an end view of Fig. 12. V

Fig. 13 is a fragmentary detail view of th shaping and severing cutter, on an enlarged scale.

Fig. 14 is an enlarged fragmentary detail of the shaping and severing cutter in the operative position.

The present preferred form of new article provided by the present invention is disclosed in Fig. 1 and comprises a fibre ll, of cellulose acetate or other filamentous material, which originally had but limited or no felting properties, having minute mono-directional deformations l5 fabricated on its outer surface, preferably pressed or cut thereon in large numbers in the form of minute projections and barbs. The illustration in Fig. 1 is on a very much enlarged scale, and the deformations l5 thereon are also in general less in quantity and greater in proportional size than is most generally preferred, in order to more clearly illustrate the invention. As used herein the term fibre is intended to cover primarily a single filament as distinguished from a bundle of a plurality of separate and distinct filaments.

The deformations IS on the fibre I4 have the characteristic of inching or causing the individual fibres to travel relative to each other as a loose mass thereof is worked by any usual pressing, felting, or milling process, and also to efficiently intermesh and interlock together in order to make a thoroughly felted body. Of particular importance, the present invention thus provides a normally non-felting fibre with structure for changing it into a fibre with felting properties, and also for changing a fibre with limited felting properties into one with extensive felting properties.

One form of apparatus l6 for producing the fibre l4 of Fig. 1 is illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. 6 and comprises a base member ll having near its center a support I8 with a curved top [9 over which the fibre l4 may be passed. Movement of the fibre over the support [8 may be effected by hand or by any suitable mechanical driving means. For illustration, the present invention provides a fibre moving mechanism 20 including a play-off reel 2i detachably mounted on a stud 22 at the top of an upstanding standard 23 on one side of the support l6, and a takeup reel 24 similarly mounted on a shaft 25 at the top of an upstanding standard 26 on the opposite side of the apparatus. A crank 21 may be suitably secured to the shaft 25 in order to turn the take-up reel and pull the fibre from the play-off reel across the top of the support l8 and onto the take-up reel. However, in its place a belt and pulley connection 28 or any other type of driving connection may be associated with any suitable source of power in order to turn it automatically at an even rate of speed, if desired.

A deforming mechanism 30 is provided on this apparatus I6 for fabricating deformations I5 on the surface of the fibres i4 passed over the support l8 and includes a cutter 3| on a cutter carrier 32 which is pivotally mounted on a stud 33. The carrier is preferably provided with a spring 34 having anend engaging a pin 35 to normally urge the cutter 3| upwardly in order to have the cutting edge 36 thereof normally clear the fibre l4 as it passes over the support i8. Movement of the cutter and carrier to an inoperative position is limited by a contact screw 31 carried by a bracket 38, suitably secured on a fibre or other insulating plate 39. Movement of the cutter toward the operative position, for cutting into the fibre I4, is limited by a similar regulating screw 40 carried by the fibre plate 39.

Oscillation or movement of the cutter 3| from the inoperative to the operative position for cutting barbs or otherwise fabricating surface deformations l5 into the fibre may be accomplished by various means. In the present illustration, shown in Fig. 6, this is accomplished through the provision of an electro-magnetic mechanism 4| and by arranging the cutter carrier 32 to carry a vibrator armature 42. electro-magnet 43 is secured to an insulating strip 44 held to the base I! by screws 45. It is energized by a battery 46 with one lead 41 extending to one end of the electro-magnet 43 and another lead 48 extending to the contact screw 31, thence through the cutter carrier 32 to a secondary lead 49 at the other end to the electro-magnet.

The cutter carrier 32 is provided with a soft iron armature 42 so that when the electro-magnets are energized, the cutter carrier 32 and cutter 3| will be quickly drawn toward the operative position against the regulating screw 40. As

the cutter carrier 32 is pulled away from the cont-act screw by electro-magnetic force to the regulating screw, the flow of current to the elec tro-magnet is interrupted, whereupon the latter becomes de-energized again and allows the carrier to be returned to the inoperative position by the spring 34. Through having a close relation between the contact screw 31 and the regulating screw 40, the carrier arm 32 is oscillated at a very high frequency and thereby fabricates a great many deformations l during the passage of the fibre 4 over the support l8, and when they are farther apart, fewer deformations are fabricated in the fibre even though it is travelling at the same rate of speed. By adjusting the regulating screw 46, either very minute or large deformations may be fabricated in the fibre.

The fibre |4 may be run over the support I8 a number of times in order to form rows of deformations entirely around the periphery, as is indicated in Fig. 1, by changing the rolls 2| and 24 around on the standards 23 and 26, and by passing the fibre over the support la a number of times. An alternative and quicker method is to provide an auxiliary standard 59 with an auxiliary roller 5| adapted to take the fibre as it first passes over the support and return it through an opening 52 in the support l8 around an underlying curved surface 53 to be passed over the curved top l9 two or more times under the cutter 3|, even though there is only one complete passage from the play-off reel to the takeup reel. If the cutter 3| is of sufficient width and the fibre is passed around the curved surface 53 and top l9 enough times, the entire periphery of the fibre may be fabricated with deformations during only one such passage.

Similarly, a band or warp consisting of many parallel strands of threads may be run through the mechanism, instead of a single thread. A complete article such as a ribbon with warp and woof threads may likewise have mono-directional surface deformations fabricated thereon.

Fig. 7 illustrates a modified form of cutter 3| having a plurality of cutting teeth 36' which, as shown, will fabricate four barbs into the periphery of the fibre each time the carrier 32 is vibrated. If preferred, the cutting edges 36 and 36' of the cutters 3| or 3| respectively may be angularly rather than transversely disposed relative to the path of travel of the fibre in order to form angularly disposed rather than transversely notched barbs, or other deformations in the fibre similar to the deformations I I! in Fig. 3.

Fig. 8 illustrates another form of apparatus 54 adapted to fabricate mono-directional surface deformations |5 in the fibre, fibrous thread l4, or parallel band of such threads, differing from the form of apparatus shown in Fig. 6 and just described in detail mainly by the provision of circular cutter rolls 55 and 56 as distinguished from a reciprocating or oscillating cutter 3|. The cutter roll 55 is mounted on a suitable shaft 51 in a standard 58 on a base 59 while the cooperating cutter 56 is similarly mounted on a shaft 66 in an adjustable standard 6| mounted for a limited range of spacing relative to the cutter 55 through the provision of a slot 62 and holding screws 63.

Gears 6 and 65 on the shafts 51 and 60 mesh and coordinately drive the cutters 55 and 56 in a clockwise and counterclockwise direction respectively. The teeth 66 on the cutters 55 and 56 may be in the form of a calender resembling that used in the Schreinering process, of substantial width, and the gears 64 and 65 may be driven, for example, by a belt connection 61, or any other suitable driving means. 'The base 59 may be provided with a guide 68 to receive the cut fibre and may be provided with a top guide 69 on a standard to support and guide the uncut fibre.

By having the circular cutters 55 and 56 of the apparatus shown in Fig. 8 of substantial width it is possible to pass a large number of fibres l4 through this form of apparatus at one time to simultaneously form barbs on two sides, and by having a plurality of such apparatus 54, one below the other, and with the cutters of each at an angle to the other, as will be understood readily by an ordinary mechanic, deformations may be simultaneously formed on more than two sides. Loose fur may also be passed between the rolls 55 and 56 to fabricate deformations l5 therein to impart or to improve its felting characteristics. Thus also, non-felting hair, as distinguished from felting fur, may be given felting properties.

As the cutters are rotated by the gears 64 and 65, successive teeth 66 engage the fibre I4 to fabricate mono-directional deformations |5 similar to the barbs shown in Fig. 1. A modification of this process would provide for drawing the threads through a series of cutting rollers so as to revolve the said rollers as they cut, without recourse to revolving the rollers by direct drive.

A fibre H, as shown in Fig. 4, having a substantially rectangular body may be easily and quickly provided with barbs 12 or other deformations in the apparatus 54, shown in Fig. 8,

through the provision of guide bushings 68 and 69 having rectangular shaped holes rather than round holes. This form of fibre may also be fabricated in the apparatus shown in Fig. 6 by merely providing a suitable channel, shown by dot-and-dash lines 73, in order to hold the thin edge 14 of the fibre toward the cutter 3| or 3|.

In some instances it may be preferred to have a fibre 75 with complete or substantially complete annular shaped deformations 16 as shown in Fig. 2. It is felt that a fibre of this form will have some advantages or will improve the felting characteristics of a mass of fibres by providing felting deformations entirely about its periphery or a relatively continuous spiral. Thus, a barb on a cooperating hair, fur, or fibre is sure to find an annular barb on this fibre at very short intervals through its length. It will not ride over short or narrow smooth places between individual barbs as might otherwise occur.

Figs. 9, 10, and 11 illustrate the present preferred apparatus 18 for fabricating fibres of the form shown in Fig. 2 and comprises a base 19 supporting cutter-carriers 86 and BI on pivots 82 and 83 respectively. Cutters, like 84, of predetermined shape may be interchangeably connected to the carrier arms 80 and 8| by screws 85. Segments 86 and 81 secured to the shafts 82 and 83 insure coordinate movement of the cutters 84 both toward an operative cutting position relative to a fibre M or to an inoperative or retracted position which these parts normally assume under the influence of springs 88 and 89. Contact screws 90 and 9| in insulating blocks 96' and 9| are provided to limit this retracted movement of the carriers 86 and 8| to the inoperative position.

Top and bottom guide bushings 92 and 93 insure a proper travel of the fibre |4 relative to the cutters 84. Holes in these bushings are formed to accommodate and direct different sizes and different shapes of fibres to and from the cutters.

Electro-magnetic mechanisms 94 and 95 are provided to move the carrier arms 80 and BI upwardly and thereby move the associated cutters 84 toward the fibre I4 or toward the operative cutting position. These magnets are, through an insulating plate 96, secured to an upper wall I9 of the base member I9 by suitable screws. Movement of the carrier-arms 80 and 8I toward the operative position is limited by regulating screws 91 and 98.

Energy is transmitted to the electro-magnetic coils 99 and I through lines IM and I02 extending from the armatures formed by the carriers 80 and BI and to contact screws 90 and 9| and lines IN and I02 to one side of a battery I03 while leads I04 and I05 extend from the electro-magnets to a switch I06 thence through a lead III! to the other side of the battery. The gear segments 86 and 81 serve to insure coordinate movement of the cutters 84 both toward and from the operative position and serves to dispense with one electro-magnet mechanism, if preferred.

Feed rolls I08 are provided on a standard I09 to feed the fibre I4 through the apparatus 54, although the cutters 84 in their movement towards the operative position may also be used for this purpose. These feed rollers may be rotated by a hand crank or by any suitable power means.

Plain cutters 84, as shown in Fig. 9, may be provided to fabricate deformations I5 on the pe riphery of the fibre I4 similar to the barbs shown in Fig. 1. However, if preferred, these cutters may be replaced with a pair of cutters III! as shown in Fig. 10 in order to form the annular deformations 16 in the fibre I5 as shown in Fig. 2. The cutters I I0 are provided with conical shaped surfaces H3 and H4 having a diameter at its root similar to the diameter shown by dotted lines in Fig. 2 and flaring outwardly therefrom with a suitable rake or angle to form the annular deformations I6. These annular rings or deformations may be spaced any desired extent from each other along the length of the fibre.

Fig. 11 shows a similar pair of cutters I I 5 having angularly disposed teeth adapted to form the fibre II6 with angularly or spirally disposed deformations I I! as shown in Fig. 3.

In the formation of felt it is preferable to have the fibres of rather short length so that they interlock and intermesh better. Fig. 9 illustrates one mechanism II8 for cutting the fibres having deformations as hereinbefore described into any desired short length, comprising a fixed cutter II9 on the underside of the base I9 and a slidable cutter I20 adapted to be moved toward and from the stationary cutter in a suitable channel I2I by an eccentric I22 having a handle I23. If preferred, this movable cutter may be power driven in unison with the feed rolls I 08 in order to have all of the fibres cut to the same length.

Preferably, the cutters H9 and I20 are provided with shaped walls I24 and adapted to cut the fibre ends to predetermined shapes. As shown, the walls are of a. substantially conical shape adapted to form a pointed end I25 and a blunt end I26 to the individual fibres as they are chopped off. This is effected by a pressing and crushing action rather than a shearing action,

as will be apparent by viewing the enlarged fragmentary detail views, Figs. 13 and 14, of the cutters. Points on the ends of the individual fibres opposite from the direction the deformations project, improve the felting operation or effect by facilitating the action of the fibres working down in the interstices between the loose furs or fibres in the felt mass.

It should be particularly noted that by so pointing the fibres the present invention provides, an

improvement over natural fur for the reason'thap in natural fur the so-called scales lean toward the natural point of the fur and thereby tend to inch the butt or blunt end of a hair or fur down into the mass rather than the thin pointed end.

As shown in Fig. 3, the various fibres may be in the form of a usual fibrous cotton or wool or other thread I21 with a coating I28 of acetate cellulose or other plastic material, with the latter adapted to receive and form the surface deformations. Or, as shown in Fig. 5, the entire fibre may be a fibrous thread I29 impregnated with starch or other stiffening agent so that it will hold its point I25 when out to length. and so that the mono-directional fibres I30 of the mass at the end, formed when crushing and separating individual fibres, will hold their shape substantially. Fig. 12 illustrates a fibre It, with barbs I5 and I5 extending in opposite directions, fabricated on the fibre. After felting, the coating may be dissolved away if so desired.

Thus, the present invention provides an important new article of manufacture comprising felting fibres made from normally non-felting fibres which may be used alone to produce a new form of felt mass or may be used in combination with natural fur fibres to produce new effects in hats or wearing apparel and many other articles. Not only is it possible to obtain new effects and new color combinations, but definite economies may be effected, for the novel fibres of the present invention may be produced at very little cost. The present invention eonjointly provides a novel process and apparatus for producing the aforesaid novel fibres.

The fibres with fabricated deformations provided by the present invention may be used alone or with regular felting fibres to form. felted hats,

foot wear, sound absorbing pads, and many other commercial articles.

It is within the purview of this invention to provide deformation other than projections or barbs on the various fibres; for example, the cutters 3| and 3| maybe heated as by the flame I34,of any suitably located burner I35 with a shield I31, or any other suitable heater, whereupon the point 36 or 3'6 burns a slot-like depression into the fibre to fabricate deformations which will not project from the fibre, but which will nevertheless provide deformations imparting felting characteristics to the fibre.

Other variations and modifications may be made within the scope of this invention, and portions of the improvements may be used without others.

Having thus described the present preferred forms of the invention, what is claimed as new and for which it is desired to obtain Letters Patent is:

1. A new article of manufacture consisting of a normally non-felting filament; and mono-directional surface projections on said filament, imparting felting characteristics thereto.

2. A new article of manufacture consisting of a normally non-felting filament; and tooth-like projections extending uniformly from the outer surface of the filament, imparting felting characteristics thereto.

3. A new article of manufacture consisting of a single normally non-felting fibre; and barbs on said fibre extending lengthwise thereof, imparting felting characteristics thereto.

4. A new article of manufacture consisting of a fibre having fabricated annular projections thereon.

5. A new article of manufacture consisting of a fibre having fabricated mono-directional deformations thereon defining barbs extending lengthwise thereof.

6. A new article of manufacture consisting of a fibre with a fibrous thread core; a coating thereon; and mono-directional projections fabricated in the coating.

7. A new article of manufacture consisting of a normally non-felting fibre; surface deformations on said fibre defining barbs, imparting felting characteristics thereto; and a pointed end on said fibre.

8. The process of converting a non-felting fibre into a felting fibre, consisting of fabricating monodirectional definite projections on the periphery thereof.

9. The process of converting a single non-felting fibre into a felting fibre, consisting of fabricating barbs thereon.

10. The process of imparting felting characteristics to a normally non-felting fibre, consisting of fabricating mono-directional substantial barbs thereon extending lengthwise thereof.

11. The process of producing a felting fibre consisting in the steps of feeding a long filament; fabricating mono-directional projections thereon; and cutting the long filament to short predetermined lengths.

GEORGE S. RADFORD.

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2434533A (en) * 1945-05-24 1948-01-13 Paul D Wurzburger Imitation filaments, ropes, yarns, and the like
US2736946A (en) * 1952-07-03 1956-03-06 Dow Chemical Co Polyacrylonitrile fibers having a scaly integument
US2743511A (en) * 1952-11-05 1956-05-01 Nat Plastic Products Company Scouring pad and filament
US2819987A (en) * 1956-05-03 1958-01-14 Gen Motors Corp Friction material
US3096563A (en) * 1959-06-18 1963-07-09 Du Pont Novel fabric of improved cover and reduced slickness
US3096557A (en) * 1961-01-03 1963-07-09 Du Pont Process for hot-wet calendering fabrics
US3325845A (en) * 1965-02-26 1967-06-20 Int Playtex Corp Nylon bristle resembling natural bristle
US4373541A (en) * 1979-08-07 1983-02-15 Nishioka Gary J Bristle structure for brushes and brush assembly
US5678275A (en) * 1995-06-30 1997-10-21 Derfner; Nitza Toothbrush with bristles having intermediate roughened portion
US5722106A (en) * 1995-02-01 1998-03-03 Gillette Canada Inc. Tooth polishing brush
WO2001003543A1 (en) * 1999-07-13 2001-01-18 Pedex & Co. Gmbh Method of producing multi-layered bristle material, multi-layered bristle and its use
WO2001003545A1 (en) * 1999-07-08 2001-01-18 E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Brush filaments
US6391445B1 (en) 1998-04-24 2002-05-21 Pedex & Co. Gmbh Bristle, method for producing said bristle and a device with a bristle of this type
US20040011375A1 (en) * 2002-07-18 2004-01-22 Geka Brush Gmbh Mascara brush

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2434533A (en) * 1945-05-24 1948-01-13 Paul D Wurzburger Imitation filaments, ropes, yarns, and the like
US2736946A (en) * 1952-07-03 1956-03-06 Dow Chemical Co Polyacrylonitrile fibers having a scaly integument
US2743511A (en) * 1952-11-05 1956-05-01 Nat Plastic Products Company Scouring pad and filament
US2819987A (en) * 1956-05-03 1958-01-14 Gen Motors Corp Friction material
US3096563A (en) * 1959-06-18 1963-07-09 Du Pont Novel fabric of improved cover and reduced slickness
US3096557A (en) * 1961-01-03 1963-07-09 Du Pont Process for hot-wet calendering fabrics
US3325845A (en) * 1965-02-26 1967-06-20 Int Playtex Corp Nylon bristle resembling natural bristle
US4373541A (en) * 1979-08-07 1983-02-15 Nishioka Gary J Bristle structure for brushes and brush assembly
US6199242B1 (en) * 1995-02-01 2001-03-13 Gillette Canada Company Tooth polishing brush
US5722106A (en) * 1995-02-01 1998-03-03 Gillette Canada Inc. Tooth polishing brush
US5678275A (en) * 1995-06-30 1997-10-21 Derfner; Nitza Toothbrush with bristles having intermediate roughened portion
US6391445B1 (en) 1998-04-24 2002-05-21 Pedex & Co. Gmbh Bristle, method for producing said bristle and a device with a bristle of this type
WO2001003545A1 (en) * 1999-07-08 2001-01-18 E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Brush filaments
US6440557B1 (en) 1999-07-08 2002-08-27 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours & Co. Brush filaments
WO2001003543A1 (en) * 1999-07-13 2001-01-18 Pedex & Co. Gmbh Method of producing multi-layered bristle material, multi-layered bristle and its use
US20040011375A1 (en) * 2002-07-18 2004-01-22 Geka Brush Gmbh Mascara brush
US6962160B2 (en) * 2002-07-18 2005-11-08 Geka Brush Gmbh Mascara brush

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