US2045172A - Musical instrument - Google Patents

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US2045172A
US2045172A US722350A US72235034A US2045172A US 2045172 A US2045172 A US 2045172A US 722350 A US722350 A US 722350A US 72235034 A US72235034 A US 72235034A US 2045172 A US2045172 A US 2045172A
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key
board
keys
manual
devices
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US722350A
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Yungblut Gibson
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BALDWIN Co
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BALDWIN CO
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10HELECTROPHONIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
    • G10H1/00Details of electrophonic musical instruments

Description

June 23, G. YUNGBLUT MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed April 25, 1934 8 Sheets-Sheet l 2e 29 so 34 32 mumf INVENTOR, Gflbse'n Yumgbiui ATTORNEYS G. YUNGBLUT MUS I CAL INSTRUMENT June 23, 1936.

Filed April 25, 1934 8 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR, H SDN Yumgbluct ATTORNEYS.

June 23, 1936. G. YUNGBLUT MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed April '25, 1934 8 Sheets-Sheet4 INVENTOR, Gubson vuhgblut Gila 1 1",, III

ATTORNEYS.

June 23, 1936. G NG 2,045,172

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed April 25, 1954 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 %igowo INVENTOR,

June 23, 1936. YUNGBLUT 2,045,172-

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed April 25, 1934 8 Sheets-Sheet 6 INVENTOR, l bson YungbB uf iwi w ATTORNEYS.

June 23, 1 936. YUNGBLUT 2,045,172

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed April 25, 1934 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 INVENTOR GHbSO lungblut ATTORNEYS.

June 23, 1936. G. YUNGBLUT 2,045,172

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed April 25, 1934 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 MMMMMM INVENTOR.

Glaso/v )inveaLuz ATTORNEYS Patented .lune 23, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT, OFFICE MUSICAL INSTRUIHENT corporation of Ohio Application April 25, 1934, Serial No. 722.350

Claims.

My invention relates to devices for producing electrical music and one of its fundamental objects is the simplification of the construction of electrical musical instruments of the key-board type. It has been known that electrical pulsations of given and controllable frequency can be produced by a relatively wide variety of electrical means, and that the pulsations so produced can be controlled in their generation or modified after generation to produce substantially any wave form desired, so that when such pulsations are converted into sound waves as by means of a loud speaker or the like, a tone of substantially any timbre desired maybe produced. In this Way it is possible by purely electrical means sub stantially to reproduce the sound of any given instrument or to create new and pleasing musical tones. A large number of types of generating circuits have been suggested including oscillat-= lng audion tubes, oscillating neon tubes and the like, and most of these circuits are capable of variation to change the frequency of the pulse.- tions and therefore the pitch of the audible sounds so produced, over a fairly wide range. Instru ments embodying such circuits have, however, taken the form of a device upon which but one note could be played at a time for solo work, or of a device in which several oscillating circuits have been provided capable of simultaneous variation to produce chords; but the latter type of instrument has not been. played by means of the ordinary key-board but has required a special apparatus and a special technique. Where ordinary key-boards or manuals have been provided,

and where flexibility has been attempted to permit the simultaneous striking of any desired combination of notes, it has been thought necessary to provide a separate generator of electrical pulsations for each note represented by each keyin the manual. Such instruments, while some of them have been satisfactory from the standpoint of ultimate results, have obviously required the employment of great quantities of apparatus and have entailed very great expense.

It is an object of my invention to provide a key-board instrument having all of the flexibility of such instruments as the piano, the reed organ or the pipe organ, while at the same time greatly cutting down the number of oscillating circuits required and the quantity of apparatus needed.

It is still another object of my invention to simplify the construction of hey-board instru-- ments which are to control electrical circuits directly to do away with the complication of ap paratus, the mechanical coupling devices and the like heretofore employed, and to produce an exceedingly inexpensive construction in an instrument of great flexibility.

It is still another object of my invention to provide in a key-board instrument of the organ 5 type,'means for securing a'dynamic quality in the tones produced so that the force with which the performer strikes the keys for example, will be reflected either in the volumeof sound produced or in the timbre of the note or both, as desired.

These and other objects of my invention which will be set forth hereinafter or will be apparent to one skilled in the art upon reading these specifications, I accomplish by that certain construction and arrangement of parts of which I shall now describe certain exemplary embodiments.

Reference may be had to the drawings, in which:

Figure l is a diagrammatic representation of 20 a portion of a key-board, with lines indicating the manner in which the keys of the key-board are made to control a certain grouping of electrical circuits.

Figure 2 is a circuit diagram showing one form of oscillating circuit which may be employed.

Figure 2a shows a mode of connecting a plurality of keys to one oscillating circuit so as to avoid interference if more than one of such keys are struck simultaneously.

Figure 2b is a plan view of a switch useful in the circuit arrangement of Fig. 2a.

Figure 2c is an elevational view thereof.

Figure 3 is a diagrammatic showing of selected keys or a two manual instrument, indicating the way in which these keys are caused selectively to control a pair of circuits.

Figure 4 is a semi-diagrammatic representation of a form of hey-board and control circuit construction in end elevation.

Figure 5 is a partial perspective view of a console. showing the elements indicated in Figure 1-.

Figure 5a. is a plan view of the manuals and key mountings for a'three manual instrument.

Figure 6 shows a way in which the switch actuating rods may be attached to the key bars.

Figure 7 is a plan view of one type of stop device which may be employed.

Figure his a sectional view thereof taken along the lines in Figure '1.

Figure 9 shows a construction for determining the position of the various switch boards.

Figure 10 is a sectional view through a portion of the console.

Figure 11 is a front view of a. portion of the .ner in which the keys of the foot keyboard are made to control a tone producing device.

One phase of my invention'as applied to the electrical production of music relates to a grouping of a plurality of oscillating circuits in such a way that for a complete key-board instrument the number of oscillating circuits can be very greatly cut down. The nature of the oscillating circuits employed is not alimitation upon my invention. Vacuum tube oscillating circuits, neon tube oscillating circuits or any of the well known devices for generating directly or by heat frequency meanselectrical pulsations of audio frequency may be employed, together with such stabilizing means and such means for controlling timbre and the like, as have been suggested in the art. In the first phase of my invention which I shall now more particularly describe, it is necessary only to premise the provision of an oscillating circuit capable of giving out pulsations useful to the end of producing pleasing musical notes, which circuit is capable of appropriate adjustment for producing pulsations of controlled and variable pitch. 0f such circuits, perhaps the simplest form and one which may be employed to illustrate the functioning of my invention is a well known circuit indicated diagrammatically in Figure 2, in whicha grid and plate of an audion tube are coupled together through a transformer of audio frequency type. The grid I may be connected through a condenser 2 to the secondary 3 of a transformer, the other secondary terminal of which is grounded through a lead 4. The plate 5 may be connected by a lead 6 to one terminal of the primary l of the transformer, the other terminal of which may be connected through a reproducing device or loud speaker 8 and a source or B potential 8 to ground. The filament of the tube is heated by a source of A potential iii. A variable resistance ii forming a leakage-path is connected as shown between the grid of the tube and ground. This forms a circuit adapted to oscillate at audio frequency, the pitch of which may be controlled in various ways. If the condenser 2 is of fixed capacity, a variation of the resistance II will control both the pitch and to a considerable degree, the timbre of the sound produced by the loud speaker. Similarly a variation of the value of the condenser 2 will control both the pitch and the timbre. By controlling the values of the condenser and the resistance, it is possible to produce sounds of the same pitch, but of different timbres,'or sounds of the same timbre but of different pitches.

While, as hereinabove indicated, my inven-'- tion is not restricted to the use 'of such an oscillating circuit, and while in the completed instrument the oscillating and controlling cir-- cuits may be considerably more complicated, may have stabilizing means in connection therewith, etc., this simple circuit will serve very well to illustrate a means which can be employed in carrying out my invention;

-and the ensuing description of this phase of my invention is-based upon the premise of the provision of a plurality of oscillating circuits,

each of which can be made to produce, not simultaneously but in succession, a plurality of tones of pitches which are slightly more than an octave apart. Such control of frequency may be had by variation of resistance in thecircuit or by variations of inductances or capacities, or in any other of the well known ways of controlling frequency electrically, which admit of the use of switches selectively connected to electrical circuit characteristic controlling elements.

Hitherto as I have indicated, it has been assumed that in order to produce a key-board instrument in which any one note can be simultaneously struck with any other note, it was necessary to provide a separate oscillating device for each note for each key in the key-board. If oscillating audion tubes were employed, in say, a five octave instrument, sixty of such tubes at least. would be required for a single manual five octave device. If two or more manuals are to be employed of equal octave range, the number of such tubes would be multiplied by the number of manuals.

In Figure 1, I have shown a portion of the keyboard containing approximately three octaves, and have shown resistances to the number of thirteen and indicated by the numbers 20 to 32 inclusive. These resistances may be thought of as the frequency or pitch controlling elements of thirteen separate oscillating circuits. The keys of the key-board are indicated generally at l3 and each of these keys may be thought of as controlling a switch not shown, connected to ground upon one side and upon the other, by means of leads indicated at M, Ma, etc., to one of the several resistances. The keys of the keyboard have been marked with notations indicating musical notes. It will be seen from this diagram that the first key, viz., C, is connected to a certain point on the resistance 28, which will give a reproduced tone of the desired frequency for this note. The next note C sharp, is connected by means of a lead Ila. to a point on the resistance 2| to give a reproduced note of the frequency desired for C sharp. Similarly each note in the first octave is connected selectively to such a point upon a separate resistance element of the series 20 to 32, as will give a reproduced note of the desired frequency. Thus, the key representing the note B is connected to the twelfth resistance numbered 3! in the diagram. The key representing C an octave above the first C in the key-board, is connected to the thirteenth resistance numbered 32. C sharp an octave above the first C is however, again connected to the first .resistance numbered'ZO, but is, of course, connected to such a point on said resistance as to give a reproduced note of the frequency appropriate to C sharp above the first C in the keyboard. Beginning with C sharp above the first C in the key-board, the keys are connected again to the several resistances in rotation as hereinabove described, the thirteenth resistance being connected to the key representing B, two octaves above the first C in the key-board. With the following key, viz., D sharp, the series is begun again, i. e.. by the connection of this note to the first resistance 20 and so on throughout the key-board for as many octaves as may be desired. This manner of connecting up the keys of the keyboard to a series of thirteen oscillating circuits repeatedly I shall hereinafter refer to, for brevity, as the thirteen principle".

If the keys of the key-board are connected up as hereinabove described, to thirteen oscillating Eli circuits, it follows that it will not be possible with the five fingers of one hand, and within the requirements of musical notation, to strike simul taneously two keys connected with the same oscillating circuit. Thus, it is possible to strike the first C in the key-board shown in Figure 1, simultaneously with any other key in the same octave, since all keys in this octave are made to control separate oscillating circuits. It is likewise possible to strike the first C in the key-board with .C an octave above since these keys also are connected to separate oscillating circuits. It would not be possible to strike the first C with C sharp an octave above because these are located to control the same oscillating circuit; but such a striking of the keys would not be necessary in musical notation. It would be possible to strike the first C with D an octave above, and similarly with D sharp and E an octave above; and beyond this point it is not normally possible to go with the human hand. The thirteen principle hereinabove described, not only permits the playing of octave notes together because they are not located upon the same oscillating circuit, but also offsets by half a tone the circuit connections of adjacent octaves. Thus, it is possible to strike the chords CEG in the first octave and CEG in the second octave with the fingers of both hands without interference, and for most musical requirements such a key-board as that indicated in. Figure 1 could be playedon with both hands, without interference.

Employing the principle set forth in Figures 1 and 13 hereinabove described, it would thus be possible to construct a very much simplified musical instrument comprising, say, two hand manuals and a foot keyboard with thirteen oscillating circuits, and thirteen oscillating tubes for each manual, and one oscillating circuit and tube for the foot keyboard employing a circuit variable as to frequency over the entire range desired for the foot keyboard, which in and oi itself would amount to a total of but 27 oscillating circuits as compared with say, 121 oscillating circuits for a similar five octave organ in which each key is provided with its own separate, oscillating circuit. Such a foot keyboard is shown diagrammatically in Figure 13, where 2E3 indicates the sound producing means adapted to be actuated at different frequencies by the foot pedals in the keyboard 83' through the leads l t. So long as one hand of the performer were kept upon one manual and the other on the other manual, and so long as the performer did not attempt to strike two notes simultaneously on the foot keyboard,

it would not be possible to produce interference in such an instrument by simultaneously attempting to sound two notes on the same oscillating circuit. This indicates however, a possible limitation in such an instrument, viz, that for the requirements of some musical scores it would be necessary to keep the hands separately upon the separate manuals. This limitation can be obviated and entire freedom allowed for the performer touse both hands on either manual as desired, by such means as are shown diagram-= matically in Figure 3. In this figure 1' have shown, both for the lower manual and for the up per manual, those particular keys which are connected to the same oscillating circuit. Thus in each manual C, C'sharp an octave above, D a second octave above, D sharp a third octave above, and E a fourth octave above, would all be con nected to the same oscillating circuit. By a suit-= able switching arrangement it is possible to pro videwith respect to each manual, that only the lowest or the highest note struck upon any oscillating circuit will sound. Reference may be made to the key id in the lower manual, which is arrangedto actuate five switches. Switches l6, ll, l8 and i9 when the key it is depressed, break circuits between the resistance 20 and the keys 33, 3t, 35 and 36. Immediately thereafter by means of the switch 31!, a contact to the resistance 20 is made appropriate for the sounding of the C note represented by the key iii. If through the operations of both hands on the lower manual any of the keys 33 to 36 inclusive were struck with key l5, only that tone appropriate to key. l will be sounded. It will be noted that whereas the key 45 controls in Figure 3, four switches for breaking circuits and one for making a circuit,

key 33 oontrolsbut three for breaking a circuit and one for making a circuit. Similarly the number of switches controlled by each key diminishes in accordance with the number of octaves so that the key 35 which is in the highestoctave of the lower manual, controls but one switch. Thus the keys in the lowermost thirteen notes of any given manual will control as many switches in this particular form of my invention as there are octaves in the manual. The keys for the second thirteen notes will control one less switch and so on.

The upper manual may similarly be'provided with controlling switches; but these may be, and preferably are, so arranged that only the highest note simultaneously struck on any oscillating circuit will be played. In the upper manual the keys have been indicated at 511, 33a, etc. The key 36a, when depressed, breaks circuits to the other keys shown in the diagram and then makes its own appropriate circuit indicated by the switch 31a to the resistance Eta, which is a frequency controlling element for one of the upper manual oscillating circuits. If provision is now made, as is well known in the pipe organ art, for coupling the manuals, such coupling being indicated by the dotted lines marked 33, it will be clear that either manual may be played upon with both hands without interference. If, for example, key Iii of the lower manual were depressed and simultaneously key 1% of the'lower manual were depressed, the note D, two octaves above the first C, would not be sounded upon, the oscillating circuit connected with resistance 2t, but would be sounded upon the circuit represented by the resistance Edd through the simultaneous depressing of key Ma. The note C on the lower manual would be sounded upon that oscillating circuit represented by resistance 26 but would not be sounded upon that oscillating circuit represented by resistance Eda, because the switch of key ltd in the upper manual would be thrown out of circuit by reason of the depressing of key Eda in the upper manual as described.

I have in this way provided for the simultaneous playing of both hands on either manual without interference. Where it is desired to play with one hand on each manual and to secure a difierent tone quality for each manual, the manual cou- 6 pling indicated diagrammatically at 35 would be disconnected and the oscillating circuits appropriate to each manual adjusted to whatever timbre or tonality is desired, It will be remembered that so long as one manual is being played upon by one hand only, no interference can result where the thirteen principle is employed.

To take up the second phase of my invention, I have provided a very much simplified construction of the various keyboards and the like,

-metal bars 39 pivoted to a common shaft (ill.

which makes provision for the several circuit arrangements which I have hereinabove described, without the necessity of complicated switching arrangements, or mechanical coupling between manuals. In this aspect of my invention I provide one or more manuals, as desired, each key or" each manual being arranged to operate a. controlling element. The controlling elements are arranged side by side, and a plurality of boards upon which appropriate switches are mounted are adapted to be moved into positions, selectively, in, which the various switches on the boards can be brought into operating relationship with the several sets of keys selectively. This is diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 4, wherein I have indicated a plurality of @ne set of these bars, 415, is straight and is connected directly to the keys 22 and Q3 of one manual. A block id is slotted to guide the bars M and to control their movement. A second set of the bars is bent upwardly at a point sufiicient to give clearance for upper manual keys. This set of bars is indicated at 55. It bears the upper manual keys 6t and ti. Again a slotted block ts is provided to guide the bars 65, and to finish on the front of the console. if the instrument is to have three manuals, a third set of bars 69 is bent'downwardly at a point suitable for clearance. Keys of the lower manual indicated at 50 and 50 are attached to these bars, and a slotted block 52 is provided to guide the bars and to ilnish ofi the console. To each of thebars, indicated generally at 35, there is attached. a vertically extending actuating rod 53, bearing abutment members 55. The end of each rod may be attached by means of a tension spring 55 to a supporting member to provide a controlled action and to return the keys when depressed.

I have indicated diagrammatically at hi to Gil,

inclusive, a plurality of parts which I have called switch boards, and to which are attached a plurality of switches of the jack type, indicated at ti. These switches are interspaced at proper intervals, and are adapted to be brought into position to be actuated by the abutment members 5 3 on the operatingrods 53. It will be clear that by moving the boards 57: to 5d, inclusive, to the right in Fig. 4, or by moving the board 613 to the left in Fig. 4, the switches on these boards will be brought out of any position in which the switches can be actuated by the rods 53. In other words, such a position of the boards is the off position. By moving the boards in the opposite direction they may be brought into the 021" position, which is a position in which the switches 6i can be actuated by the abutments 5Q.

Assuming that the instrument is of the three manual type illustrated in Fig. 4, it will be understood that there is a rod 53 for each key on each manual. Thus for middle 0" on each manual there will be a. rod 53, and these rods will lie vertically and along side of each other. It therefore follows that if the board iii, for example, bears a plurality of switches representing the notes in a succession of musical scales of a length determined by the length of the keyboard or manual, this board, by moving it to three positions selectively in a direction perpendicular to the plane of thedrawing in Fig. 4, may be caused to assume positions in which its switchesare actuated by the abutments 54 on the rods appropriate to any oneqof the three manuals. The same thing of course is true of aoaarra the boards 59 and ttland such other switch boards as may be employed. All of these boards, by suitable shifting of their position, may be connected to the same manual, or selectively to difierent manuals. This obviates the necessity of any. mechanical coupling between manuals, since it is only necessary to shift the several boards into such a. position that two or more of them are connected for actuation to the same manual.

The shifting of the position of the several boards may be accomplished by means of levers, or the like, such as the stop tabs of the ordinary organ, one oi which is diagrammatically indicated at $2 in Fig. 4.

In Fig. 5 I have shown in perspective this con- 4 struction for a two manual organ, in which like parts have been given like index numerals. Portions of the console have been shown at 83 for the front, E i for the top, 65 for a side memher, and 66 and El for the end filler blocks at the ends of the manuals. The construction. shown in Fig. 5 may be built into a complete organ console, or it may be made as a separate unit of relatively small size, and having a bottom panel 58, the whole device being suitable:

for placing upon the top of an ordinary table. If it is made in this way, and if a foot keyboard is desired, a separate construction thereof may be made to be placed beneath the table, the said foot manual comprising not only a suitable pedal key-board and supporting framework therefor, but also whatever swell or volume control pedals are desired, etc. Such foort key-board may contain its own separate oscillating circuit, or circuits, together with means for timbre control. Where an instrument is built as a completed console, it will be clear that it is possible, by a suitable lever arrangement and linkages, to bring up controlling rods from the foot manual similar to the rods 53 and lying along side such rods, so that any of the switch boards can be connected respectively to any of the hand manuals, or to the foot keyboard. This construction ordinarily is not required, since by reason of the fact that it is not normally desired to play more than one note at a time on the foot manual, it is more economical to provide for the foot manual one or more oscillating circuits, each adapted to sound selectively all of the notes of the desired range, together with a suitable timbre control.

A plan view showing of the key-boards and rods of a three manual organ is made in Fig. 5a, where like indicia have been used'for like parts, and in which the relationship of'the several parts will be clear. An end elevation of the assembly of Fig. 4 is shown in Fig. 10. Where three manuals are employed and where the rods 53 lie close together, it may be found preferable to omit the springs 55 on the ends .of the rods and to guide the rods by means of a perforated plate H. In this event, spring controlling devices indicated at 12 may be provided for the several keys to take the place of the springs 55.

The ends of the switch boards will be slidably mounted in slotted members attached to suitable supports, and indicated in Fig. 11 at '83 to permit movem'ent of the boards in two horizontal directions, as indicated by the arrows in Fig. 5. Lhave indicated means for moving the key-boards in Figs. 7, 8, 10, 11 and 12. These means may be any desired, but can conveniently comprise shafts indicated at it so connected to the switch boards that a rotation of the shaft produces an in and out movement of the switch boards with respect to the stops 5-4 on the rods 53, while a longitudinal movement of the shafts produces a longitudinal movement of the boards to shift the switches thereon from one manual to another. The use of shafts extending across the console and behind the front board 63 thereof enables me to move the switch boards by means engaging them at both ends, thus providing for uniform movement thereof without binding. 1 have shown crank arms i5 attached to the several shafts and extending upwardly or downwardly, depending upon the direction in which the board is to be moved, in or out. These crank arms have pins it engaging in slots in brackets T1 attached to each board. Brackets 78 may be attached on the opposite sides of the boards, and may be provided with slots it? to ride on the shafts i l. The shafts themselves are both rtatably and slidably mounted in members 19, attached to suitable supports. The crank arms are non-rotatably and non-slidably mounted on the shafts, and the brackets, as shown in Fig. 11, preferably have a U-shaped cross section, with ears Tia lying on either side of the ends of the crank arms, so that longitudinal movements of the shafts will be communicated to the switch boards. Y

' Actuating members, corresponding to the stops on an organ, are provided, comprising means 88 to be engaged by the hand, and a shank B l which is bifurcated as at 82 in Fig. 3, and is attached to flattened portions 83 of the shafts M. A bracket 84 is provided, which is slotted as at 85, and an extension 86 of the shank of the stop device is carried through this slot. The slot co-operating with this extension provides a fulcrum for the stop device, so that it may be used as a lever to move the shaft 14 to the right or left, as clearly shown in Fig. 7. Moving the hand grip 80 up or down as shown in Fig. 8, will rotate the shaft 14, thereby moving the boards in and out. Another function of the lever action just described lies in providing for a greater movement of the hand grip 80 than is represented by the longitudinal movement of. the shaft I4 produced thereby. Upon the front of the cons'ole I provide face plates 81, through which the stop devices extend. These plates may be marked with indicia appropriate to the tonality of the sets of oscillating circuits controlled by the several switch boards, and they also may be marked to indicate the manual to which the switch boards are connected, and o and "on positions of the switch boards. These face plates may be conveniently notched as at 88, the tongues between the notches making it necessary to move the switch board outwardly from the I rods 53 before the switch board can be shifted If the rod 53 in Fig. were depressed, and it was desired to move the board 6% so as to be actuated by said rod 53, the switch board Ebb could be moved from right to left without interference, since the portion Bio. of the switch would contact 5 the rounded portion b la of the abutment; and as the board tfib was moved to the left, the switch 6! would be actuated. Since, by the arrangement shown, it is necessary to move a board to the off position before it can be shifted to a 10 different manual, sidewise interference between the ends of the switches GI and the abutments 56a is prevented.

Fig. 9 shows a device for insuring the correct position of the boards selectively. One of the switch boards is indicated at 5?. The bracket in which it slides is indicated at it. Uponthe board I fasten a member let, which is provided with a series of notches W5. A spring controlling element W6 is attached to a suitable support, for example the side member 955 of the console,- and has a toothed portion lfi'i adapted to enter the notches me] As the board 57 is moved to the right or left in the plane of the drawing in Fig. 9, the toothed portion Bill of the spring lilfi will enter the several notches selectively and in sure the proper position of the board. The member MM is long enough in the direction of the notches to permit the movement of the board 5? in a-direction at right angles to the plane of the drawing without having the tooth it! come out of the particular notch whic it engages.

The description above sets forth, of course, only one exemplary mechanical means for moving my switchboards in the desired sidewise and in-andout directions. Other means may be used without departing from the spirit of my invention. The switchboards may be actuated by a wide variety of mechanical movement devices, or by electric solenoids, or by fluid pressure means, controlled by theordinary organ stop tabs. Moreover, if desired, the in-and-out or on-and-off movements of the boards may be eliminated, and appropriate single switches, controlled by stop tabs or the like, may be employed to cut a series of oscillating circuits into or out of operation. Where the oscillating circuits, however, employ elements which require an appreciable time in-- t'erval to become stabilized as to frequency or output. it will be of advantage to retain the in-andout motion of the switchboards.

The switch boards may be stiffened by means of ribs 89 located therebeneath so as to provide a sort of truss construction.

As many of the switch boards as desired may be employed with any given number of manuals, as will be clear. It will also be apparent that this novel construction of manuals, shifting means and circuit controlling arrangement is not restricted to the use of the 13 principle hereinabove described, but may be employed with any type of organ in which a control of sound producing lnstrumentalities may be made electrically. The'purpose of my construction is to produce an exceedingly simple and economical arrangement of as few parts as possible, whereby any one of a pluralltyof manuals may be made to control any one or all of the several tone producing instrumentalities in the organ.

It will also be clear that instead of running the rods 53 upwardly in the instrument shown, they may be run downwardly. This gives more head room in the instrument and is of advantage in a console type device, in that the several switch boards and the like may be housed in the of generally. smaller dimensions. If the body of the console, below the manuals, is used for the switch boards and controlling devices, it is possible to make the devices larger than could otherwise be done, and in particular to include upon the switch boards, such parts of the several oscillating circuits as may be desired. This facilitates the unit construction hereinafterreferred to.

Although I have shown in Fig. 3 an organization of parts in which some of the keys control as many as five switches in a five octave organ, in practice, such a complicated switching construction is not necessary. It is possible when employing the circuit of Fig. 2 to connect the grid lead of the vacuum tube to the several switches, through a circuit breaking arrangement on each switch so that either in ascending or descending relationship in the scale the depressing of one key will break the grid circuit to other keys having to do with the same oscillating circuit. This is diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 2a, where like numerals have been used to indicate like circuit parts. I have shown in this figure, beginning with C, a plurality of keys in octave-plus-one relationship, ending with "E" four octaves above C. The circuit arrangement is somewhat complicated by the fact that in the simple circuit of Fig. 2 to secure a series of pitches throughout the range desired, different values of the condenser 2, as well as different values of the resistance II are required. I have indicated the keys in Fig. 2a asthcugh they operated as knife switches, for the sake of clearness. I have shown the grid lead connected to the blade of the switch marked octave E. An upper contact 9!, to which the circuit is closed when the octave E key is open, is connected as shown to the blade of the octave D sharp switch. Similarly the upper contact 92 of this switch is connected to the blade of the octave D switch; the contact 93 is connected to the blade of the octave C sharp switch, and the contact 94 is connected to the blade of the C switch. Depressing any of these switches, excepting C, will result in a breaking of the grid circuit to switches further up in the diagram of Fig. 2a. When the octave E key is depressed, the grid lead is connected to contacts 95 and 96. One of these is connected to the condenser 26. The otheris connected to a resistance I le grounded to the lead 4. Similar pairs of lower contacts are provided for each switch indicated in the diagram, the leads from these contacts being connected respectively to pairs of condensers and resistances marked 2d, lid, 20 and lie, etc. I have shown separate resistances Ma etc. instead of a single resistance, since the provision of separate variable resistances facilitates tuning of the device if a worn out tube is replaced by a tube having slightly different characteristics. This construction, while advantageous, is, however, not necessary because it is equally possible to use a common resistance with a plurality oi taps thereon, which taps may be made by sliders, adjustable for tuning purposes.

I have illustrated in Figs. 2b and 20 a type of jack switch which may be employed for this purpose. The jack switch has an operating blade 9? adapted, under normal spring tension, to make contact with an overlying contact member 9%. When the blade 97 is depressed, as by means.

of the abutments 5 on the rods 53, it is adapted to make simultaneous contact with two lower body of the console, thereby producing a device contact members 99 and I00. Otherwise the construction of the jack switch shown in Figs.

2b and 20 will be clear; and it will be understood that the several contact members may be provided with suitable terminal lugs to which contactors may be soldered.

It will be seen that a circuit and apparatus such as those shown in Figs. 2a to 20, inclusive, permits much simplified wiring.

It will be understood that it is possible to mount upon the several boards 51 to 60 in Fig. 4 at least the necessary condensers and resistances, which would then call for the connection of but three wires to each board for each oscillating circuit controlled thereby. It will be further understood, however, that by suitably enlarging the boards 51 to 60, inclusive, it will be possible to mount upon them also the oscillating tubes, and all parts of all of the thirteen oscillating circuits, together with means for coupling them together, which would still further simplify the wiring, and would require but two output leads from each board, together with the necessary leads from the source of A potential and B potential. In this way it is possible to make up switch; boards containing complete oscillating circuits which can be installed inthe organ as units. The purchaser of an organ can receive it initially with, say, one series of thirteen oscillating circuits and controlling devices for each manual, and afterwards, as his purse permits, add additional series of oscillating circuits designed to construction, and the subsequent additionthereof, as.may be desired, of additional sets of tone producing instrumentalities.

Dynamics, such as are achieved in the piano for example, where the force with which any particular note is struck determines the volume and to a considerable extent the quality of the sound produced, have heretofore been impossible in instruments of the pipe organ or reed organ type. General tone-level controlling devices have been provided of course, such as the usual swell "pedals; but these devices do not permit the securing of dynamics individual to the several notes struck. The thirteen principle", as hereinabove set forth, however, is very well adapted to the securing of individual dynamics. It will be remembered that the tone producing instrumentalities are divided into groups of thirteen oscillating circuits, each circuit of which is designed to produce a plurality of tones of different pitch in an octave-plus-one relationship. It will also be remembered that upon each oscillating circuit but one frequency can be producedat any one instant. Thus a volume control for each of the thirteen oscillating circuits amounts to an individual volume control for each note simultaneously struck, because only one note can be struck at a time on any one oscillating circuit. Therefore if the several keys of a manual are made to control volume level devices in accordance with the distance to which said keys are depressed, individual volume control of the several notes played will be achieved.

For the purposes of volume control, any of the well known devices used with oscillating and/or amplifying circuits may be here employed, in-

cluding, but without limitation, variable resistances, variable inductances, variable capacities, means for varying grid bias in an amplifier circuit and the like. Special illustration of such means is not required, but I have indicated in Fig. 4 mechanical means for actuating volume control devices to secure the type of dynamics hereinabove referred to. Below the bars 39. I have shown a plurality of shafts llll, lllla, etc., which may be connected to selected groups of the bars 39 by means of crank arms I02 and links I03. The shaft "H, for example, may have crank arm and linkage connections to the notes C, C#, D, D#, and E in octave-plus-one relationship, as shown in Fig. 3. The shaft l! will be connected, as readily understood, to the particular volume control device acting upon the circuit represented by the resistance 29 in Fig. 3. Other groups of notes will similarly be connected to other shafts of the series H, mm, etc. For example, the next series would comprise the notes C#, D, D#, E and E#, in octave-plus-one relationship.

In this way individual tone dynamics may be provided. It will be understood, of course, that instead of connecting the shafts IOI, etc. to volume control means, or in addition thereto, these shafts may be connected to means for varying,

the timbre of the sounds produced. It will also be understood that the instrument will preferably be provided with means for controlling the general volume level, such means conveniently taking the form of foot pedals corresponding to the swell pedals of the pipe organ.

The arrangement of parts hereinabove described lends itself also to the production of various other dynamic and special effects. One of these is a double touch effect, in which a light 1 pressure upon a key will sound upon one oscillating circuit, while heavier pressures upon the same keywill add sounds produced by other oscillating circuits. This is a type of dynamics in which both volume and tone color can be varied at will by the extent to which the operator depresses the keys of the keyboard in playing upon the instrument. Such effects as these are easily attained with my apparatus by lowering or raising some of the switchboards with respect to others. They can also be obtained by varying the position of the abutment members 5% on the key rods 53. It is preferable, however, to provide suitable selective means for slightly raising or lowering the slide members 13 (Figs. 11 and 12) in which the switch boards are guided, since in this way a variety of double touch eifects may be obtained, limited only by the number of switchboards provided. The double touch effect also can be eliminated by this arrangement, or modified during playing, as may be desired.

For special effects of a solo or accompaniment nature, my invention contemplates adding to the switch boards used in ordinary playing, one or more additional switch boards each having a single oscillating circuit arrangement adapted selectively to produce all of the tones in a desired range. I have shown in Figures 2a, 2b and an arrangement of switch members whereby only the highest or the lowest note (as desired) simultaneously attempted to be sounded upon one oscillating circuit will sound. Instead of employing the thirteen principle for this particular switch board, one oscillating circuit may be provided with means for varying the pitch throughout the entire desired range. If such a switch board is arranged so that only the highest note struck simultaneously thereon will sound, then such switch board may be connected to the keys of a manual along with other switch boards employing the thirteen principle. When this is done, and if the single-note switch board and its asso ciated oscillating circuit is adjusted so as to produce sound of a quality distinguishable by ear as to timbre or volume from the sounds otherwise produced by the same keyboard, then a solo effect will be produced in which the single-note switch board carries the air while the other switch boards produce an accompaniment. Similarly another switch board may be arranged so that only the lowest note simultaneously attempted to be struck thereon will sound, and this switch board, which may be assumed to produce deep toned notes, may be connected to the keyboard as described, and when so connected will give a bass accompaniment similar to sub-bass effects obtainable on the harmonium, but of much greater scope.

It goes without saying that the several switch boards may be caused, if desired, to cover less than the full tonal scale represented by the keyboard of any manual, and that my invention, in most of its phases, is applicable to an organ having one manual, as well as to organs having any desired number of manuals.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:

1. In a musical instrument, a plurality of toneproducing devices, each of said devices adapted to be controlled to produce selectively and nonsimultaneously, fundamental tones of different pitch, and a key-board, said devices being connected to said key-board in repeated series, said series being so arranged as to make it unnecessary within the usage of musical scores to strike simultaneously with the fingers of one hand keys on said key-board connected with the same toneproducing device, there being fewer of said devices for any voice than the number of keys in said key-board.

2. In a musical instrument a plurality of toneproducing devices, said devices being capable of producing, selectively, and non-simultaneously, fundamental tones of different pitch, a keyboard, and connections between said devices and said key-board, said devices being arranged as to said connections in repeated series, each series comprising a tone-producing device for each desired note in an octave plus at least one additional note. I

3. In a musical instrument a plurality of toneproducing devices, each of said devices being capable of producing selectively and non'-simultaneously, fundamental tones of different pitch, a key-board, and connections between said devices and said key-board, said devices being arranged as to said connections in repeated series, and interconnections between repeated connections of the same device to said key-board such as to render ineffective all but 'one such connection to keys simultaneously struck.

4. In a musical instrument a plurality of toneproducing devices, each of said devices being capable of producing selectively and non-simultaneously, fundamental tones of different pitch, a key-board, said devices being connected to said key-board in repeated series, a second plurality of similar tone-producing devices connected in repeated series to said key-board for operation,

and means for causing keys simultaneously struck and connected to the same sound-producing device in either plurality to actuate sound-producing devices selectively in both pluralities.

5. In a musical instrument a plurality of toneproducing devices, each device being capable of producing selectively and non-simultaneously, fundamental tones of difierent pitch, a keyboard, said devices numbering thirteen and connected to said key-board in repeated series.

6. In a musical instrument a key-board, a plurality of tone-producing devices, each device being capable of producing selectively and nonsimultaneously, fundamental tones of different pitch, said devices numbering thirteen and connected to said key-board in repeated series, and means for rendering ineffective connections between said devices and said key-board when another connection between the same device and said key-board has been efiected at a selected relatively diiferent position in the register.

7. In a musical instrument thirteen soundproducing devices each capable of producing selectively and non-simultaneously sound of different pitch, an operative device at least representative of a key-board, said tone-producing devices connected with said operating device in repeated series, means for causing only the lowest pitch of a plurality of tones attempted simultaneously to be produced upon any one device to sound, a second plurality of tone-producing devices similarly connected to an operating device, but so arranged that only the highest pitch of tones simultaneously attempted to be sounded upon any one sound-producing device will sound, and means for actuating said several pluralities of tone-producing devices in unison in accordance with the requirements of a musical score.

8. In a musical instrument, a plurality of toneproducing devices, each device being capable of producing selectively and non-simultaneously, fundamental tones of different pitch, a key-board, said devices numbering thirteen and connected to said key-board in repeated series, and means for Cal rendering ineffective connections between said devices and said key-board when another connection between the same device and said keyboard has been efiected at a selected relatively difierent position in the register, and means for varying the quality of the tones produced by said devices, one of said means being connected with each of said tone-producing devices, and also connected for operation with each key of said key-board to which said tone-producing device is also connected.

9. In a musical instrument a key-board, a series of actuating devices, each connected with a key of said key-board, said actuating devices being arranged according to a fixed grouping, and a plurality of members bearing switches, the switches of each member being arranged so as to be brought into and out of a position for actuation by said actuating means upon movement of said member.

m. In a musical instrument a plurality of keyboards, actuating devices connected selectively L-* the keys of said key-boards and arranged in alignment, the actuating devices of said keyboards being alternating, and at least one board bearing switches adapted to be actuated by said actuating means, and means for moving said board in one direction to brin said switches into or out of contact with said actuating means, and means for moving said board in another direction so as to cause said switches to be actuated selectively by the actuating means of one or another of said key-boards.

11. In a musical instrument a key-board, a series of actuating devices, each connected with a key of said key-board, said'actuating devices being arranged according to a fixed grouping, and a plurality of members bearing switches, the switches of each member being arranged so as to be brought into and out of a position for actuation by said actuating means upon movement of said member, and means for moving said switchbearing members so as to produce actuation of said switches seriatim as a key is depressed to an increasing depth.

12. In a musical instrument having two keyboards and an equal number of sets of tone producing devices capable of producing selectively and non-simultaneously fundamental tones of different pitch, each set of the said devices capable of being selectively connected with one of the key-boards, and each device capable of being actuated by a plurality of keys at intervals of thirteen half tones, means in connection with one keyboard whereby only the lowest of a plurality of keys connected to one device and simultaneously depressed, will actuate said device, and similar but inverse means in connection with the other key-board whereby only the highest of a plurality of keys connected to one device and simultaneously depressed, will actuate said device.

13. In a musical instrument having two keyboards and an equal number of sets of tone producing devices capable of producing selectively and non-simultaneously fundamental tones of different pitch, each set of the said devices capable of being selectively connected with one-of the keyboards, and each device capable of being actuated by a plurality of keys at intervals of thirteen half tones, means in connection with one keyboard to prevent all but the lowest of a plurality of keys connected to one device and simultaneously depressed, from actuating said device, similar but inverse means in connection with the other keyboard to prevent all but the highest of a plurality of keys connected to one device and simultaneously depressed, from actuating said device, said means comprising a make-switch on v each key connected to the same device, and a number of break-switches on each key equal to the number of keys in the group beyond the particular key in question, and connected electrically so that when any key in the group is depressed, all keys beyond it and connected to the same device are shorted out.

14. In a musical. instrument having a plurality of keyboards and an equal number of correlative sets of tone producing devices, means comprising a number of switchboards equal to the number of keyboards and movable in two directions at right angles to each other, one for selection and one for engagement, having a series of switches on them, and rods having abutments to engage said switches selectively, actuated by each key, whereby 'selectively any or all of said sets are actuated responsive to operation of any of said keyboards.

15. The method of producing a large number of musical notes of pitches varying by half tones by means of a relatively small number of tone producing devices, each capable of producing seat intervals oi thirteen halt tones, and causlns the pitches of the several devices to vary by one half tone from each other.

16. In a musical instrument a plurality of keyboards having keys, operating members actuated by said keys, and members bearing switches adapted to be actuated by said operating members, said switch members and said operating members being movable with respect to each other to and fro, in one direction to engage and disengage said members, in another direction to engage selectively said switches with dif- Ierent operating members. and in still another direction to cause said operating members to engage said switches selectively in accordance with the distance through which said operating members move.

17. In a musical instrument a keyboard, means for producing a plurality of sounds of a given quality in accordance with the actuation oi keys in said keyboard, additional means'for producing sounds of a diiIerent and distinguishable quality from the quality of said-first means, said keyboard also arranged to actuate said second means, and means for confining the sound produced by said second means to a single pitch at any given instant.

18. In a musical instrument a single sound producing means variable as to pitch throughout a desired tonal range, keys controlling said means as to pitch, .and means for confining the sound produced by said means to a pitch represented by that key, of a plurality of keys simultaneous- 1y struck, which lies nearest a desired end of the tonal scale.

19. In a musical instrument a single sound producing means variable as to pitch throughout a desired tonal range, keys controlling said means as to pitch, means for confining the sound produced by said means to a pitch represented by that key; of a plurality of keys simultaneously struck, which lies nearest a desired end of the tonal scale, said means comprising a plurality of switch members, one for each of said keys, and short circuit means whereby each switch renders ineffective the switches lying further than it from said desired end of the tonal scale.

20. An electrical organ comprising a plurality of manuals and a foot keyboard, a set oi! thirteen oscillating electrical 'circuit means ioreaeh manual, said circuit means arranged in rotation to produce the several notes of the manuals, and a single oscillating electrical circuit means for said 25 foot keyboard variable to produce tones of the full tonal scale desired therein.

, v GIBSON YUNGB LUT.

US722350A 1934-04-25 1934-04-25 Musical instrument Expired - Lifetime US2045172A (en)

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2458178A (en) * 1948-01-31 1949-01-04 Central Commercial Co Electrical musical instrument with split keyboard
US2500063A (en) * 1945-11-26 1950-03-07 Operadio Mfg Co Electric siren
US2555040A (en) * 1947-06-21 1951-05-29 Baldwin Co Electric organ
US2562670A (en) * 1949-04-22 1951-07-31 Central Commercial Ind Inc Musical instrument
US2577493A (en) * 1943-12-23 1951-12-04 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Electric musical instrument
US2584277A (en) * 1948-10-08 1952-02-05 Conn Ltd C G Electronic tuning device
US2598790A (en) * 1949-01-13 1952-06-03 Aeolian Skinner Organ Company Electrical musical instrument
US2647426A (en) * 1948-03-31 1953-08-04 William F Battle Electrically operated musical instrument
US2699085A (en) * 1949-10-12 1955-01-11 Wurlitzer Co Combination stop action
US2905905A (en) * 1954-02-01 1959-09-22 Thomas J George Electric musical instrument
US3001432A (en) * 1957-08-12 1961-09-26 Jean A Greif Attachment for automatically playing root tones of chords in bass section of organ
US3176527A (en) * 1960-07-13 1965-04-06 Warwick Electronics Inc Tab switch assembly
US3515039A (en) * 1964-01-29 1970-06-02 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Electronic musical instruments with tone generating,mixing,and distributing systems
US3539698A (en) * 1964-07-17 1970-11-10 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Keyboard type electronic musical instrument

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2577493A (en) * 1943-12-23 1951-12-04 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Electric musical instrument
US2500063A (en) * 1945-11-26 1950-03-07 Operadio Mfg Co Electric siren
US2555040A (en) * 1947-06-21 1951-05-29 Baldwin Co Electric organ
US2458178A (en) * 1948-01-31 1949-01-04 Central Commercial Co Electrical musical instrument with split keyboard
US2647426A (en) * 1948-03-31 1953-08-04 William F Battle Electrically operated musical instrument
US2584277A (en) * 1948-10-08 1952-02-05 Conn Ltd C G Electronic tuning device
US2598790A (en) * 1949-01-13 1952-06-03 Aeolian Skinner Organ Company Electrical musical instrument
US2562670A (en) * 1949-04-22 1951-07-31 Central Commercial Ind Inc Musical instrument
US2699085A (en) * 1949-10-12 1955-01-11 Wurlitzer Co Combination stop action
US2905905A (en) * 1954-02-01 1959-09-22 Thomas J George Electric musical instrument
US3001432A (en) * 1957-08-12 1961-09-26 Jean A Greif Attachment for automatically playing root tones of chords in bass section of organ
US3176527A (en) * 1960-07-13 1965-04-06 Warwick Electronics Inc Tab switch assembly
US3515039A (en) * 1964-01-29 1970-06-02 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Electronic musical instruments with tone generating,mixing,and distributing systems
US3539698A (en) * 1964-07-17 1970-11-10 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Keyboard type electronic musical instrument

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