US2039991A - Typewriter - Google PatentsTypewriter Download PDF
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- US2039991A US2039991A US71389534A US2039991A US 2039991 A US2039991 A US 2039991A US 71389534 A US71389534 A US 71389534A US 2039991 A US2039991 A US 2039991A
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- B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
- B41—PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
- B41J—TYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
- B41J3/00—Typewriters or selective printing or marking mechanisms, e.g. ink-jet printers, thermal printers characterised by the purpose for which they are constructed
- B41J3/36—Typewriters or selective printing or marking mechanisms, e.g. ink-jet printers, thermal printers characterised by the purpose for which they are constructed for portability, i.e. hand-held printers or laptop printers
May 5 199a. Q HM 2,039,991
TYPEWRII'ER Filed March 5, 1934 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 y 9 1936. o. HAAS 2039,91
TYPEWRITER Filed March 3, 1934 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 May 5, 1936. 0, s 2,039,991
TYPEWRITER Filed March 3, 1934 6 Sheets-Sheet 3 May 5, 1936. o, HAA 2,039,991
TYPEWRITER Filed March 5, 1934 e Sheets-Sheet 4 May 5, 1936. g 2,039,991
TYPEWRITER Filed March 3, 1934 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 y 5, 1936, v O, HMS I 2,939,991
TYPEWRITER Filed March 5, 1954 6 Sheets-Sheet e Patented May 5, 1936 Otto Haas, Pieterlen, Switzerland Application March 3, 1934, Serial No. 713,895 In Germany March 9, 1933 4 Claims. (01. 197*22) I carried in a container specifically designed for this purpose.
In order to more fully meet the requirements connected with the construction of an easily portable or travelling typewriter itis necessary to pay regard to the aforementioned conditionsin a far greater measure than has heretofore been done in practice For the purpose in view' the dimensions ofthe typewriter and its parts must be kept so small,
3' that it may conveniently be carried ina small travelling bag, portiiolio or the like and, accordingly, the weight of the typewriter must be quite considerably reduced, as compared withheretofore constructed portable typewriters; If it is desired; for'instance;.to construct a portable typewriter for use in schools, the construction must.
be'of extreme compactness permitting the school-v children to conveniently carry the typewriter with them in a school-knapsack or the like, with- I out imposing on the child an excessive strain due to-the weight of the typewriter.
The-eflorts which have so far been made by manufacturers with a view ofv constructing portable typewriters have more and morev lost sight of the underlying principles that ensure proper portability and in fact have rather followed the opposite way in attempts of accommodating the several parts to the requirements present in the operation and attendance of large office typewriters. Regarding its very quality and propriety as a portable machine, especially for travelling purposes, the typewriter has thus essentially lostits value, and its weight as well as its price has been steadily increased; so that the portables 2 of the present day do no more serve the purpose for" which they had originally been intended, with the-result that they have failed to find their way just-to those cl'asses of purchasers primarily coming into question.
far as novel principles of construction are used according to my invention, I have attempted to purposely avoid. any excess or surplusage in the equipment, and additionally endeavored to make use of all devices necessary for the proper operation of the typewriter in a form which is as simple as possible. By this I attain greatest safety of operation without weakening any of the parts of the typewriter.
According to my invention the bearings for the type-levers are arranged in the known manner inclined towards the rear, while the type-levers are 50 mounted in their bearings that the outermost tips of said levers in condition of rest are positioned about flush with the upper edge of the platen. In the present case the angular posi tion of themiddle type-lever in condition of rest, measured towards the rear from a line passingperpendicularly through the bearing point of the type-lever, is approximately the same as in operative condition of said lever after forward motion thereof. The several parts properly cooperate furthermore in such a manner that the upper edge of the platen and the types in condition of rest are positioned underneath a plane parallel to the base plane and passing through the uppermost rows of keys, the height of the four-row keyboard being thus kept smaller than hadvheretofore been possible in known construction of typewriters.
In order to attain this, the keys, the intermediary levers andthe type-levers are arranged and constructed in such a compact manner that after operating the keys and imparting motion to the type-levers, the intermediary levers will partly move into that space, or at least into proximity of thatspace, which had just been left by the type-levers. For this purpose it is further necessary to arrange the intermediary levers in the plane of the swing of the type-levers or in a plane closely parallel thereto. In consequence of the special arrangement of the bearings for the intermediary levers within a plane which is inclined at a quite definite critical angle as well as by reason ofthe clear and simple construction all forces tending to displace or distort any of the members of the type-lever operating mechanism are only very little difierent from the pressure exerted upon the middle keys. This pressure is from 30 to 40% smaller than in all heretofore constructed typewriters and, accordingly, the
wear of all parts of the type-lever operating mechanism will likewise be from to 40% smaller than in known constructions; in addition to this, said mechanism evidently may be more easily operated. Due to the co-operation of the aforementioned novel features it will further be possible to construct the typewriter in an extremely compact manner and of a size which is as'small as possible.
' My invention is more fully explained in the accompanying drawings, Figs. 1 to 10 being explanatory diagrams and Figs. 11 and 12a section and top-view, respectively, of a typewriter constructed according to my present invention.
Referring first to Figs. 11 and 12, within the casing I is mounted the bearing 2 for the typelevers, said bearing being inclined in known manner to the platen 3. The type-lever 4 with the type 5 thereon is mounted swingably round the axle 6 for said type-lever. An intermediary lever I mounted swingably round the axle 8 is in operaof rest of the outer type-levers 4 is positioned higher than that of the middle type-lever. The types on said outer type-levers must be positioned underneath the line A'B, as the total height of the typewriter shall not exceed a definite value; these levers are. therefore inclined towards the rear somewhat more than the middle type-levers and, accordingly, when depressing the key-lever, must be moved a greater distance than the middle levers. All other individual type-lever operating members forming part of the type-writer are not specifically designated as they are not necessary for explaining the gist of my invention' In general, the intermediary levers of the type- Writer are also mounted on an horizontal axle, if the bearing for the type-levers, as in the present case, is inclined to the platen, the outer typelevers thus coming into a more elevated position.
As all individual type-lever operating members according to my invention must comply with the requirement of a flat and compact construction of typewriter, the intermediary levers I are also mounted in a bearing which, similarly to the typelever bearing 2, is inclined towards the platen 3 at a definite critical angle, a mathematical calculation being given hereinbelow for determining this angle. The slots in which the type-levers and intermediary levers move are preferably, positioned within the same or a parallel plane for each pair of levers, so that the middle pair of levers will be moved within vertical planes, while the outer pairs of levers move within inclined planes;
It is further necessary to arrange the intermediary levers in such a Way thatlike applied moments will result in every case for all levers. This is attained, firstly, by positioning two respective bearing points, of the bearings for the typelevers as well as of the bearings for the intermediary levers, at an even height above the base plane, and secondly, by placing said bearing points at an even distance from each other.
The arrangement of the type-lever operating mechanism permits an extremely simple construction and the provision of a most advantageous bearing. It will there-fore be possible to combine all bearing points for the type-lever operating mechanism into a unitary structure made by cast ing, preferably by pressure casting, as may be seen from Fig. 11. In this manner I further attain that all forces which may cause torsions' or other displacements within the general bearing are rangement will be positively avoided and the stability of the entire structure in no Way impaired.
In order to permit easy assembling, the completed type-lever and key-lever mechanism may be put together separately and outside of the typewriter frame. An example of an arrangement of this kind is shown in Fig. 12, according to which the bearing 2 for the type-levers, the bearing I2 for the intermediary levers and the bearing I 4 for the key-levers is combined into a unitary structure. vidual parts of the type-lever operating mechanism, such as the type-levers 4, the connecting member 9, the intermediary levers I, the connecting rods or wires I 0, the key-levers I I and, for instance, also the feed-bridge I3 may be fully assembled outside of the usual frame. By inserting the separately assembled type-lever operating mechanism into the typewriter frame which had likewise been separately equipped with the re- -maining operating mechanisms, the typewriter will now be completely assembled and in condition ready for use. By constructing the typewriter in the above indicated manner the time-necessary for the assembling will be quite considerably shortened as compared with typewriters of ordinary construction. In this manner the type-lever and key-lever mechanism may be conveniently-exchanged at any time and furthermore a lowpriced and extremely compact construction is obbearing for the type-levers ispositioned is nowraised through the line 01E which is perpendicular toOO1, through the angle a. The center-point M of the bearing for the type-levers will now be that point of the plane above which all types hit against the platen. The greater the angle a and the greater MO1=OO1=r, the greater will be the height of the typewriter.
With the sectional plane MO1O2D the'slots in the segment bearing at O1 and in the bearing for the. intermediary levers will exactly fit each other; However, if now the sectional plane along which the movable levers (segment levers and intermediary levers) are moving is rotated about the axis A1-which is perpendicular to MOi'and to all straight lines of the plane of the segment bearing through M-through an angle 5, the
segment bearing will be intersected perpendicularly at A and the bearing for the intermediary levers obliquely at B- On the other hand the sectional plane, when rotated about the axis A2. perpendicularly to 002 through C would meetv the bearing for the intermediary levers at B2. The greater the angle 6, the greater will be the distance BB2. Practically this means that upon;
motion of the intermediary lever about Bv there will arise displacing forces which would result in greater friction and greater wear'of the intermediary lever.
than are necessary for depressing the middle key-levers. Besides, the distance A.B and therewith the length of the intermediary levers would steadily increase with increasing angle 6. If the intermediary levers shall remain 101' even Depressing the outer key-J levers would require considerably greater forces- In this unitary bearing structure all indilength, it will be necessary to give :up the form of circular arc at the bearing for the intermediary lever. The distance lA-iB, however, is in this case heavily inclined.
In :order ;to avoid rthe aforementioned :forces tending to bring about displacement in thebearing for the intermediary levers at B :the following should be considered, reference being had to Fig. 2:
B2 will co-incide with B at every value of the angle 6, if the plane of the bearingfor the intermediary levers is raised through the line 02F through an angle in, so .that the center-point M2 of the bearing for the intermediary levers will come to lie on the line MD.
If now'the sectional plane MDEFAB is rotated about the axis A MD through the angle c, said axis will intersect the segment bearing at A and the bearing of the intermediary levers at B. Since M2 is on the line MD, now the sectional plane MDEF will intersect the plane of the :bearing for the intermediary levers along MzCF and. pass also through B. The sectional plane, .although now intersecting the bearing for the intermediary levers no more perpendicularly at B, will now be somewhat inclined towards the center a distance MzCF. This inclination, however, is insignificant, as the levers now may move, Without forces tending to produce displacement acting thereon, within the same plane, both, with respect .to M and with respect to M2.
In calculating the angle In, from the triangle DO2M2 with the aid of the triangle DO1M the following equations are obtained: (see also i 5):
According to the theorem of the sine the following equation holds true:
In Fig. .2 the angle m1 is in agreement with the angle :01 in Fig. 5. In a typewriter constructed according to this principle, therefore, no forces tending to produce displacement would arise at B, and the intermediary levers move without friction in B, as M23 is perpendicular to the circular arc. However, as with increasing angles E the distance AB becomes greater than O1O2=d, the outer intermediary levers would have to be made longer than the middle ones, the distance AB, besides, being inclined towards the horizontal plane, so that the connecting members which transmit motion of the intermediary lever to the type-lever are all of a different size. The differences, however, are no more ,as great as with the arrangement according to Fig. 1. Thus the question arises, whether by further increase of the angle an it will be possible that the equation AB=O1O=d remains .to be true and that AB at the same time is positioned horizontally.
From the point of manufacture, therefore, it is required that not only all type-levers but also all intermediary levers and all members operating therebetween :must be :alikawhile-the abearings for the type-levers and the bearings for the intermediary levers should, if possible, be retained .in the :form of .concentrical :circular .arcs, reference being made to Figs. :3, 4a, 4b, .5 and .6. Compliance with :these requirements in ..connection with a .serial manufacture of the several parts and an assembling thereof :into :thetcomplete typewriter will result :in :an incredible zsimplification and extremely small price of the typewriter.
In connection with this the question arises, through which angle :0 the plane of the bearing of thezintermediary levers must be rotated in order :tohave any desired sectional plane-around A MD,
with given .1, .d and pr, intersect the two bearings so that the equation: AB=O1O2=d holds true and that AB remains always parallel to the horizontal plane. This means further that the height .111 of A above the horizontal base plane is equal to the height he of B above said plane; AB, furthermore, will be parallel to EF and therewith again 11 1 E BK.
(See Fig. 3.) The graphical solution follows from Fig. '5.
The critical angle as, for given values of r,'d
and a, is constructed as follows: 'Make 0102:.(1, protract the angle or at O1 and measure 01M =1. A line drawn at "M perpendicularly to M01 will intersect the line 0102 at'D.
is the axis of rotation for the present sectional plane within which .the movable levers move. Protract the angle of rotation e at M. In the drawing at first the greatest angle of rotation AIEMD is perpendicular to the plane of the segment bearing, MD is likewise perpendicular to all straight lines of the segment plane through M, that is not only perpendicular to M01 but also perpendicular to MAE. Upon backward rotation of the sectional plane through the line MD now MA will come to lie on M01,
ME 5 M E (DEo=DE giving the point E0 as a control), MDEo being the true shape of the triangle. The perpendicular is now displaced a distance D parallelly to h'2=h'1; JoKo=d. By this we find B, so that AB is equal to d and parallel to the base plane. If now F013 is made equal to DF, FOB will furnish the intersecting line of the sectional plane with the plane of the bearing for the intermediary levers.
This intersectingline FOB meets MD 5 A1 two bearing planes.
We now further draw in Fig. 6 the plane of the bearing for the intermediary levers'which plane is raised through the angle in. From Fig. '5 we find the finite lines: M30 2=d+r, 02F perpendicularly thereto, and 02S and F05 FS. Now we lay off FB=F0B on F8 and thus obtain B. Fortunately, the circular are round M3 with the radius M3O2=T+d also passes through B, that is the bearing for the intermediary levers may be retained in the form of the concentrical circular arc.
AsMaS has a length of only a few millimeters, the intersecting line SBF is only little different from M313, that is SB is nearly perpendicular to the bearing for the intermediary levers and the displacing forces shown in the first part (Fig. 1) are only very small.
If the construction is repeated for smaller angles 6 the same point S is obtained on MD and therewith the same angle a: and again B on the circular arc round M3 with the radius (r-i-d).
The principles followed in the drawings will also furnish, with the aid of Figs. 5, 3 and 4a and 4b, the calculation of the critical angle 11:.
At first we calculate some auxiliary finite lines and angles:
cos e=cot g(g0). cot ga(Nepers rule) tg p tga. cos 6 The same relation follows from Figs. and 41).
cos a=cot ge. cot g(906) 1'1) E]='AE. cos p=(ME-MA). cos .0:
Generally the following equations hold true: 5
1' cos 8 cos a. cos 5 cos dcos 6 (cos 6 F (DS:DF=sin 5: sin a (theorem of the sine) DF. sin E sin 6 V (16) Calculation of the critical angle from the triangle DS02 in which now DS, D02 and the angle SDO2=90-a are given. 7 (a) Calculation from the opposite side SOz=s according to the theorem of the cosine:
(b) Calculation of :1: according to the theorem of the sine:
DS- sin (90-a) 0 5 If it be assumed that in a certain model the dimensions for r, d and a be r:50 mm., (Z2445 mm., and a=34, the numerical calculation for e=54 will give an angle x=l94l', and for e=27 an angle a:=2036'; the mean value obtained by calculation for the critical angle of inclination a: is therefore in agreement with the construction according to Figs. 5 and 6 and amounts to approximately 20.
It is also possible to calculate the angle at from the corner at F (acute or obtuse angled spherical triangle) To find a general expression for sin :c 55 which shows the independence from e is not simple on account of the insertion of the metrical values d=AB; such an expression, however, is not necessary after having ascertained that the, construction according to Fig. 5 and the above given calculation for difierent angles 6 will furnish the same DS and the same angle at.
The plane for the intermediary levers must sin x= 7 therefore be inclined by this critical angle 1v against the base plane, if from the point ,of manufacture the maximum requirement is made viz: to-have all type-levers, all intermediary levers and all intermediary operating members of even size and the bearing points (A and B, Fig. 5) always positioned at an even height above the base plane, and in addition to obtain like torques for each aggregate of the type-lever operating members and uniform composition of each of said. aggregates. I v
Reference is now made to Figs. 7, 8, 9 and 10. 75
If one of the aforementioned maximum requirements can be neglected, there may be maintained, for instance, the requirement of all intermediary levers being of like length in which case, however, the bearing point B2 in Fig. '7 can no more lie at the same height above the base plane and the bearing for the intermediary lever will now have to be of an elliptical form and the plane of the bearing for the intermediary levers be raised through an angle x2 against the base plane. This construction is carried out in Figs. 7 and 8. As far as to finding the point F the construction is the same as in Fig. 5. If for the bearing for the intermediary levers, for instance, the form of an elliptical arc O2B2, Fig. 8, is prescribed, the point B2 is found as point of intersection between the circular arc round F0 with the radius F032 and the circle round 01 with the radius d=O1O2 and upon the prolongation FOB2 the point S2 on the axis of rotation MD and therewith S202 and the angle of inclination x2 appertaining thereto. In the opposite way, for a given angle of inclination, for instance 0:3 in Fig. 7, there may be found the point S3, thereupon B3 and the form of the elliptical arc in which the bearing point for the intermediary levers must be positioned.
It, therefore, the above requirement of even height of corresponding bearing points A and B be dispensed with, the angle between the intermediary lever and the type-lever for the outer key-levers will be a different one and the torques likewise essentially different. If, on the other hand, the requirement of even height of corresponding bearing points A and B be maintained, like distances between said bearing points and therewith like lengths of all intermediary levers can no more be attained if the critical angle of the circular arc of the bearing for the intermediary levers is no more maintained.
Assuming that the bearing for the intermediary levers have the form of an elliptical arc, as shown in Fig. 10, with a view of obtaining small height and compact construction of the typewriter, from Fig. 9, similar to Fig. 5, the point F may be obtained. The circle round F0 with the radius FB intersects the parallel line AoBo at the point B4. FOB4 meets the axis of rotation MD at the point S4. S402 will now furnish the respective angle of inclination of the plane of the bearing for the intermediary levers. In the opposite way, for a given angle of inclination the respective elliptical arc may be found from Figs. 9 and 10. This solution has the disadvantagethat the intermediary levers will be of increasing length in outward direction with the result that the torques will become less favorable. Fig. 10 shows in addition that the forces tending to produce displacements as shown in Fig. 1 will increase. With greatest compactness of the typelever operating members a maximum of simplicity in the general construction of the typewriter and regarding compensation of the torques will be obtained, if for a given inclination of the plane of the type-lever bearing, and for given lengths of the type-levers and of the intermediary levers the inclination of the plane of the intermediary levers (critical angle a: in Fig. 5) is calculated and constructed in accordance with Figs. 5
and 6 and the explanations given in connection therewith. In this case the bearing for the intermediary levers will be a concentrical circular arc. If the aforementioned maximum requirement can be neglected, the form of said bearing will be changed to follow an elliptical arc, simultaneously therewith changing the angles of inclination.
1. In a typewriter, in combination with intermediary levers and type levers, bearings for the intermediary levers, circular segment bearings for the type levers in a plane at an agle with the base plane of the typewriter, said bearings for the intermediary levers being positioned on a curve which is geometric with respect to the circle of the bearings for the type levers, said curve being in a plane at an angle between the same and the base plane smaller than the angle between the plane of the circular segment bearings for the type levers and the. base plane, said smaller angle bearing such relation to the first angle that the bearings for the intermediary levers are substantially equidistant from the bearings of the type levers and are. positioned at substantially the same heights above the base plane as the corresponding bearings for the type levers.
2. In a typewriter, the combination of intermediary levers with key levers and type levers, bearings for said intermediary levers, a type lever segment for pivotally mounting said type levers,
said type lever segments being arranged in a plane at an angle with the base plane of the typewriter, the bearings of saidintermediary levers being arranged at predetermined distances from the coordinate pivots of the type lever segment and being positioned on a curve in a plane at an angle between the same and the base plane smaller than the angle between the plane of the type lever segment and the base plane.
3. In a typewriter, the combination as set forth in claim 2, in which the curve on which the bearings of said intermediary levers are positioned has the form of a circular arc.
4. In a typewriter, the combination of pivotally mounted type levers, with pivotally mounted intermediary levers adapted to actuate said type levers, the pivots of said type levers being ar ranged on a circular curve in a plane at an angle a between the same and the basev plane of the typewriter the pivots of said intermediary levers being arranged on a circular curve in a second plane which is also positioned at an angle to the base plane of the typewriter, this last named angle a; being calculated in accordance with the following formular DS. sin (90 a) 0 S sin x:
Priority Applications (2)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|US2039991A true US2039991A (en)||1936-05-05|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|US2039991A Expired - Lifetime US2039991A (en)||1933-03-09||1934-03-03||Typewriter|
Country Status (1)
|US (1)||US2039991A (en)|
Cited By (1)
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|US2505274A (en) *||1944-06-10||1950-04-25||Rooy Soc||Type action system for portable typewriters|
Cited By (1)
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