US20160029898A1 - Physiological Monitoring Devices and Methods Using Optical Sensors - Google Patents

Physiological Monitoring Devices and Methods Using Optical Sensors Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20160029898A1
US20160029898A1 US14807149 US201514807149A US2016029898A1 US 20160029898 A1 US20160029898 A1 US 20160029898A1 US 14807149 US14807149 US 14807149 US 201514807149 A US201514807149 A US 201514807149A US 2016029898 A1 US2016029898 A1 US 2016029898A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
sensor
subject
power
processor
monitoring
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
US14807149
Inventor
Steven Francis LeBoeuf
Jesse Berkley Tucker
Michael Edward Aumer
Steven Matthew Just
Mark Andrew Felice
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Valencell Inc
Original Assignee
Valencell Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/0205Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular conditions and different types of body conditions, e.g. heart and respiratory condition
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/0059Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons using light, e.g. diagnosis by transillumination, diascopy, fluorescence
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/01Measuring temperature of body parts; Diagnostic temperature sensing, e.g. for malignant or inflamed tissue
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/0205Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular conditions and different types of body conditions, e.g. heart and respiratory condition
    • A61B5/02055Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular condition and temperature
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/021Measuring pressure in heart or blood vessels
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/024Detecting, measuring or recording pulse rate or heart rate
    • A61B5/02416Detecting, measuring or recording pulse rate or heart rate using photoplethysmograph signals, e.g. generated by infra-red radiation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/024Detecting, measuring or recording pulse rate or heart rate
    • A61B5/02416Detecting, measuring or recording pulse rate or heart rate using photoplethysmograph signals, e.g. generated by infra-red radiation
    • A61B5/02427Details of sensor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/103Detecting, measuring or recording devices for testing the shape, pattern, colour, size or movement of the body or parts thereof, for diagnostic purposes
    • A61B5/11Measuring movement of the entire body or parts thereof, e.g. head or hand tremor, mobility of a limb
    • A61B5/1118Determining activity level
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/103Detecting, measuring or recording devices for testing the shape, pattern, colour, size or movement of the body or parts thereof, for diagnostic purposes
    • A61B5/11Measuring movement of the entire body or parts thereof, e.g. head or hand tremor, mobility of a limb
    • A61B5/1123Discriminating type of movement, e.g. walking or running
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/145Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue
    • A61B5/1455Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue using optical sensors, e.g. spectral photometrical oximeters
    • A61B5/14551Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue using optical sensors, e.g. spectral photometrical oximeters for measuring blood gases
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/145Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue
    • A61B5/1455Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue using optical sensors, e.g. spectral photometrical oximeters
    • A61B5/14551Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue using optical sensors, e.g. spectral photometrical oximeters for measuring blood gases
    • A61B5/14552Details of sensors specially adapted therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/16Devices for psychotechnics; Testing reaction times ; Devices for evaluating the psychological state
    • A61B5/165Evaluating the state of mind, e.g. depression, anxiety
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/42Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the gastrointestinal, the endocrine or the exocrine systems
    • A61B5/4261Evaluating exocrine secretion production
    • A61B5/4266Evaluating exocrine secretion production sweat secretion
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/44Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the integumentary system, e.g. skin, hair or nails
    • A61B5/441Skin evaluation, e.g. for skin disorder diagnosis
    • A61B5/443Evaluating skin constituents, e.g. elastin, melanin, water
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/48Other medical applications
    • A61B5/4806Sleep evaluation
    • A61B5/4809Sleep detection, i.e. determining whether a subject is asleep or not
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/68Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/68Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient
    • A61B5/6801Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient specially adapted to be attached to or worn on the body surface
    • A61B5/6802Sensor mounted on worn items
    • A61B5/6803Head-worn items, e.g. helmets, masks, headphones or goggles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/68Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient
    • A61B5/6801Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient specially adapted to be attached to or worn on the body surface
    • A61B5/6813Specially adapted to be attached to a specific body part
    • A61B5/6814Head
    • A61B5/6815Ear
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/68Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient
    • A61B5/6801Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient specially adapted to be attached to or worn on the body surface
    • A61B5/6813Specially adapted to be attached to a specific body part
    • A61B5/6814Head
    • A61B5/6815Ear
    • A61B5/6816Ear lobe
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/68Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient
    • A61B5/6801Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient specially adapted to be attached to or worn on the body surface
    • A61B5/6813Specially adapted to be attached to a specific body part
    • A61B5/6825Hand
    • A61B5/6826Finger
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/72Signal processing specially adapted for physiological signals or for diagnostic purposes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/72Signal processing specially adapted for physiological signals or for diagnostic purposes
    • A61B5/7203Signal processing specially adapted for physiological signals or for diagnostic purposes for noise prevention, reduction or removal
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/72Signal processing specially adapted for physiological signals or for diagnostic purposes
    • A61B5/7203Signal processing specially adapted for physiological signals or for diagnostic purposes for noise prevention, reduction or removal
    • A61B5/7207Signal processing specially adapted for physiological signals or for diagnostic purposes for noise prevention, reduction or removal of noise induced by motion artifacts
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/72Signal processing specially adapted for physiological signals or for diagnostic purposes
    • A61B5/7271Specific aspects of physiological measurement analysis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/74Details of notification to user or communication with user or patient ; user input means
    • A61B5/742Details of notification to user or communication with user or patient ; user input means using visual displays
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B19/00Programme-control systems
    • G05B19/02Programme-control systems electric
    • G05B19/04Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers
    • G05B19/048Monitoring; Safety
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F19/00Digital computing or data processing equipment or methods, specially adapted for specific applications
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B2503/00Evaluating a particular growth phase or type of persons or animals
    • A61B2503/10Athletes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B2560/00Constructional details of operational features of apparatus; Accessories for medical measuring apparatus
    • A61B2560/02Operational features
    • A61B2560/0242Operational features adapted to measure environmental factors, e.g. temperature, pollution
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B2560/00Constructional details of operational features of apparatus; Accessories for medical measuring apparatus
    • A61B2560/02Operational features
    • A61B2560/0266Operational features for monitoring or limiting apparatus function
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/024Detecting, measuring or recording pulse rate or heart rate
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/024Detecting, measuring or recording pulse rate or heart rate
    • A61B5/02405Determining heart rate variability
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/08Detecting, measuring or recording devices for evaluating the respiratory organs
    • A61B5/0816Measuring devices for examining respiratory frequency
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/20Pc systems
    • G05B2219/26Pc applications
    • G05B2219/2652Medical scanner

Abstract

A monitoring device configured to be attached to a subject includes a sensor configured to detect and/or measure physiological information and a processor coupled to the sensor. The sensor includes at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector. The processor receives and analyzes signals produced by the sensor, and the processor changes wavelength of light emitted by the at least one optical emitter in response to detecting a change in subject activity. For example, the processor instructs the at least one optical emitter to emit shorter wavelength light in response to detecting an increase in subject activity, and the processor instructs the at least one optical emitter to emit longer wavelength light in response to detecting an decrease in subject activity. Detecting a change in subject activity may include detecting a change in at least one subject vital sign and/or subject motion.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application claims the benefit of and priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/030,951 filed Jul. 30, 2014, and U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/109,196 filed Jan. 29, 2015, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference as if set forth in their entireties.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates generally to monitoring devices and, more particularly, to monitoring devices for measuring physiological information.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is based upon shining light into the human body and measuring how the scattered light intensity changes with each pulse of blood flow. The scattered light intensity will change in time with respect to changes in blood flow or blood opacity associated with heart beats, breaths, blood oxygen level (SpO2), and the like. Such a sensing methodology may require the magnitude of light energy reaching the volume of flesh being interrogated to be steady and consistent so that small changes in the quantity of scattered photons can be attributed to varying blood flow. If the incidental and scattered photon count magnitude changes due to light coupling variation between the source or detector and the skin or other body tissue, then the signal of interest can be difficult to ascertain due to large photon count variability caused by motion artifacts. Changes in the surface area (and volume) of skin or other body tissue being impacted with photons, or varying skin surface curvature reflecting significant portions of the photons may also significantly impact optical coupling efficiency. Physical activity, such a walking, cycling, running, etc., may cause motion artifacts in the optical scatter signal from the body, and time-varying changes in photon intensity due to motion artifacts may swamp-out time-varying changes in photon intensity due to blood flow changes. Each of these changes in optical coupling can dramatically reduce the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of biometric PPG information to total time-varying photonic interrogation count. This can result in a much lower accuracy in metrics derived from PPG data, such as heart rate and breathing rate.
  • [0004]
    An earphone, such as a headset, earbud, etc., may be a good choice for incorporation of a photoplethysmograph device because it is a form factor that individuals are familiar with, it is a device that is commonly worn for long periods of time, and it frequently is used during exercise which is a time when individuals may benefit most from having accurate heart rate data (or other physiological data). Unfortunately, incorporation of a photoplethysmograph device into an earphone poses several challenges. For example, earphones may be uncomfortable to wear for long periods of time, particularly if they deform the ear surface. Moreover, human ear anatomy may vary significantly from person to person, so finding an earbud form that will fit comfortably in many ears may pose significant challenges. In addition, earbuds made for vigorous physical activity typically incorporate an elastomeric surface and/or elastomeric features to function as springs that dampen earbud acceleration within the ear. Although, these features may facilitate retention of an earbud within an ear during high acceleration and impact modalities, they may not adequately address optical skin coupling requirements needed to achieve quality photoplethysmography.
  • [0005]
    Conventional photoplethysmography devices, as illustrated for example in FIGS. 1A-1C, typically suffer from reduced skin coupling as a result of subject motion. For example, most conventional photoplethysmography devices use a spring to clip the sensor onto either an earlobe (FIG. 1A) or a fingertip (FIG. 1B). Unfortunately, these conventional devices tend to have a large mass and may not maintain consistent skin contact when subjected to large accelerations, such as when a subject is exercising.
  • [0006]
    A conventional earbud device that performs photoplethysmography in the ear is the MX-D100 player from Perception Digital of Wanchai, Hong Kong (www.perceptiondigital.com). This earbud device, illustrated in FIG. 1C and indicated as 10, incorporates a spring biased member 12 to improve PPG signal quality. The member 12 is urged by a spring or other biasing element (not shown) in the direction of arrow A1, as indicated in FIG. 1C. The spring biased member 12 forcibly presses the entire earbud 10 within the ear E of a subject to minimize motion of the entire earbud 10. However, there are several drawbacks to the device 10 of FIG. 1C. For example, the source/sensor module is coupled to the entire earbud mass and, as such, may experience larger translation distances resulting in greater signal variability when the ear undergoes accelerations. In addition, because the earbud 10 is held in place with one primary spring force direction, significant discomfort can be experienced by the end user. Moreover, the earbud motion is only constrained in one direction (i.e., the direction indicated by A1) due to the single spring force direction.
  • [0007]
    Because PPG used in wearable devices employs an optical technology, requiring the powering of optical emitters and microprocessors via a wearable battery, managing power consumption can be challenging. For example, high-power algorithms may be required to accurately measure heart rate during exercise. Thus, employing a high-power algorithm during exercise may have the benefit of accurately monitoring heart rate during exercise but may also have the unwanted effect of draining the battery of the wearable device such that the device will not have enough power to measure a subject over the course of a day or week during non-exercising periods.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0008]
    It should be appreciated that this Summary is provided to introduce a selection of concepts in a simplified form, the concepts being further described below in the Detailed Description. This Summary is not intended to identify key features or essential features of this disclosure, nor is it intended to limit the scope of the invention.
  • [0009]
    According to some embodiments of the present invention, a monitoring device configured to be attached to a body of a subject includes a sensor that is configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject and a processor coupled to the sensor that is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor. The sensor may be an optical sensor that includes at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector, although various other types of sensors may be utilized. The processor is configured to change the signal analysis frequency (i.e., the signal sampling rate), sensor algorithm, and/or sensor interrogation power in response to detecting a change in subject activity. For example, in some embodiments, the processor increases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power in response to detecting an increase in subject activity, and decreases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power in response to detecting a decrease in subject activity. In other embodiments, the processor may change the sensor algorithm in response to a change in subject activity. For example, the processor may implement frequency-domain digital signal processing in response to detecting high subject activity, and implement time-domain digital signal processing in response to detecting low subject activity. The frequency- and time-domain algorithms represent two different signal extraction methods for extracting accurate biometrics from optical sensor signals, where the frequency-domain algorithm may require substantially greater processing power than that of the time-domain algorithm.
  • [0010]
    In some embodiments, detecting a change in subject activity comprises detecting a change in at least one subject vital sign, such as subject heart rate, subject blood pressure, subject temperature, subject respiration rate, subject perspiration rate, etc. In other embodiments, the sensor includes a motion sensor, such as an accelerometer, gyroscope, etc., and detecting a change in subject activity includes detecting a change in subject motion via the motion sensor. In some embodiments, detecting a change in subject activity may include predicting a type of activity the subject is engaged in.
  • [0011]
    According to some embodiments of the present invention, a method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device having a sensor includes changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power in response to detecting a change in subject activity. In some embodiments, detecting a change in subject activity comprises detecting a change in at least one subject vital sign, such as subject heart rate, subject blood pressure, subject temperature, subject respiration rate, and/or subject perspiration rate, etc. In other embodiments, detecting a change in subject activity comprises detecting a change in subject motion via a motion sensor associated with the sensor.
  • [0012]
    In some embodiments, changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power in response to detecting a change in subject activity includes increasing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power in response to detecting an increase in subject activity, and decreasing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power in response to detecting a decrease in subject activity. In other embodiments, the processor is configured to implement frequency-domain digital signal processing in response to detecting high subject activity, and to implement time-domain digital signal processing in response to detecting low subject activity.
  • [0013]
    According to other embodiments of the present invention, a monitoring device configured to be attached to a subject includes a sensor configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject. The monitoring device also includes a processor coupled to the sensor that is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor. The sensor may be an optical sensor that includes at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector, although various other types of sensors may be utilized. The processor is configured to change signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power in response to detecting, via the sensor or another sensor, a change in the at least one environmental condition, such as temperature, humidity, air quality, barometric pressure, radiation, light intensity, and sound. For example, in some embodiments, the processor increases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power in response to detecting an increase in the at least one environmental condition, and decreases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power in response to detecting a decrease in the at least one environmental condition.
  • [0014]
    In some embodiments, a method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device includes changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power in response to detecting a change in at least one environmental condition. For example, in some embodiments, changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power in response to detecting a change in at least one environmental condition includes increasing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power in response to detecting an increase in at least one environmental condition, and decreasing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power in response to detecting a decrease in at least one environmental condition.
  • [0015]
    According to other embodiments of the present invention, a monitoring device configured to be attached to a subject includes a clock (e.g., a digital clock, an internal software clock, etc.) or is in communication with a clock, a sensor configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject, and a processor coupled to the clock and the sensor. The sensor may be an optical sensor that includes at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector, although various other types of sensors may be utilized. The processor is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor, and is configured to change signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power at one or more predetermined times. For example, in some embodiments, the processor increases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power at a first time, and decreases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power at a second time. In other embodiments, the processor adjusts signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power according to a circadian rhythm of the subject.
  • [0016]
    According to some embodiments, a method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device includes changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power at one or more predetermined times. In some embodiments, changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power at one or more predetermined times includes increasing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power at a first time, and decreasing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power at a second time. In other embodiments, changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power at one or more predetermined times comprises adjusting signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power according to a circadian rhythm of the subject.
  • [0017]
    According to other embodiments of the present invention, a monitoring device configured to be attached to a subject includes a location sensor or is in communication with a location sensor, a sensor configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject, and a processor coupled to the location sensor and the sensor. The sensor may be an optical sensor that includes at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector, although various other types of sensors may be utilized. The processor is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor and to change signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power when the subject has changed locations. For example, in some embodiments, the processor increases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power when the subject is at a particular location, and decreases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power when the subject is no longer at the particular location
  • [0018]
    According to some embodiments, a method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device includes changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power when a location sensor associated with the monitoring device indicates the subject has changed locations. For example, in some embodiments, signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power is increased when the subject is at a particular location, and signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power is decreased when the subject is no longer at the particular location.
  • [0019]
    According to other embodiments of the present invention, a monitoring device configured to be attached to a subject includes a sensor configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject, and a processor coupled to the sensor. The sensor includes at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector. The processor is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor, and is configured to change the wavelength of light emitted by the at least one optical emitter in response to detecting a change in subject activity. In some embodiments, the processor instructs the at least one optical emitter to emit shorter wavelength light (e.g., a decrease in wavelength by 100 nm or more) in response to detecting an increase in subject activity, and instructs the at least one optical emitter to emit longer wavelength light (e.g., an increase in wavelength by 100 nm or more) in response to detecting an decrease in subject activity.
  • [0020]
    In some embodiments, detecting a change in subject activity comprises detecting a change in at least one subject vital sign, such as subject heart rate, subject blood pressure, subject temperature, subject respiration rate, subject perspiration rate, etc. In other embodiments, the sensor includes a motion sensor, such as an accelerometer, gyroscope, etc., and detecting a change in subject activity includes detecting a change in subject motion via the motion sensor.
  • [0021]
    In some embodiments, detecting a change in subject activity may include predicting a type of activity the subject is engaged in.
  • [0022]
    According to some embodiments of the present invention, a method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device having a sensor includes changing wavelength of light emitted by at least one optical emitter associated with the sensor in response to detecting a change in subject activity. For example, in some embodiments, changing wavelength of light emitted by the at least one optical emitter may include instructing the at least one optical emitter to emit shorter wavelength light in response to detecting an increase in subject activity, and instructing the at least one optical emitter to emit longer wavelength light in response to detecting an decrease in subject activity.
  • [0023]
    According to other embodiments of the present invention, a monitoring device configured to be attached to a subject includes a sensor configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject, and a processor coupled to the sensor and configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor. The sensor comprises at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector, and the processor instructs the at least one optical emitter to emit a different wavelength of light during each of a series of respective time intervals such that a respective different physiological parameter can be measured from the subject during each time interval via the at least one optical detector.
  • [0024]
    According to some embodiments of the present invention, a method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device having a sensor with at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector comprises emitting a different wavelength of light during each of a series of respective time intervals, and measuring a respective different physiological parameter of the subject during each time interval via the at least one optical detector.
  • [0025]
    According to other embodiments of the present invention, a monitoring device configured to be attached to a subject includes a sensor configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject, and a processor coupled to the sensor. The processor is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor, and is configured to change signal analysis frequency and/or change sensor interrogation power in response to detecting a change in subject stress level (e.g., by detecting a change in at least one subject vital sign, such as heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, respiration rate, and/or perspiration rate). For example, in some embodiments, the processor increases signal analysis frequency and/or increases sensor interrogation power in response to detecting an increase in subject stress level, and decreases signal analysis frequency and/or decreases sensor interrogation power in response to detecting a decrease in subject stress level.
  • [0026]
    In some embodiments, the sensor comprises a voice recognition system. The processor is configured to increase processing power for the voice recognition system in response to detecting an increase in subject stress level, and to decrease processing power for the voice recognition system in response to detecting an decrease in subject stress level.
  • [0027]
    In some embodiments, the sensor is in communication with a user interface. In some embodiments, the processor may be configured to increase user interface brightness and/or font size of alphanumeric characters displayed on the user interface in response to detecting an increase in subject stress level, and is configured to decrease user interface brightness and/or font size of alphanumeric characters displayed on the user interface in response to detecting a decrease in subject stress level. In some embodiments, the processor may be configured to enlarge an image displayed within the user interface and/or make an image displayed within the user interface easier to view/comprehend (e.g., increase the resolution of the image, etc.) in response to detecting an increase in subject stress level. The processor may be configured to decrease an image displayed within the user interface and/or reduce the resolution of an image displayed within the user interface in response to detecting an increase in subject stress level.
  • [0028]
    According to some embodiments of the present invention, a method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device having a sensor includes changing signal analysis frequency and/or changing sensor interrogation power via the processor in response to detecting a change in subject stress level. For example, in some embodiments signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power is increased in response to detecting an increase in subject stress level, and signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power is decreased in response to detecting a decrease in subject stress level.
  • [0029]
    In some embodiments, the sensor comprises a voice recognition system, and the method includes increasing processing power for the voice recognition system in response to detecting an increase in subject stress level, and decreasing processing power for the voice recognition system in response to detecting a decrease in subject stress level.
  • [0030]
    In some embodiments, the sensor is in communication with a user interface, and the method includes increasing user interface brightness and/or font size of alphanumeric characters displayed on the user interface in response to detecting an increase in subject stress level, and decreasing user interface brightness and/or font size of alphanumeric characters displayed on the user interface in response to detecting a decrease in subject stress level.
  • [0031]
    According to other embodiments of the present invention, a method of monitoring a subject wearing a PPG sensor device having at least one processor includes processing PPG sensor readings via the at least one processor to determine if the subject is located indoors or outdoors, and selecting a PPG sensor polling routine associated with indoor or outdoor conditions depending on whether the subject is located indoors or outdoors, respectively. In some embodiments, if the subject is located indoors, the PPG sensor polling routine is configured to direct the PPG sensor to utilize light with at least one visible wavelength and at least one infrared (IR) wavelength, and if the subject is located outdoors, the PPG sensor polling routine is configured to direct the PPG sensor to utilize light with at least two distinct IR wavelengths or two different IR wavelength bands. The method may further include determining blood and/or tissue oxygenation of the subject via the PPG sensor.
  • [0032]
    Monitoring devices in accordance with some embodiments of the present invention may be configured to be positioned at or within an ear of a subject or secured to an appendage or other body location of the subject
  • [0033]
    Monitoring devices, according to embodiments of the present invention, are advantageous over conventional monitoring devices because, by changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor interrogation power, power savings may be incurred. Moreover, increasing sensing power or sampling frequency may allow for finer, more accurate sensor data to be collected during periods of rapid body activity, e.g., during exercising, running, walking, etc. Conversely sensor data changes during periods of inactivity maybe infrequent and require significantly lower power to achieve sufficient data resolution to accurately describe physiological changes.
  • [0034]
    It is noted that aspects of the invention described with respect to one embodiment may be incorporated in a different embodiment although not specifically described relative thereto. That is, all embodiments and/or features of any embodiment can be combined in any way and/or combination. Applicant reserves the right to change any originally filed claim or file any new claim accordingly, including the right to be able to amend any originally filed claim to depend from and/or incorporate any feature of any other claim although not originally claimed in that manner. These and other objects and/or aspects of the present invention are explained in detail below.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0035]
    The accompanying drawings, which form a part of the specification, illustrate various embodiments of the present invention. The drawings and description together serve to fully explain embodiments of the present invention.
  • [0036]
    FIG. 1A is a perspective view of a conventional PPG device attached to the ear of a person.
  • [0037]
    FIG. 1B is a perspective view of a conventional PPG device attached to a finger of a person.
  • [0038]
    FIG. 1C illustrates a conventional PPG device attached to the ear of a person, and wherein a biasing element is utilized to retain the photoplethysmography device in the person's ear.
  • [0039]
    FIGS. 2A-2B illustrate a monitoring device that can be positioned within an ear of a subject, according to some embodiments of the present invention.
  • [0040]
    FIG. 3A illustrates a monitoring device that can be positioned around an appendage of the body of a subject, according to some embodiments of the present invention.
  • [0041]
    FIG. 3B is a cross sectional view of the monitoring device of FIG. 3A.
  • [0042]
    FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a monitoring device according to some embodiments of the present invention.
  • [0043]
    FIG. 5 is a block diagram of a monitoring device according to some embodiments of the present invention.
  • [0044]
    FIGS. 6, 7A-7B, and 8-20 are flowcharts of operations for monitoring a subject according to embodiments of the present invention.
  • [0045]
    FIG. 21A is a graph illustrating two plots of real-time RRi (R-R interval) measurements taken from two different subjects wearing a PPG sensor during a period of 240 seconds: 60 seconds sitting in a chair, 60 seconds standing in place, 60 seconds fast walking, and 60 seconds of easy walking.
  • [0046]
    FIG. 21B is a table which illustrates various calculated statistical metrics for the plots of the two subjects of FIG. 21A at three different polling and sampling frequencies (250 Hz, 125 Hz, and 25 Hz).
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0047]
    The present invention will now be described more fully hereinafter with reference to the accompanying figures, in which embodiments of the invention are shown. This invention may, however, be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein. Like numbers refer to like elements throughout. In the figures, certain layers, components or features may be exaggerated for clarity, and broken lines illustrate optional features or operations unless specified otherwise. In addition, the sequence of operations (or steps) is not limited to the order presented in the figures and/or claims unless specifically indicated otherwise. Features described with respect to one figure or embodiment can be associated with another embodiment or figure although not specifically described or shown as such.
  • [0048]
    It will be understood that when a feature or element is referred to as being “on” another feature or element, it can be directly on the other feature or element or intervening features and/or elements may also be present. In contrast, when a feature or element is referred to as being “directly on” another feature or element, there are no intervening features or elements present. It will also be understood that, when a feature or element is referred to as being “secured”, “connected”, “attached” or “coupled” to another feature or element, it can be directly secured, directly connected, attached or coupled to the other feature or element or intervening features or elements may be present. In contrast, when a feature or element is referred to as being “directly secured”, “directly connected”, “directly attached” or “directly coupled” to another feature or element, there are no intervening features or elements present. Although described or shown with respect to one embodiment, the features and elements so described or shown can apply to other embodiments.
  • [0049]
    The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the invention. As used herein, the singular forms “a”, “an” and “the” are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.
  • [0050]
    As used herein, the terms “comprise”, “comprising”, “comprises”, “include”, “including”, “includes”, “have”, “has”, “having”, or variants thereof are open-ended, and include one or more stated features, integers, elements, steps, components or functions but does not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, elements, steps, components, functions or groups thereof. Furthermore, as used herein, the common abbreviation “e.g.”, which derives from the Latin phrase “exempli gratia,” may be used to introduce or specify a general example or examples of a previously mentioned item, and is not intended to be limiting of such item. The common abbreviation “i.e.”, which derives from the Latin phrase “id est,” may be used to specify a particular item from a more general recitation.
  • [0051]
    As used herein, the term “and/or” includes any and all combinations of one or more of the associated listed items and may be abbreviated as “/”.
  • [0052]
    As used herein, phrases such as “between X and Y” and “between about X and Y” should be interpreted to include X and Y. As used herein, phrases such as “between about X and Y” mean “between about X and about Y.” As used herein, phrases such as “from about X to Y” mean “from about X to about Y.”
  • [0053]
    Spatially relative terms, such as “under”, “below”, “lower”, “over”, “upper” and the like, may be used herein for ease of description to describe one element or feature's relationship to another element(s) or feature(s) as illustrated in the figures. It will be understood that the spatially relative terms are intended to encompass different orientations of the device in use or operation in addition to the orientation depicted in the figures. For example, if a device in the figures is inverted, elements described as “under” or “beneath” other elements or features would then be oriented “over” the other elements or features. Thus, the exemplary term “under” can encompass both an orientation of over and under. The device may be otherwise oriented (rotated 90 degrees or at other orientations) and the spatially relative descriptors used herein interpreted accordingly. Similarly, the terms “upwardly”, “downwardly”, “vertical”, “horizontal” and the like are used herein for the purpose of explanation only unless specifically indicated otherwise.
  • [0054]
    It will be understood that although the terms first and second are used herein to describe various features or elements, these features or elements should not be limited by these terms. These terms are only used to distinguish one feature or element from another feature or element. Thus, a first feature or element discussed below could be termed a second feature or element, and similarly, a second feature or element discussed below could be termed a first feature or element without departing from the teachings of the present invention.
  • [0055]
    Unless otherwise defined, all terms (including technical and scientific terms) used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. It will be further understood that terms, such as those defined in commonly used dictionaries, should be interpreted as having a meaning that is consistent with their meaning in the context of the specification and relevant art and should not be interpreted in an idealized or overly formal sense unless expressly so defined herein. Well-known functions or constructions may not be described in detail for brevity and/or clarity.
  • [0056]
    The term “about”, as used herein with respect to a value or number, means that the value or number can vary more or less, for example by +/−20%, +/−10%, +/−5%, +/−1%, +/−0.5%, +/−0.1%, etc.
  • [0057]
    The terms “sensor”, “sensing element”, and “sensor module”, as used herein, are interchangeable and refer to a sensor element or group of sensor elements that may be utilized to sense information, such as information (e.g., physiological information, body motion, etc.) from the body of a subject and/or environmental information in a vicinity of the subject. A sensor/sensing element/sensor module may comprise one or more of the following: a detector element, an emitter element, a processing element, optics, mechanical support, supporting circuitry, and the like. Both a single sensor element and a collection of sensor elements may be considered a sensor, a sensing element, or a sensor module.
  • [0058]
    The term “optical emitter”, as used herein, may include a single optical emitter and/or a plurality of separate optical emitters that are associated with each other.
  • [0059]
    The term “optical detector”, as used herein, may include a single optical detector and/or a plurality of separate optical detectors that are associated with each other.
  • [0060]
    The term “wearable sensor module”, as used herein, refers to a sensor module configured to be worn on or near the body of a subject.
  • [0061]
    The terms “monitoring device” and “biometric monitoring device”, as used herein, are interchangeable and include any type of device, article, or clothing that may be worn by and/or attached to a subject and that includes at least one sensor/sensing element/sensor module. Exemplary monitoring devices may be embodied in an earpiece, a headpiece, a finger clip, a digit (finger or toe) piece, a limb band (such as an arm band or leg band), an ankle band, a wrist band, a nose piece, a sensor patch, eyewear (such as glasses or shades), apparel (such as a shirt, hat, underwear, etc.), a mouthpiece or tooth piece, contact lenses, or the like.
  • [0062]
    The term “monitoring” refers to the act of measuring, quantifying, qualifying, estimating, sensing, calculating, interpolating, extrapolating, inferring, deducing, or any combination of these actions. More generally, “monitoring” refers to a way of getting information via one or more sensing elements. For example, “blood health monitoring” includes monitoring blood gas levels, blood hydration, and metabolite/electrolyte levels.
  • [0063]
    The term “headset”, as used herein, is intended to include any type of device or earpiece that may be attached to or near the ear (or ears) of a user and may have various configurations, without limitation. Headsets incorporating optical sensor modules, as described herein, may include mono headsets (a device having only one earbud, one earpiece, etc.) and stereo headsets (a device having two earbuds, two earpieces, etc.), earbuds, hearing aids, ear jewelry, face masks, headbands, and the like. In some embodiments, the term “headset” may include broadly headset elements that are not located on the head but are associated with the headset. For example, in a “medallion” style wireless headset, where the medallion comprises the wireless electronics and the headphones are plugged into or hard-wired into the medallion, the wearable medallion would be considered part of the headset as a whole. Similarly, in some cases, if a mobile phone or other mobile device is intimately associated with a plugged-in headphone, then the term “headset” may refer to the headphone-mobile device combination. The terms “headset” and “earphone”, as used herein, are interchangeable.
  • [0064]
    The term “physiological” refers to matter or energy of or from the body of a creature (e.g., humans, animals, etc.). In embodiments of the present invention, the term “physiological” is intended to be used broadly, covering both physical and psychological matter and energy of or from the body of a creature.
  • [0065]
    The term “body” refers to the body of a subject (human or animal) that may wear a monitoring device, according to embodiments of the present invention.
  • [0066]
    The term “processor” is used broadly to refer to a signal processor or computing system or processing or computing method which may be localized or distributed. For example, a localized signal processor may comprise one or more signal processors or processing methods localized to a general location, such as to a wearable device. Examples of such wearable devices may comprise an earpiece, a headpiece, a finger clip, a digit (finger or toe) piece, a limb band (such as an arm band or leg band), an ankle band, a wrist band, a nose piece, a sensor patch, eyewear (such as glasses or shades), apparel (such as a shirt, hat, underwear, etc.), a mouthpiece or tooth piece, contact lenses, or the like. Examples of a distributed processor comprise “the cloud”, the internet, a remote database, a remote processor computer, a plurality of remote processors or computers in communication with each other, or the like, or processing methods distributed amongst one or more of these elements. The key difference is that a distributed processor may include delocalized elements, whereas a localized processor may work independently of a distributed processing system. As a specific example, microprocessors, microcontrollers, ASICs (application specific integrated circuits), analog processing circuitry, or digital signal processors are a few non-limiting examples of physical signal processors that may be found in wearable devices.
  • [0067]
    The term “remote” does not necessarily mean that a remote device is a wireless device or that it is a long distance away from a device in communication therewith. Rather, the term “remote” is intended to reference a device or system that is distinct from another device or system or that is not substantially reliant on another device or system for core functionality. For example, a computer wired to a wearable device may be considered a remote device, as the two devices are distinct and/or not′substantially reliant on each other for core functionality. However, any wireless device (such as a portable device, for example) or system (such as a remote database for example) is considered remote to any other wireless device or system.
  • [0068]
    The terms “signal analysis frequency” and “signal sampling rate”, as used herein, are interchangeable and refer to the number of samples per second (or per other unit) taken from a continuous sensor (i.e., physiological sensor and environmental sensor) signal to ultimately make a discrete signal.
  • [0069]
    The term “sensor module interrogation power”, as used herein, refers to the amount of electrical power required to operate one or more sensors (i.e., physiological sensors and environmental sensors) of a sensor module and/or any processing electronics or circuitry (such as microprocessors and/or analog processing circuitry) associated therewith. Examples of decreasing the sensor interrogation power may include lowering the voltage or current through a sensor element (such as lowering the voltage or current applied to a pair of electrodes), lowering the polling (or polling rate) of a sensor element (such as lowering the frequency at which an optical emitter is flashed on/off in a PPG sensor), lowering the sampling frequency of a stream of data (such as lowering the sampling frequency of the output of an optical detector in a PPG sensor), selecting a lower-power algorithm (such as selecting a power-efficient time-domain processing method for measuring heart rate vs. a more power-hungry frequency-domain processing method), or the like. Lowering the interrogation power may also include powering only one electrode, or powering less electrodes, in a sensor module or sensor element such that less total interrogation power is exposed to the body, of a subject. For example, lowering the interrogation power of a PPG sensor may comprise illuminating only one light-emitting diode rather than a plurality of light-emitting diodes that may be present in the sensor module, and lowering the interrogation power of a bioimpedance sensor may comprise powering only one electrode pair rather than a plurality of electrodes that may be present in the bioimpedance sensor module.
  • [0070]
    The term “polling” typically refers to controlling the intensity of an energy emitter of a sensor or to the “polling rate” and/or duty cycle of an energy emitter element in a sensor, such as an optical emitter in a PPG sensor or an ultrasonic driver in an ultrasonic sensor. Polling may also refer to the process of collecting and not collecting sensor data at certain periods of time. For example, a PPG sensor may be “polled” by controlling the intensity of one or more optical emitters, i.e. by pulsing the optical emitter over time. Similarly, the detector of a PPG sensor may be polled by reading data from that sensor only at a certain point in time or at certain intervals, i.e., as in collecting data from the detector of a PPG sensor for a brief period during each optical emitter pulse. A sensor may also be polled by turning on or off one or more elements of that sensor in time, such as when a PPG sensor is polled to alternate between multiple LED wavelengths over time or when an ultrasonic sensor is polled to alternate between mechanical vibration frequencies over time.
  • [0071]
    The terms “sampling frequency”, “signal analysis frequency”, and “signal sampling rate”, as used herein, are interchangeable and refer to the number of samples per second (or per other unit) taken from a continuous sensor or sensing element (for example, the sampling rate of the thermopile output in a tympanic temperature sensor).
  • [0072]
    It should be noted that processes for managing hysteresis are implied herein. Namely, several embodiments herein for controlling sensors (and other wearable hardware) may involve a processor sending commands to a sensor element depending on the sensor readings. Thus, in some embodiments, a sensor reading (such as a reading from an optical detector or a sensing electrode) above X may result in a processor sending a command to electrically bias another sensor element (such as an optical emitter or a biasing electrode) above Y. Similarly, as soon as the sensor reading drops below X, a processor may send a command to bias another sensor element below Y. However, in borderline situations this may cause unwanted hysteresis in the biasing command, as sensor readings may rapidly toggle above/below X resulting in the toggling of the biasing of another sensor element above/below Y. As such, hysteresis management may be integrated within the algorithm(s) for controlling the execution of a processor. For example, the processor may be configured by the algorithm to delay a biasing command by a period of time Z following the timing of a prior biasing command, thereby preventing or reducing the aforementioned toggling.
  • [0073]
    In the following figures, various monitoring devices will be illustrated and described for attachment to the ear or an appendage of the human body. However, it is to be understood that embodiments of the present invention are not limited to those worn by humans.
  • [0074]
    The ear is an ideal location for wearable health and environmental monitors. The ear is a relatively immobile platform that does not obstruct a person's movement or vision. Monitoring devices located at an ear have, for example, access to the inner-ear canal and tympanic membrane (for measuring core body temperature), muscle tissue (for monitoring muscle tension), the pinna, earlobe, and elsewhere (for monitoring blood gas levels), the region behind the ear (for measuring skin temperature and galvanic skin response), and the internal carotid artery (for measuring cardiopulmonary functioning), etc. The ear is also at or near the point of exposure to: environmental breathable toxicants of interest (volatile organic compounds, pollution, etc.); noise pollution experienced by the ear; and lighting conditions for the eye. Furthermore, as the ear canal is naturally designed for transmitting acoustical energy, the ear provides a good location for monitoring internal sounds, such as heartbeat, breathing rate, and mouth motion.
  • [0075]
    Optical coupling into the blood vessels of the ear may vary between individuals. As used herein, the term “coupling” refers to the interaction or communication between excitation energy (such as light) entering a region and the region itself. For example, one form of optical coupling may be the interaction between excitation light generated from within an optical sensor of an earbud (or other device positioned at or within an ear) and the blood vessels of the ear. In one embodiment, this interaction may involve excitation light entering the ear region and scattering from a blood vessel in the ear such that the temporal change in intensity of scattered light is proportional to a temporal change in blood flow within the blood vessel. Another form of optical coupling may be the interaction between excitation light generated by an optical emitter within an earbud and a light-guiding region of the earbud. Thus, an earbud with integrated light-guiding capabilities, wherein light can be guided to multiple and/or select regions along the earbud, can assure that each individual wearing the earbud will generate an optical signal related to blood flow through the blood vessels. Optical coupling of light to a particular ear region of one person may not yield photoplethysmographic signals for each person. Therefore, coupling light to multiple regions may assure that at least one blood-vessel-rich region will be interrogated for each person wearing an earbud. Coupling multiple regions of the ear to light may also be accomplished by diffusing light from a light source within an earbud.
  • [0076]
    According to some embodiments of the present invention, “smart” monitoring devices including, but not limited to, armbands and earbuds, are provided that change signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting a change in subject activity, a change in environmental conditions, a change in time, a change in location of the subject and/or a change in stress level of the subject.
  • [0077]
    FIGS. 2A-2B illustrate a monitoring apparatus 20 configured to be positioned within an ear of a subject, according to some embodiments of the present invention. The illustrated apparatus 20 includes an earpiece body or housing 22, a sensor module 24, a stabilizer 25, and a sound port 26. When positioned within the ear of a subject, the sensor module 24 has a region 24 a configured to contact a selected area of the ear. The illustrated sensor region 24 a is contoured (i.e., is “form-fitted”) to matingly engage a portion of the ear between the anti tragus and acoustic meatus, and the stabilizer is configured to engage the anti-helix. However, monitoring devices in accordance with embodiments of the present invention can have sensor modules with one or more regions configured to engage various portions of the ear. Various types of device configured to be worn at or near the ear may be utilized in conjunction with embodiments of the present invention.
  • [0078]
    FIGS. 3A-3B illustrate a monitoring apparatus 30 in the form of a sensor band 32 configured to be secured to an appendage (e.g., an arm, wrist, hand, finger, toe, leg, foot, neck, etc.) of a subject. The band 32 includes a sensor module 34 on or extending from the inside surface 32 a of the band 32. The sensor module 34 is configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject and includes a sensor region 34 a that is contoured to contact the skin of a subject wearing the apparatus 30.
  • [0079]
    Embodiments of the present invention may be utilized in various devices and articles including, but not limited to, patches, clothing, etc. Embodiments of the present invention can be utilized wherever PPG and blood flow signals can be obtained and at any location on the body of a subject. Embodiments of the present invention are not limited to the illustrated monitoring devices 20, 30 of FIGS. 2A-2B and 3A-3B.
  • [0080]
    The sensor modules 24, 34 for the illustrated monitoring devices 20, 30 of FIGS. 2A-2B and 3A-3B are configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from a subject wearing the monitoring devices 20, 30. In some embodiments, the sensor modules 24, 34 may be configured to detect and/or measure one or more environmental conditions in a vicinity of the subject wearing the monitoring devices 20, 30.
  • [0081]
    A sensor module utilized in accordance with embodiments of the present invention may be an optical sensor module that includes at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector. Exemplary optical emitters include, but are not limited to light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes (LDs), compact incandescent bulbs, micro-plasma emitters, IR blackbody sources, or the like. In addition, a sensor module may include various types of sensors including and/or in addition to optical sensors. For example, a sensor module may include one or more inertial sensors (e.g., an accelerometer, piezoelectric sensor, vibration sensor, photoreflector sensor, etc.) for detecting changes in motion, one or more thermal sensors (e.g., a thermopile, thermistor, resistor, etc.) for measuring temperature of a part of the body, one or more electrical sensors for measuring changes in electrical conduction, one or more skin humidity sensors, and/or one or more acoustical sensors.
  • [0082]
    Referring to FIG. 4, a monitoring device (e.g., monitoring devices 20, 30), according to embodiments of the present invention, includes at least one processor 40 that is coupled to the sensor(s) of a sensor module 24, 34 and that is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor(s). Collectively, the elements of FIG. 4 present a system for intelligently controlling power consumption in a wearable monitor, such as monitoring devices 20, 30.
  • [0083]
    The processor 40 is configured to change signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting a change in activity of a subject wearing the monitoring device. For example, in, some embodiments, the processor 40 increases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting an increase in subject activity, and decreases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting a decrease in subject activity. In other embodiments, the processor 40 implements frequency-domain digital signal processing in response to detecting high subject activity (e.g., the subject starts running, exercising, etc.), and implements time-domain digital signal processing in response to detecting low subject activity. The frequency- and time-domain algorithms represent two different signal extraction methods for extracting accurate biometrics from optical sensor signals, where the frequency-domain algorithm may require substantially greater processing power than that of the time-domain algorithm. The reason that frequency-domain algorithms may require more power is because spectral transforms may be employed, whereas time-domain algorithms may employ lower-power filters and pulse picking.
  • [0084]
    An analysis platform 50 may be in communication with the processor 40 and a memory storage location 60 for the algorithms. The analysis platform 50 may be within a wearable device (e.g., monitoring devices 20, 30) or may be part of a remote system in wireless or wired communication with the wearable device. The analysis platform 50 may analyze data generated by the processor 40 to generate assessments based on the data. For example, the analysis platform 50 may analyze vital sign data (such as heart rate, respiration rate, RRi, blood pressure, etc.) in context of the user's activity data to assess a health or fitness status of the person, such as a health or fitness score. In a specific example of such an assessment, the analysis platform 50 may assess a subject's VO2max (maximum volume of oxygen consumption) by: 1) identifying data where the subject walked at a speed (as measured by a motion sensor) less than a threshold value (for example, 2.5 mph), 2) selectively analyzing the breathing rate (as measured by a physiological sensor) for this selected data (for example, by taking an average value of the selected breathing rate data and inverting it to get 1/breathing rate), and 3) generating a fitness assessment (such as a VO2max assessment) by multiplying the inverted value by a scalar value. A number of assessments can be made by analyzing physiological and motion (activity) data, and this is only a specific example.
  • [0085]
    It should be noted that, herein, the steps described wherein the processor 40 is used to make a determination or decision may be interchanged with the analysis platform 50 instead, as the analysis platform may be configured to have the same features as the processor 40 itself. For example, if the processor 40 determines that a subject's VO2max is too high, via an algorithm, the analysis platform 50 may also be configured to assess this determination. Thus, in some embodiments, the analysis platform 50 may be configured such that a processor 40 is not needed, such as the case where a sensor of a sensor, module (e.g., sensor module 24, 34) is in wireless communication directly with a remote analysis platform 50.
  • [0086]
    The analysis platform 50 may be configured to analyze data processed by the processor 40 to assess the efficacy (or confidence value) of the algorithms used by the processor 40 and to autonomously modify the algorithms to improve the acuity of the wearable monitoring device. For example, the processer 40 may be configured to generate a confidence score for a given metric. The confidence score may be an indication of how strongly a processed metric may be trusted. For example, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio may be processed from a PPG signal by assessing the AC amplitude of the blood flow waveform to a noise value, and a low S/N may represent a low confidence. If the analysis platform 50 determines that confidence value for a given algorithm is low, it may adjust the algorithm for future processing events implemented by the processor 40. For example, the algorithm may be changed such that a threshold may be lowered; as a specific example, the activity threshold for raising the signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power may be lowered such that the acuity of the wearable sensor increases during activity. In some embodiments, the analysis platform 50 may determine that an entirely different algorithm must be used for processing, and a replacement algorithm may be selected via command from the analysis platform 50. In some embodiments, this replacement algorithm may be associated with a given confidence value range, and the analysis platform 50 may select the replacement algorithm based on the determined confidence value. For example, if the analysis platform 50 determines that the confidence value of one algorithm is too low for a user, the analysis platform may automatically replace the algorithm with another algorithm that provides higher confidence. However, other methods may be used to select an algorithm for implementation by the processor 40 based on a confidence determination, in accordance with some embodiments of the present invention.
  • [0087]
    In the case where the sensor module (or modules) comprises PPG sensor functionality, readings from the sensor module (for example, readings from optical sensors or motion sensors) can be used to trigger changes to the optomechanical engine (the optical emitter, detector, and associated optics). For example, the detection of low activity may change the polling of the optomechanical engine. In a specific example, a detection of low activity may change the optical wavelength used for PPG. In this example, if the activity level processed by the processor 40 is deemed to be “low”, the primary wavelength of detection may shift from visible (such as green or yellow) wavelengths to infrared wavelengths. This can be useful for automatically turning off visible emitters when the person is rested, helping to prevent visible light pollution so that the person can sleep better.
  • [0088]
    For example, in one embodiment, the processor 40 and/or analysis platform may determine that the person is sleeping, and then the action of changing wavelengths may be initiated by the processor 40 (i.e., via a command to the PPG sensor). This may be achieved by the processor and/or analytics engine processing activity and/or physiological data against a threshold criteria (i.e., processing accelerometer data to determine a state of low enough physical activity and that the person is laying flat/parallel to the ground) and/or physiological model (i.e., processing PPG sensor information to determine that the person's breathing, heart rate, and/or HRV is of a pattern associated with sleeping) to determine that the person is sleeping. Alternatively, the processor and/or analytics platform may automatically determine that the person is in a dark environment (i.e., by processing optical sensor data to determine that the person is in a dark enough environment) and then send a command to switch change the wavelengths of the PPG sensor. In another embodiment, the user may manually initiate a command (i.e., by pressing a button) that the person is going to sleep, which my then be used by the processor and/or analysis platform to change the wavelengths. Also, although the PPG S/N ratio for infrared (IR) wavelengths may be less than that for visible wavelengths, the total electrical power levels (i.e., the bias voltage) required to bias the IR emitter may be lower, thereby saving battery life in conditions of low activity.
  • [0089]
    This approach may also be used for pulse oximetry via a PPG sensor. For example, the processor 40 may process sensor readings from a sensor module 24, 34 to determine that the subject wearing the wearable device is indoors or outdoors, and the processor 40 may select a different optomechanical polling routine for indoors vs. outdoors. For example, when indoors, a visible and IR emitter may be engaged to facilitate SpO2 determination. But once the user is outdoors, where visible outdoor light may pollute PPG sensor readings with noise signals too intense to remove with physical or digital optical filters, the processor may engage (poll) multiple IR emitters instead of the visible and IR emitter, and SpO2 determination may be executed via two IR wavelength bands rather than a visible+IR wavelength band. For example, the processor 40 may turn off visible emitters when the user is outdoors and may turn on multiple IR emitters, such as a ˜700 nm and ˜940 nm emitter, instead. Because pulse oximetry requires two distinct wavelengths or two different wavelength bands in order to generate an estimate of SpO2, these two IR wavelengths/wavelength bands may be used with efficacy outdoors. The example of these two wavelengths/wavelength bands should not be construed to be limiting, as various wavelength configurations more resilient to outdoor light contamination may be used, such as spectral bands in solar blind regions (wavelengths that are naturally attenuated by the earth's atmosphere, such as ˜763 nm and others). Additionally, it should be noted that monitoring blood oxygen (SpO2) and tissue oxygen may each be achieved via this method, depending on the sensor positioning used. For example, locating a PPG sensor at a leg or arm may facilitate a more accurate determination of muscle oxygenation, whereas locating a PPG sensor at a finger, ear, or forehead may be facilitate a more accurate determination of blood oxygenation. Moreover, the muscle oxygenation signals collected may be used as a proxy for estimating lactic acid and/or lactate threshold (or anaerobic threshold) in the muscle of the subject, as oxygen depletion may be correlated with higher lactic acid build-up in the muscles.
  • [0090]
    Besides the example just described, autonomously triggering changes in the optomechanical engine of a PPG sensor, in response to activity data sensed by an activity (motion) sensor, can be applied towards a number of useful functions. For example, the detection of low activity may change the type of PPG-based measurement to be executed. This can be useful for cases where the accuracy of a physiological measurement or assessment demands a certain level of physical activity or inactivity. As a specific example, a measurement of blood pressure or RRi (R-R interval, which is the interval from the peak of one QRS complex to the peak of the next as shown on an electrocardiogram) may provide best results during periods of inactivity. The processor 40 may deem that activity is “low enough” to execute one or more of such measurements, and then execute an algorithm to start measuring. This way, blood pressure and/or RRi measurements are only executed at time periods where a reliable measurement can be made, thereby saving system power. Similarly, in some embodiments, a measurement of HRR (heart rate recovery) may be executed only when the processor 40 deems that activity “high enough” to make such a measurement meaningful. For example, the processor 40 may determine that a user's activity level (perhaps as sensed by an activity sensor) or exertion level (perhaps as sensed by a heart rate sensor) has been high enough for a long enough period of time, followed by a resting phase, such that HRR may be accurately assessed. In this case, several data points of activity level and/or heart rate may be stored in memory or buffered, such that the processor 40 may run through the dataset to determine if the user has been in a state of high activity or exertion for a long enough period of time to justify an HRR measurement. This way, HRR measurements are only executed at time periods where a reliable measurement can be made, saving power consumption.
  • [0091]
    In another example, if the processor 40 determines that subject activity level has been very low, the processor 40 may engage a longer wavelength light, such as IR light, as the wavelength for PPG. But if subject activity is heightened, the processor 40 may switch the wavelength to a shorter wavelength, such as green, blue, or violet light. Such a process may address the problem of low perfusion, which often prevents PPG readings during periods of subject inactivity, especially for wrist-based PPG sensors. Shorter wavelength light for PPG generally yields a higher signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) over longer wavelength, but low perfusion can reduce blood flow at the surface of the skin, pushing blood flow so far below the surface that shorter wavelength light is absorbed by the skin before reaching blood flow. However, during exercise, perfusion may return and shorter wavelength light may be used once again, providing a higher S/N for PPG and thereby reducing system power requirements.
  • [0092]
    In another example, if the processor 40 determines that subject perfusion is low, for example by processing PPG information to determine that the signal-to-noise level is quite low, the processor 40 may send a command to the sensor module 24, 34 to raise the localized temperature of the neighboring skin, thereby increasing perfusion. This may be achieved by the processor 40 sending a command to turn on a heater element on the sensor module 24, 34 or to increase the electrical bias across an LED such that the LED heats up the skin to encourage blood flow. Once the signal-to-noise level is determined to be high enough for accurate and reliable physiological monitoring by the processor 40, the processor 40 may send a command to terminate heating of the skin.
  • [0093]
    For the case of PPG sensor modules 24, 34 in the system of FIG. 4, there are certain wavelengths of light that may be better for sensing specific biometric parameters. For example, whereas IR or green light may be best for sensing heart rate-related modulations in blood flow, blue or violet light may be best for sensing respiration-related modulations in blood flow. Thus, in some embodiments of the present invention, the processor 40 may be configured to select a given PPG wavelength routinely in time, according to an algorithm 60, such that various parameters are measured sequentially in time order rather than being measured simultaneously in a continuous fashion. In this way, various wavelengths of light can be turned on and off at different periods in time in order to measure various biometric parameters in sequence.
  • [0094]
    Readings from sensor module(s) can also be used to trigger a change in the algorithm sequence executed by a processor 40. For example if a normal heart rate level and/or heart rate variability (HRV) level is detected by the processor (such as a heart rate and/or HRV within a specified range), then the processor 40 may select an algorithm that has less sequential steps in time, thus saving power on the processor 40. More specifically, once an abnormal heart rate and/or HRV is detected outside the specified range, the processor 40 may select an algorithm that also implements continuous cardiac monitoring, such as monitoring of arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure, cardiac output, irregular heart beats, etc. And when heart rate and/or HRV fall back within the specified range, the processor 40 may return to a lower-power algorithm with less sequential steps in time.
  • [0095]
    Readings from the sensor(s) of a monitoring device can be used to trigger events. In addition, sensor signals may be processed and algorithms may be selected to control a biometric signal extraction method. For example, elevated subject physical activity sensed by an accelerometer may trigger a change in the signal extraction algorithm for PPG towards one of higher acuity (but higher power usage); then, when subject activity winds down, the algorithm may change to one that is lower acuity (but lower power usage). In this way, battery power may be preserved for use cases where high acuity is not needed (such as sedentary behavior where motion artifacts need not be removed.)
  • [0096]
    In some embodiments, detecting a change in subject activity comprises detecting a change in at least one subject vital sign, such as subject heart rate, subject blood pressure, subject temperature, subject respiration rate, subject perspiration rate, etc. In other embodiments, the sensor module includes a motion sensor, such as an accelerometer, gyroscope, etc., and detecting a change in subject activity includes detecting a change in subject motion via the motion sensor.
  • [0097]
    According to some embodiments, the type of activity may be identified or predicted via the processor 40. Changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power may be based on stored profiles (such as a look-up table) or learned profiles (such as machine learning with human input) of activity identification information, such as: 1) a known accelerometry profile for a given sport or exercising activity and/or 2) a known accelerometry profile for a particular person, for example.
  • [0098]
    According to other embodiments of the present invention, a monitoring device configured to be attached to a subject, such as monitoring devices 20, 30, includes a sensor module configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject and to detect and/or measure at least one environmental condition in a vicinity of the subject. The sensor module may be an optical sensor module that includes at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector, although various other types of sensors may be utilized. A processor 40 is coupled to the sensor module and is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor module. In addition, the processor 40 is configured to change signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting a change in the at least one environmental condition. Exemplary changes in environmental conditions include changes in one or more of the following ambient conditions: temperature, humidity, air quality, barometric pressure, radiation, light intensity, and sound. In some embodiments, the processor 40 increases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting an increase in the at least one environmental condition, and decreases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting a decrease in the at least one environmental condition. For example, the signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power may be increased when air quality worsens or becomes detrimental to the wearer, and signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power may be decreased when air quality improves. The principle behind this process is that extreme or harsh ambient changes in environment (such as extreme hot or cold, extreme humidity or dryness, etc.) may lower the S/N ratio of the processed signals. Thus, higher processing power may be required to actively remove noise.
  • [0099]
    Referring to FIG. 5, according to other embodiments of the present invention, a monitoring device configured to be attached to a subject, such as monitoring devices 20, 30, includes a clock 82 (or is in communication with a clock 82), a sensor module 24, 34 configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject (and/or environmental condition information in a vicinity of the subject), and a processor 40 coupled to the clock 82 and the sensor module. The sensor module 24, 34 may be an optical sensor module that includes at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector, although various other types of sensors may be utilized. The processor 40 is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor module 24, 34, and is configured to change signal analysis frequency and/or changes sensor module interrogation power at one or more predetermined times.
  • [0100]
    In some embodiments, the processor 40 increases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power at a first time, and decreases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power at a second time. For example, signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power may be increased at a particular time of day (e.g., the time of day when the wearer is typically exercising), and may be decreased at another time of day, for example, at a time of day when the wearer is less active (e.g., nighttime, etc.).
  • [0101]
    In other embodiments, the processor 40 adjusts signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power according to a circadian rhythm of the subject. For example, signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power may be increased at a particular time of day (e.g., the time of day when the wearer is at peak metabolism), and may be decreased at another time of day (for example, during sleep).
  • [0102]
    In other embodiments, the processor 40 adjusts signal analysis frequency and/or interrogation power of a sensor module 24, 34 or analysis platform 50 based on the determined stress state of the user. For example, the processor 40 may determine that a user is psychologically stressed based on, for example, an elevated heart rate over a period of time during low (not high) physical activity. The processor 40 may then send a signal to another sensor and/or analysis platform, such as a voice analysis/recognition system 84 that is in communication with the system 90 of FIG. 4, to control the processing power of voice recognition. In this manner, a more stressed psychological state may result in a higher processing power for the voice recognition system 84; in contrast, a low stress state may trigger lower power processing because it may be easier for the voice recognition system 84 to understand someone when they are calm rather than excited. As another example, the processor 40 may identify a pattern of low heart rate by processing information from a heart rate sensor over a period of time; in response, the processor may lower the signal analysis frequency and/or interrogation power performed in another simultaneous measurement, such as RRi (R-R interval). Though the sampling frequency may be reduced for the RRi calculation in this example, RRi acuity may not be sacrificed because lower heart rate implies generally longer R-R intervals. Longer intervals do not require high sampling rates for detection/measurement.
  • [0103]
    As yet another example, the processor 40 may adjust signal analysis frequency and/or interrogation power of a user interface 70 that is in communication with the system 90 of FIG. 4 (e.g., a user interface of a telecommunication device, such as a smartphone, computer, etc., or a user interface associated with a monitoring device 20, 30), based on the determined stress state of a subject wearing a monitoring device 20, 30. In this example, the processor 40 may determine that a user is psychologically stressed and then send a signal (i.e., a command) to the user interface 70, such as a view screen, such that the font size of displayed text is increased and/or the screen brightness is increased and/or an image displayed within the user interface 70 is easier to view/comprehend (e.g., increase the resolution of the image, etc.). Then, once the processor 40 determines that the subject's stress level is sufficiently low, the processor 40 may signal a low-power mode of operation for the user interface 70, by lowering the screen brightness and/font size of displayed text and/or reducing the resolution of a displayed image(s), for example.
  • [0104]
    According to other embodiments of the present invention, a monitoring device configured to be attached to a subject, such as monitoring devices 20, 30, includes a location sensor 80 (FIG. 5), a sensor module 24, 34 configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject, and a processor 40 coupled to the location sensor 80 and the sensor module 24, 34. The sensor module 24, 34 may be an optical sensor module that includes at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector, although various other types of sensors may be utilized. The processor 40 is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor module 24, 34 and to change signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power when the location sensor 80 indicates the subject has changed locations.
  • [0105]
    In some embodiments, the processor 40 increases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power when the location sensor 80 indicates the subject is at a particular location, and decreases signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power when the location sensor 80 indicates the subject is no longer at the particular location. For example, signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power may be increased when the location sensor 80 indicates the subject is at a particular location (e.g., at the gym, outdoors, at the mall, etc.), and may be decreased when the location sensor 80 indicates the subject is no longer at the particular location (e.g., when the wearer is at work, home, etc.). The locations selected for the increase or decrease in processing power may be personalized for the user and stored in memory. For example, people who are more active at outdoors than at work may see the decision tree described above, but for those who are more active at work, the decision tree may be swapped such that higher power processing is selected for work locations over home locations.
  • [0106]
    Other factors may be utilized to trigger an increase or decrease in signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power. For example, higher body temperature readings detected by a thermal sensor associated with the sensor module 24, 34 may trigger changes in signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power. The principle behind this may be that higher body temperatures are associated with higher motion, for example. The detection of higher light levels, the detection of higher changes in light intensity, and/or the detection of particular wavelengths via an optical sensor associated with the sensor module 24, 34 may trigger changes in signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power. Lower potential drops detected by an electrical sensor associated with the sensor module 24, 34 may trigger changes in signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power. Lower skin humidity readings detected via a humidity sensor associated with the sensor module may trigger changes in signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power. Higher acoustic noise levels detected via an acoustical sensor associated with the sensor module 24, 34 may trigger changes in signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power.
  • [0107]
    Referring now to FIG. 6, a method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device, such as monitoring devices 20, 30, according to some embodiments of the present invention, will be described. The monitoring device includes a sensor module 24, 34 configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject and a processor 40 configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor module. The subject is monitored for change in physical activity level (Block 100). If a change is detected (Block 102), the processor 40 changes signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power (Block 104).
  • [0108]
    As illustrated in FIG. 7A, changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power (Block 104) may include increasing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting an increase in subject activity (Block 106), and decreasing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting a decrease in subject activity (Block 108). As described above, one method of lowering the interrogation power is powering only one electrode, or powering less electrodes, in a sensor module 24, 34 or sensor element such that less total interrogation power is exposed to the body of a subject. For example, in response to detecting an increase in subject activity (Block 106), the system of FIG. 4 may power only one optical emitter (or illuminate less optical emitters) in the sensor module 24, 34, rather than a plurality of optical emitters that may be present in a wearable PPG module. Then, once high activity is detected, for example high activity detected during exercise, the system may return power to all of the optical emitters (or more of the optical emitters) in the PPG module. Because low activity may require less light for accurate PPG monitoring when compared with high physical activity, in the described manner, both high and low activity levels can result in accurate PPG measurements while balancing power requirements.
  • [0109]
    In other embodiments as illustrated in FIG. 7B, changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power (Block 104) may include implementing frequency-domain digital signal processing in response to detecting an increase in subject activity (Block 110), and implementing time-domain digital signal processing in response to detecting a decrease in subject activity (Block 112).
  • [0110]
    Referring now to FIG. 8, a method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device, such as monitoring devices 20, 30, according to some embodiments of the present invention, will be described. The monitoring device includes a sensor module 24, 34 configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject and/or measure at least one environmental condition in a vicinity of the subject, and a processor 40 coupled to the sensor module 24, 34 that is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor module 24, 34. The vicinity of the subject is monitored for changes in one or more environmental conditions (Block 200). If a change is detected (Block 202), the processor 40 changes signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power (Block 204). As illustrated in FIG. 9, changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power (Block 204) may include increasing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting an increase in an environmental condition (e.g., an increase in temperature, humidity, air pollution, light intensity, sound, etc.) (Block 206), and decreasing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting a decrease in an environmental condition (e.g., a decrease in temperature, humidity, air pollution, light intensity, sound, etc.) (Block 208).
  • [0111]
    Referring now to FIG. 10, a method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device, such as monitoring devices 20, 30, according to some embodiments of the present invention, will be described. The monitoring device includes or is in communication with a clock 82, a sensor module 24, 34 configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject, and a processor 40 coupled to the clock 82 and the sensor module 24, 34 that is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor module 24, 34. The processor 40 changes signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power at one or more predetermined times (Block 300). For example, signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power is increased at a first time (e.g., at a particular time of the day, week, etc.) (Block 302) and signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power is decreased at a second-time (e.g., another time of the day, week, etc.) (Block 304). In other embodiments, as illustrated in FIG. 11, changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power at one or more predetermined times (Block 300) includes adjusting signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power according to a circadian rhythm of the subject (Block 306).
  • [0112]
    Referring now to FIG. 12, a method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device, such as monitoring devices 20, 30, according to some embodiments of the present invention, will be described. The monitoring device includes a location sensor 80 (or is in communication with a location sensor 80), a sensor module 24, 34 configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject, and a processor 40 coupled to the location sensor 80 and the sensor module 24, 34 that is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor module 24, 34. The subject is monitored for a change in location (Block 400). If a change is detected (Block 402), the processor 40 changes signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power (Block 204). As illustrated in FIG. 13, changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power (Block 404) may include increasing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting that the subject is at a particular location (Block 406), and decreasing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting that the subject is no longer at the particular location (Block 408). For example, signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power may be increased when it is detected that the subject is at the gym and signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power may be decreased when it is detected that the subject has returned home.
  • [0113]
    Referring now to FIG. 14, a method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device, such as monitoring devices 20, 30, according to some embodiments of the present invention, will be described. The monitoring device includes a sensor module 24, 34 configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject and a processor configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor module 24, 34. The sensor module 24, 34 includes at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector. The subject is monitored for change in physical activity level (Block 500). If a change is detected (Block 502), the processor 40 changes wavelength of light emitted by the at least one optical emitter (Block 504).
  • [0114]
    As illustrated in FIG. 15, changing wavelength of light emitted by the at least one optical emitter (Block 504) may include emitting shorter wavelength light in response to detecting an increase in subject activity (Block 506), and emitting longer wavelength light in response to detecting an decrease in subject activity (Block 508). Shorter wavelength light may be less susceptible to motion artifacts. Longer wavelength light may require less battery power and also may be invisible to the eye and thus more appealing for long-term wear of a wearable monitor.
  • [0115]
    Referring now to FIG. 16, a method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device, such as monitoring devices 20, 30, according to some embodiments of the present invention, will be described. The monitoring device includes a sensor module 24, 34 configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject and a processor 40 configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor module 24, 34. The sensor module 24, 34 includes at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector. The sensor module 24, 34 emits light, via the at least one optical emitter, at one or more wavelengths during each of a series of respective time intervals (Block 600) to facilitate the measurement of a variety of different physiological parameters of the subject in the respective time intervals via data collected by the at least one optical detector (Block 602).
  • [0116]
    For example, an algorithm may comprise a list of successive intervals, wherein each interval may comprise: 1) a different polling of the optical emitter and/or detector and/or 2) a different interrogation wavelength or set of interrogation wavelengths. As a specific example, an algorithm may focus on collecting and/or processing information for the measurement of heart rate, RRi, and blood pressure in order. In such case, the following intervals may be executed in series (in no particular order): 1) calculate heart rate, 2) calculate RRi, 3) calculate blood pressure, and 4) calculate breathing rate. Heart rate may be calculated with a processor-intensive calculation to actively remove motion artifacts via a motion (noise) reference, such as footstep and body motion artifacts, as disclosed in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2015/0018636, U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2015/0011898, U.S. Pat. No. 8,700,11, and U.S. Pat. No. 8,157,730, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.
  • [0117]
    RRi may be calculated via a time-domain approach, such as applying a processor-efficient peak-finder or by leveraging a heart rate feedback filter to improve RRi tracking, for example as disclosed in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2014/0114147, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Blood pressure may be calculated by processing the photoplethysmogram itself (e.g., via intensity, shape, 1st derivative, 2nd derivative, integral, etc.) via a processor-efficient time-domain algorithm. Breathing rate (respiration rate) may be calculated by running the optical detector signal through a low-pass filter, in some cases by applying a variable feedback loop to align the corner frequency with the heart rate, for example as disclosed in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2014/0114147.
  • [0118]
    In all four cases of this specific example, a different optical wavelength (or a different set of wavelengths) may be used. For example, calculating heart rate may employ a variety of different wavelengths, but calculating breathing rate may employ shorter-wavelength light (such as wavelengths shorter than 600 nm, or preferably shorter than 480 nm) such that heart rate PPG signals do not overpower breathing rate PPG signals during processing of breathing rate. In the example just given, with 4-intervals of optical signal sampling, further power reductions can be realized by an algorithm which selects which intervals to execute depending on the activity state of the user. For example, if the activity state reaches a certain threshold, the algorithm may select that only the first and fourth intervals (the heart rate and breathing rate data collection intervals) are activated. Similarly, if the activity state is below a certain threshold, the algorithm may select that only the second and third intervals (the RRi and blood pressure intervals) are activated. In this manner, only the physiological parameters that are relevant to a particular activity state may be calculated, thereby saving system power and increasing the battery life of the wearable monitoring device.
  • [0119]
    In some embodiments, the wavelength of the optical emitter and optical detector may stay the same for each interval, but in contrast the sampling and/or polling of the sensor element (i.e., the sampling of the detector(s) and the polling of the emitter(s)) may be changed depending on the measurement goal of each interval. For example, an algorithm may focus on processing at least one photoplethysmogram to measure or estimate 1) blood pressure (highest sampling and/or polling), 2) heart rate variability (2nd-higest sampling and/or polling), and 3) low-motion (“lifestyle”) heart rate monitoring (lowest sampling and/or polling) in sequence. This may be because accurately assessing blood pressure from a photoplethysmogram may require a higher data acuity, whereas accurate heart rate variability may require less acuity, and heart rate under lifestyle (low motion) conditions may require the least acuity. In another embodiment, the polling and/or sampling for blood pressure may be greater than 125 Hz, the polling and/or sampling of HRV may be between 250 Hz and 100 Hz, and the polling and/or sampling of lifestyle heart rate may be less than 75 Hz.
  • [0120]
    In another embodiment, an algorithm may focus on processing at least one photoplethysmogram to generate a single real-time biometric parameter at different intervals, with each interval having a different polling and/or sampling rate. As an example, an algorithm may process a photoplethysmogram to generate RRi at various different intervals where, for each interval, the polling rate of the optical emitter and the sampling rate of the optical detector may be different. As a specific example, there may be three intervals, each having an increasingly lower polling and/or sampling rate. The optimum sampling rate to maintain measurement accuracy while limiting power consumption has been found by experiment, as shown in FIGS. 21A and 21B.
  • [0121]
    FIG. 21A presents two plots 800, 802 of real-time RRi measurements taken from two different subjects wearing a PPG sensor (e.g., monitoring devices 20, 30) during a period of 240 seconds: 60 seconds sitting in a chair, 60 seconds standing in place, 60 seconds fast walking, and 60 seconds of easy walking. Plot 800 is of subject one and plot 802 is of subject two. Post analysis of these two datasets yields the table 810 shown in FIG. 21B, which illustrates various calculated statistical metrics for the plots of subject one and subject two at three different polling and sampling frequencies (250 Hz, 125 Hz, and 25 Hz). It can be seen that the calculated median and mean values of RRi is nearly identical for all of the frequencies for each respective subject. However, the calculated values for SD (standard deviation) and NN50 (the number of pairs of successive R-R intervals, “NNs”, that differ by greater than 50 milliseconds) are shown to be dependent on sampling frequency. Thus, from FIG. 21B, in order to maintain measurement accuracy while keeping power consumption low, it can be shown that an ideal polling/sampling for the proposed three intervals may be ˜125 Hz for the NN50 calculation, between 125 and 25 Hz for the SD calculation, and 25 Hz for a heart rate calculation during low physical activity (lifestyle conditions).
  • [0122]
    Referring now to FIG. 17, a method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device, such as monitoring devices 20, 30, according to some embodiments of the present invention, will be described. The monitoring device includes a sensor module 24, 34 configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject and a processor 40 configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor module 24, 34. The subject is monitored for change in stress level (Block 700). If a change is detected (Block 702), the processor 40 changes signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power (Block 704). In some embodiments, if a change is detected, the measurement intervals (as described previously) may change. In some embodiments, if a change is detected (Block 702), processing power to a voice recognition system 84 associated with the monitoring device is changed (Block 706). In some embodiments, if a change is detected (Block 702), changes in appearance are made to a user interface 70 associated with the monitoring device (Block 708).
  • [0123]
    If the system 90 of FIG. 4 determines that the subject is experiencing a certain level of stress, such as the subject having an elevated heart rate in context of low physical activity, the system 90 may increase the number of intervals and/or biometrics that are measured. For example, the system 90 may increase the number of measurement intervals or periods of the intervals in order to assess multiple biometrics, such as respiration rate, blood pressure, and RRi, for example. In this way, in response to an elevated state of subject stress, processing resources may be increased in order to initiate a more thorough biometric analysis of the subject. In contrast, when the stress level is determined to be sufficiently low, the system 90 may reduce the number of measurement intervals and/or reduce the number of biometrics being measured, such as limiting the measurement to heart rate only, for example.
  • [0124]
    As illustrated in FIG. 18, changing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power (Block 704) may include increasing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting an increase in subject stress level (Block 710), and decreasing signal analysis frequency and/or sensor module interrogation power in response to detecting a decrease in subject stress level (Block 712). As a specific example, of this embodiment, the algorithm(s) 60 being executed by the processor 40 in the system 90 may be configured to operate in a “screening mode” to analyze the overall stress (wellbeing or health) of a subject wearing a sensor module 24, 34. When the processor determines that the stress reading is outside of an acceptable range for the subject, the processor may then focus or increase processing resource towards determining the origin of the stress condition. For example, the processor 40 may process PPG data from a sensor module 24, 34 to determine that a person is likely to have atrial fibrillation, and upon this determination the processor may increase the frequency of the pulsing of the optical emitter(s) of a PPG sensor, and/or increase the sampling rate of the PPG sensor, to collect higher acuity data for definitively diagnosing that atrial fibrillation is truly occurring.
  • [0125]
    As illustrated in FIG. 19, changing processing power to a voice recognition system 84 may include increasing processing power for the voice recognition system 84 in response to detecting an increase in subject stress level (Block 714), and decreasing processing power for the voice recognition system 84 in response to detecting an decrease in subject stress level (Block 716). For example, if the system 90 of FIG. 4 determines that the subject is experiencing a certain level of stress, such as the subject having a low heart rate variability, the system 90 may increase the frequency resolution of a voice recognition system 84 such that more types of audio features can be identified, albeit at perhaps a higher power consumption expense. In contrast, when the stress level is determined to be sufficiently low, the system 90 may decrease the frequency resolution of a voice recognition system 84, such that processing power may be saved.
  • [0126]
    As illustrated in FIG. 20, changing the appearance of a user interface (Block 708) may include increasing user interface brightness and/or font size of alphanumeric characters displayed on the user interface in response to detecting an increase in subject stress level (Block 718), and decreasing user interface brightness and/or font size of alphanumeric characters displayed on the user interface in response to detecting an decrease in subject stress level (Block 720). For example, if the system 90 of FIG. 4 determines that the subject is experiencing a certain level of stress, such as the subject having an elevated breathing rate in context of low physical activity, the system 90 may increase the brightness of a screen and/or increase the font size of text on a mobile device, such that it is easier for the subject to interpret the screen, albeit at perhaps a higher power consumption expense. In contrast, when the stress level is determined to be sufficiently low, the system 90 may decrease the screen brightness and/or decrease the font size of text.
  • [0127]
    Example embodiments are described herein with reference to block diagrams and flowchart illustrations. It is understood that a block of the block diagrams and flowchart illustrations, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and flowchart illustrations, can be implemented by computer program instructions that are performed by one or more computer circuits. These computer program instructions may be provided to a processor circuit of a general purpose computer circuit, special purpose computer circuit, and/or other programmable data processing circuit to produce a machine, such that the instructions, which execute via the processor of the computer and/or other programmable data processing apparatus, transform and control transistors, values stored in memory locations, and other hardware components within such circuitry to implement the functions/acts specified in the block diagrams and flowchart block or blocks, and thereby create means (functionality) and/or structure for implementing the functions/acts specified in the block diagrams and flowchart blocks.
  • [0128]
    These computer program instructions may also be stored in a tangible computer-readable medium that can direct a computer or other programmable data processing apparatus to function in a particular manner, such that the instructions stored in the computer-readable medium produce an article of manufacture including instructions which implement the functions/acts specified in the block diagrams and flowchart blocks.
  • [0129]
    A tangible, non-transitory computer-readable medium may include an electronic, magnetic, optical, electromagnetic, or semiconductor data storage system, apparatus, or device. More specific examples of the computer-readable medium would include the following: a portable computer diskette, a random access memory (RAM) circuit, a read-only memory (ROM) circuit, an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM or Flash memory) circuit, a portable compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM), and a portable digital video disc read-only memory (DVD/BlueRay).
  • [0130]
    The computer program instructions may also be loaded onto a computer and/or other programmable data processing apparatus to cause a series of operational steps to be performed on the computer and/or other programmable apparatus to produce a computer-implemented process such that the instructions which execute on the computer or other programmable apparatus provide steps for implementing the functions/acts specified in the block diagrams and flowchart blocks. Accordingly, embodiments of the present invention may be embodied in hardware and/or in software (including firmware, resident software, micro-code, etc.) that runs on a processor such as a digital signal processor, which may collectively be referred to as “circuitry,” “a module” or variants thereof.
  • [0131]
    It should also be noted that in some alternate implementations, the functions/acts noted in the blocks may occur out of the order noted in the flowcharts. For example, two blocks shown in succession may in fact be executed substantially concurrently or the blocks may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending upon the functionality/acts involved. Moreover, the functionality of a given block of the flowcharts and block diagrams may be separated into multiple blocks and/or the functionality of two or more blocks of the flowcharts and block diagrams may be at least partially integrated. Finally, other blocks may be added/inserted between the blocks that are illustrated. Moreover, although some of the diagrams include arrows on communication paths to show a primary direction of communication, it is to be understood that communication may occur in the opposite direction to the depicted arrows.
  • [0132]
    The foregoing is illustrative of the present invention and is not to be construed as limiting thereof. Although a few exemplary embodiments of this invention have been described, those skilled in the art will readily appreciate that many modifications are possible in the exemplary embodiments without materially departing from the teachings and advantages of this invention. Accordingly, all such modifications are intended to be included within the scope of this invention as defined in the claims. The invention is defined by the following claims, with equivalents of the claims to be included therein.

Claims (16)

    That which is claimed is:
  1. 1. A monitoring device configured to be attached to a subject, the monitoring device comprising:
    a sensor configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject, wherein the sensor comprises at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector; and
    a processor coupled to the sensor, wherein the processor is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor, and wherein the processor changes wavelength of light emitted by the at least one optical emitter in response to detecting a change in subject activity.
  2. 2. The monitoring device of claim 1, wherein the processor instructs the at least one optical emitter to emit shorter wavelength light in response to detecting an increase in subject activity, and wherein the processor instructs the at least one optical emitter to emit longer wavelength light in response to detecting an decrease in subject activity.
  3. 3. The monitoring device of claim 1, wherein detecting a change in subject activity comprises detecting a change in at least one subject vital sign, wherein the at least one vital sign includes subject heart rate, subject blood pressure, subject temperature, subject respiration rate, and/or subject perspiration rate.
  4. 4. The monitoring device of claim 1, wherein detecting a change in subject activity comprises predicting a type of activity.
  5. 5. The monitoring device of claim 1, further comprising a motion sensor, and wherein detecting a change in subject activity comprises detecting a change in subject motion via the motion sensor.
  6. 6. The monitoring device of claim 1, wherein the monitoring device is configured to be positioned at or within an ear of the subject, or secured to an appendage of the subject.
  7. 7. A method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device, wherein the monitoring device includes a sensor configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject and a processor coupled to the sensor that is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor, wherein the sensor includes at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector, the method comprising changing wavelength of light emitted by the at least one optical emitter via the processor in response to detecting a change in subject activity.
  8. 8. The method of claim 7, wherein changing wavelength of light emitted by the at least one optical emitter in response to detecting a change in subject activity comprises:
    instructing the at least one optical emitter via the processor to emit shorter wavelength light in response to detecting an increase in subject activity; and
    instructing the at least one optical emitter via the processor to emit longer wavelength light in response to detecting an decrease in subject activity.
  9. 9. The method of claim 7, wherein detecting a change in subject activity comprises detecting a change in at least one subject vital sign, wherein the at least one vital sign includes subject heart rate, subject blood pressure, subject temperature, subject respiration rate, and/or subject perspiration rate.
  10. 10. The method of claim 7, wherein the monitoring device includes a motion sensor, and wherein detecting a change in subject activity comprises detecting a change in subject motion via the motion sensor.
  11. 11. A monitoring device configured to be attached to a subject, the monitoring device comprising:
    a sensor configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject, wherein the sensor comprises at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector; and
    a processor coupled to the sensor and configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor, and wherein the processor instructs the at least one optical emitter to emit a different wavelength of light during each of a series of respective time intervals such that a respective different physiological parameter can be measured from the subject during the respective intervals via the at least one optical detector.
  12. 12. The monitoring device of claim 11, wherein the monitoring device is configured to be positioned at or within an ear of the subject, or secured to an appendage of the subject.
  13. 13. A method of monitoring a subject via a monitoring device, wherein the monitoring device includes a sensor configured to detect and/or measure physiological information from the subject and a processor coupled to the sensor that is configured to receive and analyze signals produced by the sensor, wherein the sensor includes at least one optical emitter and at least one optical detector, the method comprising:
    emitting a different wavelength of light during each of series of respective time intervals; and
    measuring a respective different physiological parameter of the subject during each of the time intervals via the at least one optical detector.
  14. 14. A method of monitoring a subject wearing a PPG sensor device having at least one processor, the method comprising:
    processing PPG sensor readings via the at least one processor to determine if the subject is located indoors or outdoors; and
    selecting a PPG sensor polling routine associated with indoor or outdoor conditions depending on whether the subject is located indoors or outdoors, respectively.
  15. 15. The method of claim 14,
    wherein, if the subject is located indoors, the PPG sensor polling routine is configured to direct the PPG sensor to utilize light with at least one visible wavelength and at least one infrared (IR) wavelength; and
    wherein, if the subject is located outdoors, the PPG sensor polling routine is configured to direct the PPG sensor to utilize light with at least two distinct IR wavelengths or two different IR wavelength bands.
  16. 16. The method of claim 15, further comprising determining blood and/or tissue oxygenation of the subject via the PPG sensor.
US14807149 2014-07-30 2015-07-23 Physiological Monitoring Devices and Methods Using Optical Sensors Pending US20160029898A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US201462030951 true 2014-07-30 2014-07-30
US201562109196 true 2015-01-29 2015-01-29
US14807149 US20160029898A1 (en) 2014-07-30 2015-07-23 Physiological Monitoring Devices and Methods Using Optical Sensors

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US14807149 US20160029898A1 (en) 2014-07-30 2015-07-23 Physiological Monitoring Devices and Methods Using Optical Sensors
PCT/US2015/042035 WO2016018762A1 (en) 2014-07-30 2015-07-24 Physiological monitoring devices and methods using optical sensors
EP20150826541 EP3157412A4 (en) 2014-07-30 2015-07-24 Physiological monitoring devices and methods using optical sensors

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US62109196 Continuation 2015-01-29

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20160029898A1 true true US20160029898A1 (en) 2016-02-04

Family

ID=55178755

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US14807149 Pending US20160029898A1 (en) 2014-07-30 2015-07-23 Physiological Monitoring Devices and Methods Using Optical Sensors
US14807061 Active US9538921B2 (en) 2014-07-30 2015-07-23 Physiological monitoring devices with adjustable signal analysis and interrogation power and monitoring methods using same
US15369946 Pending US20170119315A1 (en) 2014-07-30 2016-12-06 Physiological Monitoring Devices with Adjustable Signal Analysis and Interrogation Power and Monitoring Methods Using Same

Family Applications After (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US14807061 Active US9538921B2 (en) 2014-07-30 2015-07-23 Physiological monitoring devices with adjustable signal analysis and interrogation power and monitoring methods using same
US15369946 Pending US20170119315A1 (en) 2014-07-30 2016-12-06 Physiological Monitoring Devices with Adjustable Signal Analysis and Interrogation Power and Monitoring Methods Using Same

Country Status (3)

Country Link
US (3) US20160029898A1 (en)
EP (2) EP3139823A4 (en)
WO (2) WO2016018762A1 (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20160324477A1 (en) * 2015-05-08 2016-11-10 Texas Instruments Incorporated Accuracy of heart rate estimation from photoplethysmographic (ppg) signals
WO2017183027A1 (en) * 2016-04-17 2017-10-26 Lifebeam Technologies Ltd. Earbud with physiological sensor and stabilizing element
WO2018060508A1 (en) 2016-09-29 2018-04-05 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Optical vital signs sensor

Families Citing this family (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8788002B2 (en) 2009-02-25 2014-07-22 Valencell, Inc. Light-guiding devices and monitoring devices incorporating same
US9427191B2 (en) 2011-07-25 2016-08-30 Valencell, Inc. Apparatus and methods for estimating time-state physiological parameters
US20160026856A1 (en) * 2013-10-24 2016-01-28 JayBird LLC System and method for identifying performance days using earphones with biometric sensors
US9788794B2 (en) * 2014-02-28 2017-10-17 Valencell, Inc. Method and apparatus for generating assessments using physical activity and biometric parameters
US20160157776A1 (en) * 2014-12-08 2016-06-09 Xerox Corporation Wearable device for stress assessment and management and method of its use
US20160242731A1 (en) * 2014-12-17 2016-08-25 Albrik Levick Gharibian Smart blood pressure measuring system (SBPMS)
USD808018S1 (en) * 2015-05-03 2018-01-16 Sensogram Technologies, Inc. Ear scanner
US20170042484A1 (en) * 2015-08-13 2017-02-16 Pixart Imaging Inc. Physiological detection system with adjustable signal source and operating method thereof
US20170095211A1 (en) * 2015-10-01 2017-04-06 Silicon Laboratories Inc. Plethysmography heart rate monitor noise reduction using differential sensors
US9717424B2 (en) 2015-10-19 2017-08-01 Garmin Switzerland Gmbh System and method for generating a PPG signal

Family Cites Families (421)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3595219A (en) 1968-09-27 1971-07-27 Sidney L Friedlander Heart rate sensor device
US4331154A (en) 1979-10-15 1982-05-25 Tech Engineering & Design Blood pressure and heart rate measuring watch
US4240882A (en) 1979-11-08 1980-12-23 Institute Of Gas Technology Gas fixation solar cell using gas diffusion semiconductor electrode
US4491760A (en) 1981-10-16 1985-01-01 Stanford University Force sensing polymer piezoelectric transducer array
US4438772A (en) 1982-04-08 1984-03-27 Intech Systems Corp. Differential stethoscope
US4830014A (en) 1983-05-11 1989-05-16 Nellcor Incorporated Sensor having cutaneous conformance
US4521499A (en) 1983-05-19 1985-06-04 Union Oil Company Of California Highly conductive photoelectrochemical electrodes and uses thereof
US4592807A (en) 1983-05-19 1986-06-03 Union Oil Company Of California Methods of making highly conductive photoelectrochemical electrodes
US4541905A (en) 1983-12-13 1985-09-17 The Ohio State University Research Foundation Electrodes for use in electrocatalytic processes
US4655225A (en) 1985-04-18 1987-04-07 Kurabo Industries Ltd. Spectrophotometric method and apparatus for the non-invasive
JPS62292137A (en) 1986-06-11 1987-12-18 Signal Technol Kk Hemomanometer
US5143078A (en) 1987-08-04 1992-09-01 Colin Electronics Co., Ltd. Respiration rate monitor
US4882492A (en) 1988-01-19 1989-11-21 Biotronics Associates, Inc. Non-invasive near infrared measurement of blood analyte concentrations
US5002060A (en) 1988-06-16 1991-03-26 Dror Nedivi Medical monitoring system
US4957109A (en) 1988-08-22 1990-09-18 Cardiac Spectrum Technologies, Inc. Electrocardiograph system
US6785568B2 (en) 1992-05-18 2004-08-31 Non-Invasive Technology Inc. Transcranial examination of the brain
US5596987A (en) 1988-11-02 1997-01-28 Noninvasive Technology, Inc. Optical coupler for in vivo examination of biological tissue
US5086229A (en) 1989-01-19 1992-02-04 Futrex, Inc. Non-invasive measurement of blood glucose
US4928704A (en) 1989-01-31 1990-05-29 Mindcenter Corporation EEG biofeedback method and system for training voluntary control of human EEG activity
DE3910749A1 (en) 1989-04-03 1990-10-04 Hellige Gmbh Method and device for the non-invasive monitoring of physiological parameters
JPH0315502U (en) 1989-06-28 1991-02-15
US5022970A (en) 1989-09-28 1991-06-11 Gas Research Institute Photoelectrochemical reduction of carbon oxides
US5080098A (en) 1989-12-18 1992-01-14 Sentinel Monitoring, Inc. Non-invasive sensor
US5146091A (en) 1990-04-19 1992-09-08 Inomet, Inc. Body fluid constituent measurement utilizing an interference pattern
EP0471898B1 (en) 1990-08-22 1999-01-13 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Incorporated Foetal pulse oximetry apparatus
DE69229994D1 (en) 1991-03-07 1999-10-21 Masimo Corp Device and method for signal processing
US5226417A (en) 1991-03-11 1993-07-13 Nellcor, Inc. Apparatus for the detection of motion transients
US5237994A (en) 1991-03-12 1993-08-24 Square One Technology Integrated lead frame pulse oximetry sensor
US5638818A (en) 1991-03-21 1997-06-17 Masimo Corporation Low noise optical probe
US5873821A (en) 1992-05-18 1999-02-23 Non-Invasive Technology, Inc. Lateralization spectrophotometer
JPH05134685A (en) 1991-09-19 1993-05-28 Toshiba Corp Active silencing equipment
US5662117A (en) 1992-03-13 1997-09-02 Mindscope Incorporated Biofeedback methods and controls
US5348002A (en) 1992-04-23 1994-09-20 Sirraya, Inc. Method and apparatus for material analysis
US5526112A (en) 1993-03-05 1996-06-11 Sahagen; Armen N. Probe for monitoring a fluid medium
US5377100A (en) 1993-03-08 1994-12-27 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Method of encouraging attention by correlating video game difficulty with attention level
US5492129A (en) 1993-12-03 1996-02-20 Greenberger; Hal Noise-reducing stethoscope
JP2816944B2 (en) 1993-12-20 1998-10-27 セイコーインスツルメンツ株式会社 Pulse meter
JPH07241279A (en) 1994-03-07 1995-09-19 Nippon Koden Corp Pulse wave detecting sensor
US5971931A (en) 1994-03-29 1999-10-26 Raff; Gilbert Lewis Biologic micromonitoring methods and systems
US6186145B1 (en) 1994-05-23 2001-02-13 Health Hero Network, Inc. Method for diagnosis and treatment of psychological and emotional conditions using a microprocessor-based virtual reality simulator
US5807267A (en) 1994-06-01 1998-09-15 Advanced Body Metrics Corporation Heart pulse monitor
US5673692A (en) 1995-02-03 1997-10-07 Biosignals Ltd. Co. Single site, multi-variable patient monitor
DE19506484C2 (en) 1995-02-24 1999-09-16 Stiftung Fuer Lasertechnologie Method and apparatus for the selective non-invasive Lasermyographie (LMG)
US5711308A (en) 1995-06-07 1998-01-27 Interval Research Corporation Wearable apparatus for measuring displacement of an in vivo tympanum and methods and systems for use therewith
US6076082A (en) 1995-09-04 2000-06-13 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Information filtering method and apparatus for preferentially taking out information having a high necessity
JPH11514898A (en) 1995-09-11 1999-12-21 ノーラン,ジェームズ・エイ Method and apparatus for continuous non-invasive monitoring of blood pressure parameters
US5904654A (en) 1995-10-20 1999-05-18 Vital Insite, Inc. Exciter-detector unit for measuring physiological parameters
US5818985A (en) 1995-12-20 1998-10-06 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Incorporated Optical oximeter probe adapter
US5797841A (en) 1996-03-05 1998-08-25 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Incorporated Shunt barrier in pulse oximeter sensor
US5725480A (en) 1996-03-06 1998-03-10 Abbott Laboratories Non-invasive calibration and categorization of individuals for subsequent non-invasive detection of biological compounds
CA2199554C (en) 1996-03-12 2006-03-14 Loren R. Ouellette Skin analyzer with speech capability
JPH09299342A (en) 1996-03-12 1997-11-25 Ikyo Kk Pulse sensor and pulse measuring device
US6283915B1 (en) 1997-03-12 2001-09-04 Sarnoff Corporation Disposable in-the-ear monitoring instrument and method of manufacture
JPH09253062A (en) 1996-03-22 1997-09-30 Ikyo Kk Earphone type pulse sensor
US5807114A (en) 1996-03-27 1998-09-15 Emory University And Georgia Tech Research Corporation System for treating patients with anxiety disorders
US5853005A (en) 1996-05-02 1998-12-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Acoustic monitoring system
CN1149053C (en) 1996-06-12 2004-05-12 精工爱普生株式会社 Consumed calorie measuring apparatus
DE69736622T2 (en) 1996-07-03 2007-09-13 Hitachi, Ltd. System for motion detection
US6544193B2 (en) 1996-09-04 2003-04-08 Marcio Marc Abreu Noninvasive measurement of chemical substances
WO1998010699A1 (en) 1996-09-10 1998-03-19 Seiko Epson Corporation Organism state measuring device and relaxation instructing device
US6018673A (en) 1996-10-10 2000-01-25 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Incorporated Motion compatible sensor for non-invasive optical blood analysis
WO1998017172A8 (en) 1996-10-24 1999-04-22 Massachusetts Inst Technology Patient monitoring finger ring sensor
US7054674B2 (en) 1996-11-19 2006-05-30 Astron Clinica Limited Method of and apparatus for investigating tissue histology
US6198394B1 (en) 1996-12-05 2001-03-06 Stephen C. Jacobsen System for remote monitoring of personnel
US5974338A (en) 1997-04-15 1999-10-26 Toa Medical Electronics Co., Ltd. Non-invasive blood analyzer
US6067006A (en) 1997-05-22 2000-05-23 O'brien; Patricia A. Personal audible alarm
KR100353380B1 (en) 1997-07-28 2002-09-18 마쯔시다덴기산교 가부시키가이샤 Radiation clinical thermometer
US6361660B1 (en) 1997-07-31 2002-03-26 Avery N. Goldstein Photoelectrochemical device containing a quantum confined group IV semiconductor nanoparticle
EP1444948B1 (en) 1997-09-05 2014-04-30 Seiko Epson Corporation Optical diagnostic measurement device
US6298314B1 (en) 1997-10-02 2001-10-02 Personal Electronic Devices, Inc. Detecting the starting and stopping of movement of a person on foot
US6995665B2 (en) 2002-05-17 2006-02-07 Fireeye Development Incorporated System and method for identifying, monitoring and evaluating equipment, environmental and physiological conditions
US5995858A (en) 1997-11-07 1999-11-30 Datascope Investment Corp. Pulse oximeter
WO1999023941A8 (en) 1997-11-10 1999-08-19 Vaughan Lennox Clift Intra aural integrated vital signs monitor
US6070093A (en) 1997-12-02 2000-05-30 Abbott Laboratories Multiplex sensor and method of use
JP3853053B2 (en) 1997-12-17 2006-12-06 松下電器産業株式会社 The biological information measuring device
JP3475427B2 (en) 1998-02-16 2003-12-08 セイコーエプソン株式会社 The biological information measuring device
US7542878B2 (en) 1998-03-03 2009-06-02 Card Guard Scientific Survival Ltd. Personal health monitor and a method for health monitoring
US7299159B2 (en) 1998-03-03 2007-11-20 Reuven Nanikashvili Health monitor system and method for health monitoring
US6013007A (en) 1998-03-26 2000-01-11 Liquid Spark, Llc Athlete's GPS-based performance monitor
US6444474B1 (en) 1998-04-22 2002-09-03 Eltron Research, Inc. Microfluidic system for measurement of total organic carbon
US7043287B1 (en) 1998-05-18 2006-05-09 Abbott Laboratories Method for modulating light penetration depth in tissue and diagnostic applications using same
DE19823947A1 (en) 1998-05-28 1999-12-02 Baasel Carl Lasertech Method and apparatus for the superficial heating of tissue
DE19827343A1 (en) 1998-06-19 1999-12-23 Braun Gmbh Device for carrying out measurements in ear, e.g. for measuring temperature
JP4486253B2 (en) 1998-07-07 2010-06-23 ライタッチ メディカル インコーポレイテッド Analyte concentration determination apparatus
US7991448B2 (en) 1998-10-15 2011-08-02 Philips Electronics North America Corporation Method, apparatus, and system for removing motion artifacts from measurements of bodily parameters
JP2000116611A (en) 1998-10-16 2000-04-25 Kowa Co Pulse sensor
US6404125B1 (en) 1998-10-21 2002-06-11 Sarnoff Corporation Method and apparatus for performing wavelength-conversion using phosphors with light emitting diodes
WO2000028887A1 (en) 1998-11-18 2000-05-25 Alfons Krug Device for non-invasively detecting the oxygen metabolism in tissues
US6684090B2 (en) 1999-01-07 2004-01-27 Masimo Corporation Pulse oximetry data confidence indicator
WO2000047108A1 (en) 1999-02-08 2000-08-17 Medoc Ltd. Ambulatory monitor
JP3423892B2 (en) 1999-02-12 2003-07-07 花王株式会社 Evaluation Kit of skin properties
US7163512B1 (en) 2000-03-01 2007-01-16 Quantum Intech, Inc. Method and apparatus for facilitating physiological coherence and autonomic balance
US8103325B2 (en) 1999-03-08 2012-01-24 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Method and circuit for storing and providing historical physiological data
US6285816B1 (en) 1999-04-13 2001-09-04 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Waveguide
US6080110A (en) 1999-04-19 2000-06-27 Tel, Inc. Heartbeat monitor for wearing during exercise
US6231519B1 (en) 1999-05-04 2001-05-15 Nokia Corporation Method and apparatus for providing air quality analysis based on human reactions and clustering methods
US6920229B2 (en) 1999-05-10 2005-07-19 Peter V. Boesen Earpiece with an inertial sensor
US6694180B1 (en) 1999-10-11 2004-02-17 Peter V. Boesen Wireless biopotential sensing device and method with capability of short-range radio frequency transmission and reception
JP2001025462A (en) 1999-05-10 2001-01-30 Denso Corp Physiological signal detecting device
US6205354B1 (en) 1999-06-18 2001-03-20 University Of Utah Method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of carotenoids and related chemical substances in biological tissue
EP1178751A4 (en) 1999-07-06 2005-03-23 Intercure Ltd Interventive-diagnostic device
US6513532B2 (en) 2000-01-19 2003-02-04 Healthetech, Inc. Diet and activity-monitoring device
WO2001008552A1 (en) 1999-08-03 2001-02-08 Biophysica, Llc Spectroscopic systems and methods for detecting tissue properties
US7222075B2 (en) 1999-08-31 2007-05-22 Accenture Llp Detecting emotions using voice signal analysis
US6466133B1 (en) 1999-08-31 2002-10-15 Airadvice, Inc. Apparatus for allergen detection and air/asthma advice provision
US6527711B1 (en) 1999-10-18 2003-03-04 Bodymedia, Inc. Wearable human physiological data sensors and reporting system therefor
US7940937B2 (en) 1999-10-28 2011-05-10 Clive Smith Transducer for sensing body sounds
US6882872B2 (en) 2000-02-07 2005-04-19 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Biological information detecting probe, biological information measuring apparatus, fabrication method for biological information detecting probe, and method of measuring biological information
US6893396B2 (en) 2000-03-01 2005-05-17 I-Medik, Inc. Wireless internet bio-telemetry monitoring system and interface
US6443890B1 (en) 2000-03-01 2002-09-03 I-Medik, Inc. Wireless internet bio-telemetry monitoring system
JP3846844B2 (en) 2000-03-14 2006-11-15 株式会社東芝 Wearable life support apparatus
US6631196B1 (en) 2000-04-07 2003-10-07 Gn Resound North America Corporation Method and device for using an ultrasonic carrier to provide wide audio bandwidth transduction
US6616613B1 (en) 2000-04-27 2003-09-09 Vitalsines International, Inc. Physiological signal monitoring system
US6852084B1 (en) 2000-04-28 2005-02-08 Peter V. Boesen Wireless physiological pressure sensor and transmitter with capability of short range radio frequency transmissions
US6415167B1 (en) 2000-05-02 2002-07-02 Instrumentation Metrics, Inc. Fiber optic probe placement guide
US6470893B1 (en) 2000-05-15 2002-10-29 Peter V. Boesen Wireless biopotential sensing device and method with capability of short-range radio frequency transmission and reception
US20030007631A1 (en) 2000-05-25 2003-01-09 Silicomp Spa. Control device for telephone station and acoustic headset usable in said telephone station
US6458080B1 (en) 2000-05-31 2002-10-01 International Business Machines Corporation Managing parameters effecting the comprehensive health of a user
US7024369B1 (en) 2000-05-31 2006-04-04 International Business Machines Corporation Balancing the comprehensive health of a user
JP2001344352A (en) 2000-05-31 2001-12-14 Toshiba Corp Life assisting device, life assisting method and advertisement information providing method
US6527712B1 (en) 2000-05-31 2003-03-04 International Business Machines Corporation Auditing public health
WO2001095998A1 (en) 2000-06-10 2001-12-20 Hak Soo Kim Method and apparatus for removing pollutants using photoelectrocatalytic system
WO2002000111A1 (en) 2000-06-23 2002-01-03 Bodymedia, Inc. System for monitoring health, wellness and fitness
US6605038B1 (en) 2000-06-16 2003-08-12 Bodymedia, Inc. System for monitoring health, wellness and fitness
US7689437B1 (en) 2000-06-16 2010-03-30 Bodymedia, Inc. System for monitoring health, wellness and fitness
KR200204510Y1 (en) 2000-06-29 2000-11-15 변기만 A earphone cover
CA2414306A1 (en) 2000-06-30 2002-01-10 Lifewaves International, Inc. Systems and methods for assessing and modifying an individual's physiological condition
US6512944B1 (en) 2000-07-20 2003-01-28 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Low distortion ECG filter
US6534012B1 (en) 2000-08-02 2003-03-18 Sensys Medical, Inc. Apparatus and method for reproducibly modifying localized absorption and scattering coefficients at a tissue measurement site during optical sampling
US6571117B1 (en) 2000-08-11 2003-05-27 Ralf Marbach Capillary sweet spot imaging for improving the tracking accuracy and SNR of noninvasive blood analysis methods
DE10193581D2 (en) 2000-08-26 2003-07-17 Squid Internat Ag Method and device for adaptively reducing the noise in a signal, in particular in an electric or signal magnetocardiographic
JP2002112969A (en) 2000-09-02 2002-04-16 Samsung Electronics Co Ltd Device and method for recognizing physical and emotional conditions
US6773405B2 (en) 2000-09-15 2004-08-10 Jacob Fraden Ear temperature monitor and method of temperature measurement
DE10046075A1 (en) 2000-09-15 2002-04-04 Friendly Sensors Ag Apparatus and method for generating measurement data
US6904408B1 (en) 2000-10-19 2005-06-07 Mccarthy John Bionet method, system and personalized web content manager responsive to browser viewers' psychological preferences, behavioral responses and physiological stress indicators
CA2437474A1 (en) 2000-10-26 2002-05-16 Atlantium Lasers Limited Disinfection through packaging
US7478047B2 (en) 2000-11-03 2009-01-13 Zoesis, Inc. Interactive character system
US6760610B2 (en) 2000-11-23 2004-07-06 Sentec Ag Sensor and method for measurement of physiological parameters
US6567695B1 (en) 2000-11-24 2003-05-20 Woodside Biomedical, Inc. Electro-acupuncture device with stimulation electrode assembly
KR20030077552A (en) 2000-12-07 2003-10-01 아틀랜티엄 레이저스 리미티드 Oxidation of dangerous chemical and biological substances
WO2002062221A1 (en) 2001-02-07 2002-08-15 East Carolina University Hearing assessment via computer network
US7835925B2 (en) 2001-02-20 2010-11-16 The Procter & Gamble Company System for improving the management of the health of an individual and related methods
US6556852B1 (en) 2001-03-27 2003-04-29 I-Medik, Inc. Earpiece with sensors to measure/monitor multiple physiological variables
US6647368B2 (en) 2001-03-30 2003-11-11 Think-A-Move, Ltd. Sensor pair for detecting changes within a human ear and producing a signal corresponding to thought, movement, biological function and/or speech
US6808473B2 (en) 2001-04-19 2004-10-26 Omron Corporation Exercise promotion device, and exercise promotion method employing the same
JP2002360530A (en) 2001-06-11 2002-12-17 Waatekkusu:Kk Pulse wave sensor and pulse rate detector
US7044911B2 (en) 2001-06-29 2006-05-16 Philometron, Inc. Gateway platform for biological monitoring and delivery of therapeutic compounds
JP2003033328A (en) 2001-07-19 2003-02-04 Nippon Seimitsu Sokki Kk Heart rate monitor and method for measuring heart rate
US6810283B2 (en) 2001-09-13 2004-10-26 Medtronic, Inc. Multiple templates for filtering of far field R-waves
JP2003159221A (en) 2001-09-14 2003-06-03 Shiseido Co Ltd Method for determining female skin conditions
DE60143115D1 (en) 2001-09-28 2010-11-04 Csem Ct Suisse Electronique Method and apparatus for pulse measurement
US20030064712A1 (en) 2001-09-28 2003-04-03 Jason Gaston Interactive real world event system via computer networks
US6748254B2 (en) 2001-10-12 2004-06-08 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Incorporated Stacked adhesive optical sensor
US7088234B2 (en) 2001-11-27 2006-08-08 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Wearing information notifying unit
US20030107487A1 (en) 2001-12-10 2003-06-12 Ronen Korman Method and device for measuring physiological parameters at the wrist
DE60207183T2 (en) 2001-12-10 2006-08-10 Kabushiki Gaisha K-And-S A device for observation of biological data
US6858289B2 (en) 2002-02-08 2005-02-22 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Optical filters comprising solar blind dyes and UV-transparent substrates
US7460903B2 (en) 2002-07-25 2008-12-02 Pineda Jaime A Method and system for a real time adaptive system for effecting changes in cognitive-emotive profiles
US20050177034A1 (en) 2002-03-01 2005-08-11 Terry Beaumont Ear canal sensing device
DE10309747B4 (en) 2002-03-07 2011-11-24 CiS Institut für Mikrosensorik gGmbH Auflichtsensor and process for its preparation
US20030195040A1 (en) 2002-04-10 2003-10-16 Breving Joel S. Video game system and game controller
KR100462182B1 (en) 2002-04-15 2004-12-16 삼성전자주식회사 Apparatus and method for detecting heart beat using ppg
JP2006505300A (en) 2002-04-19 2006-02-16 コーリンメディカルテクノロジー株式会社 Physiological parameters measured for headphone devices
US8849379B2 (en) 2002-04-22 2014-09-30 Geelux Holdings, Ltd. Apparatus and method for measuring biologic parameters
US8328420B2 (en) 2003-04-22 2012-12-11 Marcio Marc Abreu Apparatus and method for measuring biologic parameters
US20030222268A1 (en) 2002-05-31 2003-12-04 Yocom Perry Niel Light sources having a continuous broad emission wavelength and phosphor compositions useful therefor
US20040030581A1 (en) 2002-06-12 2004-02-12 Samuel Leven Heart monitoring device
FR2840794B1 (en) 2002-06-18 2005-04-15 Suisse Electronique Microtech Equipment portable indicated to measuring and / or monitoring of heart rate
US6817979B2 (en) 2002-06-28 2004-11-16 Nokia Corporation System and method for interacting with a user's virtual physiological model via a mobile terminal
US6997879B1 (en) 2002-07-09 2006-02-14 Pacesetter, Inc. Methods and devices for reduction of motion-induced noise in optical vascular plethysmography
US7257438B2 (en) 2002-07-23 2007-08-14 Datascope Investment Corp. Patient-worn medical monitoring device
US7108659B2 (en) 2002-08-01 2006-09-19 Healthetech, Inc. Respiratory analyzer for exercise use
US6879850B2 (en) 2002-08-16 2005-04-12 Optical Sensors Incorporated Pulse oximeter with motion detection
US6745061B1 (en) 2002-08-21 2004-06-01 Datex-Ohmeda, Inc. Disposable oximetry sensor
US7020508B2 (en) 2002-08-22 2006-03-28 Bodymedia, Inc. Apparatus for detecting human physiological and contextual information
WO2004019776A1 (en) 2002-08-28 2004-03-11 Noam Egozi Sensing gas bubbles in a living body
US7341559B2 (en) 2002-09-14 2008-03-11 Masimo Corporation Pulse oximetry ear sensor
DE60334007D1 (en) 2002-10-01 2010-10-14 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Inc Use of a headband to the voltage display and system of oximeter and headband
US7034694B2 (en) 2002-10-02 2006-04-25 Seiko Epson Corporation Body motion detector
US20040082842A1 (en) 2002-10-28 2004-04-29 Lumba Vijay K. System for monitoring fetal status
US20040103146A1 (en) 2002-11-26 2004-05-27 Seung-Hun Park Method and system for physically exercising with plurality of participants using network
EP1424637A1 (en) 2002-11-29 2004-06-02 Instrumentarium Corporation Artifact removal from an electric signal
US7009511B2 (en) 2002-12-17 2006-03-07 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Repeater device for communications with an implantable medical device
US20040122294A1 (en) 2002-12-18 2004-06-24 John Hatlestad Advanced patient management with environmental data
US20040122702A1 (en) 2002-12-18 2004-06-24 Sabol John M. Medical data processing system and method
GB2396426B (en) 2002-12-21 2005-08-24 Draeger Medical Ag Artificial respiration system
EP2428159B1 (en) 2003-02-27 2016-04-20 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Ireland Analysing and processing photoplethysmographic signals by wavelet transform analysis
JP3760920B2 (en) 2003-02-28 2006-03-29 株式会社デンソー Sensor
GB0304709D0 (en) 2003-03-01 2003-04-02 Univ Aberdeen Photo-catalytic fuel cell
DE10309245A1 (en) 2003-03-03 2004-09-16 Siemens Ag Location system of a limited central lesion, especially in breast tissue, an electrical excitation signal is applied to the tissue and response signals are reconstructed to give the location/extension/depth of the lesion
JP3726832B2 (en) 2003-03-19 2005-12-14 セイコーエプソン株式会社 Pulsimeter, wristwatch-type information device, a control program and a recording medium
JP2004283523A (en) 2003-03-19 2004-10-14 Yoshiaki Arai Instrument for analyzing autonomic nervous rhythm
KR20050120698A (en) 2003-04-04 2005-12-22 아쿠아 다이아그노스틱 피티와이 엘티디 Photoelectrochemical determination of chemical oxygen demand
US7283242B2 (en) 2003-04-11 2007-10-16 Thornton Robert L Optical spectroscopy apparatus and method for measurement of analyte concentrations or other such species in a specimen employing a semiconductor laser-pumped, small-cavity fiber laser
US20040220488A1 (en) 2003-04-29 2004-11-04 Andrey Vyshedskiy Method and apparatus for physiological data acquisition via sound input port of computing device
KR100691143B1 (en) 2003-04-30 2007-03-09 삼성전기주식회사 Light emitting diode device with multi-layered phosphor
KR100571811B1 (en) 2003-05-09 2006-04-17 삼성전자주식회사 Ear type measurement apparatus for bio signal
US20060251334A1 (en) 2003-05-22 2006-11-09 Toshihiko Oba Balance function diagnostic system and method
US7526327B2 (en) 2003-06-04 2009-04-28 Eta Sa Manufacture Horlogère Suisse Instrument having optical device measuring a physiological quantity and means for transmitting and/or receiving data
JP4406226B2 (en) 2003-07-02 2010-01-27 株式会社東芝 The biological information imaging apparatus
FR2856913B1 (en) 2003-07-02 2005-08-05 Commissariat Energie Atomique Portable Detector to measure the movements of a wearer, and method.
KR100675555B1 (en) 2003-07-07 2007-01-29 유선국 Pulse oximeter and thereof method
WO2005010568A3 (en) 2003-07-21 2005-04-07 John Denny Bryars Optical vital signs monitor
US20050033200A1 (en) 2003-08-05 2005-02-10 Soehren Wayne A. Human motion identification and measurement system and method
US7263396B2 (en) 2003-08-08 2007-08-28 Cardiodigital Limited Ear sensor assembly
KR100763233B1 (en) 2003-08-11 2007-10-04 삼성전자주식회사 Ppg signal detecting appratus of removed motion artifact and method thereof, and stress test appratus using thereof
US7217224B2 (en) 2003-08-14 2007-05-15 Tom Thomas Virtual exercise system and method
JP3931889B2 (en) 2003-08-19 2007-06-20 ソニー株式会社 An image display system, an image display apparatus, image display method
KR100519060B1 (en) 2003-08-21 2005-10-06 주식회사 헬스피아 health game apparatus and method for processing health game data
US20050043630A1 (en) 2003-08-21 2005-02-24 Buchert Janusz Michal Thermal Emission Non-Invasive Analyte Monitor
EP1670353A4 (en) 2003-08-25 2009-03-11 Sarnoff Corp Monitoring using signals detected from auditory canal
US7107088B2 (en) 2003-08-25 2006-09-12 Sarnoff Corporation Pulse oximetry methods and apparatus for use within an auditory canal
EP1667579A4 (en) 2003-09-12 2008-06-11 Bodymedia Inc Method and apparatus for measuring heart related parameters
US20070265097A1 (en) 2003-09-24 2007-11-15 Kai Havukainen Method and Device for Context Driven Content Gaming
US7507207B2 (en) 2003-10-07 2009-03-24 Denso Corporation Portable biological information monitor apparatus and information management apparatus
EP1680010A4 (en) 2003-11-04 2009-07-01 Quantum Intech Inc Systems and methods for facilitating physiological coherence using respiration training
WO2005046433A3 (en) 2003-11-04 2009-06-04 Gen Hospital Corp Life sign detection and health state assessment system
US7214179B2 (en) 2004-04-01 2007-05-08 Otologics, Llc Low acceleration sensitivity microphone
DE102004032812B4 (en) 2003-11-11 2006-07-20 Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA Combination sensor for physiological measures
GB0326821D0 (en) 2003-11-18 2003-12-24 Qinetiq Ltd Flexible light sources and detectors and applications thereof
CA2545881C (en) 2003-11-18 2014-04-08 Vivometrics, Inc. Method and system for processing data from ambulatory physiological monitoring
WO2005050156A3 (en) 2003-11-18 2006-06-08 Chameleon Medical Innovation L Measurement system and method for use in determining the patient's condition
EP1533678A1 (en) 2003-11-24 2005-05-25 Sony International (Europe) GmbH Physical feedback channel for entertaining or gaming environments
US7740591B1 (en) 2003-12-01 2010-06-22 Ric Investments, Llc Apparatus and method for monitoring pressure related changes in the extra-thoracic arterial circulatory system
US20050154264A1 (en) 2004-01-08 2005-07-14 International Business Machines Corporation Personal stress level monitor and systems and methods for using same
EP1708613B1 (en) 2004-01-15 2011-12-14 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Adaptive physiological monitoring system and methods of using the same
US8491492B2 (en) 2004-02-05 2013-07-23 Earlysense Ltd. Monitoring a condition of a subject
WO2005077260A1 (en) 2004-02-12 2005-08-25 Biopeak Corporation Non-invasive method and apparatus for determining a physiological parameter
US7212847B2 (en) 2004-02-25 2007-05-01 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc Delta-sigma modulator for outputting analog representation of physiological signal
US7190985B2 (en) 2004-02-25 2007-03-13 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Inc. Oximeter ambient light cancellation
GB2411719B (en) 2004-03-04 2008-02-06 Inova Design Ltd Hydration monitor
US20050195094A1 (en) 2004-03-05 2005-09-08 White Russell W. System and method for utilizing a bicycle computer to monitor athletic performance
US7277741B2 (en) 2004-03-09 2007-10-02 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Incorporated Pulse oximetry motion artifact rejection using near infrared absorption by water
US20050209516A1 (en) 2004-03-22 2005-09-22 Jacob Fraden Vital signs probe
US20050222903A1 (en) 2004-03-31 2005-10-06 Paul Buchheit Rendering content-targeted ads with e-mail
US20060084878A1 (en) 2004-10-18 2006-04-20 Triage Wireless, Inc. Personal computer-based vital signs monitor
US20050228244A1 (en) 2004-04-07 2005-10-13 Triage Wireless, Inc. Small-scale, vital-signs monitoring device, system and method
US7179228B2 (en) 2004-04-07 2007-02-20 Triage Wireless, Inc. Cuffless system for measuring blood pressure
US20060142665A1 (en) 2004-05-14 2006-06-29 Garay John L Heart rate monitor
US20080051667A1 (en) 2004-05-16 2008-02-28 Rami Goldreich Method And Device For Measuring Physiological Parameters At The Hand
US7438853B2 (en) 2004-05-19 2008-10-21 Jyh-Myng Zen Photoelectrocatalytic method and photoelectrochemical detector for electrochemical analysis
US20050259811A1 (en) 2004-05-24 2005-11-24 Daniel Kimm Headset for communication devices
EP2417905A1 (en) 2004-06-18 2012-02-15 Adidas AG Systems and methods for real-time physiological monitoring
US9492084B2 (en) 2004-06-18 2016-11-15 Adidas Ag Systems and methods for monitoring subjects in potential physiological distress
EP1774300A4 (en) 2004-07-07 2008-07-02 Home Guardian Llc Instrumented mobility assistance device
US7313425B2 (en) 2004-07-08 2007-12-25 Orsense Ltd. Device and method for non-invasive optical measurements
US20070197878A1 (en) 2004-07-09 2007-08-23 Dror Shklarski Wearable device, system and method for monitoring physiological and/or environmental parameters
US20060012567A1 (en) 2004-07-13 2006-01-19 Todd Sicklinger Minature optical mouse and stylus
US20060063993A1 (en) 2004-08-09 2006-03-23 Dejin Yu Method and apparatus for non-invasive measurement of blood analytes
WO2006033104A1 (en) 2004-09-22 2006-03-30 Shalon Ventures Research, Llc Systems and methods for monitoring and modifying behavior
US7470234B1 (en) 2004-09-28 2008-12-30 Impact Sports Technology, Inc. Monitoring device, method and system
US7652569B2 (en) 2004-10-01 2010-01-26 Honeywell International Inc. Mobile telephonic device and base station
US7993276B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2011-08-09 Pulse Tracer, Inc. Motion cancellation of optical input signals for physiological pulse measurement
US7376451B2 (en) 2004-10-27 2008-05-20 General Electric Company Measurement and treatment system and method
US20060111621A1 (en) 2004-11-03 2006-05-25 Andreas Coppi Musical personal trainer
US7486988B2 (en) 2004-12-03 2009-02-03 Searete Llc Method and system for adaptive vision modification
US20060122520A1 (en) 2004-12-07 2006-06-08 Dr. Matthew Banet Vital sign-monitoring system with multiple optical modules
EP1830695B1 (en) 2004-12-14 2011-11-30 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Integrated pulse oximetry sensor
US7329877B2 (en) 2004-12-15 2008-02-12 Honeywell International, Inc. Photoelectrocatalytic sensor for measuring oxidizable impurities in air
WO2006067690A3 (en) 2004-12-22 2006-10-05 Koninkl Philips Electronics Nv Device for measuring a user´s heart rate
US7450730B2 (en) 2004-12-23 2008-11-11 Phonak Ag Personal monitoring system for a user and method for monitoring a user
US7647083B2 (en) 2005-03-01 2010-01-12 Masimo Laboratories, Inc. Multiple wavelength sensor equalization
DK1699211T3 (en) 2005-03-04 2008-11-17 Sennheiser Comm As Headphones to learning
US7616110B2 (en) 2005-03-11 2009-11-10 Aframe Digital, Inc. Mobile wireless customizable health and condition monitor
US8055321B2 (en) 2005-03-14 2011-11-08 Peter Bernreuter Tissue oximetry apparatus and method
US7865223B1 (en) 2005-03-14 2011-01-04 Peter Bernreuter In vivo blood spectrometry
EP1867277A4 (en) 2005-04-08 2014-07-09 Terumo Corp Sphygmomanometry instrument
KR100703327B1 (en) 2005-04-19 2007-04-03 삼성전자주식회사 Wireless stereo head set system
JP4595651B2 (en) 2005-04-25 2010-12-08 株式会社デンソー Biological sensor, sleep information processing method, and sleep information processing apparatus
US20060252999A1 (en) 2005-05-03 2006-11-09 Devaul Richard W Method and system for wearable vital signs and physiology, activity, and environmental monitoring
US20060292533A1 (en) 2005-06-22 2006-12-28 Selod Omar F System and method for gait training
US20070004449A1 (en) 2005-06-29 2007-01-04 Sham John C Mobile communication device with environmental sensors
US20070004969A1 (en) 2005-06-29 2007-01-04 Microsoft Corporation Health monitor
WO2007005622A3 (en) 2005-06-30 2007-03-22 Humana Inc System and method for assessing individual healthfulness and for providing health-enhancing behavioral advice and promoting adherence thereto
US20090131761A1 (en) 2005-06-30 2009-05-21 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N. V. Device providing spot-check of vital signs using an in-the-ear probe
US20070015992A1 (en) 2005-06-30 2007-01-18 General Electric Company System and method for optoacoustic imaging
WO2007004083A1 (en) 2005-06-30 2007-01-11 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Sizing and positioning technology for an in-the-ear multi-measurement sensor to enable nibp calculation
US20070021206A1 (en) 2005-07-08 2007-01-25 Sunnen Gerard V Poker training devices and games using the devices
WO2007013054A1 (en) 2005-07-28 2007-02-01 Boris Schwartz Ear-mounted biosensor
DE202006011222U1 (en) 2005-07-29 2006-09-14 Chou, Hsien-Lung Heartbeat rate feedback system for use in sports, comprises earphones with Bluetooth unit for transmission of data to processing device and display
US20070027367A1 (en) 2005-08-01 2007-02-01 Microsoft Corporation Mobile, personal, and non-intrusive health monitoring and analysis system
JP4744976B2 (en) 2005-08-09 2011-08-10 東芝メディカルシステムズ株式会社 Biological information measuring apparatus and method
US20070036383A1 (en) 2005-08-12 2007-02-15 Romero Joseph D Earbud Protection Systems
US7674231B2 (en) 2005-08-22 2010-03-09 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Wearable pulse wave velocity blood pressure sensor and methods of calibration thereof
WO2007033194A3 (en) 2005-09-13 2009-04-23 Aware Technologies Inc Method and system for proactive telemonitor with real-time activity and physiology classification and diary feature
US7904130B2 (en) 2005-09-29 2011-03-08 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc Medical sensor and technique for using the same
US7725147B2 (en) 2005-09-29 2010-05-25 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc System and method for removing artifacts from waveforms
US20070083092A1 (en) 2005-10-07 2007-04-12 Rippo Anthony J External exercise monitor
FI20055544A (en) 2005-10-07 2007-04-08 Polar Electro Oy The method and computer program for determining the performance monitor performance
US20070083095A1 (en) 2005-10-07 2007-04-12 Rippo Anthony J External exercise monitor
US20070116314A1 (en) 2005-10-11 2007-05-24 Morning Pride Manufacturing, L.L.C. Facemask-earpiece combination
US7566308B2 (en) 2005-10-13 2009-07-28 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Method and apparatus for pulmonary artery pressure signal isolation
WO2007046455A1 (en) 2005-10-21 2007-04-26 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Biometric information measuring device
EP1951110B1 (en) 2005-10-24 2012-10-03 Marcio Marc Aurelio Martins Abreu Apparatus for measuring biologic parameters
US20070093702A1 (en) 2005-10-26 2007-04-26 Skyline Biomedical, Inc. Apparatus and method for non-invasive and minimally-invasive sensing of parameters relating to blood
WO2007053146A1 (en) 2005-11-03 2007-05-10 Georgia State University Research Foundation Inc. Methods, systems and apparatus for measuring a pulse rate
US7647285B2 (en) 2005-11-04 2010-01-12 Microsoft Corporation Tools for health and wellness
US8265291B2 (en) 2005-11-15 2012-09-11 Active Signal Technologies, Inc. High sensitivity noise immune stethoscope
US20070118043A1 (en) 2005-11-23 2007-05-24 Microsoft Corporation Algorithms for computing heart rate and movement speed of a user from sensor data
US8233955B2 (en) 2005-11-29 2012-07-31 Cercacor Laboratories, Inc. Optical sensor including disposable and reusable elements
US20110105869A1 (en) 2006-01-04 2011-05-05 The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania Sensor for Internal Monitoring of Tissue O2 and/or pH/CO2 In Vivo
JP2007185348A (en) 2006-01-13 2007-07-26 Olympus Corp Bio-information detector
GB0602127D0 (en) 2006-02-02 2006-03-15 Imp Innovations Ltd Gait analysis
JP4813919B2 (en) 2006-02-16 2011-11-09 セイコーインスツル株式会社 Pulse measuring device
US20070197881A1 (en) 2006-02-22 2007-08-23 Wolf James L Wireless Health Monitor Device and System with Cognition
US8308641B2 (en) 2006-02-28 2012-11-13 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Biometric monitor with electronics disposed on or in a neck collar
JP5285434B2 (en) 2006-02-28 2013-09-11 コーニンクレッカ フィリップス エレクトロニクス エヌ ヴィ Continuously while monitoring for OSDB, external device providing voice stimulation treatment
EP1832227A1 (en) 2006-03-08 2007-09-12 EM Microelectronic-Marin SA Conditioning circuit for a signal between an optical detector and a processor
US20070230714A1 (en) 2006-04-03 2007-10-04 Armstrong Stephen W Time-delay hearing instrument system and method
US20070270671A1 (en) 2006-04-10 2007-11-22 Vivometrics, Inc. Physiological signal processing devices and associated processing methods
US8702567B2 (en) 2006-05-01 2014-04-22 Nicholas S. Hu Products and methods for motor performance improvement in patients with neurodegenerative disease
US8504679B2 (en) 2006-05-09 2013-08-06 Netlq Corporation Methods, systems and computer program products for managing execution of information technology (IT) processes
DE102006023824B4 (en) 2006-05-20 2010-01-28 Cerbomed Gmbh Apparatus for transcutaneous application of a stimulus or for transcutaneous detecting a parameter
DE102006024459A1 (en) 2006-05-24 2007-11-29 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Sensor processing device, method and computer program for providing information on a vital parameter of a living
KR100702613B1 (en) 2006-05-30 2007-03-27 주식회사 아이손 Artificial intelligence shoe mounting a controller and method for measuring quantity of motion
US8200317B2 (en) 2006-06-30 2012-06-12 Intel Corporation Method and apparatus for amplifying multiple signals using a single multiplexed amplifier channel with software controlled AC response
EP1875859A1 (en) 2006-07-05 2008-01-09 Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast-Natuuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek TNO System for determination of an effective training heart rate zone and use of such a system
EP2038743A4 (en) 2006-07-12 2009-08-05 Arbitron Inc Methods and systems for compliance confirmation and incentives
RU2009109414A (en) 2006-08-17 2010-09-27 Конинклейке Филипс Электроникс Н.В. (Nl) The display device of the dynamic state of the body
US7771320B2 (en) 2006-09-07 2010-08-10 Nike, Inc. Athletic performance sensing and/or tracking systems and methods
WO2008028674A3 (en) 2006-09-08 2009-07-02 Thomas C Arends Optical scanners, such as hand-held optical scanners
US20080076972A1 (en) 2006-09-21 2008-03-27 Apple Inc. Integrated sensors for tracking performance metrics
US20080081963A1 (en) 2006-09-29 2008-04-03 Endothelix, Inc. Methods and Apparatus for Profiling Cardiovascular Vulnerability to Mental Stress
EP2073869A1 (en) 2006-10-04 2009-07-01 Novo Nordisk A/S User interface for delivery system comprising diary function
US8449469B2 (en) 2006-11-10 2013-05-28 Sotera Wireless, Inc. Two-part patch sensor for monitoring vital signs
DE102007046295A1 (en) 2006-11-15 2009-04-16 Buschmann, Johannes, Prof. Dr. med. Methods and apparatus for the continuous and mobile measurement of various vital parameters in the external auditory canal, in particular the measurement of ECG, the body (core) temperature, gewebsoptischer Parameter
JP2008136556A (en) 2006-11-30 2008-06-19 Cosmotec Inc Earphone apparatus
US20080132798A1 (en) 2006-11-30 2008-06-05 Motorola, Inc Wireless headsets and wireless communication networks for heart rate monitoring
US20080141301A1 (en) 2006-12-08 2008-06-12 General Electric Company Methods and systems for delivering personalized health related messages and advertisements
US8157730B2 (en) 2006-12-19 2012-04-17 Valencell, Inc. Physiological and environmental monitoring systems and methods
US8652040B2 (en) 2006-12-19 2014-02-18 Valencell, Inc. Telemetric apparatus for health and environmental monitoring
US20080154098A1 (en) 2006-12-20 2008-06-26 Margaret Morris Apparatus for monitoring physiological, activity, and environmental data
WO2008080043A1 (en) 2006-12-21 2008-07-03 Draeger Medical Systems, Inc. An electronic signal filtering system suitable for medical device and other usage
WO2008085411A3 (en) 2006-12-27 2008-09-04 Steven Francis Leboeuf Multi-wavelength optical devices and methods of using same
US8912899B2 (en) 2007-01-10 2014-12-16 Integrity Tracking, Llc Wireless sensor network calibration system and method
US8323982B2 (en) 2007-01-11 2012-12-04 Valencell, Inc. Photoelectrocatalytic fluid analyte sensors and methods of fabricating and using same
US20080171945A1 (en) 2007-01-15 2008-07-17 Dotter James E Apparatus and method for measuring heart rate and other physiological data
DE102007002369B3 (en) 2007-01-17 2008-05-15 Drägerwerk AG & Co. KGaA Dual temperature sensor for e.g. patient, has sensor units with connections arranged parallel to each other in block and at distance to each other from external surface of block, where distance is formed by layer of insulating material
KR20080069851A (en) 2007-01-24 2008-07-29 삼성전자주식회사 Biosignal-measuring sensor instrument and headset having the sensor instrument and pendant having the sensor instrument
WO2008099288A4 (en) 2007-02-16 2009-02-26 Vyro Games Ltd Biosensor device and method
US20080319855A1 (en) 2007-02-16 2008-12-25 Stivoric John M Advertising and marketing based on lifeotypes
US9044136B2 (en) 2007-02-16 2015-06-02 Cim Technology Inc. Wearable mini-size intelligent healthcare system
US20090253996A1 (en) 2007-03-02 2009-10-08 Lee Michael J Integrated Sensor Headset
US20080221461A1 (en) 2007-03-05 2008-09-11 Triage Wireless, Inc. Vital sign monitor for cufflessly measuring blood pressure without using an external calibration
US20090093687A1 (en) 2007-03-08 2009-04-09 Telfort Valery G Systems and methods for determining a physiological condition using an acoustic monitor
US7894869B2 (en) 2007-03-09 2011-02-22 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc Multiple configuration medical sensor and technique for using the same
FR2913588B1 (en) 2007-03-12 2010-05-07 Groupe Ecoles Telecomm ambulatory Alarm Management System comprising a device denoising pulse, actimetry and drop dectection
GB0705033D0 (en) 2007-03-15 2007-04-25 Imp Innovations Ltd Heart rate measurement
JP2008279061A (en) 2007-05-10 2008-11-20 Sharp Corp Biosignal detecting device
US20080287752A1 (en) 2007-05-10 2008-11-20 Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research Ear canal physiological parameter monitoring system
EP2152895A2 (en) 2007-05-11 2010-02-17 Sigmed, Inc. Non-invasive characterization of a physiological parameter
US20120179011A1 (en) 2007-06-12 2012-07-12 Jim Moon Optical sensors for use in vital sign monitoring
US20090010461A1 (en) 2007-07-02 2009-01-08 Gunnar Klinghult Headset assembly for a portable mobile communications device
EP2182839B1 (en) 2007-07-20 2011-10-26 Bmeye B.V. A cuff for determining a physiological parameter
CN101108125B (en) 2007-08-02 2010-06-16 无锡微感科技有限公司 Dynamic monitoring system of body sign
US20090054752A1 (en) 2007-08-22 2009-02-26 Motorola, Inc. Method and apparatus for photoplethysmographic sensing
US20090054751A1 (en) 2007-08-22 2009-02-26 Bruce Babashan Touchless Sensor for Physiological Monitor Device
KR101414927B1 (en) 2007-08-27 2014-07-07 삼성전자주식회사 Sensor for measuring living body information and earphone having the same
US8059924B1 (en) 2007-09-13 2011-11-15 Lawrence Livermore National Security, Llc Multiplexed photonic membranes and related detection methods for chemical and/or biological sensing applications
US20090082994A1 (en) 2007-09-25 2009-03-26 Motorola, Inc. Headset With Integrated Pedometer and Corresponding Method
US20090105556A1 (en) 2007-09-28 2009-04-23 Tiax Llc Measurement of physiological signals
US20090105548A1 (en) 2007-10-23 2009-04-23 Bart Gary F In-Ear Biometrics
US8251903B2 (en) 2007-10-25 2012-08-28 Valencell, Inc. Noninvasive physiological analysis using excitation-sensor modules and related devices and methods
US9521960B2 (en) 2007-10-31 2016-12-20 The Nielsen Company (Us), Llc Systems and methods providing en mass collection and centralized processing of physiological responses from viewers
JP2009153664A (en) 2007-12-26 2009-07-16 Panasonic Corp Biological component concentration measuring apparatus
US8565444B2 (en) 2008-01-03 2013-10-22 Apple Inc. Detecting stereo and mono headset devices
US8979762B2 (en) 2008-01-07 2015-03-17 Well Being Digital Limited Method of determining body parameters during exercise
US8271075B2 (en) 2008-02-13 2012-09-18 Neurosky, Inc. Audio headset with bio-signal sensors
US20090221888A1 (en) 2008-03-03 2009-09-03 Ravindra Wijesiriwardana Wearable sensor system for environmental and physiological information monitoring and information feedback system
US20090227853A1 (en) 2008-03-03 2009-09-10 Ravindra Wijesiriwardana Wearable optical pulse plethysmography sensors or pulse oximetry sensors based wearable heart rate monitoring systems
US20090264711A1 (en) 2008-04-17 2009-10-22 Motorola, Inc. Behavior modification recommender
US20090299215A1 (en) 2008-05-30 2009-12-03 Starkey Laboratories, Inc. Measurement of sound pressure level and phase at eardrum by sensing eardrum vibration
US8204730B2 (en) 2008-06-06 2012-06-19 Synopsys, Inc. Generating variation-aware library data with efficient device mismatch characterization
US20100022861A1 (en) 2008-07-28 2010-01-28 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable optical hemodynamic sensor including an extension member
US8203554B2 (en) 2008-08-25 2012-06-19 National Taiwan University Of Science And Technology Method and apparatus for identifying visual content foregrounds
US20100168531A1 (en) 2008-10-22 2010-07-01 Dr. Phillip Andrew Shaltis Rapidly deployable sensor design for enhanced noninvasive vital sign monitoring
US20100172522A1 (en) 2009-01-07 2010-07-08 Pillar Ventures, Llc Programmable earphone device with customizable controls and heartbeat monitoring
US8588880B2 (en) 2009-02-16 2013-11-19 Masimo Corporation Ear sensor
US20100217100A1 (en) 2009-02-25 2010-08-26 Leboeuf Steven Francis Methods and Apparatus for Measuring Physiological Conditions
US9750462B2 (en) 2009-02-25 2017-09-05 Valencell, Inc. Monitoring apparatus and methods for measuring physiological and/or environmental conditions
EP3127476A1 (en) 2009-02-25 2017-02-08 Valencell, Inc. Light-guiding devices and monitoring devices incorporating same
EP3128761A1 (en) 2012-12-14 2017-02-08 Valencell, Inc. Light-guiding devices and monitoring devices incorporating same
US8788002B2 (en) 2009-02-25 2014-07-22 Valencell, Inc. Light-guiding devices and monitoring devices incorporating same
US8140143B2 (en) 2009-04-16 2012-03-20 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Washable wearable biosensor
US20100274109A1 (en) 2009-04-28 2010-10-28 Chung Yuan Christian University Measurement apparatus for heart rate variability
US20100292589A1 (en) 2009-05-13 2010-11-18 Jesse Bruce Goodman Hypothenar sensor
CN201438747U (en) 2009-05-18 2010-04-14 幻音科技(深圳)有限公司;幻音数码有限公司 Earplug earphone
US8475370B2 (en) 2009-05-20 2013-07-02 Sotera Wireless, Inc. Method for measuring patient motion, activity level, and posture along with PTT-based blood pressure
US20100324387A1 (en) * 2009-06-17 2010-12-23 Jim Moon Body-worn pulse oximeter
US8594759B2 (en) 2009-07-30 2013-11-26 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Ireland Systems and methods for resolving the continuous wavelet transform of a signal
US8346333B2 (en) 2009-07-30 2013-01-01 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Ireland Systems and methods for estimating values of a continuous wavelet transform
KR101854205B1 (en) 2009-08-14 2018-05-04 데이비드 버톤 Anaesthesia and consciousness depth monotoring system
US8416959B2 (en) 2009-08-17 2013-04-09 SPEAR Labs, LLC. Hearing enhancement system and components thereof
KR101136607B1 (en) 2009-10-07 2012-04-18 삼성전자주식회사 Earphone device having apparatus for measuring living body information
EP2498675A1 (en) 2009-11-12 2012-09-19 Nellcor Puritan Bennett LLC Systems and methods for combined physiological sensors
US20120030547A1 (en) 2010-07-27 2012-02-02 Carefusion 303, Inc. System and method for saving battery power in a vital-signs monitor
US9241635B2 (en) * 2010-09-30 2016-01-26 Fitbit, Inc. Portable monitoring devices for processing applications and processing analysis of physiological conditions of a user associated with the portable monitoring device
US8676284B2 (en) 2010-10-15 2014-03-18 Novanex, Inc. Method for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring
WO2012063154A1 (en) 2010-11-08 2012-05-18 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Location based wireless medical device
US8923918B2 (en) 2010-12-18 2014-12-30 Kallows Engineering India Pvt. Ltd. Biosensor interface apparatus for a mobile communication device
US8888701B2 (en) 2011-01-27 2014-11-18 Valencell, Inc. Apparatus and methods for monitoring physiological data during environmental interference
US20130173171A1 (en) * 2011-06-10 2013-07-04 Aliphcom Data-capable strapband
US9427191B2 (en) 2011-07-25 2016-08-30 Valencell, Inc. Apparatus and methods for estimating time-state physiological parameters
US9801552B2 (en) 2011-08-02 2017-10-31 Valencell, Inc. Systems and methods for variable filter adjustment by heart rate metric feedback
US20130053661A1 (en) 2011-08-31 2013-02-28 Motorola Mobility, Inc. System for enabling reliable skin contract of an electrical wearable device
CN103781414B (en) 2011-09-16 2016-08-24 皇家飞利浦有限公司 Apparatus and method for estimating the heart rate during exercise
US20130072765A1 (en) 2011-09-19 2013-03-21 Philippe Kahn Body-Worn Monitor
US20150011898A1 (en) 2012-01-16 2015-01-08 Valencell Inc. Physiological Metric Estimation Rise and Fall Limiting
EP2804526A1 (en) 2012-01-16 2014-11-26 Valencell, Inc. Reduction of physiological metric error due to inertial cadence
CN104470429A (en) 2012-05-11 2015-03-25 哈曼国际工业有限公司 Earphones and earbuds with physiologic sensors
US8730048B2 (en) 2012-06-18 2014-05-20 Microsoft Corporation Earphone-based game controller and health monitor
US8948832B2 (en) 2012-06-22 2015-02-03 Fitbit, Inc. Wearable heart rate monitor
US8954135B2 (en) 2012-06-22 2015-02-10 Fitbit, Inc. Portable biometric monitoring devices and methods of operating same
US9005129B2 (en) 2012-06-22 2015-04-14 Fitbit, Inc. Wearable heart rate monitor
US20140052567A1 (en) 2012-08-17 2014-02-20 Ebay Inc. Recommendations based on wearable sensors
US20140051940A1 (en) 2012-08-17 2014-02-20 Rare Light, Inc. Obtaining physiological measurements using ear-located sensors
WO2014039567A1 (en) 2012-09-04 2014-03-13 Bobo Analytics, Inc. Systems, devices and methods for continuous heart rate monitoring and interpretation
US20140100432A1 (en) 2012-10-07 2014-04-10 George Stefan Golda Wearable Cardiac Monitor
US20140219467A1 (en) 2013-02-07 2014-08-07 Earmonics, Llc Media playback system having wireless earbuds
US9936901B2 (en) 2013-02-19 2018-04-10 Abaham Carter Synchronizing accelerometer data received from multiple accelerometers and dynamically compensating for accelerometer orientation
US20140378844A1 (en) 2014-04-07 2014-12-25 Physical Enterprises, Inc. Systems and Methods for Optical Sensor Arrangements

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20160324477A1 (en) * 2015-05-08 2016-11-10 Texas Instruments Incorporated Accuracy of heart rate estimation from photoplethysmographic (ppg) signals
WO2017183027A1 (en) * 2016-04-17 2017-10-26 Lifebeam Technologies Ltd. Earbud with physiological sensor and stabilizing element
WO2018060508A1 (en) 2016-09-29 2018-04-05 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Optical vital signs sensor

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
EP3139823A1 (en) 2017-03-15 application
US9538921B2 (en) 2017-01-10 grant
EP3139823A4 (en) 2017-08-09 application
EP3157412A1 (en) 2017-04-26 application
WO2016018756A1 (en) 2016-02-04 application
US20170119315A1 (en) 2017-05-04 application
US20160029964A1 (en) 2016-02-04 application
EP3157412A4 (en) 2017-08-09 application
WO2016018762A1 (en) 2016-02-04 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Tamura et al. Wearable photoplethysmographic sensors—past and present
US20140135612A1 (en) Portable Monitoring Devices For Processing Applications and Processing Analysis of Physiological Conditions of a User associated with the Portable Monitoring Device
US20140127996A1 (en) Portable biometric monitoring devices and methods of operating same
US20140278139A1 (en) Multimode sensor devices
US8920332B2 (en) Wearable heart rate monitor
US20140275854A1 (en) Wearable heart rate monitor
Sun et al. Photoplethysmography revisited: from contact to noncontact, from point to imaging
US20120197093A1 (en) Apparatus and methods for monitoring physiological data during environmental interference
Looney et al. The in-the-ear recording concept: User-centered and wearable brain monitoring
US20130183646A1 (en) Biometric sensing and processing apparatus for mobile gaming, education, and wellness applications
US20130131519A1 (en) Light-guiding devices and monitoring devices incorporating same
JP2005110920A (en) Portable biological information monitor device and information management device
CN1985751A (en) Wearable physical sign detector, physical sign telemetering and warning system and method
CN2824836Y (en) Head-mounted physiological parameter measuring device
EP2116183B1 (en) Robust opto-electrical ear located cardiovascular monitoring device
Poh et al. Heartphones: Sensor earphones and mobile application for non-obtrusive health monitoring
CN101708121A (en) Earhook type low power consumption physiologic parameter monitoring device
Poh et al. Cardiovascular monitoring using earphones and a mobile device
US8700111B2 (en) Light-guiding devices and monitoring devices incorporating same
US20140159862A1 (en) Method and apparatus for user-transparent system control using bio-input
JP2006102260A (en) Ear type sphygmomanometer
US8855757B2 (en) Mobile wellness device
US20150208933A1 (en) Pulse wave sensor
EP2229880A1 (en) Headband integrated monitoring unit using an accelerometer
US9579060B1 (en) Head-mounted physiological signal monitoring system, devices and methods

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: VALENCELL, INC., NORTH CAROLINA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LEBOEUF, STEVEN FRANCIS;TUCKER, JESSE BERKLEY;AUMER, MICHAEL EDWARD;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20150729 TO 20150730;REEL/FRAME:036230/0286