US20150275208A1 - Selective antisense compounds and uses thereof - Google Patents

Selective antisense compounds and uses thereof Download PDF

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US20150275208A1
US20150275208A1 US14/434,885 US201314434885A US2015275208A1 US 20150275208 A1 US20150275208 A1 US 20150275208A1 US 201314434885 A US201314434885 A US 201314434885A US 2015275208 A1 US2015275208 A1 US 2015275208A1
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Michael Oestergaard
Punit P. Seth
Eric E. Swayze
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Ionis Pharmaceuticals Inc
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Priority to US14/434,885 priority patent/US20150275208A1/en
Priority to PCT/US2013/064666 priority patent/WO2014059356A2/en
Assigned to ISIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. reassignment ISIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: SWAYZE, ERIC E., OESTERGAARD, Michael, SETH, PUNIT P.
Publication of US20150275208A1 publication Critical patent/US20150275208A1/en
Assigned to IONIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. reassignment IONIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. CHANGE OF NAME (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: ISIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
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    • C12N15/11DNA or RNA fragments; Modified forms thereof; Non-coding nucleic acids having a biological activity
    • C12N15/113Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing
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    • C12N2320/34Allele or polymorphism specific uses

Abstract

The present invention provides oligomeric compounds. Certain such oligomeric compounds are useful for hybridizing to a complementary nucleic acid, including but not limited, to nucleic acids in a cell. In certain embodiments, hybridization results in modulation of the amount, activity, or expression of the target nucleic acid in a cell. In certain embodiments, hybridization results in selective modulation of the amount, activity, or expression of a target Huntingtin gene or Huntingtin transcript in a cell.

Description

    SEQUENCE LISTING
  • The present application is being filed along with a Sequence Listing in electronic format. The Sequence Listing is provided as a file entitled CORE0109WOSEQ.txt, created Oct. 11, 2013, which is 392 Kb in size. The information in the electronic format of the sequence listing is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Antisense compounds have been used to modulate target nucleic acids. Antisense compounds comprising a variety of chemical modifications and motifs have been reported. In certain instances, such compounds are useful as research tools, diagnostic reagents, and as therapeutic agents. In certain instances antisense compounds have been shown to modulate protein expression by binding to a target messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding the protein. In certain instances, such binding of an antisense compound to its target mRNA results in cleavage of the mRNA. Antisense compounds that modulate processing of a pre-mRNA have also been reported. Such antisense compounds alter splicing, interfere with polyadenlyation or prevent formation of the 5′-cap of a pre-mRNA.
  • SUMMARY
  • In certain embodiments, the present invention provides oligomeric compounds comprising oligonucleotides. In certain embodiments, such oligonucleotides comprise a region having a gapmer motif. In certain embodiments, such oligonucleotides consist of a region having a gapmer motif.
  • The present disclosure provides the following non-limiting numbered embodiments:
      • Embodiment 1: A compound comprising a modified oligonucleotide consisting of 12 to 30 linked nucleosides, wherein the linked nucleosides comprise at least 8 contiguous nucleobases of a nucleobase sequence recited in SEQ ID NO: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, or 174-573.
      • Embodiment 2: The compound of embodiment 1, wherein the modified oligonucleotide comprises at least 10 contiguous nucleobases of a nucleobase sequence recited in SEQ ID NO: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, or 174-573.
      • Embodiment 3: The compound of embodiment 1, wherein the modified oligonucleotide comprises at least 12 contiguous nucleobases of a nucleobase sequence recited in SEQ ID NO: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, or 174-573.
      • Embodiment 4: The compound of embodiment 1, wherein the modified oligonucleotide comprises at least 14 contiguous nucleobases of a nucleobase sequence recited in SEQ ID NO: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, or 174-573.
      • Embodiment 5: The compound of embodiment 1, wherein the modified oligonucleotide comprises at least 16 contiguous nucleobases of a nucleobase sequence recited in SEQ ID NO: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, or 174-573.
      • Embodiment 6: The compound of embodiment 1, wherein the modified oligonucleotide comprises a nucleobase sequence selected from among SEQ ID NO: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, or 174-573.
      • Embodiment 7: The compound of embodiment 1, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of a nucleobase sequence selected from among SEQ ID NO: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, or 174-573.
      • Embodiment 8: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 14 to 26 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 9: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 15 to 25 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 10: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 16 to 25 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 11: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 17 to 25 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 12: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 15 to 22 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 13: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 15 to 20 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 14: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 16 to 20 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 15: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 14 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 16: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 15 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 17: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 16 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 18: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 17 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 19: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 18 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 20: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 19 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 21: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 20 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 22: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 21 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 23: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the modified oligonucleotide consists of 22 linked nucleosides.
      • Embodiment 24: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein the nucleobase sequence of the modified oligonucleotide is 90% complementary to SEQ ID NO. 1.
      • Embodiment 25: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein the nucleobase sequence of the modified oligonucleotide is 95% complementary to SEQ ID NO. 1.
      • Embodiment 26: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein the nucleobase sequence of the modified oligonucleotide is 100% complementary to SEQ ID NO. 1.
      • Embodiment 27: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeedk-d7-keee motif
      • Embodiment 28: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeedk-d7-eeee motif
      • Embodiment 29: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeedk-d7-keee motif
      • Embodiment 30: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeedk-d7-kkee motif
      • Embodiment 31: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeee-d9-eeeee motif
      • Embodiment 32: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeeedk-d7-eeeee motif
      • Embodiment 33: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeeeeeek-d7-eee motif
      • Embodiment 34: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeeeeek-d7-eeee motif
      • Embodiment 35: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeeek-d7-eee motif
      • Embodiment 36: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeeek-d7-eeeeee motif
      • Embodiment 37: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeeek-d7-kee motif
      • Embodiment 38: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeeek-d7-kke motif
      • Embodiment 39: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeek-d7-eeee motif
      • Embodiment 40: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeek-d7-eeeeeee motif
      • Embodiment 41: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeek-d7-keee motif
      • Embodiment 42: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeek-d7-keeee motif
      • Embodiment 43: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeek-d7-kke motif
      • Embodiment 44: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeek-d7-kkee motif
      • Embodiment 45: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeekk-d3-k-d3-keke motif
      • Embodiment 46: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeekk-d7-kee motif
      • Embodiment 47: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeekk-d7-keke motif
      • Embodiment 48: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeekk-d7-kke motif
      • Embodiment 49: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeeekk-d7-kkee motif
      • Embodiment 50: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeek-d7-eeeeeeee motif
      • Embodiment 51: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeek-d7-keeeee motif
      • Embodiment 52: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeek-d7-kkee motif
      • Embodiment 53: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeek-d7-kkeee motif
      • Embodiment 54: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeek-d8-kee motif
      • Embodiment 55: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeek-d9-keee motif
      • Embodiment 56: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeek-d9-keke motif
      • Embodiment 57: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeekk-d7-eeee motif
      • Embodiment 58: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeekk-d7-keee motif
      • Embodiment 59: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeekk-d7-kke motif
      • Embodiment 60: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeekk-d7-kkee motif
      • Embodiment 61: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eeekk-d7-kkeee motif
      • Embodiment 62: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eek-d7-eeeeeeeee motif
      • Embodiment 63: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eek-d7-keeeeee motif
      • Embodiment 64: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eek-d7-kkeee motif
      • Embodiment 65: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eek-d8-kkee motif
      • Embodiment 66: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eekk-d8-kee motif
      • Embodiment 67: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eekk-d8-kkee motif
      • Embodiment 68: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an eekk-d8-kkeee motif
      • Embodiment 69: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ek-d7-eeeeeeeeee motif
      • Embodiment 70: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ek-d8-kkeee motif
      • Embodiment 71: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ek-d9-kkke motif
      • Embodiment 72: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekek-d6-k-dd-keke motif
      • Embodiment 73: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekek-d8-kkeke motif
      • Embodiment 74: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekek-d9-keee motif
      • Embodiment 75: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekek-d9-keke motif
      • Embodiment 76: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekekek-d7-keke motif
      • Embodiment 77: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekekk-d8-keke motif
      • Embodiment 78: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekk-d7-kkeee motif
      • Embodiment 79: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekk-d7-kkeeeee motif
      • Embodiment 80: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekk-d8-kkee motif
      • Embodiment 81: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekk-d8-kkeee motif
      • Embodiment 82: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekk-d8-kkeeee motif
      • Embodiment 83: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekk-d8-kkke motif
      • Embodiment 84: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekk-d9-kke motif
      • Embodiment 85: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekkdk-d7-kke motif
      • Embodiment 86: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekkk-d8-kke motif
      • Embodiment 87: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekkk-d9-ke motif
      • Embodiment 88: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekkkk-d7-kke motif
      • Embodiment 89: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has an ekkkk-d7-kkke motif
      • Embodiment 90: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a kkekk-d9-kkekk motif
      • Embodiment 91: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a kkkkk-d7-kkkkk motif
      • Embodiment 92: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekkdk-d7-kke motif
      • Embodiment 93: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekek-d8-kekee motif
      • Embodiment 94: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-f-d8-kke motif
      • Embodiment 95: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-z-d8-kke motif
      • Embodiment 96: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-h-d8-kke motif
      • Embodiment 97: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d2-h-d6-kke motif
      • Embodiment 98: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d-h-d7-kke motif
      • Embodiment 99: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d3-f-d5-kke motif
      • Embodiment 100: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d3-z-d5-kke motif
      • Embodiment 101: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d3-h-d5-kke motif
      • Embodiment 102: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d4-h-d4-kke motif
      • Embodiment 103: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d5-f-d3-kke motif
      • Embodiment 104: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d5-z-d3-kke motif
      • Embodiment 105: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d5-h-d3-kke motif
      • Embodiment 106: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d6-f-d2-kke motif
      • Embodiment 107: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d6-z-d2-kke motif
      • Embodiment 108: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d6-h-d2-kke motif
      • Embodiment 109: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d7-f-d-kke motif
      • Embodiment 110: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d7-z-d-kke motif
      • Embodiment 111: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d7-h-d-kke motif
      • Embodiment 112: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d8-f-dkke motif
      • Embodiment 113: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d8-z-kke motif
      • Embodiment 114: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d8-h-kke motif
      • Embodiment 115: The compound of any of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the oligonucleotide has a ekk-d9-kke motif
      • Embodiment 116: The oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 1 to 115 comprising at least one modified internucleoside linkage.
      • Embodiment 117: The oligomeric compound of embodiment 116, wherein each internucleoside linkage is a modified internucleoside linkage.
      • Embodiment 118: The oligomeric compound of embodiment 115 or 116 comprising at least one phosphorothioate internucleoside linkage.
      • Embodiment 119: The oligomeric compound of embodiment 117 wherein each internucleoside linkage is a phosphorothioate internucleoside linkage.
      • Embodiment 120: The oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 1 to 119 comprising at least one methylphosphonate internucleoside linkage.
      • Embodiment 121: The oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 1 to 119 comprising one methylphosphonate internucleoside linkage.
      • Embodiment 122: The oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 1 to 120 comprising two methylphosphonate internucleoside linkages.
      • Embodiment 123: The oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 1 to 120 comprising at least one modified nucleobase.
      • Embodiment 124: The oligomeric compound of embodiment 123, comprising at least one 2-thio-thymidine.
      • Embodiment 125: The oligomeric compound of embodiment 1, having an eeeekk-d7-kke motif and consisting of the nucleobase sequence of SEQ ID NO.: 24.
      • Embodiment 126: The oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 1 to 119 comprising at least one 5′-Me-DNA modification.
      • Embodiment 127: The oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 1 to 119 comprising one 5′-Me-DNA modification.
      • Embodiment 128: The oligomeric compound of embodiment 126 or 127, wherein the 5′-Me-DNA modification is an S-5′-Me-DNA.
      • Embodiment 129: The oligomeric compound of embodiment 126 or 127, wherein the 5′-Me-DNA modification is an R-5′-Me-DNA.
      • Embodiment 130: The oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 126 to 129, wherein the 5′-Me-DNA modification is at position 6 from the 5′-end.
      • Embodiment 131: The oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 126 to 129, wherein the 5′-Me-DNA modification is at position 7 from the 5′-end.
      • Embodiment 132: The oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 126 to 129, consisting of the nucleobase sequence of SEQ ID NO.: 3.
      • Embodiment 133: The oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 1 to 132, having an EC50 for reduction of expression of target that is at least two-fold lower than its EC50 for reduction of expression of the non-target, when measured in cells.
      • Embodiment 134: The oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 1 to 132, having an ED50 for reduction of expression of target that is at least two-fold lower than its ED50 for reduction of expression of the non-target, when measured in an animal.
      • Embodiment 135: A compound consisting of ISIS 572772.
      • Embodiment 136: A pharmaceutical composition comprising an oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 1-135 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.
      • Embodiment 137: A method comprising contacting a cell with an oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 1-136.
      • Embodiment 138: The method of embodiment 137, wherein the cell is in vitro.
      • Embodiment 139: The method of embodiment 137, wherein the cell is in an animal.
      • Embodiment 140: The method of embodiment 137, wherein the animal is a human.
      • Embodiment 141: The method of embodiment 137, wherein the animal is a mouse.
      • Embodiment 142: A method of administering a pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 136 to an animal.
      • Embodiment 143: The method of embodiment 142, wherein the animal is a human.
      • Embodiment 144: The method of embodiment 143, wherein the animal is a mouse.
      • Embodiment 145: Use of an oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 1-136 for the preparation of a medicament for the treatment or amelioration of Huntington's disease.
      • Embodiment 146: A method of ameliorating a symptom of Huntington's disease, comprising administering an oligomeric compound of any of embodiments 1-136 to an animal in need thereof
      • Embodiment 147: The method of embodiment 146, wherein the animal is a human.
      • Embodiment 148: The method of embodiment 147, wherein the animal is a mouse.
      • Embodiment 149: A method for reducing the rate of progression of a symptom associated with Huntington's Disease, comprising administering to a human in need thereof a compound of any of embodiments 1-136, and thereby reducing the rate of progression a symptom of Huntington's disease in the human.
      • Embodiment 150: A method for reversing degeneration indicated by a symptom associated with Huntington's disease, comprising administering to a human in need thereof a compound of any of embodiments 1-136, and thereby reversing degeneration indicated by a symptom of Huntington's disease in the human.
      • Embodiment 151: A method for treating a human with Huntington's disease comprising identifying the human with the disease and administering to the human a therapeutically effective amount of the compound of any of embodiments 1-136.
      • Embodiment 152: The method of embodiment 149, wherein the treatment reduces at least one of restlessness, lack of coordination, unintentionally initiated motions, unintentionally uncompleted motions, unsteady gait, chorea, rigidity, writhing motions, abnormal posturing, instability, abnormal facial expressions, difficulty chewing, difficulty swallowing, difficulty speaking, seizure, sleep disturbances, impaired planning, impaired flexibility, impaired abstract thinking, impaired rule acquisition, impaired initiation of appropriate actions, impaired inhibition of inappropriate actions, impaired short-term memory, impaired long-term memory, paranoia, disorientation, confusion, hallucination, dementia, a anxiety, depression, blunted affect, egocentrisms, aggression, compulsive behavior, irritability, suicidal ideation, reduced brain mass, muscle atrophy, cardiac failure, impaired glucose tolerance, weight loss, osteoporosis, and testicular atrophy in the human.
      • Embodiment 153: A method for reducing the rate of progression of a symptom associated with Huntington's Disease, comprising administering to a human in need thereof ISIS 572772, and thereby reducing the rate of progression a symptom of Huntington's disease in the human.
      • Embodiment 154: A method for reversing degeneration indicated by a symptom associated with Huntington's disease, comprising administering to a human in need thereof ISIS 572772, and thereby reversing degeneration indicated by a symptom of Huntington's disease in the human.
      • Embodiment 155: A method for treating a human with Huntington's disease comprising identifying the human with the disease and administering to the human a therapeutically effective amount of ISIS 572772.
      • Embodiment 156: The method of embodiment 153, wherein the treatment reduces at least one of restlessness, lack of coordination, unintentionally initiated motions, unintentionally uncompleted motions, unsteady gait, chorea, rigidity, writhing motions, abnormal posturing, instability, abnormal facial expressions, difficulty chewing, difficulty swallowing, difficulty speaking, seizure, sleep disturbances, impaired planning, impaired flexibility, impaired abstract thinking, impaired rule acquisition, impaired initiation of appropriate actions, impaired inhibition of inappropriate actions, impaired short-term memory, impaired long-term memory, paranoia, disorientation, confusion, hallucination, dementia, a anxiety, depression, blunted affect, egocentrisms, aggression, compulsive behavior, irritability, suicidal ideation, reduced brain mass, muscle atrophy, cardiac failure, impaired glucose tolerance, weight loss, osteoporosis, and testicular atrophy in the human.
    DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not restrictive of the invention, as claimed. Herein, the use of the singular includes the plural unless specifically stated otherwise. As used herein, the use of “or” means “and/or” unless stated otherwise. Furthermore, the use of the term “including” as well as other forms, such as “includes” and “included”, is not limiting. Also, terms such as “element” or “component” encompass both elements and components comprising one unit and elements and components that comprise more than one subunit, unless specifically stated otherwise.
  • The section headings used herein are for organizational purposes only and are not to be construed as limiting the subject matter described. All documents, or portions of documents, cited in this application, including, but not limited to, patents, patent applications, articles, books, and treatises, are hereby expressly incorporated by reference in their entirety for any purpose.
  • A. DEFINITIONS
  • Unless specific definitions are provided, the nomenclature used in connection with, and the procedures and techniques of, analytical chemistry, synthetic organic chemistry, and medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry described herein are those well known and commonly used in the art. Standard techniques may be used for chemical synthesis, and chemical analysis. Certain such techniques and procedures may be found for example in “Carbohydrate Modifications in Antisense Research” Edited by Sangvi and Cook, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 1994; “Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences,” Mack Publishing Co., Easton, Pa., 21st edition, 2005; and “Antisense Drug Technology, Principles, Strategies, and Applications” Edited by Stanley T. Crooke, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.; and Sambrook et al., “Molecular Cloning, A laboratory Manual,” 2nd Edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989, which are hereby incorporated by reference for any purpose. Where permitted, all patents, applications, published applications and other publications and other data referred to throughout in the disclosure are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.
  • Unless otherwise indicated, the following terms have the following meanings:
  • As used herein, “nucleoside” means a compound comprising a nucleobase moiety and a sugar moiety. Nucleosides include, but are not limited to, naturally occurring nucleosides (as found in DNA and RNA) and modified nucleosides. Nucleosides may be linked to a phosphate moiety.
  • As used herein, “chemical modification” means a chemical difference in a compound when compared to a naturally occurring counterpart. Chemical modifications of oligonucleotides include nucleoside modifications (including sugar moiety modifications and nucleobase modifications) and internucleoside linkage modifications. In reference to an oligonucleotide, chemical modification does not include differences only in nucleobase sequence.
  • As used herein, “furanosyl” means a structure comprising a 5-membered ring comprising four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
  • As used herein, “naturally occurring sugar moiety” means a ribofuranosyl as found in naturally occurring RNA or a deoxyribofuranosyl as found in naturally occurring DNA.
  • As used herein, “sugar moiety” means a naturally occurring sugar moiety or a modified sugar moiety of a nucleoside.
  • As used herein, “modified sugar moiety” means a substituted sugar moiety or a sugar surrogate.
  • As used herein, “substituted sugar moiety” means a furanosyl that is not a naturally occurring sugar moiety. Substituted sugar moieties include, but are not limited to furanosyls comprising substituents at the 2′-position, the 3′-position, the 5′-position and/or the 4′-position. Certain substituted sugar moieties are bicyclic sugar moieties.
  • As used herein, “2′-substituted sugar moiety” means a furanosyl comprising a substituent at the 2′-position other than H or OH. Unless otherwise indicated, a 2′-substituted sugar moiety is not a bicyclic sugar moiety (i.e., the 2′-substituent of a 2′-substituted sugar moiety does not form a bridge to another atom of the furanosyl ring.
  • As used herein, “MOE” means —OCH2CH2OCH3.
  • As used herein, “2′-F nucleoside” refers to a nucleoside comprising a sugar comprising fluoroine at the 2′ position. Unless otherwise indicated, the fluorine in a 2′-F nucleoside is in the ribo position (replacing the OH of a natural ribose).
  • As used herein, “2′-(ara)-F” refers to a 2′-F substituted nucleoside, wherein the fluoro group is in the arabino position.
  • As used herein the term “sugar surrogate” means a structure that does not comprise a furanosyl and that is capable of replacing the naturally occurring sugar moiety of a nucleoside, such that the resulting nucleoside sub-units are capable of linking together and/or linking to other nucleosides to form an oligomeric compound which is capable of hybridizing to a complementary oligomeric compound. Such structures include rings comprising a different number of atoms than furanosyl (e.g., 4, 6, or 7-membered rings); replacement of the oxygen of a furanosyl with a non-oxygen atom (e.g., carbon, sulfur, or nitrogen); or both a change in the number of atoms and a replacement of the oxygen. Such structures may also comprise substitutions corresponding to those described for substituted sugar moieties (e.g., 6-membered carbocyclic bicyclic sugar surrogates optionally comprising additional substituents). Sugar surrogates also include more complex sugar replacements (e.g., the non-ring systems of peptide nucleic acid). Sugar surrogates include without limitation morpholinos, cyclohexenyls and cyclohexitols.
  • As used herein, “bicyclic sugar moiety” means a modified sugar moiety comprising a 4 to 7 membered ring (including but not limited to a furanosyl) comprising a bridge connecting two atoms of the 4 to 7 membered ring to form a second ring, resulting in a bicyclic structure. In certain embodiments, the 4 to 7 membered ring is a sugar ring. In certain embodiments the 4 to 7 membered ring is a furanosyl. In certain such embodiments, the bridge connects the 2′-carbon and the 4′-carbon of the furanosyl.
  • As used herein, “nucleotide” means a nucleoside further comprising a phosphate linking group. As used herein, “linked nucleosides” may or may not be linked by phosphate linkages and thus includes, but is not limited to “linked nucleotides.” As used herein, “linked nucleosides” are nucleosides that are connected in a continuous sequence (i.e. no additional nucleosides are present between those that are linked).
  • As used herein, “nucleobase” means a group of atoms that can be linked to a sugar moiety to create a nucleoside that is capable of incorporation into an oligonucleotide, and wherein the group of atoms is capable of bonding with a complementary naturally occurring nucleobase of another oligonucleotide or nucleic acid. Nucleobases may be naturally occurring or may be modified.
  • As used herein the terms, “unmodified nucleobase” or “naturally occurring nucleobase” means the naturally occurring heterocyclic nucleobases of RNA or DNA: the purine bases adenine (A) and guanine (G), and the pyrimidine bases thymine (T), cytosine (C) (including 5-methyl C), and uracil (U).
  • As used herein, “modified nucleobase” means any nucleobase that is not a naturally occurring nucleobase.
  • As used herein, “modified nucleoside” means a nucleoside comprising at least one chemical modification compared to naturally occurring RNA or DNA nucleosides. Modified nucleosides comprise a modified sugar moiety and/or a modified nucleobase.
  • As used herein, “bicyclic nucleoside” or “BNA” means a nucleoside comprising a bicyclic sugar moiety.
  • As used herein, “constrained ethyl nucleoside” or “cEt” means a nucleoside comprising a bicyclic sugar moiety comprising a 4′-CH(CH3)—O-2′ bridge.
  • As used herein, “locked nucleic acid nucleoside” or “LNA” means a nucleoside comprising a bicyclic sugar moiety comprising a 4′-CH2—O-2′ bridge.
  • As used herein, “2′-substituted nucleoside” means a nucleoside comprising a substituent at the 2′-position other than H or OH. Unless otherwise indicated, a 2′-substituted nucleoside is not a bicyclic nucleoside.
  • As used herein, “2′-deoxynucleoside” means a nucleoside comprising 2′-H furanosyl sugar moiety, as found in naturally occurring deoxyribonucleosides (DNA). In certain embodiments, a 2′-deoxynucleoside may comprise a modified nucleobase or may comprise an RNA nucleobase (e.g., uracil).
  • As used herein, “RNA-like nucleoside” means a modified nucleoside that adopts a northern configuration and functions like RNA when incorporated into an oligonucleotide. RNA-like nucleosides include, but are not limited to 3′-endo furanosyl nucleosides and RNA surrogates.
  • As used herein, “3′-endo-furanosyl nucleoside” means an RNA-like nucleoside that comprises a substituted sugar moiety that has a 3′-endo conformation. 3′-endo-furanosyl nucleosides include, but are not limited to: 2′-MOE, 2′-F, 2′-OMe, LNA, ENA, and cEt nucleosides.
  • As used herein, “RNA-surrogate nucleoside” means an RNA-like nucleoside that does not comprise a furanosyl. RNA-surrogate nucleosides include, but are not limited to hexitols and cyclopentanes.
  • As used herein, “oligonucleotide” means a compound comprising a plurality of linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, an oligonucleotide comprises one or more unmodified ribonucleosides (RNA) and/or unmodified deoxyribonucleosides (DNA) and/or one or more modified nucleosides.
  • As used herein “oligonucleoside” means an oligonucleotide in which none of the internucleoside linkages contains a phosphorus atom. As used herein, oligonucleotides include oligonucleosides.
  • As used herein, “modified oligonucleotide” means an oligonucleotide comprising at least one modified nucleoside and/or at least one modified internucleoside linkage.
  • As used herein “internucleoside linkage” means a covalent linkage between adjacent nucleosides in an oligonucleotide.
  • As used herein “naturally occurring internucleoside linkage” means a 3′ to 5′ phosphodiester linkage.
  • As used herein, “modified internucleoside linkage” means any internucleoside linkage other than a naturally occurring internucleoside linkage.
  • As used herein, “oligomeric compound” means a polymeric structure comprising two or more sub-structures. In certain embodiments, an oligomeric compound comprises an oligonucleotide. In certain embodiments, an oligomeric compound comprises one or more conjugate groups and/or terminal groups. In certain embodiments, an oligomeric compound consists of an oligonucleotide.
  • As used herein, “terminal group” means one or more atom attached to either, or both, the 3′ end or the 5′ end of an oligonucleotide. In certain embodiments a terminal group is a conjugate group. In certain embodiments, a terminal group comprises one or more terminal group nucleosides.
  • As used herein, “conjugate” means an atom or group of atoms bound to an oligonucleotide or oligomeric compound. In general, conjugate groups modify one or more properties of the compound to which they are attached, including, but not limited to pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, binding, absorption, cellular distribution, cellular uptake, charge and/or clearance properties.
  • As used herein, “conjugate linking group” means any atom or group of atoms used to attach a conjugate to an oligonucleotide or oligomeric compound.
  • As used herein, “antisense compound” means a compound comprising or consisting of an oligonucleotide at least a portion of which is complementary to a target nucleic acid to which it is capable of hybridizing, resulting in at least one antisense activity.
  • As used herein, “antisense activity” means any detectable and/or measurable change attributable to the hybridization of an antisense compound to its target nucleic acid.
  • As used herein, “detecting” or “measuring” means that a test or assay for detecting or measuring is performed. Such detection and/or measuring may result in a value of zero. Thus, if a test for detection or measuring results in a finding of no activity (activity of zero), the step of detecting or measuring the activity has nevertheless been performed.
  • As used herein, “detectable and/or measureable activity” means a measurable activity that is not zero.
  • As used herein, “essentially unchanged” means little or no change in a particular parameter, particularly relative to another parameter which changes much more. In certain embodiments, a parameter is essentially unchanged when it changes less than 5%. In certain embodiments, a parameter is essentially unchanged if it changes less than two-fold while another parameter changes at least ten-fold. For example, in certain embodiments, an antisense activity is a change in the amount of a target nucleic acid. In certain such embodiments, the amount of a non-target nucleic acid is essentially unchanged if it changes much less than the target nucleic acid does, but the change need not be zero.
  • As used herein, “expression” means the process by which a gene ultimately results in a protein. Expression includes, but is not limited to, transcription, post-transcriptional modification (e.g., splicing, polyadenlyation, addition of 5′-cap), and translation.
  • As used herein, “target nucleic acid” means a nucleic acid molecule to which an antisense compound is intended to hybridize.
  • As used herein, “non-target nucleic acid” means a nucleic acid molecule to which hybridization of an antisense compound is not intended or desired. In certain embodiments, antisense compounds do hybridize to a non-target, due to homology between the target (intended) and non-target (un-intended).
  • As used herein, “mRNA” means an RNA molecule that encodes a protein.
  • As used herein, “pre-mRNA” means an RNA transcript that has not been fully processed into mRNA. Pre-RNA includes one or more intron.
  • As used herein, “object RNA” means an RNA molecule other than a target RNA, the amount, activity, splicing, and/or function of which is modulated, either directly or indirectly, by a target nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, a target nucleic acid modulates splicing of an object RNA. In certain such embodiments, an antisense compound modulates the amount or activity of the target nucleic acid, resulting in a change in the splicing of an object RNA and ultimately resulting in a change in the activity or function of the object RNA.
  • As used herein, “microRNA” means a naturally occurring, small, non-coding RNA that represses gene expression of at least one mRNA. In certain embodiments, a microRNA represses gene expression by binding to a target site within a 3′ untranslated region of an mRNA. In certain embodiments, a microRNA has a nucleobase sequence as set forth in miRBase, a database of published microRNA sequences found at http://microrna.sanger.ac.uk/sequences/. In certain embodiments, a microRNA has a nucleobase sequence as set forth in miRBase version 12.0 released September 2008, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • As used herein, “microRNA mimic” means an oligomeric compound having a sequence that is at least partially identical to that of a microRNA. In certain embodiments, a microRNA mimic comprises the microRNA seed region of a microRNA. In certain embodiments, a microRNA mimic modulates translation of more than one target nucleic acids. In certain embodiments, a microRNA mimic is double-stranded.
  • As used herein, “differentiating nucleobase” means a nucleobase that differs between two nucleic acids. In certain instances, a target region of a target nucleic acid differs by 1-4 nucleobases from a non-target nucleic acid. Each of those differences is refered to as a differentiating nucleobase. In certain instances, a differentiating nucleobase is a single-nucleotide polymorphism.
  • As used herein, “target-selective nucleoside” means a nucleoside of an antisense compound that corresponds to a differentiating nucleobase of a target nucleic acid.
  • As used herein, “allele” means one of a pair of copies of a gene existing at a particular locus or marker on a specific chromosome, one member of a pair of nucleobases existing at a particular locus or marker on a specific chromosome, or one member of a pair of nucleobase sequences existing at a particular locus or marker on a specific chromosome. For a diploid organism or cell or for autosomal chromosomes, each allelic pair will normally occupy corresponding positions (loci) on a pair of homologous chromosomes, one inherited from the mother and one inherited from the father. If these alleles are identical, the organism or cell is said to be “homozygous” for that allele; if they differ, the organism or cell is said to be “heterozygous” for that allele. “Wild-type allele” refers to the genotype typically not associated with disease or dysfunction of the gene product. “Mutant allele” refers to the genotype associated with disease or dysfunction of the gene product.
  • As used herein, “allelic variant” means a particular identity of an allele, where more than one identity occurs. For example, an allelic variant may refer to either the mutant allele or the wild-type allele.
  • As used herein, “single nucleotide polymorphism” or “SNP” means a single nucleotide variation between the genomes of individuals of the same species. In some cases, a SNP may be a single nucleotide deletion or insertion. In general, SNPs occur relatively frequently in genomes and thus contribute to genetic diversity. The location of a SNP is generally flanked by highly conserved sequences. An individual may be homozygous or heterozygous for an allele at each SNP site.
  • As used herein, “single nucleotide polymorphism site” or “SNP site” refers to the nucleotides surrounding a SNP contained in a target nucleic acid to which an antisense compound is targeted.
  • As used herein, “targeting” or “targeted to” means the association of an antisense compound to a particular target nucleic acid molecule or a particular region of a target nucleic acid molecule. An antisense compound targets a target nucleic acid if it is sufficiently complementary to the target nucleic acid to allow hybridization under physiological conditions.
  • As used herein, “nucleobase complementarity” or “complementarity” when in reference to nucleobases means a nucleobase that is capable of base pairing with another nucleobase. For example, in DNA, adenine (A) is complementary to thymine (T). For example, in RNA, adenine (A) is complementary to uracil (U). In certain embodiments, complementary nucleobase means a nucleobase of an antisense compound that is capable of base pairing with a nucleobase of its target nucleic acid. For example, if a nucleobase at a certain position of an antisense compound is capable of hydrogen bonding with a nucleobase at a certain position of a target nucleic acid, then the position of hydrogen bonding between the oligonucleotide and the target nucleic acid is considered to be complementary at that nucleobase pair.
  • Nucleobases comprising certain modifications may maintain the ability to pair with a counterpart nucleobase and thus, are still capable of nucleobase complementarity.
  • As used herein, “non-complementary” in reference to nucleobases means a pair of nucleobases that do not form hydrogen bonds with one another.
  • As used herein, “complementary” in reference to oligomeric compounds (e.g., linked nucleosides, oligonucleotides, or nucleic acids) means the capacity of such oligomeric compounds or regions thereof to hybridize to another oligomeric compound or region thereof through nucleobase complementarity under stringent conditions. Complementary oligomeric compounds need not have nucleobase complementarity at each nucleoside. Rather, some mismatches are tolerated. In certain embodiments, complementary oligomeric compounds or regions are complementary at 70% of the nucleobases (70% complementary). In certain embodiments, complementary oligomeric compounds or regions are 80% complementary. In certain embodiments, complementary oligomeric compounds or regions are 90% complementary. In certain embodiments, complementary oligomeric compounds or regions are 95% complementary. In certain embodiments, complementary oligomeric compounds or regions are 100% complementary.
  • As used herein, “mismatch” means a nucleobase of a first oligomeric compound that is not capable of pairing with a nucleobase at a corresponding position of a second oligomeric compound, when the first and second oligomeric compound are aligned. Either or both of the first and second oligomeric compounds may be oligonucleotides.
  • As used herein, “hybridization” means the pairing of complementary oligomeric compounds (e.g., an antisense compound and its target nucleic acid). While not limited to a particular mechanism, the most common mechanism of pairing involves hydrogen bonding, which may be Watson-Crick, Hoogsteen or reversed Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding, between complementary nucleobases.
  • As used herein, “specifically hybridizes” means the ability of an oligomeric compound to hybridize to one nucleic acid site with greater affinity than it hybridizes to another nucleic acid site. In certain embodiments, an antisense oligonucleotide specifically hybridizes to more than one target site.
  • As used herein, “fully complementary” in reference to an oligonucleotide or portion thereof means that each nucleobase of the oligonucleotide or portion thereof is capable of pairing with a nucleobase of a complementary nucleic acid or contiguous portion thereof. Thus, a fully complementary region comprises no mismatches or unhybridized nucleobases in either strand.
  • As used herein, “percent complementarity” means the percentage of nucleobases of an oligomeric compound that are complementary to an equal-length portion of a target nucleic acid. Percent complementarity is calculated by dividing the number of nucleobases of the oligomeric compound that are complementary to nucleobases at corresponding positions in the target nucleic acid by the total length of the oligomeric compound.
  • As used herein, “percent identity” means the number of nucleobases in a first nucleic acid that are the same type (independent of chemical modification) as nucleobases at corresponding positions in a second nucleic acid, divided by the total number of nucleobases in the first nucleic acid.
  • As used herein, “modulation” means a change of amount or quality of a molecule, function, or activity when compared to the amount or quality of a molecule, function, or activity prior to modulation. For example, modulation includes the change, either an increase (stimulation or induction) or a decrease (inhibition or reduction) in gene expression. As a further example, modulation of expression can include a change in splice site selection of pre-mRNA processing, resulting in a change in the absolute or relative amount of a particular splice-variant compared to the amount in the absence of modulation.
  • As used herein, “modification motif” means a pattern of chemical modifications in an oligomeric compound or a region thereof. Motifs may be defined by modifications at certain nucleosides and/or at certain linking groups of an oligomeric compound.
  • As used herein, “nucleoside motif” means a pattern of nucleoside modifications in an oligomeric compound or a region thereof. The linkages of such an oligomeric compound may be modified or unmodified. Unless otherwise indicated, motifs herein describing only nucleosides are intended to be nucleoside motifs. Thus, in such instances, the linkages are not limited.
  • As used herein, “sugar motif” means a pattern of sugar modifications in an oligomeric compound or a region thereof.
  • As used herein, “linkage motif” means a pattern of linkage modifications in an oligomeric compound or region thereof. The nucleosides of such an oligomeric compound may be modified or unmodified. Unless otherwise indicated, motifs herein describing only linkages are intended to be linkage motifs. Thus, in such instances, the nucleosides are not limited.
  • As used herein, “nucleobase modification motif” means a pattern of modifications to nucleobases along an oligonucleotide. Unless otherwise indicated, a nucleobase modification motif is independent of the nucleobase sequence.
  • As used herein, “sequence motif” means a pattern of nucleobases arranged along an oligonucleotide or portion thereof. Unless otherwise indicated, a sequence motif is independent of chemical modifications and thus may have any combination of chemical modifications, including no chemical modifications.
  • As used herein, “type of modification” in reference to a nucleoside or a nucleoside of a “type” means the chemical modification of a nucleoside and includes modified and unmodified nucleosides. Accordingly, unless otherwise indicated, a “nucleoside having a modification of a first type” may be an unmodified nucleoside.
  • As used herein, “differently modified” mean chemical modifications or chemical substituents that are different from one another, including absence of modifications. Thus, for example, a MOE nucleoside and an unmodified DNA nucleoside are “differently modified,” even though the DNA nucleoside is unmodified. Likewise, DNA and RNA are “differently modified,” even though both are naturally-occurring unmodified nucleosides. Nucleosides that are the same but for comprising different nucleobases are not differently modified. For example, a nucleoside comprising a 2′-OMe modified sugar and an unmodified adenine nucleobase and a nucleoside comprising a 2′-OMe modified sugar and an unmodified thymine nucleobase are not differently modified.
  • As used herein, “the same type of modifications” refers to modifications that are the same as one another, including absence of modifications. Thus, for example, two unmodified DNA nucleoside have “the same type of modification,” even though the DNA nucleoside is unmodified. Such nucleosides having the same type modification may comprise different nucleobases.
  • As used herein, “pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent” means any substance suitable for use in administering to an animal. In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent is sterile saline. In certain embodiments, such sterile saline is pharmaceutical grade saline.
  • As used herein, “substituent” and “substituent group,” means an atom or group that replaces the atom or group of a named parent compound. For example a substituent of a modified nucleoside is any atom or group that differs from the atom or group found in a naturally occurring nucleoside (e.g., a modified 2′-substituent is any atom or group at the 2′-position of a nucleoside other than H or OH). Substituent groups can be protected or unprotected. In certain embodiments, compounds of the present invention have substituents at one or at more than one position of the parent compound. Substituents may also be further substituted with other substituent groups and may be attached directly or via a linking group such as an alkyl or hydrocarbyl group to a parent compound.
  • Likewise, as used herein, “substituent” in reference to a chemical functional group means an atom or group of atoms differs from the atom or a group of atoms normally present in the named functional group. In certain embodiments, a substituent replaces a hydrogen atom of the functional group (e.g., in certain embodiments, the substituent of a substituted methyl group is an atom or group other than hydrogen which replaces one of the hydrogen atoms of an unsubstituted methyl group). Unless otherwise indicated, groups amenable for use as substituents include without limitation, halogen, hydroxyl, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, acyl (—C(O)Raa), carboxyl (—C(O)O—Raa), aliphatic groups, alicyclic groups, alkoxy, substituted oxy (—O—Raa), aryl, aralkyl, heterocyclic radical, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, amino (—N(Rbb)(Rcc)), imino(═NRbb), amido (—C(O)N(Rbb)(Rcc) or —N(Rbb)C(O)Raa), azido (—N3), nitro (—NO2), cyano (—CN), carbamido (—OC(O)N(Rbb)(Rcc) or —N(Rbb)C(O)ORaa), ureido (—N(Rbb)C(O)N(Rbb)(Rcc)), thioureido (—N(Rbb)C(S)N(Rbb)—(Rcc)), guanidinyl (—N(Rbb)C(═NRbb)N(Rbb)(Rcc)), amidinyl (—C(═NRbb)N(Rbb)(Rcc) or —N(Rbb)C(═NRbb)(Raa)), thiol (—SRbb), sulfinyl (—S(O)Rbb), sulfonyl (—S(O)2Rbb) and sulfonamidyl (—S(O)2N(Rbb)(Rcc) or —N(Rbb)S—(O)2Rbb). Wherein each Raa, Rbb and Rcc is, independently, H, an optionally linked chemical functional group or a further substituent group with a preferred list including without limitation, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aliphatic, alkoxy, acyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, alicyclic, heterocyclic and heteroarylalkyl. Selected substituents within the compounds described herein are present to a recursive degree.
  • As used herein, “alkyl,” as used herein, means a saturated straight or branched hydrocarbon radical containing up to twenty four carbon atoms. Examples of alkyl groups include without limitation, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, isopropyl, n-hexyl, octyl, decyl, dodecyl and the like. Alkyl groups typically include from 1 to about 24 carbon atoms, more typically from 1 to about 12 carbon atoms (C1-C12 alkyl) with from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms being more preferred.
  • As used herein, “alkenyl,” means a straight or branched hydrocarbon chain radical containing up to twenty four carbon atoms and having at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Examples of alkenyl groups include without limitation, ethenyl, propenyl, butenyl, 1-methyl-2-buten-1-yl, dienes such as 1,3-butadiene and the like. Alkenyl groups typically include from 2 to about 24 carbon atoms, more typically from 2 to about 12 carbon atoms with from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms being more preferred. Alkenyl groups as used herein may optionally include one or more further substituent groups.
  • As used herein, “alkynyl,” means a straight or branched hydrocarbon radical containing up to twenty four carbon atoms and having at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. Examples of alkynyl groups include, without limitation, ethynyl, 1-propynyl, 1-butynyl, and the like. Alkynyl groups typically include from 2 to about 24 carbon atoms, more typically from 2 to about 12 carbon atoms with from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms being more preferred. Alkynyl groups as used herein may optionally include one or more further substituent groups.
  • As used herein, “acyl,” means a radical formed by removal of a hydroxyl group from an organic acid and has the general Formula —C(O)—X where X is typically aliphatic, alicyclic or aromatic. Examples include aliphatic carbonyls, aromatic carbonyls, aliphatic sulfonyls, aromatic sulfinyls, aliphatic sulfinyls, aromatic phosphates, aliphatic phosphates and the like. Acyl groups as used herein may optionally include further substituent groups.
  • As used herein, “alicyclic” means a cyclic ring system wherein the ring is aliphatic. The ring system can comprise one or more rings wherein at least one ring is aliphatic. Preferred alicyclics include rings having from about 5 to about 9 carbon atoms in the ring. Alicyclic as used herein may optionally include further substituent groups.
  • As used herein, “aliphatic” means a straight or branched hydrocarbon radical containing up to twenty four carbon atoms wherein the saturation between any two carbon atoms is a single, double or triple bond. An aliphatic group preferably contains from 1 to about 24 carbon atoms, more typically from 1 to about 12 carbon atoms with from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms being more preferred. The straight or branched chain of an aliphatic group may be interrupted with one or more heteroatoms that include nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus. Such aliphatic groups interrupted by heteroatoms include without limitation, polyalkoxys, such as polyalkylene glycols, polyamines, and polyimines Aliphatic groups as used herein may optionally include further substituent groups.
  • As used herein, “alkoxy” means a radical formed between an alkyl group and an oxygen atom wherein the oxygen atom is used to attach the alkoxy group to a parent molecule. Examples of alkoxy groups include without limitation, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, isopropoxy, n-butoxy, sec-butoxy, tert-butoxy, n-pentoxy, neopentoxy, n-hexoxy and the like. Alkoxy groups as used herein may optionally include further substituent groups.
  • As used herein, “aminoalkyl” means an amino substituted C1-C12 alkyl radical. The alkyl portion of the radical forms a covalent bond with a parent molecule. The amino group can be located at any position and the aminoalkyl group can be substituted with a further substituent group at the alkyl and/or amino portions.
  • As used herein, “aralkyl” and “arylalkyl” mean an aromatic group that is covalently linked to a C1-C12 alkyl radical. The alkyl radical portion of the resulting aralkyl (or arylalkyl) group forms a covalent bond with a parent molecule. Examples include without limitation, benzyl, phenethyl and the like. Aralkyl groups as used herein may optionally include further substituent groups attached to the alkyl, the aryl or both groups that form the radical group.
  • As used herein, “aryl” and “aromatic” mean a mono- or polycyclic carbocyclic ring system radicals having one or more aromatic rings. Examples of aryl groups include without limitation, phenyl, naphthyl, tetrahydronaphthyl, indanyl, idenyl and the like. Preferred aryl ring systems have from about 5 to about 20 carbon atoms in one or more rings. Aryl groups as used herein may optionally include further substituent groups.
  • As used herein, “halo” and “halogen,” mean an atom selected from fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.
  • As used herein, “heteroaryl,” and “heteroaromatic,” mean a radical comprising a mono- or polycyclic aromatic ring, ring system or fused ring system wherein at least one of the rings is aromatic and includes one or more heteroatoms. Heteroaryl is also meant to include fused ring systems including systems where one or more of the fused rings contain no heteroatoms. Heteroaryl groups typically include one ring atom selected from sulfur, nitrogen or oxygen. Examples of heteroaryl groups include without limitation, pyridinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, thiazolyl, oxazolyl, isooxazolyl, thiadiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, thiophenyl, furanyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzooxazolyl, quinoxalinyl and the like. Heteroaryl radicals can be attached to a parent molecule directly or through a linking moiety such as an aliphatic group or hetero atom. Heteroaryl groups as used herein may optionally include further substituent groups.
  • As used herein, “huntingtin transcript” means a transcript transcribed from a huntingtin gene.
  • As used herein, “Intracerebroventricular” or “ICV” means administration into the ventricular system of the brain.
  • B. OLIGOMERIC COMPOUNDS
  • In certain embodiments, the present invention provides oligomeric compounds. In certain embodiments, such oligomeric compounds comprise oligonucleotides optionally comprising one or more conjugate and/or terminal groups. In certain embodiments, an oligomeric compound consists of an oligonucleotide. In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides comprise one or more chemical modifications.
  • Such chemical modifications include modifications of one or more nucleoside (including modifications to the sugar moiety and/or the nucleobase) and/or modifications to one or more internucleoside linkage.
  • a. Certain Modified Nucleosides
  • In certain embodiments, provided herein are oligomeric compounds comprising or consisting of oligonucleotides comprising at least one modified nucleoside. Such modified nucleosides comprise a modified sugar moeity, a modified nucleobase, or both a modified sugar moiety and a modified nucleobase.
  • i. Certain Modified Sugar Moieties
  • In certain embodiments, oligomeric compounds of the invention comprise one or more modified nucleosides comprising a modified sugar moiety. Such oligomeric compounds comprising one or more sugar-modified nucleosides may have desirable properties, such as enhanced nuclease stability or increased binding affinity with a target nucleic acid relative to oligomeric compounds comprising only nucleosides comprising naturally occurring sugar moieties. In certain embodiments, modified sugar moieties are substituted sugar moieties. In certain embodiments, modified sugar moieties are bicyclic or tricyclic sugar moieties. In certain embodiments, modified sugar moieties are sugar surrogates. Such sugar surrogates may comprise one or more substitutions corresponding to those of substituted sugar moieties.
  • In certain embodiments, modified sugar moieties are substituted sugar moieties comprising one or more substituent, including but not limited to substituents at the 2′ and/or 5′ positions. Examples of sugar substituents suitable for the 2′-position, include, but are not limited to: 2′-F, 2′-OCH3 (“OMe” or “O-methyl”), and 2′-O(CH2)2OCH3 (“MOE”). In certain embodiments, sugar substituents at the 2′ position is selected from allyl, amino, azido, thio, O-allyl, 0-C1-C10 alkyl, 0-C1-C10 substituted alkyl; O—C1-C10 alkoxy; O—C1-C10 substituted alkoxy, OCF3, O(CH2)2SCH3, O(CH2)2—O—N(Rm)(Rn), and O—CH2—C(═O)—N(Rm)(Rn), where each Rm and Rn is, independently, H or substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl. Examples of sugar substituents at the 5′-position, include, but are not limited to: 5′-methyl (R or S); 5′-vinyl, and 5′-methoxy. In certain embodiments, substituted sugars comprise more than one non-bridging sugar substituent, for example, 2′-F-5′-methyl sugar moieties (see, e.g., PCT International Application WO 2008/101157, for additional 5′,2′-bis substituted sugar moieties and nucleosides).
  • Nucleosides comprising 2′-substituted sugar moieties are referred to as 2′-substituted nucleosides. In certain embodiments, a 2′-substituted nucleoside comprises a 2′-substituent group selected from halo, allyl, amino, azido, O—C1-C10 alkoxy; O—C1-C10 substituted alkoxy, SH, CN, OCN, CF3, OCF3, O-alkyl, S-alkyl, N(Rm)-alkyl; O-alkenyl, S-alkenyl, or N(Rm)-alkenyl; O-alkynyl, S-alkynyl, N(Rm)-alkynyl; O-alkylenyl-O-alkyl, alkynyl, alkaryl, aralkyl, O-alkaryl, O-aralkyl, O(CH2)2SCH3, O—(CH2)2—O—N(Rm)(Rn) or O—CH2—C(═O)—N(Rm)(Rn), where each Rm and Rn is, independently, H, an amino protecting group or substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl. These 2′-substituent groups can be further substituted with one or more substituent groups independently selected from hydroxyl, amino, alkoxy, carboxy, benzyl, phenyl, nitro (NO2), thiol, thioalkoxy (S-alkyl), halogen, alkyl, aryl, alkenyl and alkynyl.
  • In certain embodiments, a 2′-substituted nucleoside comprises a 2′-substituent group selected from F, NH2, N3, OCF3, O—CH3, O(CH2)3NH2, CH2—CH2═CH2, O—CH2—CH═CH2, OCH2CH2OCH3, O(CH2)2SCH3, O—(CH2)2—O—N(Rm)(Rn), O(CH2)2O(CH2)2N(CH3)2, and N-substituted acetamide (O—CH2—C(═O)—N(Rm)(Rn) where each Rm and Rn is, independently, H, an amino protecting group or substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl.
  • In certain embodiments, a 2′-substituted nucleoside comprises a sugar moiety comprising a 2′-substituent group selected from F, OCF3, O—CH3, OCH2CH2OCH3, O(CH2)2SCH3, O—(CH2)2—O—N(CH3)2, —O(CH2)2O(CH2)2N(CH3)2, and O—CH2—C(═O)—N(H)CH3.
  • In certain embodiments, a 2′-substituted nucleoside comprises a sugar moiety comprising a 2′-substituent group selected from F, O—CH3, and OCH2CH2OCH3.
  • Certain modified sugar moieties comprise a bridging sugar substituent that forms a second ring resulting in a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain such embodiments, the bicyclic sugar moiety comprises a bridge between the 4′ and the 2′ furanose ring atoms. Examples of such 4′ to 2′ sugar substituents, include, but are not limited to: —[C(Ra)(Rb)]n—, —[C(Ra)(Rb)]n—O—, —C(RaRb)—N(R)—O— or, —C(RaRb)—O—N(R)—; 4′-CH2-2′, 4′-(CH2)2-2′, 4′-(CH2)3-2′, 4′-(CH2)—O-2′ (LNA); 4′-(CH2)—S-2; 4′-(CH2)2—O-2′ (ENA); 4′-CH(CH3)—O-2′ (cEt) and 4′-CH(CH2OCH3)—O-2′, and analogs thereof (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 7,399,845, issued on Jul. 15, 2008); 4′-C(CH3)(CH3)—O-2′ and analogs thereof, (see, e.g., WO2009/006478, published Jan. 8, 2009); 4′-CH2—N(OCH3)-2′ and analogs thereof (see, e.g., WO2008/150729, published Dec. 11, 2008); 4′-CH2—O—N(CH3)-2′ (see, e.g., US2004/0171570, published Sep. 2, 2004); 4′-CH2—O—N(R)-2′, and 4′-CH2—N(R)—O-2′-, wherein each R is, independently, H, a protecting group, or C1-C12 alkyl; 4′-CH2—N(R)—O-2′, wherein R is H, C1-C12 alkyl, or a protecting group (see, U.S. Pat. No. 7,427,672, issued on Sep. 23, 2008); 4′-CH2—C(H)(CH3)-2′ (see, e.g., Chattopadhyaya, et al., J. Org. Chem., 2009, 74, 118-134); and 4′-CH2—C(═CH2)-2′ and analogs thereof (see, published PCT International Application WO 2008/154401, published on Dec. 8, 2008).
  • In certain embodiments, such 4′ to 2′ bridges independently comprise from 1 to 4 linked groups independently selected from —[C(Ra)(Rb)]n—, —C(Ra)═C(Rb)—, —C(Ra)═N—, —C(═NRa)—, —C(═O)—, —C(═S)—, —O—, —Si(Ra)2—, —S(═O)x—, and —N(Ra)—;
  • wherein:
      • x is 0, 1, or 2;
      • n is 1, 2, 3, or 4;
      • each Ra and Rb is, independently, H, a protecting group, hydroxyl, C1-C12 alkyl, substituted C1-C12 alkyl, C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted C2-C12 alkenyl, C2-C12 alkynyl, substituted C2-C12 alkynyl, C5-C20 aryl, substituted C5-C20 aryl, heterocycle radical, substituted heterocycle radical, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, C5-C7 alicyclic radical, substituted C5-C7 alicyclic radical, halogen, OJ1, NJ1J2, SJ1, N3, COOJ1, acyl (C(═O)—H), substituted acyl, CN, sulfonyl (S(═O)2-J1), or sulfoxyl (S(═O)-J1); and
  • each J1 and J2 is, independently, H, C1-C12 alkyl, substituted C1-C12 alkyl, C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted C2-C12 alkenyl, C2-C12 alkynyl, substituted C2-C12 alkynyl, C5-C20 aryl, substituted C5-C20 aryl, acyl (C(═O)—H), substituted acyl, a heterocycle radical, a substituted heterocycle radical, C1-C12 aminoalkyl, substituted C1-C12 aminoalkyl, or a protecting group.
  • Nucleosides comprising bicyclic sugar moieties are referred to as bicyclic nucleosides or BNAs. Bicyclic nucleosides include, but are not limited to, (A) α-L-Methyleneoxy (4′-CH2—O-2′) BNA, (B) β-D-Methyleneoxy (4′-CH2—O-2′) BNA (also referred to as locked nucleic acid or LNA), (C) Ethyleneoxy (4′-(CH2)2—O-2′) BNA, (D) Aminooxy (4′-CH2—O—N(R)-2′) BNA, (E) Oxyamino (4′-CH2—N(R)—O-2′) BNA, (F) Methyl(methyleneoxy) (4′-CH(CH3)—O-2′) BNA (also referred to as constrained ethyl or cEt), (G) methylene-thio (4′-CH2—S-2′) BNA, (H) methylene-amino (4′-CH2-N(R)-2′) BNA, (I) methyl carbocyclic (4′-CH2—CH(CH3)-2′) BNA, (J) propylene carbocyclic (4′-(CH2)3-2′) BNA, and (M) 4′-CH2—O—CH2-2′ as depicted below.
  • Figure US20150275208A1-20151001-C00001
    Figure US20150275208A1-20151001-C00002
  • wherein Bx is a nucleobase moiety and R is, independently, H, a protecting group, or C1-C12 alkyl.
  • Additional bicyclic sugar moieties are known in the art, for example: Singh et al., Chem. Commun., 1998, 4, 455-456; Koshkin et al., Tetrahedron, 1998, 54, 3607-3630; Wahlestedt et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2000, 97, 5633-5638; Kumar et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 1998, 8, 2219-2222; Singh et al., J. Org. Chem., 1998, 63, 10035-10039; Srivastava et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 129(26) 8362-8379 (Jul. 4, 2007); Elayadi et al., Curr. Opinion Invens. Drugs, 2001, 2, 558-561; Braasch et al., Chem. Biol., 2001, 8, 1-7; Orum et al., Curr. Opinion Mol. Ther., 2001, 3, 239-243; U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,053,207, 6,268,490, 6,770,748, 6,794,499, 7,034,133, 6,525,191, 6,670,461, and 7,399,845; WO 2004/106356, WO 1994/14226, WO 2005/021570, and WO 2007/134181; U.S. Patent Publication Nos. US2004/0171570, US2007/0287831, and US2008/0039618; U.S. patent Ser. Nos. 12/129,154, 60/989,574, 61/026,995, 61/026,998, 61/056,564, 61/086,231, 61/097,787, and 61/099,844; and PCT International Applications Nos. PCT/US2008/064591, PCT/US2008/066154, and PCT/US2008/068922.
  • In certain embodiments, bicyclic sugar moieties and nucleosides incorporating such bicyclic sugar moieties are further defined by isomeric configuration. For example, a nucleoside comprising a 4′-2′ methylene-oxy bridge, may be in the α-L configuration or in the β-D configuration. Previously, α-L-methyleneoxy (4′-CH2—O-2′) bicyclic nucleosides have been incorporated into antisense oligonucleotides that showed antisense activity (Frieden et al., Nucleic Acids Research, 2003, 21, 6365-6372).
  • In certain embodiments, substituted sugar moieties comprise one or more non-bridging sugar substituent and one or more bridging sugar substituent (e.g., 5′-substituted and 4′-2′ bridged sugars). (see, PCT International Application WO 2007/134181, published on Nov. 22, 2007, wherein LNA is substituted with, for example, a 5′-methyl or a 5′-vinyl group).
  • In certain embodiments, modified sugar moieties are sugar surrogates. In certain such embodiments, the oxygen atom of the naturally occurring sugar is substituted, e.g., with a sulfur, carbon or nitrogen atom. In certain such embodiments, such modified sugar moiety also comprises bridging and/or non-bridging substituents as described above. For example, certain sugar surogates comprise a 4′-sulfur atom and a substitution at the 2′-position (see, e.g., published U.S. Patent Application US2005/0130923, published on Jun. 16, 2005) and/or the 5′ position. By way of additional example, carbocyclic bicyclic nucleosides having a 4′-2′ bridge have been described (see, e.g., Freier et al., Nucleic Acids Research, 1997, 25(22), 4429-4443 and Albaek et al., J. Org. Chem., 2006, 71, 7731-7740).
  • In certain embodiments, sugar surrogates comprise rings having other than 5-atoms. For example, in certain embodiments, a sugar surrogate comprises a six-membered tetrahydropyran. Such tetrahydropyrans may be further modified or substituted. Nucleosides comprising such modified tetrahydropyrans include, but are not limited to, hexitol nucleic acid (HNA), anitol nucleic acid (ANA), manitol nucleic acid (MNA) (see Leumann, C J. Bioorg. & Med. Chem. (2002) 10:841-854), fluoro HNA (F-HNA), and those compounds having Formula VII:
  • Figure US20150275208A1-20151001-C00003
  • wherein independently for each of said at least one tetrahydropyran nucleoside analog of Formula VII:
  • Bx is a nucleobase moiety;
  • T3 and T4 are each, independently, an internucleoside linking group linking the tetrahydropyran nucleoside analog to the antisense compound or one of T3 and T4 is an internucleoside linking group linking the tetrahydropyran nucleoside analog to the antisense compound and the other of T3 and T4 is H, a hydroxyl protecting group, a linked conjugate group, or a 5′ or 3′-terminal group;
  • q1, q2, q3, q4, q5, q6 and q7 are each, independently, H, C1-C6 alkyl, substituted C1-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, substituted C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, or substituted C2-C6 alkynyl; and each of R1 and R2 is independently selected from among: hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkoxy, NJ1J2, SJ1, N3, OC(═X)J1, OC(═X)NJ1J2, NJ3C(═X)NJ1J2, and CN, wherein X is O, S or NJ1, and each J1, J2, and J3 is, independently, H or C1-C6 alkyl.
  • In certain embodiments, the modified THP nucleosides of Formula VII are provided wherein q1, q2, q3, q4, q5, q6 and q7 are each H. In certain embodiments, at least one of q1, q2, q3, q4, q5, q6 and q7 is other than H. In certain embodiments, at least one of q1, q2, q3, q4, q5, q6 and q7 is methyl. In certain embodiments, THP nucleosides of Formula VII are provided wherein one of R1 and R2 is F. In certain embodiments, R1 is fluoro and R2 is H, R1 is methoxy and R2 is H, and R1 is methoxyethoxy and R2 is H.
  • Many other bicyclic and tricyclic sugar and sugar surrogate ring systems are known in the art that can be used to modify nucleosides (see, e.g., review article: Leumann, J. C, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2002, 10, 841-854).
  • In certain embodiments, sugar surrogates comprise rings having more than 5 atoms and more than one heteroatom. For example nucleosides comprising morpholino sugar moieties and their use in oligomeric compounds has been reported (see for example: Braasch et al., Biochemistry, 2002, 41, 4503-4510; and U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,698,685; 5,166,315; 5,185,444; and 5,034,506). As used here, the term “morpholino” means a sugar surrogate having the following structure:
  • Figure US20150275208A1-20151001-C00004
  • In certain embodiments, morpholinos may be modified, for example by adding or altering various substituent groups from the above morpholino structure. Such sugar surrogates are referred to herein as “modified morpholinos.”
  • Combinations of modifications are also provided without limitation, such as 2′-F-5′-methyl substituted nucleosides (see PCT International Application WO 2008/101157 Published on Aug. 21, 2008 for other disclosed 5′,2′-bis substituted nucleosides) and replacement of the ribosyl ring oxygen atom with S and further substitution at the 2′-position (see published U.S. Patent Application US2005-0130923, published on Jun. 16, 2005) or alternatively 5′-substitution of a bicyclic nucleic acid (see PCT International Application WO 2007/134181, published on Nov. 22, 2007 wherein a 4′-CH2—O-2′ bicyclic nucleoside is further substituted at the 5′ position with a 5′-methyl or a 5′-vinyl group). The synthesis and preparation of carbocyclic bicyclic nucleosides along with their oligomerization and biochemical studies have also been described (see, e.g., Srivastava et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129(26), 8362-8379).
  • In certain embodiments, the present invention provides oligonucleotides comprising modified nucleosides. Those modified nucleotides may include modified sugars, modified nucleobases, and/or modified linkages. The specific modifications are selected such that the resulting oligonucleotides possess desirable characteristics. In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides comprise one or more RNA-like nucleosides. In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides comprise one or more DNA-like nucleotides.
  • ii. Certain Modified Nucleobases
  • In certain embodiments, nucleosides of the present invention comprise one or more unmodified nucleobases. In certain embodiments, nucleosides of the present invention comprise one or more modified nucleobases.
  • In certain embodiments, modified nucleobases are selected from: universal bases, hydrophobic bases, promiscuous bases, size-expanded bases, and fluorinated bases as defined herein. 5-substituted pyrimidines, 6-azapyrimidines and N-2, N-6 and 0-6 substituted purines, including 2-aminopropyladenine, 5-propynyluracil; 5-propynylcytosine; 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, 2-aminoadenine, 6-methyl and other alkyl derivatives of adenine and guanine, 2-propyl and other alkyl derivatives of adenine and guanine, 2-thiouracil, 2-thiothymine and 2-thiocytosine, 5-halouracil and cytosine, 5-propynyl (—C≡C—CH3) uracil and cytosine and other alkynyl derivatives of pyrimidine bases, 6-azo uracil, cytosine and thymine, 5-uracil (pseudouracil), 4-thiouracil, 8-halo, 8-amino, 8-thiol, 8-thioalkyl, 8-hydroxyl and other 8-substituted adenines and guanines, 5-halo particularly 5-bromo, 5-trifluoromethyl and other 5-substituted uracils and cytosines, 7-methylguanine and 7-methyladenine, 2-F-adenine, 2-amino-adenine, 8-azaguanine and 8-azaadenine, 7-deazaguanine and 7-deazaadenine, 3-deazaguanine and 3-deazaadenine, universal bases, hydrophobic bases, promiscuous bases, size-expanded bases, and fluorinated bases as defined herein. Further modified nucleobases include tricyclic pyrimidines such as phenoxazine cytidine([5,4-b][1,4]benzoxazin-2(3H)-one), phenothiazine cytidine (1H-pyrimido[5,4-b][1,4]benzothiazin-2(3H)-one), G-clamps such as a substituted phenoxazine cytidine (e.g. 9-(2-aminoethoxy)-H-pyrimido[5,4-b][1,4]benzoxazin-2(3H)-one), carbazole cytidine (2H-pyrimido[4,5-b]indol-2-one), pyridoindole cytidine (H-pyrido[3′,2′:4,5]pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one). Modified nucleobases may also include those in which the purine or pyrimidine base is replaced with other heterocycles, for example 7-deaza-adenine, 7-deazaguanosine, 2-aminopyridine and 2-pyridone. Further nucleobases include those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,687,808, those disclosed in The Concise Encyclopedia Of Polymer Science And Engineering, Kroschwitz, J. I., Ed., John Wiley & Sons, 1990, 858-859; those disclosed by Englisch et al., Angewandte Chemie, International Edition, 1991, 30, 613; and those disclosed by Sanghvi, Y. S., Chapter 15, Antisense Research and Applications, Crooke, S. T. and Lebleu, B., Eds., CRC Press, 1993, 273-288.
  • Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of certain of the above noted modified nucleobases as well as other modified nucleobases include without limitation, U.S. Pat. No. 3,687,808; 4,845,205; 5,130,302; 5,134,066; 5,175,273; 5,367,066; 5,432,272; 5,457,187; 5,459,255; 5,484,908; 5,502,177; 5,525,711; 5,552,540; 5,587,469; 5,594,121; 5,596,091; 5,614,617; 5,645,985; 5,681,941; 5,750,692; 5,763,588; 5,830,653 and 6,005,096, certain of which are commonly owned with the instant application, and each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • a. Certain Internucleoside Linkages
  • In certain embodiments, nucleosides may be linked together using any internucleoside linkage to form oligonucleotides. The two main classes of internucleoside linking groups are defined by the presence or absence of a phosphorus atom. Representative phosphorus containing internucleoside linkages include, but are not limited to, phosphodiesters (P═O), phosphotriesters, methylphosphonates, phosphoramidate, and phosphorothioates (P═S). Representative non-phosphorus containing internucleoside linking groups include, but are not limited to, methylenemethylimino (—CH2—N(CH3)—O—CH2—), thiodiester (—O—C(O)—S—), thionocarbamate (—O—C(O)(NH)—S—); siloxane (—O—Si(H)2—O—); and N,N′-dimethylhydrazine (—CH2—N(CH3)—N(CH3)—). Modified linkages, compared to natural phosphodiester linkages, can be used to alter, typically increase, nuclease resistance of the oligonucleotide. In certain embodiments, internucleoside linkages having a chiral atom can be prepared as a racemic mixture, or as separate enantiomers. Representative chiral linkages include, but are not limited to, alkylphosphonates and phosphorothioates. Methods of preparation of phosphorous-containing and non-phosphorous-containing internucleoside linkages are well known to those skilled in the art.
  • The oligonucleotides described herein contain one or more asymmetric centers and thus give rise to enantiomers, diastereomers, and other stereoisomeric configurations that may be defined, in terms of absolute stereochemistry, as (R) or (S), α or β such as for sugar anomers, or as (D) or (L) such as for amino acids etc. Included in the antisense compounds provided herein are all such possible isomers, as well as their racemic and optically pure forms.
  • Neutral internucleoside linkages include without limitation, phosphotriesters, methylphosphonates, MMI (3′-CH2—N(CH3)—O-5′), amide-3 (3′-CH2—C(═O)—N(H)-5′), amide-4 (3′-CH2—N(H)—C(═O)-5′), formacetal (3′-O—CH2—O-5′), and thioformacetal (3′-S—CH2—O-5′). Further neutral internucleoside linkages include nonionic linkages comprising siloxane (dialkylsiloxane), carboxylate ester, carboxamide, sulfide, sulfonate ester and amides (See for example: Carbohydrate Modifications in Antisense Research; Y. S. Sanghvi and P. D. Cook, Eds., ACS Symposium Series 580; Chapters 3 and 4, 40-65). Further neutral internucleoside linkages include nonionic linkages comprising mixed N, O, S and CH2 component parts.
  • iii. 3′-Endo Modifications
  • In one aspect of the present disclosure, oligomeric compounds include nucleosides synthetically modified to induce a 3′-endo sugar conformation. A nucleoside can incorporate synthetic modifications of the heterocyclic base moiety, the sugar moiety or both to induce a desired 3′-endo sugar conformation. These modified nucleosides are used to mimic RNA like nucleosides so that particular properties of an oligomeric compound can be enhanced while maintaining the desirable 3′-endo conformational geometry. There is an apparent preference for an RNA type duplex (A form helix, predominantly 3′-endo) as a requirement of RNA interference which is supported in part by the fact that duplexes composed of 2′-deoxy-2′-F-nucleosides appear efficient in triggering RNAi response in the C. elegans system. Properties that are enhanced by using more stable 3′-endo nucleosides include but aren't limited to modulation of pharmacokinetic properties through modification of protein binding, protein off-rate, absorption and clearance; modulation of nuclease stability as well as chemical stability; modulation of the binding affinity and specificity of the oligomer (affinity and specificity for enzymes as well as for complementary sequences); and increasing efficacy of RNA cleavage. The present invention provides oligomeric compounds having one or more nucleosides modified in such a way as to favor a C3′-endo type conformation.
  • Figure US20150275208A1-20151001-C00005
  • Nucleoside conformation is influenced by various factors including substitution at the 2′, 3′ or 4′-positions of the pentofuranosyl sugar. Electronegative substituents generally prefer the axial positions, while sterically demanding substituents generally prefer the equatorial positions (Principles of Nucleic Acid Structure, Wolfgang Sanger, 1984, Springer-Verlag.) Modification of the 2′ position to favor the 3′-endo conformation can be achieved while maintaining the 2′-OH as a recognition element, as exemplified in Example 35, below (Gallo et al., Tetrahedron (2001), 57, 5707-5713. Harry-O′kuru et al., J. Org. Chem., (1997), 62(6), 1754-1759 and Tang et al., J. Org. Chem. (1999), 64, 747-754.) Alternatively, preference for the 3′-endo conformation can be achieved by deletion of the 2′-OH as exemplified by 2′deoxy-2′F-nucleosides (Kawasaki et al., J. Med. Chem. (1993), 36, 831-841), which adopts the 3′-endo conformation positioning the electronegative fluorine atom in the axial position. Other modifications of the ribose ring, for example substitution at the 4′-position to give 4′-F modified nucleosides (Guillerm et al., Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters (1995), 5, 1455-1460 and Owen et al., J. Org. Chem. (1976), 41, 3010-3017), or for example modification to yield methanocarba nucleoside analogs (Jacobson et al., J. Med. Chem. Lett. (2000), 43, 2196-2203 and Lee et al., Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2001), 11, 1333-1337) also induce preference for the 3′-endo conformation. Some modifications actually lock the conformational geometry by formation of a bicyclic sugar moiety e.g. locked nucleic acid (LNA, Singh et al, Chem. Commun. (1998), 4, 455-456), and ethylene bridged nucleic acids (ENA, Morita et al, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2002), 12, 73-76.)
  • b. Certain Motifs
  • In certain embodiments, oligomeric compounds comprise or consist of oligonucleotides. In certain embodiments, such oligonucleotides comprise one or more chemical modification. In certain embodiments, chemically modified oligonucleotides comprise one or more modified sugars. In certain embodiments, chemically modified oligonucleotides comprise one or more modified nucleobases. In certain embodiments, chemically modified oligonucleotides comprise one or more modified internucleoside linkages. In certain embodiments, the chemical modifications (sugar modifications, nucleobase modifications, and/or linkage modifications) define a pattern or motif. In certain embodiments, the patterns of chemical modifications of sugar moieties, internucleoside linkages, and nucleobases are each independent of one another. Thus, an oligonucleotide may be described by its sugar modification motif, internucleoside linkage motif and/or nucleobase modification motif (as used herein, nucleobase modification motif describes the chemical modifications to the nucleobases independent of the sequence of nucleobases).
  • iv. Certain Sugar Motifs
  • In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides comprise one or more type of modified sugar moieties and/or naturally occurring sugar moieties arranged along an oligonucleotide or region thereof in a defined pattern or sugar motif Such sugar motifs include but are not limited to any of the sugar modifications discussed herein.
  • In certain embodiments, the oligonucleotides comprise or consist of a region having a gapmer sugar motif, which comprises two external regions or “wings” and a central or internal region or “gap.” The three regions of a gapmer sugar motif (the 5′-wing, the gap, and the 3′-wing) form a contiguous sequence of nucleosides wherein at least some of the sugar moieties of the nucleosides of each of the wings differ from at least some of the sugar moieties of the nucleosides of the gap. Specifically, at least the sugar moieties of the nucleosides of each wing that are closest to the gap (the 3′-most nucleoside of the 5′-wing and the 5′-most nucleoside of the 3′-wing) differ from the sugar moiety of the neighboring gap nucleosides, thus defining the boundary between the wings and the gap. In certain embodiments, the sugar moieties within the gap are the same as one another. In certain embodiments, the gap includes one or more nucleoside having a sugar moiety that differs from the sugar moiety of one or more other nucleosides of the gap. In certain embodiments, the sugar motifs of the two wings are the same as one another (symmetric sugar gapmer). In certain embodiments, the sugar motifs of the 5′-wing differs from the sugar motif of the 3′-wing (asymmetric sugar gapmer).
  • v. Certain Nucleobase Modification Motifs
  • In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides comprise chemical modifications to nucleobases arranged along the oligonucleotide or region thereof in a defined pattern or nucleobases modification motif. In certain embodiments, each nucleobase is modified. In certain embodiments, none of the nucleobases is chemically modified.
  • In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides comprise a block of modified nucleobases. In certain such embodiments, the block is at the 3′-end of the oligonucleotide. In certain embodiments the block is within 3 nucleotides of the 3′-end of the oligonucleotide. In certain such embodiments, the block is at the 5′-end of the oligonucleotide. In certain embodiments the block is within 3 nucleotides of the 5′-end of the oligonucleotide.
  • In certain embodiments, nucleobase modifications are a function of the natural base at a particular position of an oligonucleotide. For example, in certain embodiments each purine or each pyrimidine in an oligonucleotide is modified. In certain embodiments, each adenine is modified. In certain embodiments, each guanine is modified. In certain embodiments, each thymine is modified. In certain embodiments, each cytosine is modified. In certain embodiments, each uracil is modified.
  • In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides comprise one or more nucleosides comprising a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides having a gapmer sugar motif comprise a nucleoside comprising a modified nucleobase. In certain such embodiments, one nucleoside comprising a modified nucleobases is in the central gap of an oligonucleotide having a gapmer sugar motif. In certain embodiments, the sugar is an unmodified 2′deoxynucleoside. In certain embodiments, the modified nucleobase is selected from: a 2-thio pyrimidine and a 5-propyne pyrimidine
  • In certain embodiments, some, all, or none of the cytosine moieties in an oligonucleotide are 5-methyl cytosine moieties. Herein, 5-methyl cytosine is not a “modified nucleobase.” Accordingly, unless otherwise indicated, unmodified nucleobases include both cytosine residues having a 5-methyl and those lacking a 5 methyl. In certain embodiments, the methylation state of all or some cytosine nucleobases is specified.
  • vi. Certain Nucleoside Motifs
  • In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides comprise nucleosides comprising modified sugar moieties and/or nucleosides comprising modified nucleobases. Such motifs can be described by their sugar motif and their nucleobase motif separately or by their nucleoside motif, which provides positions or patterns of modified nucleosides (whether modified sugar, nucleobase, or both sugar and nucleobase) in an oligonucleotide.
  • In certain embodiments, the oligonucleotides comprise or consist of a region having a gapmer nucleoside motif, which comprises two external regions or “wings” and a central or internal region or “gap.” The three regions of a gapmer nucleoside motif (the 5′-wing, the gap, and the 3′-wing) form a contiguous sequence of nucleosides wherein at least some of the sugar moieties and/or nucleobases of the nucleosides of each of the wings differ from at least some of the sugar moieties and/or nucleobase of the nucleosides of the gap. Specifically, at least the nucleosides of each wing that are closest to the gap (the 3′-most nucleoside of the 5′-wing and the 5′-most nucleoside of the 3′-wing) differ from the neighboring gap nucleosides, thus defining the boundary between the wings and the gap. In certain embodiments, the nucleosides within the gap are the same as one another. In certain embodiments, the gap includes one or more nucleoside that differs from one or more other nucleosides of the gap. In certain embodiments, the nucleoside motifs of the two wings are the same as one another (symmetric gapmer). In certain embodiments, the nucleoside motifs of the 5′-wing differs from the nucleoside motif of the 3′-wing (asymmetric gapmer).
  • vii. Certain 5′-Wings
  • In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 1 to 6 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 1 to 5 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 2 to 5 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 3 to 5 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 4 or 5 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 1 to 4 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 1 to 3 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 1 or 2 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 2 to 4 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 2 or 3 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 3 or 4 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 1 nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 2 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 3 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 4 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 5 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer consists of 6 linked nucleosides.
  • In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least two bicyclic nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least three bicyclic nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least four bicyclic nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one LNA nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 5′-wing of a gapmer is a bicyclic nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 5′-wing of a gapmer is a constrained ethyl nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 5′-wing of a gapmer is a LNA nucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one non-bicyclic modified nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one 2′-substituted nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one 2′-MOE nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one 2′-OMe nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 5′-wing of a gapmer is a non-bicyclic modified nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 5′-wing of a gapmer is a 2′-substituted nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 5′-wing of a gapmer is a 2′-MOE nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 5′-wing of a gapmer is a 2′-OMe nucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 5′-wing of a gapmer is a 2′-deoxynucleoside. In a certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one ribonucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 5′-wing of a gapmer is a ribonucleoside. In certain embodiments, one, more than one, or each of the nucleosides of the 5′-wing is an RNA-like nucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside and at least one non-bicyclic modified nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside and at least one 2′-substituted nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside and at least one 2′-MOE nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside and at least one 2′-OMe nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside and at least one non-bicyclic modified nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside and at least one 2′-substituted nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside and at least one 2′-MOE nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside and at least one 2′-OMe nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer has a nucleoside motif selected from among the following: ADDA; ABDAA; ABBA; ABB; ABAA; AABAA; AAABAA; AAAABAA; AAAAABAA; AAABAA; AABAA; ABAB; ABADB; ABADDB; AAABB; AAAAA; ABBDC; ABDDC; ABBDCC; ABBDDC; ABBDCC; ABBC; AA; AAA; AAAA; AAAAB; AAAAAAA; AAAAAAAA; ABBB; AB; ABAB; AAAAB; AABBB; AAAAB; and AABBB, wherein each A is a modified nucleoside of a first type, each B is a modified nucleoside of a second type, each C is a modified nucleoside of a third type, and each D is an unmodified deoxynucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer has a nucleoside motif selected from among the following: AB, ABB, AAA, BBB, BBBAA, AAB, BAA, BBAA, AABB, AAAB, ABBW, ABBWW, ABBB, ABBBB, ABAB, ABABAB, ABABBB, ABABAA, AAABB, AAAABB, AABB, AAAAB, AABBB, ABBBB, BBBBB, AAABW, AAAAA, BBBBAA, and AAABW; wherein each A is a modified nucleoside of a first type, each B is a modified nucleoside of a second type, and each W is a modified nucleoside of either the first type, the second type or a third type.
  • In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer has a nucleoside motif selected from among the following: ABB; ABAA; AABAA; AAABAA; ABAB; ABADB; AAABB; AAAAA; AA; AAA; AAAA; AAAAB; ABBB; AB; and ABAB; wherein each A is a modified nucleoside of a first type, each B is a modified nucleoside of a second type, and each W is a modified nucleoside of either the first type, the second type or a third type.
  • In certain embodiments, an oligonucleotide comprises any 5′-wing motif provided herein. In certain such embodiments, the oligonucleotide is a 5′-hemimer (does not comprise a 3′-wing). In certain embodiments, such an oligonucleotide is a gapmer. In certain such embodiments, the 3′-wing of the gapmer may comprise any nucleoside motif
  • In certain embodiments, the 5′-wing of a gapmer has a sugar motif selected from among those listed in the following non-limiting tables:
  • TABLE 1
    Certain 5′-Wing Sugar Motifs
    AAAAA ABCBB BABCC BCBBA CBACC
    AAAAB ABCBC BACAA BCBBB CBBAA
    AAAAC ABCCA BACAB BCBBC CBBAB
    AAABA ABCCB BACAC BCBCA CBBAC
    AAABB ABCCC BACBA BCBCB CBBBA
    AAABC ACAAA BACBB BCBCC CBBBB
    AAACA ACAAB BACBC BCCAA CBBBC
    AAACB ACAAC BACCA BCCAB CBBCA
    AAACC ACABA BACCB BCCAC CBBCB
    AABAA ACABB BACCC BCCBA CBBCC
    AABAB ACABC BBAAA BCCBB CBCAA
    AABAC ACACA BBAAB BCCBC CBCAB
    AABBA ACACB BBAAC BCCCA CBCAC
    AABBB ACACC BBABA BCCCB CBCBA
    AABBC ACBAA BBABB BCCCC CBCBB
    AABCA ACBAB BBABC CAAAA CBCBC
    AABCB ACBAC BBACA CAAAB CBCCA
    AABCC ACBBA BBACB CAAAC CBCCB
    AACAA ACBBB BBACC CAABA CBCCC
    AACAB ACBBC BBBAA CAABB CCAAA
    AACAC ACBCA BBBAB CAABC CCAAB
    AACBA ACBCB BBBAC CAACA CCAAC
    AACBB ACBCC BBBBA CAACB CCABA
    AACBC ACCAA BBBBB CAACC CCABB
    AACCA ACCAB BBBBC CABAA CCABC
    AACCB ACCAC BBBCA CABAB CCACA
    AACCC ACCBA BBBCB CABAC CCACB
    ABAAA ACCBB BBBCC CABBA CCACC
    ABAAB ACCBC BBCAA CABBB CCBAA
    ABAAC ACCCA BBCAB CABBC CCBAB
    ABABA ACCCB BBCAC CABCA CCBAC
    ABABB ACCCC BBCBA CABCB CCBBA
    ABABC BAAAA BBCBB CABCC CCBBB
    ABACA BAAAB BBCBC CACAA CCBBC
    ABACB BAAAC BBCCA CACAB CCBCA
    ABACC BAABA BBCCB CACAC CCBCB
    ABBAA BAABB BBCCC CACBA CCBCC
    ABBAB BAABC BCAAA CACBB CCCAA
    ABBAC BAACA BCAAB CACBC CCCAB
    ABBBA BAACB BCAAC CACCA CCCAC
    ABBBB BAACC BCABA CACCB CCCBA
    ABBBC BABAA BCABB CACCC CCCBB
    ABBCA BABAB BCABC CBAAA CCCBC
    ABBCB BABAC BCACA CBAAB CCCCA
    ABBCC BABBA BCACB CBAAC CCCCB
    ABCAA BABBB BCACC CBABA CCCCC
    ABCAB BABBC BCBAA CBABB
    ABCAC BABCA BCBAB CBABC
    ABCBA BABCB BCBAC CBACA
  • TABLE 2
    Certain 5′-Wing Sugar Motifs
    AAAAA BABC CBAB ABBB BAA
    AAAAB BACA CBAC BAAA BAB
    AAABA BACB CBBA BAAB BBA
    AAABB BACC CBBB BABA BBB
    AABAA BBAA CBBC BABB AA
    AABAB BBAB CBCA BBAA AB
    AABBA BBAC CBCB BBAB AC
    AABBB BBBA CBCC BBBA BA
    ABAAA BBBB CCAA BBBB BB
    ABAAB BBBC CCAB AAA BC
    ABABA BBCA CCAC AAB CA
    ABABB BBCB CCBA AAC CB
    ABBAA BBCC CCBB ABA CC
    ABBAB BCAA CCBC ABB AA
    ABBBA BCAB CCCA ABC AB
    ABBBB BCAC CCCB ACA BA
    BAAAA ABCB BCBA ACB
    BAAAB ABCC BCBB ACC
    BAABA ACAA BCBC BAA
    BAABB ACAB BCCA BAB
    BABAA ACAC BCCB BAC
    BABAB ACBA BCCC BBA
    BABBA ACBB CAAA BBB
    BABBB ACBC CAAB BBC
    BBAAA ACCA CAAC BCA
    BBAAB ACCB CABA BCB
    BBABA ACCC CABB BCC
    BBABB BAAA CABC CAA
    BBBAA BAAB CACA CAB
    BBBAB BAAC CACB CAC
    BBBBA BABA CACC CBA
    BBBBB BABB CBAA CBB
    AAAA AACC CCCC CBC
    AAAB ABAA AAAA CCA
    AAAC ABAB AAAB CCB
    AABA ABAC AABA CCC
    AABB ABBA AABB AAA
    AABC ABBB ABAA AAB
    AACA ABBC ABAB ABA
    AACB ABCA ABBA ABB
  • In certain embodiments, each A, each B, and each C located at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside is a modified nucleoside. For example, in certain embodiments the 5′-wing motif is selected from among ABB , BBB, and CBB, wherein the underlined nucleoside represents the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside and wherein the underlined nucleoside is a modified nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt and LNA. In certain embodiments, the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside comprises cEt. In certain embodiments, the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside comprises LNA.
  • In certain embodiments, each A comprises an unmodified 2′-deoxyfuranose sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among F, ara-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a modified nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, each A comprises a modified nucleobase selected from among 2-thio-thymidine nucleoside and 5-propyne uridine nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each A comprises an HNA. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a F-HNA. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among 5′-Me DNA, and 5′-(R)-Me DNA.
  • In certain embodiments, each B comprises an unmodified 2′-deoxyfuranose sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among F, (ara)-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a modified nucleobase selected from among 2-thio-thymidine nucleoside and 5-propyne urindine nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each B comprises an HNA. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a F-HNA. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among 5′-Me DNA, and 5′-(R)-Me DNA.
  • In certain embodiments, each A comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among F, ara-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3 and each B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each A comprises O(CH2)2—OCH3 and each B comprises cEt.
  • In certain embodiments, each C comprises an unmodified 2′-deoxyfuranose sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among F, (ara)-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among 5′-Me DNA, and 5′-(R)-Me DNA. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a modified nucleobase selected from among 2-thio-thymidine and 5-propyne uridine. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each C comprises an HNA. In certain embodiments, each C comprises an F-HNA.
  • viii. Certain 3′-Wings
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 1 to 6 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 1 to 5 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 2 to 5 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 3 to 5 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 4 or 5 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 1 to 4 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 1 to 3 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 1 or 2 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 2 to 4 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 2 or 3 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 3 or 4 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 1 nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 2 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 3 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 4 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 5 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer consists of 6 linked nucleosides.
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one LNA nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 3′-wing of a gapmer is a bicyclic nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 3′-wing of a gapmer is a constrained ethyl nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 3′-wing of a gapmer is a LNA nucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one non-bicyclic modified nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least two non-bicyclic modified nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least three non-bicyclic modified nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least four non-bicyclic modified nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one 2′-substituted nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one 2′-MOE nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one 2′-OMe nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 3′-wing of a gapmer is a non-bicyclic modified nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 3′-wing of a gapmer is a 2′-substituted nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 3′-wing of a gapmer is a 2′-MOE nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 3′-wing of a gapmer is a 2′-OMe nucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 3′-wing of a gapmer is a 2′-deoxynucleoside. In a certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one ribonucleoside. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the 3′-wing of a gapmer is a ribonucleoside. In certain embodiments, one, more than one, or each of the nucleosides of the 5′-wing is an RNA-like nucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside and at least one non-bicyclic modified nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside and at least one 2′-substituted nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside and at least one 2′-MOE nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside and at least one 2′-OMe nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside and at least one non-bicyclic modified nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside and at least one 2′-substituted nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside and at least one 2′-MOE nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside and at least one 2′-OMe nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one LNA nucleoside and at least one non-bicyclic modified nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one LNA nucleoside and at least one 2′-substituted nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one LNA nucleoside and at least one 2′-MOE nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one LNA nucleoside and at least one 2′-OMe nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one LNA nucleoside and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside, at least one non-bicyclic modified nucleoside, and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside, at least one non-bicyclic modified nucleoside, and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one LNA nucleoside, at least one non-bicyclic modified nucleoside, and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside, at least one 2′-substituted nucleoside, and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside, at least one 2′-substituted nucleoside, and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one LNA nucleoside, at least one 2′-substituted nucleoside, and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside, at least one 2′-MOE nucleoside, and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside, at least one 2′-MOE nucleoside, and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one LNA nucleoside, at least one 2′-MOE nucleoside, and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one bicyclic nucleoside, at least one 2′-OMe nucleoside, and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one constrained ethyl nucleoside, at least one 2′-OMe nucleoside, and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside. In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer comprises at least one LNA nucleoside, at least one 2′-OMe nucleoside, and at least one 2′-deoxynucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer has a nucleoside motif selected from among the following: ABB, ABAA, AAABAA, AAAAABAA, AABAA, AAAABAA, AAABAA, ABAB, AAAAA, AAABB, AAAAAAAA, AAAAAAA, AAAAAA, AAAAB, AAAA, AAA, AA, AB, ABBB, ABAB, AABBB; wherein each A is a modified nucleoside of a first type, each B is a modified nucleoside of a second type. In certain embodiments, an oligonucleotide comprises any 3′-wing motif provided herein. In certain such embodiments, the oligonucleotide is a 3′-hemimer (does not comprise a 5′-wing). In certain embodiments, such an oligonucleotide is a gapmer. In certain such embodiments, the 5′-wing of the gapmer may comprise any nucleoside motif
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer has a nucleoside motif selected from among the following: BBA, AAB, AAA, BBB, BBAA, AABB, WBBA, WAAB, BBBA, BBBBA, BBBB, BBBBBA, ABBBBB, BBAAA, AABBB, BBBAA, BBBBA, BBBBB, BABA, AAAAA, BBAAAA, AABBBB, BAAAA, and ABBBB, wherein each A is a modified nucleoside of a first type, each B is a modified nucleoside of a second type, and each W is a modified nucleoside of either the first type, the second type or a third type.
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer has a nucleoside motif selected from among the following: ABB; AAABAA; AABAA; AAAABAA; AAAAA; AAABB; AAAAAAAA; AAAAAAA; AAAAAA; AAAAB; AB; ABBB; and ABAB, wherein each A is a modified nucleoside of a first type, each B is a modified nucleoside of a second type, and each W is a modified nucleoside of either the first type, the second type or a third type.
  • In certain embodiments, the 3′-wing of a gapmer has a sugar motif selected from among those listed in the following non-limiting tables:
  • TABLE 3
    Certain 3′-Wing Sugar Motifs
    AAAAA ABCBB BABCC BCBBA CBACC
    AAAAB ABCBC BACAA BCBBB CBBAA
    AAAAC ABCCA BACAB BCBBC CBBAB
    AAABA ABCCB BACAC BCBCA CBBAC
    AAABB ABCCC BACBA BCBCB CBBBA
    AAABC ACAAA BACBB BCBCC CBBBB
    AAACA ACAAB BACBC BCCAA CBBBC
    AAACB ACAAC BACCA BCCAB CBBCA
    AAACC ACABA BACCB BCCAC CBBCB
    AABAA ACABB BACCC BCCBA CBBCC
    AABAB ACABC BBAAA BCCBB CBCAA
    AABAC ACACA BBAAB BCCBC CBCAB
    AABBA ACACB BBAAC BCCCA CBCAC
    AABBB ACACC BBABA BCCCB CBCBA
    AABBC ACBAA BBABB BCCCC CBCBB
    AABCA ACBAB BBABC CAAAA CBCBC
    AABCB ACBAC BBACA CAAAB CBCCA
    AABCC ACBBA BBACB CAAAC CBCCB
    AACAA ACBBB BBACC CAABA CBCCC
    AACAB ACBBC BBBAA CAABB CCAAA
    AACAC ACBCA BBBAB CAABC CCAAB
    AACBA ACBCB BBBAC CAACA CCAAC
    AACBB ACBCC BBBBA CAACB CCABA
    AACBC ACCAA BBBBB CAACC CCABB
    AACCA ACCAB BBBBC CABAA CCABC
    AACCB ACCAC BBBCA CABAB CCACA
    AACCC ACCBA BBBCB CABAC CCACB
    ABAAA ACCBB BBBCC CABBA CCACC
    ABAAB ACCBC BBCAA CABBB CCBAA
    ABAAC ACCCA BBCAB CABBC CCBAB
    ABABA ACCCB BBCAC CABCA CCBAC
    ABABB ACCCC BBCBA CABCB CCBBA
    ABABC BAAAA BBCBB CABCC CCBBB
    ABACA BAAAB BBCBC CACAA CCBBC
    ABACB BAAAC BBCCA CACAB CCBCA
    ABACC BAABA BBCCB CACAC CCBCB
    ABBAA BAABB BBCCC CACBA CCBCC
    ABBAB BAABC BCAAA CACBB CCCAA
    ABBAC BAACA BCAAB CACBC CCCAB
    ABBBA BAACB BCAAC CACCA CCCAC
    ABBBB BAACC BCABA CACCB CCCBA
    ABBBC BABAA BCABB CACCC CCCBB
    ABBCA BABAB BCABC CBAAA CCCBC
    ABBCB BABAC BCACA CBAAB CCCCA
    ABBCC BABBA BCACB CBAAC CCCCB
    ABCAA BABBB BCACC CBABA CCCCC
    ABCAB BABBC BCBAA CBABB
    ABCAC BABCA BCBAB CBABC
    ABCBA BABCB BCBAC CBACA
  • TABLE 4
    Certain 3′-Wing Sugar Motifs
    AAAAA BABC CBAB ABBB BAA
    AAAAB BACA CBAC BAAA BAB
    AAABA BACB CBBA BAAB BBA
    AAABB BACC CBBB BABA BBB
    AABAA BBAA CBBC BABB AA
    AABAB BBAB CBCA BBAA AB
    AABBA BBAC CBCB BBAB AC
    AABBB BBBA CBCC BBBA BA
    ABAAA BBBB CCAA BBBB BB
    ABAAB BBBC CCAB AAA BC
    ABABA BBCA CCAC AAB CA
    ABABB BBCB CCBA AAC CB
    ABBAA BBCC CCBB ABA CC
    ABBAB BCAA CCBC ABB AA
    ABBBA BCAB CCCA ABC AB
    ABBBB BCAC CCCB ACA BA
    BAAAA ABCB BCBA ACB
    BAAAB ABCC BCBB ACC
    BAABA ACAA BCBC BAA
    BAABB ACAB BCCA BAB
    BABAA ACAC BCCB BAC
    BABAB ACBA BCCC BBA
    BABBA ACBB CAAA BBB
    BABBB ACBC CAAB BBC
    BBAAA ACCA CAAC BCA
    BBAAB ACCB CABA BCB
    BBABA ACCC CABB BCC
    BBABB BAAA CABC CAA
    BBBAA BAAB CACA CAB
    BBBAB BAAC CACB CAC
    BBBBA BABA CACC CBA
    BBBBB BABB CBAA CBB
    AAAA AACC CCCC CBC
    AAAB ABAA AAAA CCA
    AAAC ABAB AAAB CCB
    AABA ABAC AABA CCC
    AABB ABBA AABB AAA
    AABC ABBB ABAA AAB
    AACA ABBC ABAB ABA
    AACB ABCA ABBA ABB
  • In certain embodiments, each A, each B, and each C located at the 5′-most 3′-wing region nucleoside is a modified nucleoside. For example, in certain embodiments the 3′-wing motif is selected from among ABB, BBB, and CBB, wherein the underlined nucleoside represents the 5′-most 3′-wing region nucleoside and wherein the underlined nucleoside is a modified nucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, each A comprises an unmodified 2′-deoxyfuranose sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among F, ara-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a modified nucleobase selected from among 2-thio-thymidine nucleoside and 5-propyne uridine nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among 5′-Me DNA, and 5′-(R)-Me DNA.
  • In certain embodiments, each B comprises an unmodified 2′-deoxyfuranose sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a 2′-subsituted sugar moiety selected from among F, (ara)-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a modified nucleobase selected from among 2-thio-thymidine nucleoside and 5-propyne urindine nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each B comprises an HNA. In certain embodiments, each B comprises an F-HNA. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among 5′-Me DNA, and 5′-(R)-Me DNA.
  • In certain embodiments, each A comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among F, ara-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3 and each B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each A comprises O(CH2)2—OCH3 and each B comprises cEt.
  • In certain embodiments, each C comprises an unmodified 2′-deoxyfuranose sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among F, (ara)-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among 5′-Me, and 5′-(R)-Me. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a modified nucleobase selected from among 2-thio-thymidine and 5-propyne uridine. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each C comprises an HNA. In certain embodiments, each C comprises an F-HNA.
  • ix. Certain Central Regions (gaps) In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 6 to 20 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 6 to 15 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 6 to 12 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 6 to 10 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 6 to 9 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 6 to 8 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 6 or 7 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 7 to 10 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 7 to 9 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 7 or 8 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 8 to 10 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 8 or 9 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 6 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 7 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 8 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 9 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 10 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 11 linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap of a gapmer consists of 12 linked nucleosides.
  • In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the gap of a gapmer is a 2′-deoxynucleoside. In certain embodiments, the gap comprises one or more modified nucleosides. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside of the gap of a gapmer is a 2′-deoxynucleoside or is a modified nucleoside that is “DNA-like.” In such embodiments, “DNA-like” means that the nucleoside has similar characteristics to DNA, such that a duplex comprising the gapmer and an RNA molecule is capable of activating RNase H. For example, under certain conditions, 2′-(ara)-F have been shown to support RNase H activation, and thus is DNA-like. In certain embodiments, one or more nucleosides of the gap of a gapmer is not a 2′-deoxynucleoside and is not DNA-like. In certain such embodiments, the gapmer nonetheless supports RNase H activation (e.g., by virtue of the number or placement of the non-DNA nucleosides).
  • In certain embodiments, gaps comprise a stretch of unmodified 2′-deoxynucleoside interrupted by one or more modified nucleosides, thus resulting in three sub-regions (two stretches of one or more 2′-deoxynucleosides and a stretch of one or more interrupting modified nucleosides). In certain embodiments, no stretch of unmodified 2′-deoxynucleosides is longer than 5, 6, or 7 nucleosides. In certain embodiments, such short stretches is achieved by using short gap regions. In certain embodiments, short stretches are achieved by interrupting a longer gap region.
  • In certain embodiments, the gap comprises one or more modified nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap comprises one or more modified nucleosides selected from among cEt, FHNA, LNA, and 2-thio-thymidine. In certain embodiments, the gap comprises one modified nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the gap comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among 5′-Me, and 5′-(R)-Me. In certain embodiments, the gap comprises two modified nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap comprises three modified nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap comprises four modified nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap comprises two or more modified nucleosides and each modified nucleoside is the same. In certain embodiments, the gap comprises two or more modified nucleosides and each modified nucleoside is different.
  • In certain embodiments, the gap comprises one or more modified linkages. In certain embodiments, the gap comprises one or more methyl phosphonate linkages. In certain embodiments the gap comprises two or more modified linkages. In certain embodiments, the gap comprises one or more modified linkages and one or more modified nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the gap comprises one modified linkage and one modified nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the gap comprises two modified linkages and two or more modified nucleosides.
  • In certain embodiments, the gap comprises a nucleoside motif selected from among the following: DDDDXDDDDD; DDDDDXDDDDD; DDDXDDDDD; DDDDXDDDDDD; DDDDXDDDD; DDXDDDDDD; DDDXDDDDDD; DXDDDDDD; DDXDDDDDDD; DDXDDDDD; DDXDDDXDDD; DDDXDDDXDDD; DXDDDXDDD; DDXDDDXDD; DDXDDDDXDDD; DDXDDDDXDD; DXDDDDXDDD; DDDDXDDD; DDDXDDD; DXDDDDDDD; DDDDXXDDD; and DXXDXXDXX;
      • wherein each D is an unmodified deoxynucleoside; and each X is a modified nucleoside or a substituted sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, the gap comprises a nucleoside motif selected from among the following: DDDDDDDDD; DXDDDDDDD; DDXDDDDDD; DDDXDDDDD; DDDDXDDDD; DDDDDXDDD; DDDDDDXDD; DDDDDDDXD; DXXDDDDDD; DDDDDDXXD; DDXXDDDDD; DDDXXDDDD; DDDDXXDDD; DDDDDXXDD; DXDDDDDXD; DXDDDDXDD; DXDDDXDDD; DXDDXDDDD; DXDXDDDDD; DDXDDDDXD; DDXDDDXDD; DDXDDXDDD; DDXDXDDDD; DDDXDDDXD; DDDXDDXDD; DDDXDXDDD; DDDDXDDXD; DDDDXDXDD; and DDDDDXDXD, wherein each D is an unmodified deoxynucleoside; and each X is a modified nucleoside or a substituted sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, the gap comprises a nucleoside motif selected from among the following: DDDDXDDDD, DXDDDDDDD, DXXDDDDDD, DDXDDDDDD, DDDXDDDDD, DDDDXDDDD, DDDDDXDDD, DDDDDDXDD, and DDDDDDDXD, wherein each D is an unmodified deoxynucleoside;
      • and each X is a modified nucleoside or a substituted sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, the gap comprises a nucleoside motif selected from among the following: DDDDDDDD, DXDDDDDD, DDXDDDDD, DDDXDDDD, DDDDXDDD, DDDDDXDD, DDDDDDXD, DXDDDDXD, DXDDDXDD, DXDDXDDD, DXDXDDDD, DXXDDDDD, DDXXDDDD, DDXDXDDD, DDXDDXDD, DXDDDDXD, DDDXXDDD, DDDXDXDD, DDDXDDXD, DDDDXXDD, DDDDXDXD, and DDDDDXXD, wherein each D is an unmodified deoxynucleoside; and each X is a modified nucleoside or a substituted sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, the gap comprises a nucleoside motif selected from among the following: DXDDDDD, DDXDDDD, DDDXDDD, DDDDXDD, DDDDDXD, DXDDDXD, DXDDXDD, DXDXDDD, DXXDDDD, DDXXDDD, DDXDXDD, DDXDDXD, DDDXXDD, DDDXDXD, and DDDDXXD, wherein each D is an unmodified deoxynucleoside; and each Xis a modified nucleoside or a substituted sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, the gap comprises a nucleoside motif selected from among the following: DXDDDD, DDXDDD, DDDXDD, DDDDXD, DXXDDD, DXDXDD, DXDDXD, DDXXDD, DDXDXD, and DDDXXD, wherein each D is an unmodified deoxynucleoside; and each X is a modified nucleoside or a substituted sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, the gap comprises a nucleoside motif selected from among the following: DXDDDD, DDXDDD, DDDXDD, DDDDXD, DXDDDDD, DDXDDDD, DDDXDDD, DDDDXDD, DDDDDXD, DXDDDDDD, DDXDDDDD, DDDXDDDD, DDDDXDDD, DDDDDXDD, DDDDDDXD, DXDDDDDDD; DDXDDDDDD, DDDXDDDDD, DDDDXDDDD, DDDDDXDDD, DDDDDDXDD, DDDDDDDXD, DXDDDDDDDD, DDXDDDDDDD, DDDXDDDDDD, DDDDXDDDDD, DDDDDXDDDD, DDDDDDXDDD, DDDDDDDXDD, and DDDDDDDDXD, wherein each D is an unmodified deoxynucleoside; and each X is a modified nucleoside or a substituted sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, each X comprises an unmodified 2′-deoxyfuranose sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each X comprises a modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each X comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each X comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among F, (ara)-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3. In certain embodiments, each X comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each X comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among 5′-Me, and 5′-(R)-Me. In certain embodiments, each X comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each X comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each X comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, each X comprises a modified nucleobase selected from among 2-thio-thymidine and 5-propyne uridine. In certain embodiments, each X comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each X comprises an HNA. In certain embodiments, each C comprises an F-HNA. In certain embodiments, X represents the location of a single differentiating nucleobase.
  • x. Certain Gapmer Motifs
  • In certain embodiments, a gapmer comprises a 5′-wing, a gap, and a 3′ wing, wherein the 5′-wing, gap, and 3′ wing are independently selected from among those discussed above. For example, in certain embodiments, a gapmer has a 5′-wing, a gap, and a 3′-wing having features selected from among any of those listed in the tables above and any 5′-wing may be paired with any gap and any 3′-wing. For example, in certain embodiments, a 5′-wing may comprise AAABB, a 3′-wing may comprise BBA, and the gap may comprise DDDDDDD. For example, in certain embodiments, a gapmer has a 5′-wing, a gap, and a 3′-wing having features selected from among those listed in the following non-limiting table, wherein each motif is represented as (5′-wing)-(gap)-(3′-wing), wherein each number represents the number of linked nucleosides in each portion of the motif, for example, a 5-10-5 motif would have a 5′-wing comprising 5 nucleosides, a gap comprising 10 nucleosides, and a 3′-wing comprising 5 nucleosides:
  • TABLE 5
    Certain Gapmer Sugar Motifs
    2-10-2 3-10-2 4-10-2 5-10-2
    2-10-3 3-10-3 4-10-3 5-10-3
    2-10-4 3-10-4 4-10-4 5-10-4
    2-10-5 3-10-5 4-10-5 5-10-5
    2-9-2 3-9-2 4-9-2 5-9-2
    2-9-3 3-9-3 4-9-3 5-9-3
    2-9-4 3-9-4 4-9-4 5-9-4
    2-9-5 3-9-5 4-9-5 5-9-5
    2-11-2 3-11-2 4-11-2 5-11-2
    2-11-3 3-11-3 4-11-3 5-11-3
    2-11-4 3-11-4 4-11-4 5-11-4
    2-11-5 3-11-5 4-11-5 5-11-5
    2-8-2 3-8-2 4-8-2 5-8-2
    2-8-3 3-8-3 4-8-3 5-8-3
    2-8-4 3-8-4 4-8-4 5-8-4
    2-8-5 3-8-5 4-8-5 5-8-5
  • In certain embodiments, a gapmer comprises a 5′-wing, a gap, and a 3′ wing, wherein the 5′-wing, gap, and 3′ wing are independently selected from among those discussed above. For example, in certain embodiments, a gapmer has a 5′-wing, a gap, and a 3′-wing having features selected from among those listed in the following non-limiting tables:
  • TABLE 6
    Certain Gapmer Nucleoside Motifs
    5′-wing region Central gap region 3′-wing region
    ADDA DDDDDD ABB
    ABBA DDDADDDD ABAA
    AAAAAAA DDDDDDDDDDD AAA
    AAAAABB DDDDDDDD BBAAAAA
    ABB DDDDADDDD ABB
    ABB DDDDBDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDDDD BBA
    AABAA DDDDDDDDD AABAA
    ABB DDDDDD AABAA
    AAABAA DDDDDDDDD AAABAA
    AAABAA DDDDDDDDD AAB
    ABAB DDDDDDDDD ABAB
    AAABB DDDDDDD BBA
    ABADB DDDDDDD BBA
    ABA DBDDDDDDD BBA
    ABA DADDDDDDD BBA
    ABAB DDDDDDDD BBA
    AA DDDDDDDD BBBBBBBB
    ABB DDDDDD ABADB
    AAAAB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    ABBB DDDDDDDDD AB
    AB DDDDDDDDD BBBA
    ABBB DDDDDDDDD BBBA
    AB DDDDDDDD ABA
    ABB DDDDWDDDD BBA
    AAABB DDDWDDD BBAAA
    ABB DDDDWWDDD BBA
    ABADB DDDDDDD BBA
    ABBDC DDDDDDD BBA
    ABBDDC DDDDDD BBA
    ABBDCC DDDDDD BBA
    ABB DWWDWWDWW BBA
    ABB DWDDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDWDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DWWDDDDDD BBA
    AAABB DDWDDDDDD AA
    BB DDWDWDDDD BBABBBB
    ABB DDDD(ND)DDDD BBA
    AAABB DDD(ND)DDD BBAAA
    ABB DDDD(ND)(ND)DDD BBA
    ABB D(ND)(ND)D(ND)(ND)D(ND)(ND) BBA
    ABB D(ND)DDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DD(ND)DDDDDD BBA
    ABB D(ND)(ND)DDDDDD BBA
    AAABB DD(ND)DDDDDD AA
    BB DD(ND)D(ND)DDDD BBABBBB
    ABAB DDDDDDDDD BABA
  • TABLE 7
    Certain Gapmer Nucleoside Motifs
    5′-wing region Central gap region 3′-wing region
    ABBW DDDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DWDDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDWDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDWDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDWDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDWDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDWDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDDWD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDDD WBBA
    ABBWW DDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DWWDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDWWDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDWWDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDWWDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDWWDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDWWD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDD WWBBA
    ABBW DDDDDDD WBBA
    ABBW DDDDDDWD BBA
    ABBW DDDDDWDD BBA
    ABBW DDDDWDDD BBA
    ABBW DDDWDDDD BBA
    ABBW DDWDDDDD BBA
    ABBW DWDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DWDDDDDD WBBA
    ABB DWDDDDDWD BBA
    ABB DWDDDDWDD BBA
    ABB DWDDDWDDD BBA
    ABB DWDDWDDDD BBA
    ABB DWDWDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDWDDDDD WBBA
    ABB DDWDDDDWD BBA
    ABB DDWDDDWDD BBA
    ABB DDWDDWDDD BBA
    ABB DDWDWDDDD BBA
    ABB DDWWDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDWDDDD WBBA
    ABB DDDWDDDWD BBA
    ABB DDDWDDWDD BBA
    ABB DDDWDWDDD BBA
    ABB DDDWWDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDWDDD WBBA
    ABB DDDDWDDWD BBA
    ABB DDDDWDWDD BBA
    ABB DDDDWWDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDWDD WBBA
    ABB DDDDDWDWD BBA
    ABB DDDDDWWDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDWD WBBA
  • TABLE 8
    Certain Gapmer Nucleoside Motifs
    5′-wing region Central gap region 3′-wing region
    ABBB DDDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DBDDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDBDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDBDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDBDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDBDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDBDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDDBD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDDD BBBA
    ABBBB DDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DBBDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDBBDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDBBDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDBBDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDBBDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDBBD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    ABBB DDDDDDD BBBA
    ABB DDDDDDBD BBA
    ABBB DDDDDBDD BBA
    ABBB DDDDBDDD BBA
    ABBB DDDBDDDD BBA
    ABBB DDBDDDDD BBA
    ABBB DBDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DBDDDDDD BBBA
    ABB DBDDDDDBD BBA
    ABB DBDDDDBDD BBA
    ABB DBDDDBDDD BBA
    ABB DBDDBDDDD BBA
    ABB DBDBDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDBDDDDD BBBA
    ABB DDBDDDDBD BBA
    ABB DDBDDDBDD BBA
    ABB DDBDDBDDD BBA
    ABB DDBDBDDDD BBA
    ABB DDBBDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDBDDDD BBBA
    ABB DDDBDDDBD BBA
    ABB DDDBDDBDD BBA
    ABB DDDBDBDDD BBA
    ABB DDDBBDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDBDDD BBBA
    ABB DDDDBDDBD BBA
    ABB DDDDBDBDD BBA
    ABB DDDDBBDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDBDD BBBA
    ABB DDDDDBDBD BBA
    ABB DDDDDBBDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDBD BBBA
  • TABLE 9
    Certain Gapmer Nucleoside Motifs
    5′-wing region Central gap region 3′-wing region
    ABB DDDDDDDDD BBA
    AB DBDDDDDDDD BBA
    AB DDBDDDDDDD BBA
    AB DDDBDDDDDD BBA
    AB DDDDBDDDDD BBA
    AB DDDDDBDDDD BBA
    AB DDDDDDBDDD BBA
    AB DDDDDDDBDD BBA
    AB DDDDDDDDBD BBA
    AB DDDDDDDDD BBBA
    ABBB DDDDDDDD BBA
    AB DBBDDDDDDD BBA
    AB DDBBDDDDDD BBA
    AB DDDBBDDDDD BBA
    AB DDDDBBDDDD BBA
    AB DDDDDBBDDD BBA
    AB DDDDDDBBDD BBA
    AB DDDDDDDBBD BBA
    AB DDDDDDDD BBBBA
    ABBBB DDDDDDD BBA
    AB DBBBDDDDDD BBA
    AB DDBBBDDDDD BBA
    AB DDDBBBDDDD BBA
    AB DDDDBBBDDD BBA
    AB DDDDDBBBDD BBA
    AB DDDDDDBBBD BBA
    AB DDDDDDD BBBBBA
    AB DDDDDDDDD BBBA
    AB DDDDDDDBD BBBA
    AB DDDDDBDD BBBA
    AB DDDDBDDD BBBA
    AB DDDBDDDD BBBA
    AB DDBDDDDD BBBA
    AB DBDDDDDD BBBA
    AB DDDDDBD BBBBA
    AB DDDDBDD BBBBA
    AB DDDBDDD BBBBA
    AB DDBDDDD BBBBA
    AB DBDDDDD BBBBA
    AB DDDDBD BBBBBA
    AB DDDBDD BBBBBA
    AB DDBDDD BBBBBA
    AB DBDDDD BBBBBA
  • TABLE 10
    Certain Gapmer Nucleoside Motifs
    5′-wing region Central gap region 3′-wing region
    AAAAAA DDDDDDD BABA
    AAAAAB DDDDDDD BABA
    AAAABA DDDDDDD BABA
    AAABAA DDDDDDD BABA
    AABAAA DDDDDDD BABA
    ABAAAA DDDDDDD BABA
    BAAAAA DDDDDDD BABA
    ABAAAB DDDDDDD BABA
    ABAABA DDDDDDD BABA
    ABABAA DDDDDDD BABA
    ABBAAA DDDDDDD BABA
    AABAAB DDDDDDD BABA
    AABABA DDDDDDD BABA
    AABBAA DDDDDDD BABA
    AAABAB DDDDDDD BABA
    AAABBA DDDDDDD BABA
    AAAABB DDDDDDD BABA
    BAAAAB DDDDDDD BABA
    BAAABA DDDDDDD BABA
    BAABAA DDDDDDD BABA
    BABAAA DDDDDDD BABA
    BBAAAA DDDDDDD BABA
    BBBAAA DDDDDDD BABA
    BBABAA DDDDDDD BABA
    BBAABA DDDDDDD BABA
    BBAAAB DDDDDDD BABA
    ABABAB DDDDDDD BABA
    BBBBAA DDDDDDD BABA
    BBBABA DDDDDDD BABA
    BBBAAB DDDDDDD BABA
    BBBBBA DDDDDDD BABA
    BBBBAB DDDDDDD BABA
    AAABBB DDDDDDD BABA
    AABABB DDDDDDD BABA
    ABAABB DDDDDDD BABA
    BAAABB DDDDDDD BABA
    AABBBB DDDDDDD BABA
    ABABBB DDDDDDD BABA
    BAABBB DDDDDDD BABA
    ABBBBB DDDDDDD BABA
    BABBBB DDDDDDD BABA
    BBBBBB DDDDDDD BABA
  • TABLE 11
    Certain Gapmer Nucleoside Motifs
    5′-wing region Central gap region 3′-wing region
    AAAAA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    AAAAB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    AAABA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    AAABB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    AABAA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    AABAB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    AABBA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    AABBB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    ABAAA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    ABAAB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    ABABA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    ABABB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    ABBAA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    ABBAB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    ABBBA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    ABBBB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BAAAA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BAAAB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BAABA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BAABB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BABAA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BABAB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BABBA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BABBB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BBAAA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BBAAB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BBABA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BBABB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BBBAA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BBBAB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BBBBA DDDDDDD AAAAA
    BBBBB DDDDDDD AAAAA
    AAAAA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    AAAAB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    AAABA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    AAABB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    AABAA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    AABAB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    AABBA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    AABBB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    ABAAA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    ABAAB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    ABABA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    ABABB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    ABBAA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    ABBAB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    ABBBA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    ABBBB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BAAAA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BAAAB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BAABA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BAABB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BABAA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BABAB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BABBA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BABBB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BBAAA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BBAAB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BBABA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BBABB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BBBAA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BBBAB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BBBBA DDDDDDD BAAAA
    BBBBB DDDDDDD BAAAA
    AAAAA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    AAAAB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    AAABA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    AAABB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    AABAA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    AABAB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    AABBA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    AABBB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    ABAAA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    ABAAB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    ABABA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    ABABB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    ABBAA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    ABBAB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    ABBBA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    ABBBB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BAAAA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BAAAB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BAABA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BAABB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BABAA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BABAB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BABBA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BABBB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BBAAA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BBAAB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BBABA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BBABB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BBBAA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BBBAB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BBBBA DDDDDDD BBAAA
    BBBBB DDDDDDD BBAAA
    AAAAA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    AAAAB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    AAABA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    AAABB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    AABAA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    AABAB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    AABBA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    AABBB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    ABAAA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    ABAAB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    ABABA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    ABABB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    ABBAA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    ABBAB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    ABBBA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    ABBBB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BAAAA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BAAAB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BAABA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BAABB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BABAA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BABAB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BABBA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BABBB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BBAAA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BBAAB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BBABA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BBABB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BBBAA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BBBAB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BBBBA DDDDDDD BBBAA
    BBBBB DDDDDDD BBBAA
    AAAAA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    AAAAB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    AAABA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    AAABB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    AABAA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    AABAB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    AABBA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    AABBB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    ABAAA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    ABAAB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    ABABA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    ABABB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    ABBAA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    ABBAB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    ABBBA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    ABBBB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BAAAA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BAAAB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BAABA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BAABB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BABAA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BABAB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BABBA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BABBB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BBAAA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BBAAB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BBABA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BBABB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BBBAA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BBBAB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BBBBA DDDDDDD BBBBA
    BBBBB DDDDDDD BBBBA
    AAAAA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    AAAAB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    AAABA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    AAABB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    AABAA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    AABAB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    AABBA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    AABBB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    ABAAA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    ABAAB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    ABABA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    ABABB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    ABBAA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    ABBAB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    ABBBA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    ABBBB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BAAAA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BAAAB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BAABA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BAABB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BABAA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BABAB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BABBA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BABBB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BBAAA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BBAAB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BBABA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BBABB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BBBAA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BBBAB DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BBBBA DDDDDDD BBBBB
    BBBBB DDDDDDD BBBBB
  • TABLE 12
    Certain Gapmer Nucleoside Motifs
    5′-wing region Central gap region 3′-wing region
    AAAW DDDDDDDD BBA
    AABW DDDDDDDD BBA
    ABAW DDDDDDDD BBA
    ABBW DDDDDDDD BBA
    BAAW DDDDDDDD BBA
    BABW DDDDDDDD BBA
    BBAW DDDDDDDD BBA
    BBBW DDDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDDD WAAA
    ABB DDDDDDDD WAAB
    ABB DDDDDDDD WABA
    ABB DDDDDDDD WABB
    ABB DDDDDDDD WBAA
    ABB DDDDDDDD WBAB
    ABB DDDDDDDD WBBA
    ABB DDDDDDDD WBBB
    AAAWW DDDDDDD BBA
    AABWW DDDDDDD BBA
    ABAWW DDDDDDD BBA
    ABBWW DDDDDDD BBA
    BAAWW DDDDDDD BBA
    BABWW DDDDDDD BBA
    BBAWW DDDDDDD BBA
    BBBWW DDDDDDD BBA
    ABB DDDDDDD WWAAA
    ABB DDDDDDD WWAAB
    ABB DDDDDDD WWABA
    ABB DDDDDDD WWABB
    ABB DDDDDDD WWBAA
    ABB DDDDDDD WWBAB
    ABB DDDDDDD WWBBA
    ABB DDDDDDD WWBBB
    AAAAW DDDDDDD BBA
    AAABW DDDDDDD BBA
    AABAW DDDDDDD BBA
    AABBW DDDDDDD BBA
    ABAAW DDDDDDD BBA
    ABABW DDDDDDD BBA
    ABBAW DDDDDDD BBA
    ABBBW DDDDDDD BBA
    BAAAW DDDDDDD BBA
    BAABW DDDDDDD BBA
    BABAW DDDDDDD BBA
    BABBW DDDDDDD BBA
    BBAAW DDDDDDD BBA
    BBABW DDDDDDD BBA
    BBBAW DDDDDDD BBA
    BBBBW DDDDDDD WAAAA
    ABB DDDDDDD WAAAB
    ABB DDDDDDD WAABA
    ABB DDDDDDD WAABB
    ABB DDDDDDD WABAA
    ABB DDDDDDD WABAB
    ABB DDDDDDD WABBA
    ABB DDDDDDD WABBB
    ABB DDDDDDD WBAAA
    ABB DDDDDDD WBAAB
    ABB DDDDDDD WBABA
    ABB DDDDDDD WBABB
    ABB DDDDDDD WBBAA
    ABB DDDDDDD WBBAB
    ABB DDDDDDD WBBBA
    ABB DDDDDDD WBBBB

    wherein each A is a modified nucleoside of a first type, each B is a modified nucleoside of a second type and each W is a modified nucleoside or nucleobase of either the first type, the second type or a third type, each D is a nucleoside comprising an unmodified 2′ deoxy sugar moiety and unmodified nucleobase, and ND is modified nucleoside comprising a modified nucleobase and an unmodified 2′ deoxy sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, each A comprises a modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among F, ara-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a modified nucleobase selected from among 2-thio-thymidine nucleoside and 5-propyne uridine nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each A comprises an HNA. In certain embodiments, each A comprises an F-HNA. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among 5′-Me, and 5′-(R)-Me.
  • In certain embodiments, each B comprises a modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a 2′-subsituted sugar moiety selected from among F, (ara)-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a modified nucleobase selected from among 2-thio-thymidine nucleoside and 5-propyne urindine nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each B comprises an HNA. In certain embodiments, each B comprises an F-HNA. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among 5′-Me, and 5′-(R)-Me.
  • In certain embodiments, each C comprises a modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among F, (ara)-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among 5′-Me, and 5′-(R)-Me. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a modified nucleobase selected from among 2-thio-thymidine and 5-propyne uridine. In certain embodiments, each C comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each C comprises an HNA. In certain embodiments, each C comprises an F-HNA. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each
  • W comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among F, (ara)-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among 5′-Me, and 5′-(R)-Me. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a sugar surrogate selected from among HNA and F-HNA. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, at least one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and the other comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is a cEt nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is a cEt nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is a cEt nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is a cEt nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and A comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is an LNA nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is a cEt nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and A comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is an LNA nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is a cEt nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and A comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is an LNA nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is a cEt nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, at least one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and C comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and C comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and C comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and C comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of
  • A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar HNA surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, at least two of A, B or W comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and the other comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, at least two of A, B or W comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and the other comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, a gapmer has a sugar motif other than: E-K-K-(D)9-K-K-E; E-E-E-E-K-(D)9-E-E-E-E-E; E-K-K-K-(D)9-K-K-K-E; K-E-E-K-(D)9-K-E-E-K; K-D-D-K-(D)9-K-D-D-K; K-E-K-E-K-(D)9-K-E-K-E-K; K-D-K-D-K-(D)9-K-D-K-D-K; E-K-E-K-(D)9-K-E-K-E; E-E-E-E-E-K-(D)9-E-E-E-E-E; or E-K-E-K-E-(D)9-E-K-E-K-E, E-E-E-K-K-(D)7-E-E-K, E-K-E-K-K-K-(D)7-K-E-K-E, E-K-E-K-E-K-(D)7-K-E-K-E, wherein K is a nucleoside comprising a cEt sugar moiety and E is a nucleoside comprising a 2′-MOE sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments a gapmer comprises a A-(D)4-A-(D)4-A-(D)4-AA motif. In certain embodiments a gapmer comprises a B-(D)4-A-(D)4-A-(D)4-AA motif. In certain embodiments a gapmer comprises a A-(D)4-B-(D)4-A-(D)4-AA motif. In certain embodiments a gapmer comprises a A-(D)4-A-(D)4-B-(D)4-AA motif. In certain embodiments a gapmer comprises a A-(D)4-A-(D)4-A-(D)4-BA motif. In certain embodiments a gapmer comprises a A-(D)4-A-(D)4-A-(D)4-BB motif. In certain embodiments a gapmer comprises a K-(D)4-K-(D)4-K-(D)4-K-E motif xi. Certain Internucleoside Linkage Motifs
  • In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides comprise modified internucleoside linkages arranged along the oligonucleotide or region thereof in a defined pattern or modified internucleoside linkage motif. In certain embodiments, internucleoside linkages are arranged in a gapped motif, as described above for nucleoside motif. In such embodiments, the internucleoside linkages in each of two wing regions are different from the internucleoside linkages in the gap region. In certain embodiments the internucleoside linkages in the wings are phosphodiester and the internucleoside linkages in the gap are phosphorothioate. The nucleoside motif is independently selected, so such oligonucleotides having a gapped internucleoside linkage motif may or may not have a gapped nucleoside motif and if it does have a gapped nucleoside motif, the wing and gap lengths may or may not be the same.
  • In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides comprise a region having an alternating internucleoside linkage motif. In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides of the present invention comprise a region of uniformly modified internucleoside linkages. In certain such embodiments, the oligonucleotide comprises a region that is uniformly linked by phosphorothioate internucleoside linkages. In certain embodiments, the oligonucleotide is uniformly linked by phosphorothioate. In certain embodiments, each internucleoside linkage of the oligonucleotide is selected from phosphodiester and phosphorothioate. In certain embodiments, each internucleoside linkage of the oligonucleotide is selected from phosphodiester and phosphorothioate and at least one internucleoside linkage is phosphorothioate.
  • In certain embodiments, the oligonucleotide comprises at least 6 phosphorothioate internucleoside linkages. In certain embodiments, the oligonucleotide comprises at least 8 phosphorothioate internucleoside linkages. In certain embodiments, the oligonucleotide comprises at least 10 phosphorothioate internucleoside linkages. In certain embodiments, the oligonucleotide comprises at least one block of at least 6 consecutive phosphorothioate internucleoside linkages. In certain embodiments, the oligonucleotide comprises at least one block of at least 8 consecutive phosphorothioate internucleoside linkages. In certain embodiments, the oligonucleotide comprises at least one block of at least 10 consecutive phosphorothioate internucleoside linkages. In certain embodiments, the oligonucleotide comprises at least block of at least one 12 consecutive phosphorothioate internucleoside linkages. In certain such embodiments, at least one such block is located at the 3′ end of the oligonucleotide. In certain such embodiments, at least one such block is located within 3 nucleosides of the 3′ end of the oligonucleotide.
  • In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides comprise one or more methylphosponate linkages. In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides having a gapmer nucleoside motif comprise a linkage motif comprising all phosphorothioate linkages except for one or two methylphosponate linkages. In certain embodiments, one methylphosponate linkage is in the central gap of an oligonucleotide having a gapmer nucleoside motif
  • xii. Certain Modification Motifs
  • Modification motifs define oligonucleotides by nucleoside motif (sugar motif and nucleobase motif) and linkage motif For example, certain oligonucleotides have the following modification motif:
  • AsAsAsDsDsDsDs(ND)sDsDsDsDsBsBsB;
      • wherein each A is a modified nucleoside comprising a 2′-substituted sugar moiety; each D is an unmodified 2′-deoxynucleoside; each B is a modified nucleoside comprising a bicyclic sugar moiety; ND is a modified nucleoside comprising a modified nucleobase; and s is a phosphorothioate internucleoside linkage. Thus, the sugar motif is a gapmer motif. The nucleobase modification motif is a single modified nucleobase at 8th nucleoside from the 5′-end. Combining the sugar motif and the nucleobase modification motif, the nucleoside motif is an interrupted gapmer where the gap of the sugar modified gapmer is interrupted by a nucleoside comprising a modified nucleobase. The linkage motif is uniform phosphorothioate. The following non-limiting Table further illustrates certain modification motifs:
  • TABLE 13
    Certain Modification Motifs
    5′-wing region Central gap region 3′-wing region
    BsBs sDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsAsAsAsAsAsAsA
    AsBsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs DSDSDSDS(ND)SDSDSDSDS BsBsA
    AsBsBs DsDsDsDsAsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs DsDsDsDsBsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs DsDsDsDsWsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsAsBsB
    AsBsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsAsBsB
    BsBsAsBsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsAsBsBsBsB
    AsAsBsAsAs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsAsAsBsAsAs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsAsBsAsAs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsAsBsAsA
    AsAsAsBsAsAs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsAsBsAsAsA
    AsAsAsAsBsAsAs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsAsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsAsBsA
    AsBsAsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsAsBsAsAs
    AsBsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsAsBsA
    BsBsAsBsBsBsB DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsAsBsA
    AsAsAsAsAs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsAsAsAsA
    AsAsAsAsAs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsAsAsAsA
    AsAsAsAsAs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsAsBsBsBsB
    AsAsAsBsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsAsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsAsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsAsAsBsBs
    AsAsAsAsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsAsAsAsA
    BsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsA
    AsAs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsAsAsAsAsAsAsA
    AsAsAs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsAsAsAsAsAsA
    AsAsAs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsAsAsAsAsA
    AsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsBsA
    AsBsBsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsA
    AsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsBsA
    AsAsAsBsBs DsDsDs(ND)sDsDsDs BsBsAsAsA
    AsAsAsBsBs DsDsDsAsDsDsDs BsBsAsAsA
    AsAsAsBsBs DsDsDsBsDsDsDs BsBsAsAsA
    AsAsAsAsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsAsAsAsA
    AsAsBsBsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsBsAsA
    AsAsAsAsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsAsAsAsAs
    AsAsAsBsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsAsAsAsAs
    AsAsBsBsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsAsAsAsAs
    AsAsAsAsAs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsAsAsAsAs
    AsAsAsAsAs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsAsAsAs
    AsAsAsAsAs DsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsBsAsAs
    AsBsBs DsDsDsDs(ND)s(ND)sDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs Ds(ND)s(ND)sDs(ND)s(ND)sDs BsBsA
    (ND)s(ND)s
    AsBsBs Ds(ND)sDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs DsDs(ND)sDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs Ds(ND)s(ND)sDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs DsDs(D)zDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs Ds(D)zDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs (D)zDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs DsDsAsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs DsDsBsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs AsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs BsDsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsAsBs DsDs(D)zDsDsDsDsDsDs BsBsBsAsAs
    AsAsAsBsBs DSDS(ND)SDSDSDSDSDSDS ASA
    AsBsBsBs Ds(D)zDsDsDsDsDsDsDs AsAsAsBsBs
    AsBsBs DsDsDsDsDsDsDsDs(D)z BsBsA
    AsAsBsBsBs DsDsDsAsDsDsDs BsBsBsAsA
    AsAsBsBsBs DsDsDsBsDsDsDs BsBsBsAsA
    AsBsAsBs DsDsDsAsDsDsDs BsBsAsBsBsBsB
    AsBsBsBs DsDsDsDs(D)zDsDsDsDs BSA
    AsAsBsBsBs DsDsAsAsDsDsDs BsBsA
    AsBsBs DsDsDsDs(D)zDsDsDsDs BsBsBsA
    BsBs DsDs(ND)sDs(ND)sDsDsDsDs BsBsAsBsBsBsB

    wherein each A and B are nucleosides comprising differently modified sugar moieties, each D is a nucleoside comprising an unmodified 2′deoxy sugar moiety, each W is a modified nucleoside of either the first type, the second type or a third type, each ND is a modified nucleoside comprising a modified nucleobase, s is a phosphorothioate internucleoside linkage, and z is a non-phosphorothioate internucleoside linkage. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among F, (ara)-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, each A comprises a modified nucleobase selected from among 2-thio-thymidine nucleoside and 5-propyne uridine nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a 2′-subsituted sugar moiety selected from among F, (ara)-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, each B comprises a modified nucleobase selected from among 2-thio-thymidine nucleoside and 5-propyne urindine nucleoside. In certain embodiments, each A comprises an HNA. In certain embodiments, each A comprises an F-HNA.
  • In certain embodiments, each W comprises a modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each
  • W comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among F, (ara)-F, OCH3 and O(CH2)2—OCH3. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among 5′-Me, and 5′-(R)-Me. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-L-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, each W comprises a sugar surrogate selected from among HNA and F-HNA.
  • In certain embodiments, at least one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and the other comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and the other of A or
  • B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and the other of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is a cEt nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is a cEt nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is a cEt nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, A comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is a cEt nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, A is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and A comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is an LNA nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is a cEt nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and A comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is an LNA nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is a cEt nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and A comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is an LNA nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is a cEt nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside and A comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, at least one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and C comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a modified nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises 2-thio-thymidine nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and C comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and C comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and C comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5-propyne uridine nucleobase.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a sugar HNA surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a HNA sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a F-HNA sugar surrogate.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-Me DNA sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-MOE sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, one of A or B comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is a cEt nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one of A or B is an α-L-LNA nucleoside, another of A or B comprises a 2′-(ara)-F sugar moiety, and W comprises a 5′-(R)-Me DNA sugar moiety.
  • In certain embodiments, at least two of A, B or W comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety, and the other comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, at least two of A, B or W comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety, and the other comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety.
  • c. Certain Overall Lengths
  • In certain embodiments, the present invention provides oligomeric compounds including oligonucleotides of any of a variety of ranges of lengths. In certain embodiments, the invention provides oligomeric compounds or oligonucleotides consisting of X to Y linked nucleosides, where X represents the fewest number of nucleosides in the range and Y represents the largest number of nucleosides in the range. In certain such embodiments, X and Y are each independently selected from 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, and 50; provided that X<Y. For example, in certain embodiments, the invention provides oligomeric compounds which comprise oligonucleotides consisting of 8 to 9, 8 to 10, 8 to 11, 8 to 12, 8 to 13, 8 to 14, 8 to 15, 8 to 16, 8 to 17, 8 to 18, 8 to 19, 8 to 20, 8 to 21, 8 to 22, 8 to 23, 8 to 24, 8 to 25, 8 to 26, 8 to 27, 8 to 28, 8 to 29, 8 to 30, 9 to 10, 9 to 11, 9 to 12, 9 to 13, 9 to 14, 9 to 15, 9 to 16, 9 to 17, 9 to 18, 9 to 19, 9 to 20, 9 to 21, 9 to 22, 9 to 23, 9 to 24, 9 to 25, 9 to 26, 9 to 27, 9 to 28, 9 to 29, 9 to 30, 10 to 11, 10 to 12, 10 to 13, 10 to 14, 10 to 15, 10 to 16, 10 to 17, 10 to 18, 10 to 19, 10 to 20, 10 to 21, 10 to 22, 10 to 23, 10 to 24, 10 to 25, 10 to 26, 10 to 27, 10 to 28, 10 to 29, 10 to 30, 11 to 12, 11 to 13, 11 to 14, 11 to 15, 11 to 16, 11 to 17, 11 to 18, 11 to 19, 11 to 20, 11 to 21, 11 to 22, 11 to 23, 11 to 24, 11 to 25, 11 to 26, 11 to 27, 11 to 28, 11 to 29, 11 to 30, 12 to 13, 12 to 14, 12 to 15, 12 to 16, 12 to 17, 12 to 18, 12 to 19, 12 to 20, 12 to 21, 12 to 22, 12 to 23, 12 to 24, 12 to 25, 12 to 26, 12 to 27, 12 to 28, 12 to 29, 12 to 30, 13 to 14, 13 to 15, 13 to 16, 13 to 17, 13 to 18, 13 to 19, 13 to 20, 13 to 21, 13 to 22, 13 to 23, 13 to 24, 13 to 25, 13 to 26, 13 to 27, 13 to 28, 13 to 29, 13 to 30, 14 to 15, 14 to 16, 14 to 17, 14 to 18, 14 to 19, 14 to 20, 14 to 21, 14 to 22, 14 to 23, 14 to 24, 14 to 25, 14 to 26, 14 to 27, 14 to 28, 14 to 29, 14 to 30, 15 to 16, 15 to 17, 15 to 18, 15 to 19, 15 to 20, 15 to 21, 15 to 22, 15 to 23, 15 to 24, 15 to 25, 15 to 26, 15 to 27, 15 to 28, 15 to 29, 15 to 30, 16 to 17, 16 to 18, 16 to 19, 16 to 20, 16 to 21, 16 to 22, 16 to 23, 16 to 24, 16 to 25, 16 to 26, 16 to 27, 16 to 28, 16 to 29, 16 to 30, 17 to 18, 17 to 19, 17 to 20, 17 to 21, 17 to 22, 17 to 23, 17 to 24, 17 to 25, 17 to 26, 17 to 27, 17 to 28, 17 to 29, 17 to 30, 18 to 19, 18 to 20, 18 to 21, 18 to 22, 18 to 23, 18 to 24, 18 to 25, 18 to 26, 18 to 27, 18 to 28, 18 to 29, 18 to 30, 19 to 20, 19 to 21, 19 to 22, 19 to 23, 19 to 24, 19 to 25, 19 to 26, 19 to 29, 19 to 28, 19 to 29, 19 to 30, 20 to 21, 20 to 22, 20 to 23, 20 to 24, 20 to 25, 20 to 26, 20 to 27, 20 to 28, 20 to 29, 20 to 30, 21 to 22, 21 to 23, 21 to 24, 21 to 25, 21 to 26, 21 to 27, 21 to 28, 21 to 29, 21 to 30, 22 to 23, 22 to 24, 22 to 25, 22 to 26, 22 to 27, 22 to 28, 22 to 29, 22 to 30, 23 to 24, 23 to 25, 23 to 26, 23 to 27, 23 to 28, 23 to 29, 23 to 30, 24 to 25, 24 to 26, 24 to 27, 24 to 28, 24 to 29, 24 to 30, 25 to 26, 25 to 27, 25 to 28, 25 to 29, 25 to 30, 26 to 27, 26 to 28, 26 to 29, 26 to 30, 27 to 28, 27 to 29, 27 to 30, 28 to 29, 28 to 30, or 29 to 30 linked nucleosides. In embodiments where the number of nucleosides of an oligomeric compound or oligonucleotide is limited, whether to a range or to a specific number, the oligomeric compound or oligonucleotide may, nonetheless further comprise additional other substituents. For example, an oligonucleotide comprising 8-30 nucleosides excludes oligonucleotides having 31 nucleosides, but, unless otherwise indicated, such an oligonucleotide may further comprise, for example one or more conjugates, terminal groups, or other substituents. In certain embodiments, a gapmer oligonucleotide has any of the above lengths.
  • Further, where an oligonucleotide is described by an overall length range and by regions having specified lengths, and where the sum of specified lengths of the regions is less than the upper limit of the overall length range, the oligonucleotide may have additional nucleosides, beyond those of the specified regions, provided that the total number of nucleosides does not exceed the upper limit of the overall length range.
  • d. Certain Oligonucleotides
  • In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides of the present invention are characterized by their modification motif and overall length. In certain embodiments, such parameters are each independent of one another. Thus, unless otherwise indicated, each internucleoside linkage of an oligonucleotide having a gapmer sugar motif may be modified or unmodified and may or may not follow the gapmer modification pattern of the sugar modifications. For example, the internucleoside linkages within the wing regions of a sugar-gapmer may be the same or different from one another and may be the same or different from the internucleoside linkages of the gap region. Likewise, such sugar-gapmer oligonucleotides may comprise one or more modified nucleobase independent of the gapmer pattern of the sugar modifications. One of skill in the art will appreciate that such motifs may be combined to create a variety of oligonucleotides. Herein if a description of an oligonucleotide or oligomeric compound is silent with respect to one or more parameter, such parameter is not limited. Thus, an oligomeric compound described only as having a gapmer sugar motif without further description may have any length, internucleoside linkage motif, and nucleobase modification motif. Unless otherwise indicated, all chemical modifications are independent of nucleobase sequence.
  • e. Certain Conjugate Groups
  • In certain embodiments, oligomeric compounds are modified by attachment of one or more conjugate groups. In general, conjugate groups modify one or more properties of the attached oligomeric compound including but not limited to pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, stability, binding, absorption, cellular distribution, cellular uptake, charge and clearance. Conjugate groups are routinely used in the chemical arts and are linked directly or via an optional conjugate linking moiety or conjugate linking group to a parent compound such as an oligomeric compound, such as an oligonucleotide. Conjugate groups includes without limitation, intercalators, reporter molecules, polyamines, polyamides, polyethylene glycols, thioethers, polyethers, cholesterols, thiocholesterols, cholic acid moieties, folate, lipids, phospholipids, biotin, phenazine, phenanthridine, anthraquinone, adamantane, acridine, fluoresceins, rhodamines, coumarins and dyes. Certain conjugate groups have been described previously, for example: cholesterol moiety (Letsinger et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1989, 86, 6553-6556), cholic acid (Manoharan et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Let., 1994, 4, 1053-1060), a thioether, e.g., hexyl-S-tritylthiol (Manoharan et al., Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1992, 660, 306-309; Manoharan et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Let., 1993, 3, 2765-2770), a thiocholesterol
  • (Oberhauser et al., Nucl. Acids Res., 1992, 20, 533-538), an aliphatic chain, e.g., do-decan-diol or undecyl residues (Saison-Behmoaras et al., EMBO J., 1991, 10, 1111-1118; Kabanov et al., FEBS Lett., 1990, 259, 327-330; Svinarchuk et al., Biochimie, 1993, 75, 49-54), a phospholipid, e.g., di-hexadecyl-rac-glycerol or triethyl-ammonium 1,2-di-O-hexadecyl-rac-glycero-3-H-phosphonate (Manoharan et al., Tetrahedron Lett., 1995, 36, 3651-3654; Shea et al., Nucl. Acids Res., 1990, 18, 3777-3783), a polyamine or a polyethylene glycol chain (Manoharan et al., Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 1995, 14, 969-973), or adamantane acetic acid (Manoharan et al., Tetrahedron Lett., 1995, 36, 3651-3654), a palmityl moiety (Mishra et al., Biochim Biophys. Acta, 1995, 1264, 229-237), or an octadecylamine or hexylamino-carbonyl-oxycholesterol moiety (Crooke et al., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 1996, 277, 923-937).
  • In certain embodiments, a conjugate group comprises an active drug substance, for example, aspirin, warfarin, phenylbutazone, ibuprofen, suprofen, fen-bufen, ketoprofen, (S)-(+)-pranoprofen, carprofen, dansylsarcosine, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, flufenamic acid, folinic acid, a benzothiadiazide, chlorothiazide, a diazepine, indo-methicin, a barbiturate, a cephalosporin, a sulfa drug, an antidiabetic, an antibacterial or an antibiotic.
  • In certain embodiments, conjugate groups are directly attached to oligonucleotides in oligomeric compounds. In certain embodiments, conjugate groups are attached to oligonucleotides by a conjugate linking group. In certain such embodiments, conjugate linking groups, including, but not limited to, bifunctional linking moieties such as those known in the art are amenable to the compounds provided herein. Conjugate linking groups are useful for attachment of conjugate groups, such as chemical stabilizing groups, functional groups, reporter groups and other groups to selective sites in a parent compound such as for example an oligomeric compound. In general a bifunctional linking moiety comprises a hydrocarbyl moiety having two functional groups. One of the functional groups is selected to bind to a parent molecule or compound of interest and the other is selected to bind essentially any selected group such as chemical functional group or a conjugate group. In some embodiments, the conjugate linker comprises a chain structure or an oligomer of repeating units such as ethylene glycol or amino acid units. Examples of functional groups that are routinely used in a bifunctional linking moiety include, but are not limited to, electrophiles for reacting with nucleophilic groups and nucleophiles for reacting with electrophilic groups. In some embodiments, bifunctional linking moieties include amino, hydroxyl, carboxylic acid, thiol, unsaturations (e.g., double or triple bonds), and the like.
  • Some nonlimiting examples of conjugate linking moieties include pyrrolidine, 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoic acid (ADO), succinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC) and 6-aminohexanoic acid (AHEX or AHA). Other linking groups include, but are not limited to, substituted C1-C10 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkenyl or substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl, wherein a nonlimiting list of preferred substituent groups includes hydroxyl, amino, alkoxy, carboxy, benzyl, phenyl, nitro, thiol, thioalkoxy, halogen, alkyl, aryl, alkenyl and alkynyl.
  • Conjugate groups may be attached to either or both ends of an oligonucleotide (terminal conjugate groups) and/or at any internal position.
  • In certain embodiments, conjugate groups are at the 3′-end of an oligonucleotide of an oligomeric compound. In certain embodiments, conjugate groups are near the 3′-end. In certain embodiments, conjugates are attached at the 3′end of an oligomeric compound, but before one or more terminal group nucleosides. In certain embodiments, conjugate groups are placed within a terminal group.
  • In certain embodiments, the present invention provides oligomeric compounds. In certain embodiments, oligomeric compounds comprise an oligonucleotide. In certain embodiments, an oligomeric compound comprises an oligonucleotide and one or more conjugate and/or terminal groups. Such conjugate and/or terminal groups may be added to oligonucleotides having any of the motifs discussed above. Thus, for example, an oligomeric compound comprising an oligonucleotide having region of alternating nucleosides may comprise a terminal group.
  • C. ANTISENSE COMPOUNDS
  • In certain embodiments, oligomeric compounds provided herein are antisense compounds. Such antisense compounds are capable of hybridizing to a target nucleic acid, resulting in at least one antisense activity. In certain embodiments, antisense compounds specifically hybridize to one or more target nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, a specifically hybridizing antisense compound has a nucleobase sequence comprising a region having sufficient complementarity to a target nucleic acid to allow hybridization and result in antisense activity and insufficient complementarity to any non-target so as to avoid non-specific hybridization to any non-target nucleic acid sequences under conditions in which specific hybridization is desired (e.g., under physiological conditions for in vivo or therapeutic uses, and under conditions in which assays are performed in the case of in vitro assays).
  • In certain embodiments, the present invention provides antisense compounds comprising oligonucleotides that are fully complementary to the target nucleic acid over the entire length of the oligonucleotide. In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides are 99% complementary to the target nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, oligonucleotides are 95% complementary to the target nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, such oligonucleotides are 90% complementary to the target nucleic acid.
  • In certain embodiments, such oligonucleotides are 85% complementary to the target nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, such oligonucleotides are 80% complementary to the target nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, an antisense compound comprises a region that is fully complementary to a target nucleic acid and is at least 80% complementary to the target nucleic acid over the entire length of the oligonucleotide. In certain such embodiments, the region of full complementarity is from 6 to 14 nucleobases in length.
  • a. Certain Antisense Activities and Mechanisms
  • In certain antisense activities, hybridization of an antisense compound results in recruitment of a protein that cleaves of the target nucleic acid. For example, certain antisense compounds result in RNase H mediated cleavage of target nucleic acid. RNase H is a cellular endonuclease that cleaves the RNA strand of an RNA:DNA duplex. The “DNA” in such an RNA:DNA duplex, need not be unmodified DNA. In certain embodiments, the invention provides antisense compounds that are sufficiently “DNA-like” to elicit RNase H activity. Such DNA-like antisense compounds include, but are not limited to gapmers having unmodified deoxyfuronose sugar moieties in the nucleosides of the gap and modified sugar moieties in the nucleosides of the wings.
  • Antisense activities may be observed directly or indirectly. In certain embodiments, observation or detection of an antisense activity involves observation or detection of a change in an amount of a target nucleic acid or protein encoded by such target nucleic acid; a change in the ratio of splice variants of a nucleic acid or protein; and/or a phenotypic change in a cell or animal.
  • In certain embodiments, compounds comprising oligonucleotides having a gapmer nucleoside motif described herein have desirable properties compared to non-gapmer oligonucleotides or to gapmers having other motifs. In certain circumstances, it is desirable to identify motifs resulting in a favorable combination of potent antisense activity and relatively low toxicity. In certain embodiments, compounds of the present invention have a favorable therapeutic index (measure of activity divided by measure of toxicity).
  • b. Certain Selective Antisense Compounds
  • In certain embodiments, antisense compounds provided are selective for a target relative to a non-target nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, the nucleobase sequences of the target and non-target nucleic acids differ by no more than 4 differentiating nucleobases in the targeted region. In certain embodiments, the nucleobase sequences of the target and non-target nucleic acids differ by no more than 3 differentiating nucleobases in the targeted region. In certain embodiments, the nucleobase sequences of the target and non-target nucleic acids differ by no more than 2 differentiating nucleobases in the targeted region. In certain embodiments, the nucleobase sequences of the target and non-target nucleic acids differ by a single differentiating nucleobase in the targeted region. In certain embodiments, the target and non-target nucleic acids are transcripts from different genes. In certain embodiments, the target and non-target nucleic acids are different alleles for the same gene. In certain embodiments, the introduction of a mismatch between an antisense compound and a non-target nucleic acid may alter the RNase H cleavage site of a target nucleic acid compared to a non-target nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, the target and non-target nucleic acids are not functionally related to one another (e.g., are transcripts from different genes). In certain embodiments, the target and not-target nucleic acids are allelic variants of one another. In certain embodiments, the allelic variant contains a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). In certain embodiments, a SNP is associated with a mutant allele. In certain embodiments, a mutant SNP is associated with a disease. In certain embodiments a mutant SNP is associated with a disease, but is not causative of the disease. In certain embodiments, mRNA and protein expression of a mutant allele is associated with disease.
  • Selectivity of antisense compounds is achieved, principally, by nucleobase complementarity. For example, if an antisense compound has no mismatches for a target nucleic acid and one or more mismatches for a non-target nucleic acid, some amount of selectivity for the target nucleic acid will result. In certain embodiments, provided herein are antisense compounds with enhanced selectivity (i.e. the ratio of activity for the target to the activity for non-target is greater). For example, in certain embodiments, a selective nucleoside comprises a particular feature or combination of features (e.g., chemical modification, motif, placement of selective nucleoside, and/or self-complementary region) that increases selectivity of an antisense compound compared to an antisense compound not having that feature or combination of features. In certain embodiments, such feature or combination of features increases antisense activity for the target. In certain embodiments, such feature or combination of features decreases activity for the target, but decreases activity for the non-target by a greater amount, thus resulting in an increase in selectivity.
  • Without being limited by mechanism, enhanced selectivity may result from a larger difference in the affinity of an antisense compound for its target compared to its affinity for the non-target and/or a larger difference in RNase H activity for the resulting duplexes. For example, in certain embodiments, a selective antisense compound comprises a modified nucleoside at that same position as a differentiating nucleobase (i.e., the selective nucleoside is modified). That modification may increase the difference in binding affinity of the antisense compound for the target relative to the non-target. In addition or in the alternative, the chemical modification may increase the difference in RNAse H activity for the duplex formed by the antisense compound and its target compared to the RNase activity for the duplex formed by the antisense compound and the non-target. For example, the modification may exaggerate a structure that is less compatible for RNase H to bind, cleave and/or release the non-target.
  • In certain embodiments, an antisense compound binds its intended target to form a target duplex. In certain embodiments, RNase H cleaves the target nucleic acid of the target duplex. In certain such embodiments, there is a primary cleavage site between two particular nucleosides of the target nucleic acid (the primary target cleavage site), which accounts for the largest amount of cleavage of the target nucleic acid. In certain nembodiments, there are one or more secondary target cleavage sites. In certain embodiments, the same antisence compound hybridizes to a non-target to form a non-target duplex. In certain such embodiments, the non-target differs from the target by a single nucleobase within the target region, and so the antisense compound hybridizes with a single mismatch. Because of the mismatch, in certain embodiments, RNase H cleavage of the non-target may be reduced compared to cleavage of the target, but still occurs. In certain embodiments, though, the primary site of that cleavage of the non-target nucleic acid (primary non-target cleavage site) is different from that of the target. That is; the primary site is shifted due to the mismatch. In such a circumstance, one may use a modification placed in the antisense compound to disrupt RNase H cleavage at the primary non-target cleavage site. Such modification will result in reduced cleavage of the non-target, but will result little or no decrease in cleavage of the target. In certain embodiments, the modification is a modified sugar, nucleobase and/or linkage.
  • In certain embodiments, the primary non-target cleavage site is towards the 5′-end of the antisense compound, and the 5′-end of an antisense compound may be modified to prevent RNaseH cleavage. In this manner, it is thought that one having skill in the art may modify the 5′-end of an antisense compound, or modify the nucleosides in the gap region of the 5′-end of the antisense compound, or modify the 3′-most 5′-region nucleosides of the antisense compound to selectively inhibit RNaseH cleavage of the non-target nucleic acid duplex while retaining RNase H cleavage of the target nucleic acid duplex. In certain embodiments, 1-3 of the 3′-most 5′-region nucleosides of the antisense compound comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety.
  • For example, in certain embodiments the target nucleic acid may have an allelic variant, e.g. a non-target nucleic acid, containing a single nucleotide polymorphism. An antisense compound may be designed having a single nucleobase mismatch from the non-target nucleic acid, but which has full complementarity to the target nucleic acid. The mismatch between the antisense compound and the non-target nucleic acid may destabilize the antisense compound non-target nucleic acid duplex, and consequently the cleavage site of RNaseH may shift upstream towards the 5′-end of the antisense compound. Modification of the 5′-end of the antisense compound or the gap region near the 5′-end of the antisense compound, or one or more of the 3′-most nucleosides of the 5′-wing region, will then prevent RNaseH cleavage of the non-target nucleic acid. Since the target nucleic acid is fully complementary to the antisense compound, the antisense compound and the target nucleic acid will form a more stabilized antisense compound-target nucleic acid duplex and the cleavage site of RnaseH will be more downstream, towards the 3′ end of the antisense compound. Accordingly, modifications at the 5′-end of the antisense compound will prevent RNaseH cleavage of the non-target nucleic acid, but will not substantially effect RNaseH cleavage of the target nucleic acid, and selectivity between a target nucleic acid and its allelic variant may be achieved. In certain embodiments, one or more of the 3′-most nucleosides of the 5′-wing region comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one or more of the 3′-most nucleosides of the 5′-wing region comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from cEt and LNA. In certain embodiments, one or more of the 3′-most nucleosides of the 5′-wing region comprises cEt. In certain embodiments, one or more of the 3′-most nucleosides of the 5′-wing region comprises LNA.
  • In certain embodiments, the introduction of a mismatch between an antisense compound and a target nucleic acid may alter the RNase H cleavage site of a target nucleic acid compared to a non-target nucleic acid by shifting the RNaseH cleavage site downstream from the mismatch site and towards the 3′-end of the antisense compound. In certain embodiments where the cleavage site of a target nucleic acid compared to a non-target nucleic acid has shifted downstream towards the 3′-end of the antisense compound, the 3′-end of an antisense compound may be modified to prevent RNaseH cleavage. In this manner, it is thought that one having skill in the art may modify the 3′-end of an antisense compound, or modify the nucleosides in the gap region near the 3′-end of antisense compound, to selectively inhibit RNaseH cleavage of the non-target nucleic acid while retaining RNase H cleavage of the target nucleic acid.
  • For example, in certain embodiments the target nucleic acid may have an allelic variant, e.g. a non-target nucleic acid, containing a single nucleotide polymorphism. An antisense compound may be designed having a single nucleobase mismatch from the non-target nucleic acid, but which has full complementarity to target nucleic acid. The mismatch between the antisense compound and the non-target nucleic acid may destabilize the antisense compound-non-target nucleic acid duplex, and consequently the cleavage site of RNaseH may shift downstream towards the 3′-end of the antisense compound. Modification of the 3′-end of the antisense compound, or one or more of the 5′-most nucleosides of the 3′-wing region, or the gap region of the antisense compound near the 3′-end will then prevent RNaseH cleavage of the non-target nucleic acid. Since the target nucleic acid is fully complementary to the antisense compound, the antisense compound and the target nucleic acid will form a more stabilized antisense compound-target nucleic acid duplex and the cleavage site of RnaseH will be more upstream, towards the 5′ end of the antisense compound. Accordingly, modifications at the 3′-end of the antisense compound will prevent RNaseH cleavage of the non-target nucleic acid, but will not substantially effect RNaseH cleavage of the target nucleic acid, and selectivity between a target nucleic acid and its allelic variant may be achieved. In certain embodiments, one or more of the 5′-most nucleosides of the 3′-wing region comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, one or more of the 5′-most nucleosides of the 3′-wing region comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from cEt and LNA. In certain embodiments, one or more of the 5′-most nucleosides of the 3′-wing region comprises cEt. In certain embodiments, one or more of the 5′-most nucleosides of the 3′-wing region comprises LNA.
  • In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or longer, may be improved by the addition of one or more bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or longer, may be improved by the addition of two or more bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or longer, may be improved by the addition of one bicyclic nucleoside at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or longer, may be improved by the addition of two bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or longer, may be improved by the addition of three bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or longer, may be improved by the addition of four bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or longer, may be improved by the addition of five bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments discussed above, the bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside are selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments discussed above, the bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside comprise cEt. In certain embodiments discussed above, the bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside comprise LNA.
  • In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or longer, may be improved by the addition of one or more bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside and the addition of one or more bicylic nucleosides at the 5′-most 3′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or longer, may be improved by the addition of two or more bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside and the addition of one or more bicylic nucleosides at the 5′-most 3′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or longer, may be improved by the addition of one bicyclic nucleoside at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside and the addition of one or more bicylic nucleosides at the 5′-most 3′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or longer, may be improved by the addition of two bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside and the addition of one or more bicylic nucleosides at the 5′-most 3′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or longer, may be improved by the addition of three bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside and the addition of one or more bicylic nucleosides at the 5′-most 3′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or longer, may be improved by the addition of four bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside and the addition of one or more bicylic nucleosides at the 5′-most 3′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or longer, may be improved by the addition of four bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside and the addition of one or more bicylic nucleosides at the 5′-most 3′-wing nucleoside.
  • In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or shorter, may be improved by the addition of one or more bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or shorter, may be improved by the addition of two or more bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or shorter, may be improved by the addition of one bicyclic nucleoside at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or shorter, may be improved by the addition of two bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or shorter, may be improved by the addition of three bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or shorter, may be improved by the addition of four bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments, the selectivity of antisense compounds having certain gaps, e.g. gaps of 7 nucleosides or shorter, may be improved by the addition of five bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside. In certain embodiments discussed above, the bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside are selected from among cEt, cMOE, LNA, α-LNA, ENA and 2′-thio LNA. In certain embodiments discussed above, the bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside comprise cEt. In certain embodiments discussed above, the bicyclic nucleosides at the 3′-most 5′-wing nucleoside comprise LNA.
  • Antisense compounds having certain specified motifs have enhanced selectivity, including, but not limited to motifs described above. In certain embodiments, enhanced selectivity is achieved by oligonucleotides comprising any one or more of:
  • a modification motif comprising a long 5′-wing (longer than 5, 6, or 7 nucleosides);
  • a modification motif comprising a long 3′-wing (longer than 5, 6, or 7 nucleosides);
  • a modification motif comprising a short gap region (shorter than 8, 7, or 6 nucleosides); and
  • a modification motif comprising an interrupted gap region (having no uninterrupted stretch of unmodified 2′-deoxynucleosides longer than 7, 6 or 5).
  • i. Certain Selective Nucleobase Sequence Elements
  • In certain embodiments, selective antisense compounds comprise nucleobase sequence elements. Such nucleobase sequence elements are independent of modification motifs. Accordingly, oligonucleotides having any of the motifs (modification motifs, nucleoside motifs, sugar motifs, nucleobase modification motifs, and/or linkage motifs) may also comprise one or more of the following nucleobase sequence elements.
  • ii. Alignment of Differentiating Nucleobase/Target-Selective Nucleoside
  • In certain embodiments, a target region and a region of a non-target nucleic acid differ by 1-4 differentiating nucleobase. In such embodiments, selective antisense compounds have a nucleobase sequence that aligns with the non-target nucleic acid with 1-4 mismatches. A nucleoside of the antisense compound that corresponds to a differentiating nucleobase of the target nucleic acid is referred to herein as a target-selective nucleoside. In certain embodiments, selective antisense compounds having a gapmer motif align with a non-target nucleic acid, such that a target-selective nucleoside is positioned in the gap. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside is the 1st nucleoside of the gap from the 5′ end. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside is the 2nd nucleoside of the gap from the 5′ end. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside is the 3rd nucleoside of the gap from the 5′-end. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside is the 4th nucleoside of the gap from the 5′-end. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside is the 5th nucleoside of the gap from the 5′-end. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside is the 6rd nucleoside of the gap from the 5′-end. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside is the 8th nucleoside of the gap from the 3′-end. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside is the 7th nucleoside of the gap from the 3′-end. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside is the 6th nucleoside of the gap from the 3′-end. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside is the 5th nucleoside of the gap from the 3′-end. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside is the 4th nucleoside of the gap from the 3′-end. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside is the 3rd nucleoside of the gap from the 3′-end. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside is the 2nd nucleoside of the gap from the 3′-end.
  • In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside comprises a modified nucleoside. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside comprises a modified sugar. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside comprises a sugar surrogate. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside comprises a sugar surrogate selected from among HNA and F-HNA. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside comprises a sugar surrogate selected from among F-CeNA, FRNA, and FANA. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside comprises a 2′-substituted sugar moiety selected from among MOE, F and (ara)-F. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from 5′-(R)-Me DNA. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside comprises a 5′-substituted sugar moiety selected from 5′-(S)-Me DNA. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside comprises a bicyclic sugar moiety selected from among cEt, and α-L-LNA. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside comprises a modified nucleobase. In certain embodiments, a target-selective nucleoside comprises a modified nucleobase selected from among 2-thio-thymidine and 5-propyne uridine.
  • In certain embodiments, a modification at position 4 from the 5′-end increases selectivity. In certain embodiments, a modification at position 5 from the 5′-end increases selectivity. In certain embodiments, a modification at position 7 from the 5′-end increases selectivity. In certain embodiments, a modification at position 8 from the 5′-end increases potency and selectivity. In certain embodiments, a modification at position 9 from the 5′-end increases potency. In certain embodiments, a modification at position 10 from the 5′-end increases selectivity. In certain embodiments, a modification at position 11 from the 5′-end increases selectivity. In certain embodiments, a modification at position 12 from the 5′-end increases potency. In certain embodiments, an S-5′-Me-DNA modification increases allele selectivity.
  • iii. Mismatches to the Target Nucleic Acid
  • In certain embodiments, selective antisense compounds comprise one or more mismatched nucleobases relative to the target nucleic acid. In certain such embodiments, antisense activity against the target is reduced by such mismatch, but activity against the non-target is reduced by a greater amount. Thus, in certain embodiments selectivity is improved. Any nucleobase other than the differentiating nucleobase is suitable for a mismatch. In certain embodiments, however, the mismatch is specifically positioned within the gap of an oligonucleotide having a gapmer motif. In certain embodiments, a mismatch relative to the target nucleic acid is at positions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 from the 5′-end of the gap region. In certain embodiments, a mismatch relative to the target nucleic acid is at positions 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 of the antisense compounds from the 3′-end of the gap region. In certain embodiments, a mismatch relative to the target nucleid acid is at positions 1, 2, 3, or 4 of the antisense compounds from the 5′-end of the wing region. In certain embodiments, a mismatch relative to the target nucleid acid is at positions 4, 3, 2, or 1 of the antisense compounds from the 3′-end of the wing region.
  • iv. Self Complementary Regions
  • In certain embodiments, selective antisense compounds comprise a region that is not complementary to the target. In certain embodiments, such region is complementary to another region of the antisense compound. Such regions are referred to herein as self-complementary regions. For example, in certain embodiments, an antisense compound has a first region at one end that is complementary to a second region at the other end. In certain embodiments, one of the first and second regions is complementary to the target nucleic acid. Unless the target nucleic acid also includes a self-complementary region, the other of the first and second region of the antisense compound will not be complementary to the target nucleic acid. For illustrative purposes, certain antisense compounds have the following nucleobase motif:
  • ABCXXXXXXXXXC′B′A′;
  • ABCXXXXXXX(X/C′)(X/B′)(X/A′);
  • (X/A)(X/B)(X/C)XXXXXXXXXC′B′A′
  • where each of A, B, and C are any nucleobase; A′, B′, and C′ are the complementary bases to A, B, and C, respectively; each X is a nucleobase complementary to the target nucleic acid; and two letters in parentheses (e.g., (X/C′)) indicates that the nucleobase is complementary to the target nucleic acid and to the designated nucleoside within the antisense oligonucleotide.
  • Without being bound to any mechanism, in certain embodiments, such antisense compounds are expected to form self-structure, which is disrupted upon contact with a target nucleic acid. Contact with a non-target nucleic acid is expected to disrupt the self-structure to a lesser degree, thus increasing selectivity compared to the same antisense compound lacking the self-complementary regions.
  • v. Combinations of features
  • Though it is clear to one of skill in the art, the above motifs and other elements for increasing selectivity may be used alone or in combination. For example, a single antisense compound may include any one, two, three, or more of: self-complementary regions, a mismatch relative to the target nucleic acid, a short nucleoside gap, an interrupted gap, and specific placement of the selective nucleoside.
  • D. CERTAIN TARGET NUCLEIC ACIDS
  • In certain embodiments, antisense compounds comprise or consist of an oligonucleotide comprising a region that is complementary to a target nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is an endogenous RNA molecule. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is a non-coding RNA. In certain such embodiments, the target non-coding RNA is selected from: a long-non-coding RNA, a short non-coding RNA, an intronic RNA molecule, a snoRNA, a scaRNA, a microRNA (including pre-microRNA and mature microRNA), a ribosomal RNA, and promoter directed RNA. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid encodes a protein. In certain such embodiments, the target nucleic acid is selected from: an mRNA and a pre-mRNA, including intronic, exonic and untranslated regions. In certain embodiments, oligomeric compounds are at least partially complementary to more than one target nucleic acid. For example, antisense compounds of the present invention may mimic microRNAs, which typically bind to multiple targets. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is a nucleic acid other than a mature mRNA. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is a nucleic acid other than a mature mRNA or a microRNA. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is a non-coding RNA other than a microRNA. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is a non-coding RNA other than a microRNA or an intronic region of a pre-mRNA. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is a long non-coding RNA. In certain embodiments, the target RNA is an mRNA. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is a pre-mRNA.
  • In certain such embodiments, the target region is entirely within an intron. In certain embodiments, the target region spans an intron/exon junction. In certain embodiments, the target region is at least 50% within an intron. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is selected from among non-coding RNA, including exonic regions of pre-mRNA. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is a ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is a non-coding RNA associated with splicing of other pre-mRNAs. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is a nuclear-retained non-coding RNA.
  • In certain embodiments, antisense compounds described herein are complementary to a target nucleic acid comprising a single-nucleotide polymorphism. In certain such embodiments, the antisense compound is capable of modulating expression of one allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism-containing-target nucleic acid to a greater or lesser extent than it modulates another allele. In certain embodiments an antisense compound hybridizes to a single-nucleotide polymorphism-containing-target nucleic acid at the single-nucleotide polymorphism site. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is a Huntingtin gene transcript. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is a single-nucleotide polymorphism-containing-target nucleic acid of a Huntingtin gene transcript. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is not a Huntingtin gene transcript. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is a single-nucleotide polymorphism-containing-target nucleic acid of a gene transcript other than Huntingtin. In certain embodiments, the target nucleic acid is any nucleic acid other than a Huntingtin gene transcript.
  • a. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • In certain embodiments, the invention provides selective antisense compounds that have greater activity for a target nucleic acid than for a homologous or partially homologous non-target nucleic acid. In certain such embodiments, the target and non-target nucleic acids are not functionally related to one another (e.g., are transcripts from different genes). In certain embodiments, the target and not-targe nucleic acids are allelic variants of one another. Certain embodiments of the present invention provide methods, compounds, and compositions for selectively inhibiting mRNA and protein expression of an allelic variant of a particular gene or DNA sequence. In certain embodiments, the allelic variant contains a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). In certain embodiments, a SNP is associated with a mutant allele. In certain embodiments, a mutant SNP is associated with a disease. In certain embodiments a mutant SNP is associated with a disease, but is not causative of the disease. In certain embodiments, mRNA and protein expression of a mutant allele is associated with disease.
  • In certain embodiments, the expressed gene product of a mutant allele results in aggregation of the mutant proteins causing disease. In certain embodiments, the expressed gene product of a mutant allele results in gain of function causing disease. In certain embodiments, genes with an autosomal dominant mutation resulting in a toxic gain of function of the protein are the APP gene encoding amyloid precursor protein involved in Alzheimer's disease (Gene, 371: 68, 2006); the PrP gene encoding prion protein involved in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in fatal familial insomnia (Nat. Med. 1997, 3: 1009); GFAP gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein involved in Alexander disease (J. Neurosci. 2006, 26:111623); alpha-synuclein gene encoding alpha-synuclein protein involved in Parkinson's disease (J. Clin. Invest. 2003, 111: 145); SOD-1 gene encoding the SOD-1 protein involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Science 1998, 281: 1851); atrophin-1 gene encoding atrophin-1 protein involved in dentato-rubral and pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPA) (Trends Mol. Med. 2001, 7: 479); SCA1 gene encoding ataxin-1 protein involved in spino-cerebellar ataxia-1 (SCA1) (Protein Sci. 2003, 12: 953); PLP gene encoding proteolipid protein involved in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (NeuroMol Med. 2007, 4: 73); DYT1 gene encoding torsinA protein involved in Torsion dystonia (Brain Res. 2000, 877: 379); and alpha-B crystalline gene encoding alpha-B crystalline protein involved in protein aggregation diseases, including cardiomyopathy (Cell 2007, 130: 427); alpha1-antitrypsin gene encoding alpha1-antitrypsin protein involved in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (New Engl J Med. 2002, 346: 45); Ltk gene encoding leukocyte tyrosine kinase protein involved in systemic lupus erythematosus (Hum. Mol. Gen. 2004, 13: 171); PCSK9 gene encoding PCSK9 protein involved in hypercholesterolemia (Hum Mutat. 2009, 30: 520); prolactin receptor gene encoding prolactin receptor protein involved in breast tumors (Proc. Natl. Assoc. Sci. 2008, 105: 4533); CCL5 gene encoding the chemokine CCL5 involved in COPD and asthma (Eur. Respir. J. 2008, 32: 327); PTPN22 gene encoding PTPN22 protein involved in Type 1 diabetes, Rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and SLE (Proc. Natl. Assoc. Sci. 2007, 104: 19767); androgen receptor gene encoding the androgen receptor protein involved in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy or Kennedy's disease (J Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2008, 108: 245); CHMP4B gene encoding chromatin modifying protein-4B involved in progressive childhood posterior subcapsular cataracts (Am. J. Hum. Genet 2007, 81: 596); FXR/NR1H4 gene encoding Farnesoid X receptor protein involved in cholesterol gallstone disease, arthrosclerosis and diabetes (Mol. Endocrinol. 2007, 21: 1769); ABCA1 gene encoding ABCA1 protein involved in cardiovascular disease (Transl. Res. 2007, 149: 205); CaSR gene encoding the calcium sensing receptor protein involved in primary hypercalciuria (Kidney Int. 2007, 71: 1155); alpha-globin gene encoding alpha-globin protein involved in alpha-thallasemia (Science 2006, 312: 1215); httlpr gene encoding HTTLPR protein involved in obsessive compulsive disorder (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2006, 78: 815); AVP gene encoding arginine vasopressin protein in stress-related disorders such as anxiety disorders and comorbid depression (CNS Neurol. Disord. Drug Targets 2006, 5: 167); GNAS gene encoding G proteins involved in congenital visual defects, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 2006, 27: 260); APAF1 gene encoding APAF1 protein involved in a predisposition to major depression (Mol. Psychiatry 2006, 11: 76); TGF-beta1 gene encoding TGF-beta1 protein involved in breast cancer and prostate cancer (Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2004, 13: 759); AChR gene encoding acetylcholine receptor involved in congential myasthenic syndrome (Neurology 2004, 62: 1090); P2Y12 gene encoding adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor protein involved in risk of peripheral arterial disease (Circulation 2003, 108: 2971); LQT1 gene encoding LQT1 protein involved in atrial fibrillation (Cardiology 2003, 100: 109); RET protooncogene encoding RET protein involved in sporadic pheochromocytoma (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2003, 88: 4911); filamin A gene encoding filamin A protein involved in various congenital malformations (Nat. Genet. 2003, 33: 487); TARDBP gene encoding TDP-43 protein involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Hum. Mol. Gene.t 2010, 19: 671); SCA3 gene encoding ataxin-3 protein involved in Machado-Joseph disease (PLoS One 2008, 3: e3341); SCAT gene encoding ataxin-7 protein involved in spino-cerebellar ataxia-7 (PLoS One 2009, 4: e7232); and HTT gene encoding huntingtin protein involved in Huntington's disease (Neurobiol Dis. 1996, 3:183); and the CA4 gene encoding carbonic anhydrase 4 protein, CRX gene encoding cone-rod homeobox transcription factor protein, FSCN2 gene encoding retinal fascin homolog 2 protein, IMPDH1 gene encoding inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 1 protein, NR2E3 gene encoding nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group E3 protein, NRL gene encoding neural retina leucine zipper protein, PRPF3 (RP18) gene encoding pre-mRNA splicing factor 3 protein, PRPF8 (RP13) gene encoding pre-mRNA splicing factor 8 protein, PRPF31 (RP11) gene encoding pre-mRNA splicing factor 31 protein, RDS gene encoding peripherin 2 protein, ROM1 gene encoding rod outer membrane protein 1 protein, RHO gene encoding rhodopsin protein, RP1 gene encoding RP1 protein, RPGR gene encoding retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator protein, all of which are involved in Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa disease (Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008, 613:203)
  • In certain embodiments, the mutant allele is associated with any disease from the group consisting of Alzheimer's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, Alexander disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, dentato-rubral and pallido-luysian atrophy DRPA, spino-cerebellar ataxia, Torsion dystonia, cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, systemic lupus erythematosus, hypercholesterolemia, breast cancer, asthma, Type 1 diabetes, Rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, SLE, spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Kennedy's disease, progressive childhood posterior subcapsular cataracts, cholesterol gallstone disease, arthrosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, primary hypercalciuria, alpha-thallasemia, obsessive compulsive disorder, Anxiety, comorbid depression, congenital visual defects, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, prostate cancer, congential myasthenic syndrome, peripheral arterial disease, atrial fibrillation, sporadic pheochromocytoma, congenital malformations, Machado-Joseph disease, Huntington's disease, and Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa disease.
  • i. Certain Huntingtin Targets
  • In certain embodiments, an allelic variant of huntingtin is selectively reduced. Nucleotide sequences that encode huntingtin include, without limitation, the following: GENBANK Accession No. NT006081.18, truncated from nucleotides 1566000 to 1768000 (replaced by GENBANK Accession No. NT006051), incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 1, and NM002111.6, incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 574.
  • Table 14 provides SNPs found in the GM04022, GM04281, GMO2171, and GMO2173B cell lines. Also provided are the allelic variants found at each SNP position, the genotype for each of the cell lines, and the percentage of HD patients having a particular allelic variant. For example, the two allelic variants for SNP rs6446723 are T and C. The GM04022 cell line is heterozygous TC, the GMO2171 cell line is homozygous CC, the GMO2173 cell line is heterozygous TC, and the GM04281 cell line is homozygous TT.
  • Fifty percent of HD patients have a T at SNP position rs6446723.
  • TABLE 14
    Allelic Variations for SNPs Associated with HD
    SNP Variation GM04022 GM02171 GM02173 GM04281 TargetPOP allele
    rs6446723 T/C TC CC TC TT 0.50 T
    rs3856973 A/G AG AA AG GG 0.50 G
    rs2285086 A/G AG GG AG AA 0.50 A
    rs363092 A/C AC AA AC CC 0.49 C
    rs916171 C/G GC GG GC CC 0.49 C
    rs6844859 T/C TC CC TC TT 0.49 T
    rs7691627 A/G AG AA AG GG 0.49 G
    rs4690073 A/G AG AA AG GG 0.49 G
    rs2024115 A/G AG GG AG AA 0.48 A
    rs11731237 T/C CC CC TC TT 0.43 T
    rs362296 A/C CC AC AC AC 0.42 C
    rs10015979 A/G AA AA AG GG 0.42 G
    rs7659144 C/G CG CG CG CC 0.41 C
    rs363096 T/C CC CC TC TT 0.40 T
    rs362273 A/G AA AG AG AA 0.39 A
    rs16843804 T/C CC TC TC CC 0.38 C
    rs362271 A/G GG AG AG GG 0.38 G
    rs362275 T/C CC TC TC CC 0.38 C
    rs3121419 T/C CC TC TC CC 0.38 C
    rs362272 A/G GG AG GG 0.38 G
    rs3775061 A/G AA AG AG AA 0.38 A
    rs34315806 T/C CC TC TC CC 0.38 C
    rs363099 T/C CC TC TC CC 0.38 C
    rs2298967 T/C TT TC TC TT 0.38 T
    rs363088 A/T AA TA TA AA 0.38 A
    rs363064 T/C CC TC TC CC 0.35 C
    rs363102 A/G AG AA AA AA 0.23 G
    rs2798235 A/G AG GG GG GG 0.21 A
    rs363080 T/C TC CC CC CC 0.21 T
    rs363072 A/T TA TA AA AA 0.13 A
    rs363125 A/C AC AC CC CC 0.12 C
    rs362303 T/C TC TC CC CC 0.12 C
    rs362310 T/C TC TC CC CC 0.12 C
    rs10488840 A/G AG AG GG GG 0.12 G
    rs362325 T/C TC TC TT TT 0.11 T
    rs35892913 A/G GG GG GG GG 0.10 A
    rs363102 A/G AG AA AA AA 0.09 A
    rs363096 T/C CC CC TC TT 0.09 C
    rs11731237 T/C CC CC TC TT 0.09 C
    rs10015979 A/G AA AA AG GG 0.08 A
    rs363080 T/C TC CC CC CC 0.07 C
    rs2798235 A/G AG GG GG GG 0.07 G
    rs1936032 C/G GC CC CC CC 0.06 C
    rs2276881 A/G GG GG GG GG 0.06 G
    rs363070 A/G AA AA AA AA 0.06 A
    rs35892913 A/G GG GG GG GG 0.04 G
    rs12502045 T/C CC CC CC CC 0.04 C
    rs6446723 T/C TC CC TC TT 0.04 C
    rs7685686 A/G AG GG AG AA 0.04 G
    rs3733217 T/C CC CC CC CC 0.03 C
    rs6844859 T/C TC CC TC TT 0.03 C
    rs362331 T/C TC CC TC TT 0.03 C
  • E. CERTAIN INDICATIONS
  • In certain embodiments, provided herein are methods of treating an animal or individual comprising administering one or more pharmaceutical compositions as described herein. In certain embodiments, the individual or animal has Huntington's disease.
  • In certain embodiments, compounds targeted to huntingtin as described herein may be administered to reduce the severity of physiological symptoms of Huntington's disease. In certain embodiments, compounds targeted to huntingtin as described herein may be administered to reduce the rate of degeneration in an individual or an animal having Huntington's disease. In certain embodiments, compounds targeted to huntingtin as described herein may be administered regeneration function in an individual or an animal having Huntington's disease. In certain embodiments, symptoms of Huntingtin's disease may be reversed by treatment with a compound as described herein.
  • In certain embodiments, compounds targeted to huntingtin as described herein may be administered to ameliorate one or more symptoms of Huntington's disease. In certain embodiments administration of compounds targeted to huntingtin as described herein may improve the symptoms of Huntington's disease as measured by any metric known to those having skill in the art. In certain embodiments, administration of compounds targeted to huntingtin as described herein may improve a rodent's rotaraod assay performance. In certain embodiments, administration of compounds targeted to huntingtin as described herein may improve a rodent's plus maze assay. In certain embodiments, administration of compounds targeted to huntingtin as described herein may improve a rodent's open field assay performance.
  • Accordingly, provided herein are methods for ameliorating a symptom associated with Huntington's disease in a subject in need thereof. In certain embodiments, provided is a method for reducing the rate of onset of a symptom associated with Huntington's disease. In certain embodiments, provided is a method for reducing the severity of a symptom associated with Huntington's disease. In certain embodiments, provided is a method for regenerating neurological function as shown by an improvement of a symptom associated with Huntington's disease. In such embodiments, the methods comprise administering to an individual or animal in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a compound targeted to a huntingtin nucleic acid.
  • Huntington's disease is characterized by numerous physical, neurological, psychiatric, and/or peripheral symptoms. Any symptom known to one of skill in the art to be associated with Huntington's disease can be ameliorated or otherwise modulated as set forth above in the methods described above. In certain embodiments, the symptom is a physical symptom selected from the group consisting of restlessness, lack of coordination, unintentionally initiated motions, unintentionally uncompleted motions, unsteady gait, chorea, rigidity, writhing motions, abnormal posturing, instability, abnormal facial expressions, difficulty chewing, difficulty swallowing, difficulty speaking, seizure, and sleep disturbances. In certain embodiments, the symptom is a cognitive symptom selected from the group consisting of impaired planning, impaired flexibility, impaired abstract thinking, impaired rule acquisition, impaired initiation of appropriate actions, impaired inhibition of inappropriate actions, impaired short-term memory, impaired long-term memory, paranoia, disorientation, confusion, hallucination and dementia. In certain embodiments, the symptom is a psychiatric symptom selected from the group consisting of anxiety, depression, blunted affect, egocentrisms, aggression, compulsive behavior, irritability and suicidal ideation. In certain embodiments, the symptom is a peripheral symptom selected from the group consisting of reduced brain mass, muscle atrophy, cardiac failure, impaired glucose tolerance, weight loss, osteoporosis, and testicular atrophy.
  • In certain embodiments, the symptom is restlessness. In certain embodiments, the symptom is lack of coordination. In certain embodiments, the symptom is unintentionally initiated motions. In certain embodiments, the symptom is unintentionally uncompleted motions. In certain embodiments, the symptom is unsteady gait. In certain embodiments, the symptom is chorea. In certain embodiments, the symptom is rigidity. In certain embodiments, the symptom is writhing motions. In certain embodiments, the symptom is abnormal posturing. In certain embodiments, the symptom is instability. In certain embodiments, the symptom is abnormal facial expressions. In certain embodiments, the symptom is difficulty chewing. In certain embodiments, the symptom is difficulty swallowing. In certain embodiments, the symptom is difficulty speaking. In certain embodiments, the symptom is seizures. In certain embodiments, the symptom is sleep disturbances.
  • In certain embodiments, the symptom is impaired planning. In certain embodiments, the symptom is impaired flexibility. In certain embodiments, the symptom is impaired abstract thinking. In certain embodiments, the symptom is impaired rule acquisition. In certain embodiments, the symptom is impaired initiation of appropriate actions. In certain embodiments, the symptom is impaired inhibition of inappropriate actions. In certain embodiments, the symptom is impaired short-term memory. In certain embodiments, the symptom is impaired long-term memory. In certain embodiments, the symptom is paranoia. In certain embodiments, the symptom is disorientation. In certain embodiments, the symptom is confusion. In certain embodiments, the symptom is hallucination. In certain embodiments, the symptom is dementia.
  • In certain embodiments, the symptom is anxiety. In certain embodiments, the symptom is depression. In certain embodiments, the symptom is blunted affect. In certain embodiments, the symptom is egocentrism. In certain embodiments, the symptom is aggression. In certain embodiments, the symptom is compulsive behavior. In certain embodiments, the symptom is irritability. In certain embodiments, the symptom is suicidal ideation.
  • In certain embodiments, the symptom is reduced brain mass. In certain embodiments, the symptom is muscle atrophy. In certain embodiments, the symptom is cardiac failure. In certain embodiments, the symptom is impaired glucose tolerance. In certain embodiments, the symptom is weight loss. In certain embodiments, the symptom is osteoporosis. In certain embodiments, the symptom is testicular atrophy. In certain embodiments, symptoms of Huntington's disease may be quantifiable. For example, osteoporosis may be measured and quantified by, for example, bone density scans. For such symptoms, in certain embodiments, the symptom may be reduced by about 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 or 99%, or a range defined by any two of these values.
  • In certain embodiments, provided are methods of treating an individual comprising administering one or more pharmaceutical compositions as described herein. In certain embodiments, the individual has Huntington's disease.
  • In certain embodiments, administration of an antisense compound targeted to a huntingtin nucleic acid results in reduction of huntingtin expression by at least about 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 or 99%, or a range defined by any two of these values.
  • In certain embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions comprising an antisense compound targeted to huntingtin are used for the preparation of a medicament for treating a patient suffering or susceptible to Huntington's disease.
  • F. CERTAIN PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS
  • In certain embodiments, the present invention provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising one or more antisense compound. In certain embodiments, such pharmaceutical composition comprises a suitable pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier. In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition comprises a sterile saline solution and one or more antisense compound. In certain embodiments, such pharmaceutical composition consists of a sterile saline solution and one or more antisense compound. In certain embodiments, the sterile saline is pharmaceutical grade saline. In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition comprises one or more antisense compound and sterile water. In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition consists of one or more antisense compound and sterile water. In certain embodiments, the sterile saline is pharmaceutical grade water. In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition comprises one or more antisense compound and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition consists of one or more antisense compound and sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In certain embodiments, the sterile saline is pharmaceutical grade PBS.
  • In certain embodiments, antisense compounds may be admixed with pharmaceutically acceptable active and/or inert substances for the preparation of pharmaceutical compositions or formulations. Compositions and methods for the formulation of pharmaceutical compositions depend on a number of criteria, including, but not limited to, route of administration, extent of disease, or dose to be administered.
  • Pharmaceutical compositions comprising antisense compounds encompass any pharmaceutically acceptable salts, esters, or salts of such esters. In certain embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions comprising antisense compounds comprise one or more oligonucleotide which, upon administration to an animal, including a human, is capable of providing (directly or indirectly) the biologically active metabolite or residue thereof. Accordingly, for example, the disclosure is also drawn to pharmaceutically acceptable salts of antisense compounds, prodrugs, pharmaceutically acceptable salts of such prodrugs, and other bioequivalents. Suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, sodium and potassium salts.
  • A prodrug can include the incorporation of additional nucleosides at one or both ends of an oligomeric compound which are cleaved by endogenous nucleases within the body, to form the active antisense oligomeric compound.
  • Lipid moieties have been used in nucleic acid therapies in a variety of methods. In certain such methods, the nucleic acid is introduced into preformed liposomes or lipoplexes made of mixtures of cationic lipids and neutral lipids. In certain methods, DNA complexes with mono- or poly-cationic lipids are formed without the presence of a neutral lipid. In certain embodiments, a lipid moiety is selected to increase distribution of a pharmaceutical agent to a particular cell or tissue. In certain embodiments, a lipid moiety is selected to increase distribution of a pharmaceutical agent to fat tissue. In certain embodiments, a lipid moiety is selected to increase distribution of a pharmaceutical agent to muscle tissue.
  • In certain embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions provided herein comprise one or more modified oligonucleotides and one or more excipients. In certain such embodiments, excipients are selected from water, salt solutions, alcohol, polyethylene glycols, gelatin, lactose, amylase, magnesium stearate, talc, silicic acid, viscous paraffin, hydroxymethylcellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone.
  • In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition provided herein comprises a delivery system. Examples of delivery systems include, but are not limited to, liposomes and emulsions. Certain delivery systems are useful for preparing certain pharmaceutical compositions including those comprising hydrophobic compounds. In certain embodiments, certain organic solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide are used.
  • In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition provided herein comprises one or more tissue-specific delivery molecules designed to deliver the one or more pharmaceutical agents of the present invention to specific tissues or cell types. For example, in certain embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions include liposomes coated with a tissue-specific antibody.
  • In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition provided herein comprises a co-solvent system. Certain of such co-solvent systems comprise, for example, benzyl alcohol, a nonpolar surfactant, a water-miscible organic polymer, and an aqueous phase. In certain embodiments, such co-solvent systems are used for hydrophobic compounds. A non-limiting example of such a co-solvent system is the VPD co-solvent system, which is a solution of absolute ethanol comprising 3% w/v benzyl alcohol, 8% w/v of the nonpolar surfactant Polysorbate 80™ and 65% w/v polyethylene glycol 300. The proportions of such co-solvent systems may be varied considerably without significantly altering their solubility and toxicity characteristics. Furthermore, the identity of co-solvent components may be varied: for example, other surfactants may be used instead of Polysorbate 80™; the fraction size of polyethylene glycol may be varied; other biocompatible polymers may replace polyethylene glycol, e.g., polyvinyl pyrrolidone; and other sugars or polysaccharides may substitute for dextrose.
  • In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition provided herein is prepared for oral administration. In certain embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions are prepared for buccal administration.
  • In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition is prepared for administration by injection (e.g., intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, etc.). In certain of such embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition comprises a carrier and is formulated in aqueous solution, such as water or physiologically compatible buffers such as Hanks's solution, Ringer's solution, or physiological saline buffer. In certain embodiments, other ingredients are included (e.g., ingredients that aid in solubility or serve as preservatives). In certain embodiments, injectable suspensions are prepared using appropriate liquid carriers, suspending agents and the like. Certain pharmaceutical compositions for injection are presented in unit dosage form, e.g., in ampoules or in multi-dose containers. Certain pharmaceutical compositions for injection are suspensions, solutions or emulsions in oily or aqueous vehicles, and may contain formulatory agents such as suspending, stabilizing and/or dispersing agents. Certain solvents suitable for use in pharmaceutical compositions for injection include, but are not limited to, lipophilic solvents and fatty oils, such as sesame oil, synthetic fatty acid esters, such as ethyl oleate or triglycerides, and liposomes. Aqueous injection suspensions may contain.
  • G. ADMINISTRATION
  • In certain embodiments, the compounds and compositions as described herein are administered parenterally.
  • In certain embodiments, parenteral administration is by infusion. Infusion can be chronic or continuous or short or intermittent. In certain embodiments, infused pharmaceutical agents are delivered with a pump. In certain embodiments, parenteral administration is by injection.
  • In certain embodiments, compounds and compositions are delivered to the CNS. In certain embodiments, compounds and compositions are delivered to the cerebrospinal fluid. In certain embodiments, compounds and compositions are administered to the brain parenchyma. In certain embodiments, compounds and compositions are delivered to an animal by intrathecal administration, or intracerebroventricular administration. Broad distribution of compounds and compositions, described herein, within the central nervous system may be achieved with intraparenchymal administration, intrathecal administration, or intracerebroventricular administration.
  • In certain embodiments, parenteral administration is by injection. The injection may be delivered with a syringe or a pump. In certain embodiments, the injection is a bolus injection. In certain embodiments, the injection is administered directly to a tissue, such as striatum, caudate, cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum.
  • Therefore, in certain embodiments, delivery of a compound or composition described herein can affect the pharmacokinetic profile of the compound or composition. In certain embodiments, injection of a compound or composition described herein, to a targeted tissue improves the pharmacokinetic profile of the compound or composition as compared to infusion of the compound or composition. In a certain embodiment, the injection of a compound or composition improves potency compared to broad diffusion, requiring less of the compound or composition to achieve similar pharmacology. In certain embodiments, similar pharmacology refers to the amount of time that a target mRNA and/or target protein is down-regulated (e.g. duration of action). In certain embodiments, methods of specifically localizing a pharmaceutical agent, such as by bolus injection, decreases median effective concentration (EC50) by a factor of about 50 (e.g. 50 fold less concentration in tissue is required to achieve the same or similar pharmacodynamic effect). In certain embodiments, methods of specifically localizing a pharmaceutical agent, such as by bolus injection, decreases median effective concentration (EC50) by a factor of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 or 50. In certain embodiments the pharmaceutical agent in an antisense compound as further described herein. In certain embodiments, the targeted tissue is brain tissue. In certain embodiments the targeted tissue is striatal tissue. In certain embodiments, decreasing EC50 is desirable because it reduces the dose required to achieve a pharmacological result in a patient in need thereof.
  • In certain embodiments, an antisense oligonucleotide is delivered by injection or infusion once every month, every two months, every 90 days, every 3 months, every 6 months, twice a year or once a year.
  • H. CERTAIN COMBINATION THERAPIES
  • In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions are co-administered with one or more other pharmaceutical agents. In certain embodiments, such one or more other pharmaceutical agents are designed to treat the same disease, disorder, or condition as the one or more pharmaceutical compositions described herein. In certain embodiments, such one or more other pharmaceutical agents are designed to treat a different disease, disorder, or condition as the one or more pharmaceutical compositions described herein. In certain embodiments, such one or more other pharmaceutical agents are designed to treat an undesired side effect of one or more pharmaceutical compositions as described herein. In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions are co-administered with another pharmaceutical agent to treat an undesired effect of that other pharmaceutical agent. In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions are co-administered with another pharmaceutical agent to produce a combinational effect. In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions are co-administered with another pharmaceutical agent to produce a synergistic effect.
  • In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions and one or more other pharmaceutical agents are administered at the same time. In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions and one or more other pharmaceutical agents are administered at different times. In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions and one or more other pharmaceutical agents are prepared together in a single formulation. In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions and one or more other pharmaceutical agents are prepared separately.
  • In certain embodiments, pharmaceutical agents that may be co-administered with a pharmaceutical composition of include antipsychotic agents, such as, e.g., haloperidol, chlorpromazine, clozapine, quetapine, and olanzapine; antidepressant agents, such as, e.g., fluoxetine, sertraline hydrochloride, venlafaxine and nortriptyline; tranquilizing agents such as, e.g., benzodiazepines, clonazepam, paroxetine, venlafaxin, and beta-blockers; mood-stabilizing agents such as, e.g., lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, and carbamazepine; paralytic agents such as, e.g., Botulinum toxin; and/or other experimental agents including, but not limited to, tetrabenazine (Xenazine), creatine, conezyme Q10, trehalose, docosahexanoic acids, ACR16, ethyl-EPA, atomoxetine, citalopram, dimebon, memantine, sodium phenylbutyrate, ramelteon, ursodiol, zyprexa, xenasine, tiapride, riluzole, amantadine, [123I]MNI-420, atomoxetine, tetrabenazine, digoxin, detromethorphan, warfarin, alprozam, ketoconazole, omeprazole, and minocycline.
  • Nonlimiting Disclosure and Incorporation by Reference
  • While certain compounds, compositions and methods described herein have been described with specificity in accordance with certain embodiments, the following examples serve only to illustrate the compounds described herein and are not intended to limit the same. Each of the references, GenBank accession numbers, and the like recited in the present application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • Although the sequence listing accompanying this filing identifies each sequence as either “RNA” or
  • “DNA” as required, in reality, those sequences may be modified with any combination of chemical modifications. One of skill in the art will readily appreciate that such designation as “RNA” or “DNA” to describe modified oligonucleotides is, in certain instances, arbitrary. For example, an oligonucleotide comprising a nucleoside comprising a 2′-OH sugar moiety and a thymine base could be described as a DNA having a modified sugar (2′-OH for the natural 2′-H of DNA) or as an RNA having a modified base (thymine (methylated uracil) for natural uracil of RNA).
  • Accordingly, nucleic acid sequences provided herein, including, but not limited to those in the sequence listing, are intended to encompass nucleic acids containing any combination of natural or modified RNA and/or DNA, including, but not limited to such nucleic acids having modified nucleobases. By way of further example and without limitation, an oligomeric compound having the nucleobase sequence “ATCGATCG” encompasses any oligomeric compounds having such nucleobase sequence, whether modified or unmodified, including, but not limited to, such compounds comprising RNA bases, such as those having sequence “AUCGAUCG” and those having some DNA bases and some RNA bases such as “AUCGATCG” and oligomeric compounds having other modified or naturally occurring bases, such as “AT′CGAUCG,” wherein meC indicates a cytosine base comprising a methyl group at the 5-position.
  • EXAMPLES
  • The following examples illustrate certain embodiments of the present invention and are not limiting. Moreover, where specific embodiments are provided, the inventors have contemplated generic application of those specific embodiments. For example, disclosure of an oligonucleotide having a particular motif provides reasonable support for additional oligonucleotides having the same or similar motif And, for example, where a particular high-affinity modification appears at a particular position, other high-affinity modifications at the same position are considered suitable, unless otherwise indicated.
  • Example 1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Huntingtin (HTT) Gene Sequence
  • SNP positions (identified by Hayden et al, WO/2009/135322) associated with the HTT gene were mapped to the HTT genomic sequence, designated herein as SEQ ID NO: 1 (NT006081.18 truncated from nucleotides 1566000 to 1768000). Table 15 provides SNP positions associated with the HTT gene. Table 15 provides a reference SNP ID number from the Entrez SNP database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=snp), incorporated herein by reference. Table 15 furnishes further details on each SNP. The ‘Reference SNP ID number’ or ‘RS number’ is the number designated to each SNP from the Entrez SNP database at NCBI, incorporated herein by reference. ‘SNP position’ refers to the nucleotide position of the SNP on SEQ ID NO: 1. ‘Polymorphism’ indicates the nucleotide variants at that SNP position. ‘Major allele’ indicates the nucleotide associated with the major allele, or the nucleotide present in a statistically significant proportion of individuals in the human population. ‘Minor allele’ indicates the nucleotide associated with the minor allele, or the nucleotide present in a relatively small proportion of individuals in the human population.
  • TABLE 15
    Single Nuclear Polymorphisms (SNPs)
    and their positions on SEQ ID NO: 1
    SNP Major Minor
    RS No. position Polymorphism allele allele
    rs2857936 1963 C/T C T
    rs12506200 3707 A/G G A
    rs762855 14449 A/G G A
    rs3856973 19826 G/A G A
    rs2285086 28912 G/A A G
    rs7659144 37974 C/G C G
    rs16843804 44043 C/T C T
    rs2024115 44221 G/A A G
    rs10015979 49095 A/G A G
    rs7691627 51063 A/G G A
    rs2798235 54485 G/A G A
    rs4690072 62160 G/T T G
    rs6446723 66466 C/T T C
    rs363081 73280 G/A G A
    rs363080 73564 T/C C T
    rs363075 77327 G/A G A
    rs363064 81063 T/C C T
    rs3025849 83420 A/G A G
    rs6855981 87929 A/G G A
    rs363102 88669 G/A A G
    rs11731237 91466 C/T C T
    rs4690073 99803 A/G G A
    rs363144 100948 T/G T G
    rs3025838 101099 C/T C T
    rs34315806 101687 A/G G A
    rs363099 101709 T/C C T
    rs363096 119674 T/C T C
    rs2298967 125400 C/T T C
    rs2298969 125897 A/G G A
    rs6844859 130139 C/T T C
    rs363092 135682 C/A C A
    rs7685686 146795 A/G A G
    rs363088 149983 A/T A T
    rs362331 155488 C/T T C
    rs916171 156468 G/C C G
    rs362322 161018 A/G A G
    rs362275 164255 T/C C T
    rs362273 167080 A/G A G
    rs2276881 171314 G/A G A
    rs3121419 171910 T/C C T
    rs362272 174633 G/A G A
    rs362271 175171 G/A G A
    rs3775061 178407 C/T C T
    rs362310 179429 A/G G A
    rs362307 181498 T/C C T
    rs362306 181753 G/A G A
    rs362303 181960 T/C C T
    rs362296 186660 C/A C A
    rs1006798 198026 A/G A G
  • Example 2 Modified Oligonucleotides Targeting Huntingtin (HTT) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP)
  • A series of modified oligonucleotides were designed. These modified oligonucleotides were designed to target SNP positions associated with the HTT gene. In the tables, the ‘k’ subscript indicates an (S)-cEt modification; ‘e’ subscript indicates MOE modification; ‘g’ subscript indicates a 3′-fluoro-HNA modification; ‘f subscript indicates 2’-alpha-fluoro-2′-deoxyribose; ‘m’ before the cytosine residue indicates a 5-methylcytosine; ‘x’ before the thymine residue indicates a 2-thiothymine; number along with ‘d’ indicates a the number of deoxyribose nucleosides; the ‘o’ subscript after the sugar modification subscripts indicates a phosphate ester linkage; ‘mp’ subscript after the nucleoside indicates a methylphosphonate full linker; ‘s’ subscript after the nucleoside indicates a phosphorothioate internucleoside linkages. The underlined nucleoside indicates the position on the modified oligonucleotide opposite to the SNP position.
  • TABLE 16
    Modified oligonucleotides targeting Huntingtin (HTT) SNP rs2024115
    SEQ ID.
    Isis No. SEQUENCE SNP Motif NO.
    589567 Tes mCes Aks Aks Gds mCds T ds Ads Gds Tds Ads Ads rs2024115 eekk-d8-kkeee 37
    mCks Gks Aes Tes Ge
    607448 mCes Aks Aks Gds mCds T ds Ads Gds Tds Ads Ads mCks rs2024115 ekk-d8-kkeee 102
    Gks Aes Tes Ge
    607441 Tes mCes Aks Aks Gds mCds T ds Ads Gds Tds Ads Ads rs2024115 eekk-d8-kkee 103
    mCks Gks Aes Te
    607455 Aes Aks Gds mCds T ds Ads Gds Tds Ads Ads mCks Gks Aes rs2024115 ek-d8-kkeee 104
    TesGe
    607462 mCes Aes Aks Gds mCds T ds Ads Gds Tds Ads Ads mCks rs2024115 eek-d8-kkee 105
    Gks Aes Te
    607469 Tes mCes Aes Aks Gds mCds T ds Ads Gds Tds Ads Ads mCks rs2024115 eeek-d8-kee 106
    Ges Ae
  • TABLE 17
    Modified oligonucleotides targeting Huntingtin (HTT) SNP rs6446723
    SEQ
    ID.
    Isis No. SEQUENCE SNP Motif NO.
    589450 Tes Aes Aes Tks Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds A ds Gds Ads mCks Tks rs6446723 eeekk-d7-kkeee 32
    Tes TesAe
    589546 Tes Aes Aks Tks Tds Tds Tds mCds Tds A ds Gds Ads mCks Tks rs6446723 eekk-d8-kkeee 35
    Tes Tes Ae
    589547 Aes Aes Tks Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds A ds Gds Ads mCds Tks Tks rs6446723 eekk-d8-kkeee 36
    Tes Aes Te
    589718 Tes Aks Aes Tks Tds Tds Tds mCds Tds A ds Gds Ads mCks Tes rs6446723 ekek-d8-kekee 44
    Tks Tes Ae
    617104 Tes Aes Aeo Tko Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCko Tko rs6446723 eeekk-d7-kkeee 84
    Tes Tes Ae
    617106 Tes Aeo Ako Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads rs6446723 eekk-d8-kkeee 85
    mCko Tko Tes Tes Ae
    617108 Tes Ako Aeo Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads rs6446723 ekek-d8-kekee 86
    mCko Teo Tks Tes Ae
    617109 Aes Aeo Tko Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads Tko rs6446723 eekk-d8-kkeee 87
    Tko Tes Aes Te
    607446 Aes Aks Tks Tds Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCks Tks Tes rs6446723 ekk-d8-kkeee 92
    TesAe
    607439 TesAes Aks Tks Tds Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCks Tks rs6446723 eekk-d8-kkee 93
    Tes Te
    607453 Aes Tks Tds Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCks Tks Tes Tes rs6446723 ek-d8-kkeee 94
    Ae
    607460 Aes Aks Tks Tds Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCks Tks Tes rs6446723 ekk-d8-kkee 95
    Te
    607467 Tes Aes Aks Tks Tds Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCks rs6446723 eekk-d8-kee 96
    TesTe
    607447 Aes Tks Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCds Tks Tks Tes rs6446723 ekk-d8-kkeee 97
    AesTes
    607440 Aes Aes Tks Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCds Tks Tks rs6446723 eekk-d8-kkee 98
    Tes Ae
    607454 Tes Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCds Tks Tks Tes Aes rs6446723 ek-d8-kkeee 99
    Te
    607461 Aes Tks Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCds Tks Tks Tes rs6446723 ekk-d8-kkee 100
    Ae
    607468 Aes Aes Tes Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCds Tks Tes rs6446723 eeek-d8-kee 101
    Te
    607474 Aes Aes Tes Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCks Tks Tes rs6446723 eeek-d7-kkeee 127
    Tes Ae
    607475 Tes Aes Aes Tks Tds Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Aks mCks Tes rs6446723 eeek-d7-kkeee 128
    Tes Te
    607476 Aes Tes Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCks Tks Tes Tes rs6446723 eek-d7-kkeee 129
    Ae
    607477 Aes Aes Tes Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCks Tks Tes rs6446723 eeek-d7-kkee 130
    Te
    607478 Tes Aes Aes Tes Tks Tds Tds mCds Tds Ads Gds Ads mCks Tks rs6446723 eeeek-d7-kke 131
    Te
  • TABLE 18
    Modified oligonucleotides targeting Huntingtin (HTT) SNP rs363080
    SEQ ID.
    Isis No. SEQUENCE SNP Motif NO.
    609234 Aes Gks Aks Gds Ads Ads mCds Ads Ads Gds Ads Aks Gks rs363080 ekk-d8-kkee 156
    Ges mCe
    609235 Ges Aks Gks Ads Ads mCds Ads Ads Gds Ads Ads Gks Gks rs363080 ekk-d8-kkee 157
    mCes Te
    609236 Aes Gks Aks Ads mCds Ads Ads Gds Ads Ads Gds Gks rs363080 ekk-d8-kkee 158
    mCks Tes mCe
    609237 Ges Aks Aks mCds Ads Ads Gds Ads Ads Gds Gds mCks rs363080 ekk-d8-kkee 159
    Tks mCes mCe
    609238 Aes Gks Aks Gds Ads Ads mCds Ads Ads Gds Ads Aks rs363080 ekk-d8-kkeee 160
    Gks Ges mCes Te
    609239 Ges Aks Gks Ads Ads mCds Ads Ads Gds Ads Ads Gks Gks rs363080 ekk-d8-kkeee 161
    mCes Tes mCe
    609240 Aes Gks Aks Ads mCds Ads Ads Gds Ads Ads Gds Gks rs363080 ekk-d8-kkeee 162
    mCks Tes mCes mCe
    609241 Ges Aks Aks mCds Ads Ads Gds Ads Ads Gds Gds mCks rs363080 ekk-d8-kkeee 163
    Tks mCes mCes Ae
  • TABLE 19
    Modified oligonucleotides targeting Huntingtin (HTT) SNP rs363064
    SEQ
    ID.
    Isis No. SEQUENCE SNP Motif NO.
    589532 Ges Aes Aes Tks Aks mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCks rs363064 eeekk-d7-kkeee 33
    Aks Tes Tes Te
    589645 Ges Aes Aks Tks Ads mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCks rs363064 eekk-d8-kkeee 42
    Aks Tes Tes Te
    589646 Aes Aes Tks Aks mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCds Aks rs363064 eekk-d8-kkeee 43
    Tks Tes Tes Te
    617107 Aes Aeo Tko Aks mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCds Ako rs363064 eekk-d8-kkeee 88
    Tko Tes Tes Te
    617110 Ges Aes Aeo Tko Aks mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCko rs363064 eeekk-d7-kkeee 89
    Tko Tes Tes Te
    607449 Aes Tks Aks mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCds Aks Tks rs363064 ekk-d8-kkeee 107
    Tes Tes Te
    607442 Aes Aes Tks Aks mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCds Aks rs363064 eekk-d8-kkee 108
    Tks Tes Te
    607456 Tes Aks mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCds Aks Tks Tes Tes rs363064 ek-d8-kkeee 109
    Te
    607463 Aes Tes Aks mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCds Aks Tks rs363064 eek-d8-kkee 110
    Tes Te
    607470 Aes Aes Tes Aks mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCds Aks rs363064 eeek-d8-kee 111
    Tes Te
    607450 Aes Aks Tks Ads mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCks Aks rs363064 ekk-d8-kkeee 112
    Tes Tes Te
    607443 Ges Aes Aks Tks Ads mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCks rs363064 eekk-d8-kkee 113
    Aks Tes Te
    607457 Aes Tks Ads mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCks Aks Tes rs363064 ek-d8-kkeee 114
    Tes Te
    607464 Aes Aks Tks Ads mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCks Aks rs363064 ekk-d8-kkee 115
    Tes Te
    607471 Ges Aes Aes Tks Ads mCds G ds Gds Gds Tds Ads Ads mCks rs363064 eeek-d8-kee 116
    Aes Te
  • TABLE 20
    Modified oligonucleotides targeting Huntingtin (HTT) SNP rs7685686
    SEQ
    ID.
    Isis No. SEQUENCE SNP Motif NO.
    460209 Tes Aks Aks Ads Tds Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks mCks rs7685686 ekk-d9-kke 3
    mCe
    476333 Aes Tks Aes Aks Ads Tds Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 ekek-d9-keke 4
    mCes mCks Ae
    540083 Aes Aks Tks Tks Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Ads mCds mCds rs7685686 ekkk-d9-ke 7
    Aks Ge
    540094 Tes Tks Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Ads mCds mCds Aks Gks rs7685686 ek-d9-kkke 8
    Aks Ae
    540095 Aes Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Ads mCds mCks Aks rs7685686 ek-d9-kkke 9
    Gks Ae
    540096 Aes Aks Tds Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Ads mCks mCks rs7685686 ek-d9-kkke 10
    Aks Ge
    540108 Aes Tes Aes Aks Aks Tds Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCks Aks rs7685686 eeekk-d7-kkeee 11
    mCes mCes Ae
    550913 Aks Aks Tes Aks Aks Ads Tds Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds rs7685686 kkekk-d9-kkekk 12
    Aks mCks mCes Tks Tk
    551429 Tes Aes Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeekk-d7-kke 13
    mCks mCe
    556845 Tes Aks Aks Ads xTds Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 ekk-d9-kke 14
    mCks mCe
    558257 Tes Aks Aks Ads Tds Tdmp Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 ekk-d9-kke 15
    mCks mCe
    566267 Tes Aks Aks Ads Tgs Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 ekkdk-d7-kke 16
    mCks mCe
    568876 Aks Tks Aks Aks Aks Tds Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCks Aks rs7685686 kkkkk-d7-kkkkk 17
    mCks mCks Ak
    571036 Aes Tks Aes Aks Aes Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 ekekek-d7-keke 18
    mCes mCks Ae
    571037 Aes Tes Aes Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeeekk-d7-keke 19
    mCes mCks Ae
    571039 Aes Tks Aes Aks Ads xTds Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 ekek-d9-keke 20
    mCes mCks Ae
    571069 Aes Tes Aes Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeeekk-d7-kkee 21
    mCks mCes Ae
    571171 Aes Tks Aes Aks Ads Tds Tdmp Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 ekek-d9-keke 22
    mCes mCks Ae
    572771 Tes Aes Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeekk-d7-kkee 23
    mCks mCes Ae
    572772 Aes Tes Aes Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeeekk-d7-kke 24
    mCks mCe
    575007 Tes Aks Aks Ads Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 ekkdk-d7-kke 25
    mCks mCe
    575008 Tes Aks Aks Aks Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 ekkkk-d7-kke 26
    mCks mCe
    585246 Tes Aes Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeekk-d7-kkeee 31
    mCks mCes Aes Ge
    589537 Aes Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds mCds Ads mCks rs7685686 eekk-d8-kkeee 34
    mCks Aes Ges Ae
    593199 Tes Aes Aeo Ako Tks Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds mCds Ako Cks rs7685686 eeekk-d7-kke 47
    Ce
    593200 Aes Tks Tds Gds T ds mCAds Tds mCds Ads mCds mCko Ako rs7685686 ek-d9-kkke 48
    Gks Ae
    593201 Aes Tko Aes Ako Aes Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Ako rs7685686 ekekek-d7-keke 49
    mCes mCks Ae
    593202 Aes Tko Ako Ako Aks Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Ako rs7685686 ekkkk-d7-kkke 50
    mCko mCks Ae
    593203 Tks Ako Ako Ako Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Ako rs7685686 kkkkk-d7-kkkkk 51
    mCko mCko Aks Gk
    593204 Aks Tko Ako Ako Ako Tds Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCko Ako rs7685686 kkkkk-d7-kkkkk 52
    mCko mCko Ak
    598229 Aes Tes Aes Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds T ds mCks Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeeekk-d3-k- 53
    mCes mCks Ae d3-keke
    598299 Tes Aes Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks mCes rs7685686 eeekk-d7-keee 54
    mCes Ae
    598300 Tes Aes Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aes mCes rs7685686 eeekk-d7-eeee 55
    mCes Ae
    598301 Tes Aes Aes Aes Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks mCks rs7685686 eeeek-d7-kkee 56
    mCes Ae
    598302 Tes Aes Aes Aes Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks mCes rs7685686 eeeek-d7-keee 57
    mCes Ae
    598303 Tes Aes Aes Aes Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aes mCes rs7685686 eeeek-d7-eeee 58
    mCes Ae
    598304 Tes Aes Aes Ads Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks mCes rs7685686 eeedk-d7-keee 59
    mCes Ae
    598305 Aes Tes Aes Aes Ads Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeeedk-d7-kkee 60
    mCks mCes Ae
    598306 Aes Tes Aes Aes Ads Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeeedk-d7-keee 61
    mCes mCes Ae
    598307 Aes Tes Aes Aes Ads Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aes rs7685686 eeeedk-d7-eeee 62
    mCes mCes Ae
    598308 Tes Aeo Aeo Aes Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeeek-d7-keeee 63
    mCeo mCeo Aes Ge
    598309 Aes Aeo Aeo Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks mCes rs7685686 eeek-d7-keeeee 64
    mCeo Aeo Ges Ae
    598310 Aes Aeo Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks mCes mCes rs7685686 eek-d7-keeeeee 65
    Aeo Geo Aes Ae
    606560 Aes Tes Aes Aks Ads xTds Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeek-d9-keke 66
    mCes mCks Ae
    606561 Aes Tks Aes Aks Ads xTds Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 ekek-d9-keee 67
    mCes mCes Ae
    606562 Aes Tes Aes Aks Ads xTds Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeek-d9-keee 68
    mCes mCes Ae
    606578 Aes Tks Aes Aks Ads Tds Tds Gds T ds mCds Afs Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 ekek-d6-k-dd- 69
    mCes mCks Ae keke
    617115 Aes Tes Aes Aes Aes Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeeeek-d7-kke 70
    mCks mCe
    617116 Aes Tes Aes Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeeekk-d7-kee 71
    mCes mCe
    617117 Aes Tes Aes Aes Aes Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeeeek-d7-kee 72
    mCes mCe
    617118 Aes Teo Aeo Aeo Aeo Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aks rs7685686 eeeeek-d7-kee 73
    mCes mCe
    617119 Aes Teo Aeo Aeo Aeo Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aes rs7685686 eeeeek-d7-eee 74
    mCes mCe
    617425 Aes Tes Aes Aes Aes Tks Tds Gds T ds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aes rs7685686 eeeeek-d7-eee 75
    mCes mCe
    613581 Aes Aeo Teo Aeo Aes Ads Tks Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds rs7685686 eeeeedk-d7- 76
    mCds Aeo mCeo mCes Aes Ge eeeee
    613582 Aes Tes Aeo Aeo Aes Tks Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds mCds rs7685686 eeeeek-d7- 77
    Aeo mCeo mCeo Aes Ges Ae eeeeee
    613583 Tes Aeo Aeo Aes Tks Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aes rs7685686 eeeek-d7- 78
    mCeo mCeo Aeo Ges Aes Ae eeeeeee
    613584 Aes Aeo Aes Tks Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aes mCeo rs7685686 eeek-d7- 79
    mCeo Aeo Geo Aes Aes Ae eeeeeeee
    613585 Aes Aeo Tks Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aes mCes rs7685686 eek-d7- 80
    mCeo Aeo Geo Aeo Aes Aes Ae eeeeeeeee
    613586 Aes Tks Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds mCds Aes mCes mCeo rs7685686 ek-d7- 81
    Aeo Geo Aeo Aeo Aes Aes Ae eeeeeeeeee
    613588 Tes Aes Aeo Teo Aeo Aeo Aes Tks Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds rs7685686 eeeeeeek-d7- 82
    mCds Aeo mCes mCes Ae eeee
    613589 Tes Tes Aeo Aeo Teo Aeo Aeo Aes Tks Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads rs7685686 eeeeeeeek-d7- 83
    Tds mCds Aes mCes mCe eee
    617105 Aes Aeo Ako Tks Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds mCds Ads mCko rs7685686 eekk-d8-kkeee 90
    mCko Aes Ges Ae
    617111 Aes Tko Aeo Aks Ads xTds Tds Gds Tds mCds Ads Tds mCds Ako rs7685686 ekek-d9-keke 91
    mCes mCks Ae
  • TABLE 21
    Modified oligonucleotides targeting Huntingtin (HTT) SNP rs363088
    Isis No. SEQUENCE SNP Motif SEQ ID. NO.
    435871 Tes mCes Aes mCes Aes Gds mCds Tds Ads rs363088 eeeee-d9-eeeee 2
    Tds  mCds Tds Tds mCds Tes mCes Aes Tes
    mCe
    525366 mCes Aks mCes Aks Gds mCds Tds Ads Tds rs363088 ekek-d9-keke 5
    mCds Tds Tds mCds Tks mCes Ads Te
    525368 Aks mCes Aks Gks mCds Tds Ads Tds  mCds rs363088 kekk-d8-keke 6
    Tds Tds mCds Tks mCes Aks Te
    575172 Aes mCks Aks Gks mCds Tds Ads Tds  mCds rs363088 ekkk-d8-kke 27
    Tds Tds mCds Tks mCks Ae
    575175 Aes mCks Aks Gds mCds Tds Ads Tds  mCds rs363088 ekk-d8-kkke 28
    Tds Tds mCks Tks mCks Ae
    582658 mCes Aks mCes Aks Gks mCds Tds Ads Tds rs363088 ekekk-d8-keke 29
    mCds Tds Tds mCds Tks mCes Aks Te
    582661 Ces Aks mCes Aks Gds mCds Tds Ads Tds rs363088 ekek-d8-kkeke 30
    mCds Tds Tds mCks Tks mCes Aks Te
    589595 mCes Aes mCks Aks Gds mCds Tds Ads Tds rs363088 eekk-d8-kkeee 38
    mCds Tds Tds mCks Tks mCes Aes Te
    589596 Aes mCes Aks Gks mCds Tds Ads Tds  mCds rs363088 eekk-d8-kkeee 39
    Tds Tds mCds Tks mCks Aes Tes mCe
    591416 mCes Aes mCes Aks Gks mCds Tds Ads Tds rs363088 eeekk-d8-kkee 46
    mCds Tds Tds mCds Tks mCks Aes Te
  • TABLE 22
    Modified oligonucleotides targeting Huntingtin (HTT) SNP rs362307
    Isis No. SEQUENCE SNP Motif SEQ ID. NO.
    609230 Ges Gks Gks mCds Ads mCds Ads Gds Ads rs362307 ekk-d8-kkee 148
    mCds Tds Tks mCks mCes Ae
    609231 Aes Gks Gks Gds mCds Ads mCds Ads Gds rs362307 ekk-d8-kkee 149
    Ads mCds Tks Tks mCes mCe
    609232 Aes Aks Gks Gds Gds mCds Ads mCds Ads rs362307 ekk-d8-kkee 150
    Gds Ads mCks Tks Tes mCe
    609233 mCes Aks Aks Gds Gds Gds mCds Ads mCds rs362307 ekk-d8-kkee 151
    Ads Gds Aks mCks Tes Te
    609242 Ges Gks Gks mCds Ads mCds Ads Gds Ads rs362307 ekk-d8-kkeee 152
    mCds Tds Tks mCks mCes Aes Ae
    609243 Aes Gks Gks Gds mCds Ads mCds Ads Gds rs362307 ekk-d8-kkeee 153
    Ads mCds Tks Tks mCes mCes Ae
    609244 Aes Aks Gks Gds Gds mCds Ads mCds Ads rs362307 ekk-d8-kkeee 154
    Gds Ads mCks Tks Tes mCes mCe
    609245 mCes Aks Aks Gds Gds Gds mCds Ads mCds rs362307 ekk-d8-kkeee 155
    Ads Gds Aks mCks Tes Tes mCe
  • TABLE 22
    Modified oligonucleotides targeting Huntingtin (HTT) SNP rs7685686 (G)
    As described above in Example 1, certain SNPs may have two or more allelic variants.
    For example, the two allelic variants for SNP rs7685686 are A and G. In certain embodiments,
    antisense oligonucleotides can be designed that target either allelic variant. In certain
    embodiments, a higher percentage of the population may have a particular allelic variant.
    Modified oligonucleotides were designed to target the G allelic variant of rs7685686.
    These modified oligonucleotides are described further in Table 22 below.
    Isis No. SEQUENCE SNP Motif SEQ ID. NO.
    609274 Tes Aks Aks Ads Tds Tds Gds mC ds mCds Ads rs7685686 ekk-d7-kkeee 132
    Tks mCks Aes mCes mCe (G)
    609226 Tes Aks Aks Ads Tds Tds Gds mC ds mCds Ads rs7685686 ekk-d8-kkee 136
    Tds mCks Aks mCes mCes (G)
    609266 Tes Aks Aks Ads Tds Tds Gds mC ds mCds Ads rs7685686 ekk-d7-kkeeeee 140
    Tks mCks Aes mCes mCes Aes Ge (G)
    609270 Tes Aks Aks Ads Tds Tds Gds mC ds mCds Ads rs7685686 ekk-d8-kkeeee 144
    Tds mCks Aks mCes mCes Aes Ge (G)
    611714 TesAesAesAksTksTdsGdsmC dsmCdsAds rs7685686 eeekk-d7-kke 164
    TdsmCdsAksmCksmCe (G)
    611715 Aes Tks Aes AksAds xTds Tds Gds mC ds mCds rs7685686 ekek-d9-keke 165
    Ads Tds mCds Aks mCes mCks Ae (G)
    611716 Aes Tks Aes Aks Ads Tds Tdx Gds mC ds mCds Ads rs7685686 ekek-d9-keke 166
    Tds mCds AksmCes mCksAe (G)
    611717 Aes TesAesAesAksTksTds Gds mC ds mCdsAds rs7685686 eeeekk-d7-kke 167
    Tds mCdsAksmCks mCe (G)
    611718 TeAksAksAds TksTds Gds mC ds mCds Ads Tds rs7685686 ekk-d-k-d7-kke 168
    mCdsAksmCksmCe (G)
    611719 Te AksAksAksTksTdsGdsmC dsmCdsAdsTds rs7685686 ekkkk-d7-kke 169
    mCdsAksmCksmCe (G)
    611720 AeTksTdsGdsmC dsmCdsAdsTdsmCdsAds mCds rs7685686 (G) ek-d9-kkke 170
    mCkoAkoGksAe (G)
    611721 Tes AesAesAesTksTdsGdsmC dsmCdsAdsTds rs7685686 eeeek-d7-keee 171
    mCdsAksmCesmCesAes (G)
    611722 Aes Tes Aes Aes Ads Tks Tds Gds mCds mCds Ads rs7685686 eeee-d-k-d7-keee 172
    Tds mCds Aks mCesmCes Ae (G)
    611723 Tes AeoAeoAesTksTds GdsmC dsmCdsAdsTds rs7685686 eeeek-d7-keeee 173
    mCdsAksmCeomCeoAesGe (G)
    609275 Aes Aks Aks Tds Tds Gds mC ds mCds Ads Tds rs7685686 ekk-d7-kkeee 133
    mCks Aks mCes mCes Ae (G)
    609227 Aes Aks Aks Tds Tds Gds mC ds mCds Ads Tds rs7685686 ekk-d8-kkee 137
    mCds Aks mCks mCes Ae (G)
    609267 Aes Aks Aks Tds Tds Gds mC ds mCds Ads Tds rs7685686 ekk-d7-kkeeeee 141
    mCks Aks mCes mCes Aes Ges Ae (G)
    609271 Aes Aks Aks Tds Tds Gds mC ds mCds Ads Tds rs7685686 ekk-d8-kkeeee 145
    mCds Aks mCks mCes Aes Ges Ae (G)
    609276 Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds mC ds mCds Ads Tds rs7685686 ekk-d7-kkeee 134
    mCds Aks mCks mCes Aes Ge (G)
    609228 Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds mC ds mCds Ads Tds rs7685686 ekk-d8-kkee 138
    mCds Ads mCks mCks Aes Ge (G)
    609268 Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds mC ds mCds Ads Tds rs7685686 ekk-d7-kkeeeee 142
    mCds Aks mCks mCes Aes Ges Aes Ae (G)
    609272 Aes Aks Tks Tds Gds mC ds mCds Ads Tds rs7685686 ekk-d8-kkeeee 146
    mCds Ads mCks mCks Aes Ges Aes Ae (G)
    609277 Aes Tks Tks Gds mC ds mCds Ads Tds mCds rs7685686 ekk-d7-kkeee 135
    Ads mCks mCks Aes Ges Ae (G)
    609229 Aes Tks Tks Gds mC ds mCds Ads Tds mCds rs7685686 ekk-d8-kkee 139
    Ads mCds mCks Aks Ges Ae (G)
    609269 Aes Tks Tks Gds mC ds mCds Ads Tds mCds rs7685686 ekk-d7-kkeeeee 143
    Ads mCks mCks Aes Ges Aes Aes Ae (G)
    609273 Aes Tks Tks Gds mC ds mCds Ads Tds mCds rs7685686 ekk-d8-kkeeee 147
    Ads mCds mCks Aks Ges Aes Aes Ae (G)
  • TABLE 23
    Modified oligonucleotides targeting Huntingtin (HTT) SNP rs362273
    Isis No. SEQUENCE SNP Motif SEQ ID. NO.
    589601 Tes Tes Gks Aks Tds mCds Tds Gds Tds  Ads rs362273 eekk-d8-kkeee 40
    Gds mCds Aks Gks mCes Aes Ge
    589602 Tes Ges Aks Tks mCds Tds Gds Tds  Ads Gds rs362273 eekk-d8-kkeee 41
    mCds Ads Gks mCks Aes Ges mCe
    589737 Tes Tks Ges Aks Tds mCds Tds Gds Tds  Ads rs362273 ekek-d8-kekee 45
    Gds mCds Aks Ges mCks Aes Ge
    607451 Ges Aks Tks mCds Tds Gds Tds Ads Gds rs362273 ekk-d8-kkeee 117
    mCds Ads Gks mCks Aes Ges mCe
    607452 Tes Gks Aks Tds mCds Tds Gds Tds Ads Gds rs362273 ekk-d8-kkeee 122
    mCds Aks Gks mCes Aes Ge
  • TABLE 24
    Modified oligonucleotides targeting Huntingtin (HTT) SNP rs362274
    Isis No. SEQUENCE SNP Motif SEQ ID. NO.
    607444 Tes Ges Aks Tks mCds Tds Gds Tds Ads Gds rs3 62274 eekk-d8-kkee 118
    mCds Ads Gks mCks Aes Ge
    607445 Tes Tes Gks Aks Tds mCds Tds Gds Tds Ads rs3 62274 eekk-d8-kkee 123
    Gds mCds Aks Gks mCes Ae
  • TABLE 25
    Modified oligonucleotides targeting Huntingtin (HTT) SNP rs362275
    Isis No. SEQUENCE SNP Motif SEQ ID. NO.
    607458 Aes Tks mCds Tds Gds Tds Ads Gds mCds rs362275 ek-d8-kkeee 119
    Ads Gks mCks Aes Ges mCe
    607459 Ges Aks Tds mCds Tds Gds Tds Ads Gds rs362275 ek-d8-kkeee 124
    mCds Aks Gks mCes Aes Ge
  • TABLE 25
    Modified oligonucleotides targeting Huntingtin (HTT) SNP rs362276
    Isis No. SEQUENCE SNP Motif SEQ ID. NO.
    607465 Ges Aes Tks mCds Tds Gds Tds Ads Gds rs362276 eek-d8-kkee 120
    mCds Ads Gks mCks Aes Ge
    607466 Tes Ges Aks Tds mCds Tds Gds Tds Ads Gds rs362276 eek-d8-kkee 125
    mCds Aks Gks mCes Ae
  • TABLE 26
    Modified oligonucleotides targeting Huntingtin (HTT) SNP rs362277
    Isis No. SEQUENCE SNP Motif SEQ ID. NO.
    607472 Tes Ges Aes Tks mCds Tds Gds Tds Ads Gds rs362276 eeek-d8-kee 121
    mCds Ads Gks mCes Ae
    607473 Tes Tes Ges Aks Tds mCds Tds Gds Tds Ads rs362276 eeek-d8-kee 126
    Gds mCds Aks Ges mCe
  • Example 3 Modified Oligonucleotides Targeting Huntingtin (HTT) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP)
  • A series of modified oligonucleotides targeting Huntingtin (HTT) were designed. These modified oligonucleotides were designed to target SNP positions associated with the HTT gene. The table below provides the sequence and motif for each modified oligonucleotide. The motifs indicate certain 2′-modifications to the nucleobases in the nucleobase sequences. In the table below, ‘k’ indicates an (S)-cEt modification; ‘e’ indicates a MOE modification; a number along with ‘d’ indicates the number of deoxyribose nucleosides. For example, a compound having an ekk-d9-kke motif would have the following structure: NeNkNkNdNdNdNdNdNdNdNdNdNkNkNe, wherein each N represents a nucleobase and wherein each subscript represents a nucleobase modification according to the examples described above. All interncleoside linkages are phosphorothioate unless otherwise indicated.
  • SEQ ID
    Isis No. SNP SEQUENCE (5′ to 3′) MOTIF (5′ to 3′) NO.
    460207 rs362332 ACACAGTAGATGAGG ekk-d9-kke 174
    460218 rs362332 GCACACAGTAGATGAGGGA eeeee-d3-k-d5-eeeee 175
    460026 rs2298969 AAGGGATGCTGACTTGGGC eeee-d9-eeeee 176
    460208 rs4690072 CAGTGCTACCCAACC ekk-d9-kke 177
    525364 rs4690072 ACAGTGCTACCCAACCT ekek-d9-keke 178
    435331 rs2024115 TTCAAGCTAGTAACGATGC eeeee-d9-eeeee 179
    525365 rs2024115 CTTCAAGCTAGTAACGA ekek-d9-keke 180
    525368 rs363088 ACAGCTATCTTCTCA ekk-d9-kke 181
    460065 rs7685686 ATAAATTGTCATCACCAG eeee-d9-eeeee 182
    435879 rs7685686 AATAAATTGTCATCACCAG eeeee-d9-eeeee 183
    460085 rs7685686 ATAAATTGTCATCACCA eeeee-d7-eeeee 184
    435870 rs362331 GCACACAGTAGATGAGGGA eeeee-d9-eeeee 185
    460071 rs362331 GCACACAGTAGATGAGGGA eeeee-d10-eeee 186
    460212 rs362331 GCACACAGTAGATGAGGGA eeeee-d4-k-d4-eeeee 187
    460231 rs362331 ACAGTAGATGAGGGAGCAG eeeee-k-d8-eeeee 188
    474892 rs362331 CACACAGTAGATGAGGG kekk-d9-kkek 189
    435890 rs2298969 AAGGGATGCTGACTTGGGC eeeee-d9-eeeee 190
    460210 rs2298969 GGGATGCTGACTTGG ekk-d9-kke 191
    474871 rs7685686 ATAAATTGTCATCACCA ekkk-d9-kkke 192
    474891 rs7685686 ATAAATTGTCATCACCA kekk-d9-kkek 193
    474919 rs7685686 AATAAATTGTCATCACCAG kekek-d9-kekek 194
    474923 rs7685686 AATAAATTGTCATCACCAG kdkdk-d9-kdkdk 195
    476337 rs7685686 AATAAATTGTCATCACCAG ekeke-d9-ekeke 196
    460012 rs4690072 ACAGTGCTACCCAACCT eee-d9-eeeee 197
    525367 rs2024115 TTCAAGCTAGTAACG ekk-d9-kke 198
    435869 rs362306 GAGCAGCTGCAACCTGGCA eeeee-d9-eeeee 199
    460069 rs362306 GAGCAGCTGCAACCTGGCA eeeee-d10-eeee 200
    460206 rs362306 GCAGCTGCAACCTGG ekk-d9-kke 201
    463571 rs362273 TTGATCTGTAGCAGCAGCT eeeee-d9-eeeee 202
    476444 rs6844859 CCTTCCTCACTGAGGATGA eeeee-d9-eeeee 203
    435330 rs3856973 TAACACTCGATTAACCCTG eeeee-d9-eeeee 204
    435868 rs362275 AAGAAGCCTGATAAAATCT eeeee-d9-eeeee 205
    491416 rs7685686 TGCTTCAGAGCTGAGCAGAA eeeee-d10-eeeee 206
    553748 ACCACAACGGCGATT ekk-d9-kke 207
    553751 TACCTAAGAGCACAT ekk-d9-kke 208
    553752 rs2285086 TAGTTCATCCCAGTG ekk-d9-kke 209
    553754 rs2798235 GAGGAGGTATACTGT ekk-d9-kke 210
    553762 rs362303 TGGTGCCGGGTGTCT ekk-d9-kke 211
    553764 rs362310 AAACGGCGCAGCGGG ekk-d9-kke 212
    553765 CGCCTATACCATACA ekk-d9-kke 213
    553767 GATAATATCCTATCA ekk-d9-kke 214
    553768 rs363080 AGAGAACAAGAAGGC ekk-d9-kke 215
    553769 rs363092 AACCACTGTGGGATG ekk-d9-kke 216
    553772 rs363102 CTAAAACTAACTTGA ekk-d9-kke 217
    553773 CGTTGAAGTACTGTC ekk-d9-kke 218
    553775 rs3856973 TAACACTCGATTAAC ekk-d9-kke 219
    553776 rs4690073 CCTAAATCAATCTAC ekk-d9-kke 220
    553777 rs6446723 ATTTTCTAGACTTTA ekk-d9-kke 221
    553778 rs6844859 CTTCCTCACTGAGGA ekk-d9-kke 222
    553779 rs7659144 GAAATGGGTTTTTCC ekk-d9-kke 223
    553780 rs7691627 TAAGAAACACAATCA ekk-d9-kke 224
    553781 rs916171 GAACAAACAGAAGAA ekk-d9-kke 225
    553782 rs362303 TGGTGCCAGGTGTCT ekk-d9-kke 226
    553784 rs362310 AAACGGCACAGCGGG ekk-d9-kke 227
    435295 rs2024115 ACTTCAAGCTAGTAACGAT eeeee-d9-eeeee 228
    553742 ACACCACAACGGCGATTTG eeeee-d9-eeeee 229
    553743 CTTACCTAAGAGCACATTT eeeee-d9-eeeee 230
    435864 rs2285086 GCTAGTTCATCCCAGTGAG eeeee-d9-eeeee 231
    435910 rs2798235 CAGAGGAGGTATACTGTAT eeeee-d9-eeeee 232
    435311 rs362303 AATGGTGCCGGGTGTCTAG eeeee-d9-eeeee 233
    435309 rs362310 AGAAACGGCGCAGCGGGAA eeeee-d9-eeeee 234
    553744 TCCGCCTATACCATACAAT eeeee-d9-eeeee 235
    553745 ATGATAATATCCTATCAAA eeeee-d9-eeeee 236
    435911 rs363080 AGAGAGAACAAGAAGGCTC eeeee-d9-eeeee 237
    435872 rs363092 CAAACCACTGTGGGATGAA eeeee-d9-eeeee 238
    435300 rs363102 ATCTAAAACTAACTTGAGA eeeee-d9-eeeee 239
    553746 AGCGTTGAAGTACTGTCCC eeeee-d9-eeeee 240
    435294 rs3856973 GTTAACACTCGATTAACCC eeeee-d9-eeeee 241
    435301 rs4690073 TCCCTAAATCAATCTACAA eeeee-d9-eeeee 242
    435875 rs6446723 TAATTTTCTAGACTTTATG eeeee-d9-eeeee 243
    435876 rs6844859 ACCTTCCTCACTGAGGATG eeeee-d9-eeeee 244
    435878 rs7659144 TGGAAATGGGTTTTTCCAC eeeee-d9-eeeee 245
    435880 rs7691627 AATAAGAAACACAATCAAA eeeee-d9-eeeee 246
    435906 rs916171 CAGAACAAACAGAAGAATT eeeee-d9-eeeee 247
    435329 rs362303 AATGGTGCCAGGTGTCTAG eeeee-d9-eeeee 248
    435327 rs362310 AGAAACGGCACAGCGGGAA eeeee-d9-eeeee 249
    553766 rs363064 AGAATACGGGTAACA ekk-d9-kke 250
    553771 rs363099 CTGAGCGGAGAAACC ekk-d9-kke 251
    553770 rs363096 TTCCCTAAAAACAAA ekk-d9-kke 252
    553753 rs2298967 CTTTTCTATTGTCTG ekk-d9-kke 253
    553758 rs362272 TAGAGGACGCCGTGC ekk-d9-kke 254
    553783 rs363096 TTCCCTAGAAACAAA ekk-d9-kke 255
    553763 rs362307 CAAGGGCACAGACTT ekk-d9-kke 256
    553750 rs16843804 TAACCGTGGCATGGG ekk-d9-kke 257
    553755 rs3121419 GACTATAGCACCCAG ekk-d9-kke 258
    553757 rs362271 GTGTGTACAGAACCT ekk-d9-kke 259
    553760 rs362275 GAAGCCTGATAAAAT ekk-d9-kke 260
    553774 rs3775061 TTCAGAATGCCTCAT ekk-d9-kke 261
    553761 rs362296 GGACAGGGTGTGCTC ekk-d9-kke 262
    553747 rs10015979 AGCTAGGCTAAAGAG ekk-d9-kke 263
    553749 rs11731237 TGGGCAGAAAGGACT ekk-d9-kke 264
    553759 rs362273 TGATCTGTAGCAGCA ekk-d9-kke 265
    553756 rs34315806 CTTTTCCGTGCTGTT ekk-d9-kke 266
    435298 rs363064 GGAGAATACGGGTAACATT eeeee-d9-eeeee 267
    435303 rs363099 GGCTGAGCGGAGAAACCCT eeeee-d9-eeeee 268
    435304 rs363096 GATTCCCTAAAAACAAAAA eeeee-d9-eeeee 269
    435305 rs2298967 TGCTTTTCTATTGTCTGTC eeeee-d9-eeeee 270
    435308 rs362272 CATAGAGGACGCCGTGCAG eeeee-d9-eeeee 271
    435322 rs363096 GATTCCCTAGAAACAAAAA eeeee-d9-eeeee 272
    435328 rs362307 CACAAGGGCACAGACTTCC eeeee-d9-eeeee 273
    435863 rs16843804 TTTAACCGTGGCATGGGCA eeeee-d9-eeeee 274
    435866 rs3121419 GAGACTATAGCACCCAGAT eeeee-d9-eeeee 275
    435867 rs362271 ACGTGTGTACAGAACCTGC eeeee-d9-eeeee 276
    435873 rs3775061 TGTTCAGAATGCCTCATCT eeeee-d9-eeeee 277
    435882 rs362296 GGGGACAGGGTGTGCTCTC eeeee-d9-eeeee 278
    435887 rs10015979 GCAGCTAGGCTAAAGAGTC eeeee-d9-eeeee 279
    435909 rs11731237 GGTGGGCAGAAAGGACTGA eeeee-d9-eeeee 280
    463566 rs362273 GTTGATCTGTAGCAGCAGC eeeee-d9-eeeee 281
    463567 rs34315806 AACTTTTCCGTGCTGTTCT eeeee-d9-eeeee 282
    589448 rs3856973 AACACTCGATTAACCCT eeekk-d7-kkeee 283
    589447 rs3856973 TAACACTCGATTAACCC eeekk-d7-kkeee 284
    589163 rs3856973 TTAACACTCGATTAACC eeekk-d7-kkeee 285
    589446 rs3856973 GTTAACACTCGATTAAC eeekk-d7-kkeee 286
    589445 rs3856973 AGTTAACACTCGATTAA eeekk-d7-kkeee 287
    589669 rs3856973 AACACTCGATTAACCCT eekek-d7-kekee 288
    589668 rs3856973 TAACACTCGATTAACCC eekek-d7-kekee 289
    589667 rs3856973 TTAACACTCGATTAACC eekek-d7-kekee 290
    589666 rs3856973 GTTAACACTCGATTAAC eekek-d7-kekee 291
    589665 rs3856973 AGTTAACACTCGATTAA eekek-d7-kekee 292
    589544 rs3856973 ACACTCGATTAACCCTG eekk-d8-kkeee 293
    589543 rs3856973 AACACTCGATTAACCCT eekk-d8-kkeee 294
    589542 rs3856973 TAACACTCGATTAACCC eekk-d8-kkeee 295
    589541 rs3856973 TTAACACTCGATTAACC eekk-d8-kkeee 296
    589540 rs3856973 GTTAACACTCGATTAAC eekk-d8-kkeee 297
    589539 rs3856973 AGTTAACACTCGATTAA eekk-d8-kkeee 298
    589716 rs3856973 ACACTCGATTAACCCTG ekek-d8-kekee 299
    589715 rs3856973 AACACTCGATTAACCCT ekek-d8-kekee 300
    589714 rs3856973 TAACACTCGATTAACCC ekek-d8-kekee 301
    589713 rs3856973 TTAACACTCGATTAACC ekek-d8-kekee 302
    589712 rs3856973 GTTAACACTCGATTAAC ekek-d8-kekee 303
    589711 rs3856973 AGTTAACACTCGATTAA ekek-d8-kekee 304
    589444 rs7685686 AAATTGTCATCACCAGA eeekk-d7-kkeee 305
    589443 rs7685686 AATAAATTGTCATCACC eeekk-d7-kkeee 306
    589442 rs7685686 TAATAAATTGTCATCAC eeekk-d7-kkeee 307
    589664 rs7685686 AAATTGTCATCACCAGA eekek-d7-kekee 308
    589663 rs7685686 TAAATTGTCATCACCAG eekek-d7-kekee 309
    589662 rs7685686 ATAAATTGTCATCACCA eekek-d7-kekee 310
    589661 rs7685686 AATAAATTGTCATCACC eekek-d7-kekee 311
    589660 rs7685686 TAATAAATTGTCATCAC eekek-d7-kekee 312
    589538 rs7685686 AATTGTCATCACCAGAA eekk-d8-kkeee 313
    589536 rs7685686 TAAATTGTCATCACCAG eekk-d8-kkeee 314
    589535 rs7685686 ATAAATTGTCATCACCA eekk-d8-kkeee 315
    589534 rs7685686 AATAAATTGTCATCACC eekk-d8-kkeee 316
    589533 rs7685686 TAATAAATTGTCATCAC eekk-d8-kkeee 317
    589710 rs7685686 AATTGTCATCACCAGAA ekek-d8-kekee 318
    589709 rs7685686 AAATTGTCATCACCAGA ekek-d8-kekee 319
    589708 rs7685686 TAAATTGTCATCACCAG ekek-d8-kekee 320
    589707 rs7685686 ATAAATTGTCATCACCA ekek-d8-kekee 321
    589706 rs7685686 AATAAATTGTCATCACC ekek-d8-kekee 322
    589705 rs7685686 TAATAAATTGTCATCAC ekek-d8-kekee 323
    589468 rs2024115 TCAAGCTAGTAACGATG eeekk-d7-kkeee 324
    589467 rs2024115 TTCAAGCTAGTAACGAT eeekk-d7-kkeee 325
    589466 rs2024115 CTTCAAGCTAGTAACGA eeekk-d7-kkeee 326
    589465 rs2024115 ACTTCAAGCTAGTAACG eeekk-d7-kkeee 327
    589464 rs2024115 AACTTCAAGCTAGTAAC eeekk-d7-kkeee 328
    589568 rs2024115 CAAGCTAGTAACGATGC eekk-d8-kkeee 329
    589566 rs2024115 TTCAAGCTAGTAACGAT eekk-d8-kkeee 330
    589565 rs2024115 CTTCAAGCTAGTAACGA eekk-d8-kkeee 331
    589564 rs2024115 ACTTCAAGCTAGTAACG eekk-d8-kkeee 332
    589563 rs2024115 AACTTCAAGCTAGTAAC eekk-d8-kkeee 333
    589453 rs6446723 TTTTCTAGACTTTATGA eeekk-d7-kkeee 334
    589452 rs6446723 ATTTTCTAGACTTTATG eeekk-d7-kkeee 335
    589451 rs6446723 AATTTTCTAGACTTTAT eeekk-d7-kkeee 336
    589449 rs6446723 TTAATTTTCTAGACTTT eeekk-d7-kkeee 337
    589674 rs6446723 TTTTCTAGACTTTATGA eekek-d7-kekee 338
    589673 rs6446723 ATTTTCTAGACTTTATG eekek-d7-kekee 339
    589672 rs6446723 AATTTTCTAGACTTTAT eekek-d7-kekee 340
    589671 rs6446723 TAATTTTCTAGACTTTA eekek-d7-kekee 341
    589670 rs6446723 TTAATTTTCTAGACTTT eekek-d7-kekee 342
    589550 rs6446723 TTTCTAGACTTTATGAT eekk-d8-kkeee 343
    589549 rs6446723 TTTTCTAGACTTTATGA eekk-d8-kkeee 344
    589548 rs6446723 ATTTTCTAGACTTTATG eekk-d8-kkeee 345
    589545 rs6446723 TTAATTTTCTAGACTTT eekk-d8-kkeee 346
    589722 rs6446723 TTTCTAGACTTTATGAT ekek-d8-kekee 347
    589721 rs6446723 TTTTCTAGACTTTATGA ekek-d8-kekee 348
    589720 rs6446723 ATTTTCTAGACTTTATG ekek-d8-kekee 349
    589719 rs6446723 AATTTTCTAGACTTTAT ekek-d8-kekee 350
    589717 rs6446723 TTAATTTTCTAGACTTT ekek-d8-kekee 351
    589463 rs6844859 TTCCTCACTGAGGATGA eeekk-d7-kkeee 352
    589462 rs6844859 CTTCCTCACTGAGGATG eeekk-d7-kkeee 353
    589461 rs6844859 CCTTCCTCACTGAGGAT eeekk-d7-kkeee 354
    589460 rs6844859 ACCTTCCTCACTGAGGA eeekk-d7-kkeee 355
    589459 rs6844859 CACCTTCCTCACTGAGG eeekk-d7-kkeee 356
    590761 rs6844859 TTCCTCACTGAGGATGA eekek-d7-kekee 357
    590760 rs6844859 CTTCCTCACTGAGGATG eekek-d7-kekee 358
    590759 rs6844859 CCTTCCTCACTGAGGAT eekek-d7-kekee 359
    590758 rs6844859 ACCTTCCTCACTGAGGA eekek-d7-kekee 360
    590757 rs6844859 CACCTTCCTCACTGAGG eekek-d7-kekee 361
    589562 rs6844859 TCCTCACTGAGGATGAA eekk-d8-kkeee 362
    589561 rs6844859 TTCCTCACTGAGGATGA eekk-d8-kkeee 363
    589560 rs6844859 CTTCCTCACTGAGGATG eekk-d8-kkeee 364
    589559 rs6844859 CCTTCCTCACTGAGGAT eekk-d8-kkeee 365
    589558 rs6844859 ACCTTCCTCACTGAGGA eekk-d8-kkeee 366
    589557 rs6844859 CACCTTCCTCACTGAGG eekk-d8-kkeee 367
    590767 rs6844859 TCCTCACTGAGGATGAA ekek-d8-kekee 368
    590766 rs6844859 TTCCTCACTGAGGATGA ekek-d8-kekee 369
    590765 rs6844859 CTTCCTCACTGAGGATG ekek-d8-kekee 370
    590764 rs6844859 CCTTCCTCACTGAGGAT ekek-d8-kekee 371
    590763 rs6844859 ACCTTCCTCACTGAGGA ekek-d8-kekee 372
    590762 rs6844859 CACCTTCCTCACTGAGG ekek-d8-kekee 373
    589483 rs363092 ACCACTTTGGGATGAAT eeekk-d7-kkeee 374
    589482 rs363092 AACCACTTTGGGATGAA eeekk-d7-kkeee 375
    589481 rs363092 AAACCACTTTGGGATGA eeekk-d7-kkeee 376
    589480 rs363092 CAAACCACTTTGGGATG eeekk-d7-kkeee 377
    589479 rs363092 GCAAACCACTTTGGGAT eeekk-d7-kkeee 378
    589586 rs363092 CCACTTTGGGATGAATA eekk-d8-kkeee 379
    589585 rs363092 ACCACTTTGGGATGAAT eekk-d8-kkeee 380
    589584 rs363092 AACCACTTTGGGATGAA eekk-d8-kkeee 381
    589583 rs363092 AAACCACTTTGGGATGA eekk-d8-kkeee 382
    589582 rs363092 CAAACCACTTTGGGATG eekk-d8-kkeee 383
    589581 rs363092 GCAAACCACTTTGGGAT eekk-d8-kkeee 384
    589458 rs2285086 AGTTCATCCCAGTGAGA eeekk-d7-kkeee 385
    589457 rs2285086 TAGTTCATCCCAGTGAG eeekk-d7-kkeee 386
    589456 rs2285086 CTAGTTCATCCCAGTGA eeekk-d7-kkeee 387
    589455 rs2285086 GCTAGTTCATCCCAGTG eeekk-d7-kkeee 388
    589454 rs2285086 TGCTAGTTCATCCCAGT eeekk-d7-kkeee 389
    589679 rs2285086 AGTTCATCCCAGTGAGA eekek-d7-kekee 390
    589678 rs2285086 TAGTTCATCCCAGTGAG eekek-d7-kekee 391
    589677 rs2285086 CTAGTTCATCCCAGTGA eekek-d7-kekee 392
    589676 rs2285086 GCTAGTTCATCCCAGTG eekek-d7-kekee 393
    589675 rs2285086 TGCTAGTTCATCCCAGT eekek-d7-kekee 394
    589556 rs2285086 GTTCATCCCAGTGAGAA eekk-d8-kkeee 395
    589555 rs2285086 AGTTCATCCCAGTGAGA eekk-d8-kkeee 396
    589554 rs2285086 TAGTTCATCCCAGTGAG eekk-d8-kkeee 397
    589553 rs2285086 CTAGTTCATCCCAGTGA eekk-d8-kkeee 398
    589552 rs2285086 GCTAGTTCATCCCAGTG eekk-d8-kkeee 399
    589551 rs2285086 TGCTAGTTCATCCCAGT eekk-d8-kkeee 400
    589728 rs2285086 GTTCATCCCAGTGAGAA ekek-d8-kekee 401
    589727 rs2285086 AGTTCATCCCAGTGAGA ekek-d8-kekee 402
    589726 rs2285086 TAGTTCATCCCAGTGAG ekek-d8-kekee 403
    589725 rs2285086 CTAGTTCATCCCAGTGA ekek-d8-kekee 404
    589724 rs2285086 GCTAGTTCATCCCAGTG ekek-d8-kekee 405
    589723 rs2285086 TGCTAGTTCATCCCAGT ekek-d8-kekee 406
    589473 rs2798235 AGGAGGCATACTGTATT eeekk-d7-kkeee 407
    589472 rs2798235 GAGGAGGCATACTGTAT eeekk-d7-kkeee 408
    589471 rs2798235 AGAGGAGGCATACTGTA eeekk-d7-kkeee 409
    589470 rs2798235 CAGAGGAGGCATACTGT eeekk-d7-kkeee 410
    589469 rs2798235 ACAGAGGAGGCATACTG eeekk-d7-kkeee 411
    589574 rs2798235 GGAGGCATACTGTATTT eekk-d8-kkeee 412
    589573 rs2798235 AGGAGGCATACTGTATT eekk-d8-kkeee 413
    589572 rs2798235 GAGGAGGCATACTGTAT eekk-d8-kkeee 414
    589571 rs2798235 AGAGGAGGCATACTGTA eekk-d8-kkeee 415
    589570 rs2798235 CAGAGGAGGCATACTGT eekk-d8-kkeee 416
    589569 rs2798235 ACAGAGGAGGCATACTG eekk-d8-kkeee 417
    589478 rs363080 GAGAACGAGAAGGCTCC eeekk-d7-kkeee 418
    589477 rs363080 AGAGAACGAGAAGGCTC eeekk-d7-kkeee 419
    589476 rs363080 GAGAGAACGAGAAGGCT eeekk-d7-kkeee 420
    589475 rs363080 AGAGAGAACGAGAAGGC eeekk-d7-kkeee 421
    589474 rs363080 AAGAGAGAACGAGAAGG eeekk-d7-kkeee 422
    589580 rs363080 AGAACGAGAAGGCTCCA eekk-d8-kkeee 423
    589579 rs363080 GAGAACGAGAAGGCTCC eekk-d8-kkeee 424
    589578 rs363080 AGAGAACGAGAAGGCTC eekk-d8-kkeee 425
    589577 rs363080 GAGAGAACGAGAAGGCT eekk-d8-kkeee 426
    589576 rs363080 AGAGAGAACGAGAAGGC eekk-d8-kkeee 427
    589575 rs363080 AAGAGAGAACGAGAAGG eekk-d8-kkeee 428
    589497 rs362273 GATCTGTAGCAGCAGCT eeekk-d7-kkeee 429
    589496 rs362273 TGATCTGTAGCAGCAGC eeekk-d7-kkeee 430
    589495 rs362273 TTGATCTGTAGCAGCAG eeekk-d7-kkeee 431
    589494 rs362273 GTTGATCTGTAGCAGCA eeekk-d7-kkeee 432
    589493 rs362273 GGTTGATCTGTAGCAGC eeekk-d7-kkeee 433
    589689 rs362273 GATCTGTAGCAGCAGCT eekek-d7-kekee 434
    589688 rs362273 TGATCTGTAGCAGCAGC eekek-d7-kekee 435
    589687 rs362273 TTGATCTGTAGCAGCAG eekek-d7-kekee 436
    589686 rs362273 GTTGATCTGTAGCAGCA eekek-d7-kekee 437
    589685 rs362273 GGTTGATCTGTAGCAGC eekek-d7-kekee 438
    589604 rs362273 ATCTGTAGCAGCAGCTT eekk-d8-kkeee 439
    589603 rs362273 GATCTGTAGCAGCAGCT eekk-d8-kkeee 440
    589600 rs362273 GTTGATCTGTAGCAGCA eekk-d8-kkeee 441
    589599 rs362273 GGTTGATCTGTAGCAGC eekk-d8-kkeee 442
    589740 rs362273 ATCTGTAGCAGCAGCTT ekek-d8-kekee 443
    589739 rs362273 GATCTGTAGCAGCAGCT ekek-d8-kekee 444
    589738 rs362273 TGATCTGTAGCAGCAGC ekek-d8-kekee 445
    589736 rs362273 GTTGATCTGTAGCAGCA ekek-d8-kekee 446
    589735 rs362273 GGTTGATCTGTAGCAGC ekek-d8-kekee 447
    589492 rs363088 CAGCTATCTTCTCATCA eeekk-d7-kkeee 448
    589491 rs363088 ACAGCTATCTTCTCATC eeekk-d7-kkeee 449
    575481 rs363088 CACAGCTATCTTCTCAT eeekk-d7-kkeee 450
    589490 rs363088 TCACAGCTATCTTCTCA eeekk-d7-kkeee 451
    589489 rs363088 TTCACAGCTATCTTCTC eeekk-d7-kkeee 452
    589684 rs363088 CAGCTATCTTCTCATCA eekek-d7-kekee 453
    589683 rs363088 ACAGCTATCTTCTCATC eekek-d7-kekee 454
    589682 rs363088 CACAGCTATCTTCTCAT eekek-d7-kekee 455
    589681 rs363088 TCACAGCTATCTTCTCA eekek-d7-kekee 456
    589680 rs363088 TTCACAGCTATCTTCTC eekek-d7-kekee 457
    589598 rs363088 AGCTATCTTCTCATCAA eekk-d8-kkeee 458
    589597 rs363088 CAGCTATCTTCTCATCA eekk-d8-kkeee 459
    589594 rs363088 TCACAGCTATCTTCTCA eekk-d8-kkeee 460
    589593 rs363088 TTCACAGCTATCTTCTC eekk-d8-kkeee 461
    589734 rs363088 AGCTATCTTCTCATCAA ekek-d8-kekee 462
    589733 rs363088 CAGCTATCTTCTCATCA ekek-d8-kekee 463
    589732 rs363088 ACAGCTATCTTCTCATC ekek-d8-kekee 464
    589731 rs363088 CACAGCTATCTTCTCAT ekek-d8-kekee 465
    589730 rs363088 TCACAGCTATCTTCTCA ekek-d8-kekee 466
    589729 rs363088 TTCACAGCTATCTTCTC ekek-d8-kekee 467
    589502 rs362271 TGTGTACAGAACCTGCC eeekk-d7-kkeee 468
    589501 rs362271 GTGTGTACAGAACCTGC eeekk-d7-kkeee 469
    589500 rs362271 CGTGTGTACAGAACCTG eeekk-d7-kkeee 470
    589499 rs362271 ACGTGTGTACAGAACCT eeekk-d7-kkeee 471
    589498 rs362271 CACGTGTGTACAGAACC eeekk-d7-kkeee 472
    589694 rs362271 TGTGTACAGAACCTGCC eekek-d7-kekee 473
    589693 rs362271 GTGTGTACAGAACCTGC eekek-d7-kekee 474
    589692 rs362271 CGTGTGTACAGAACCTG eekek-d7-kekee 475
    589691 rs362271 ACGTGTGTACAGAACCT eekek-d7-kekee 476
    589690 rs362271 CACGTGTGTACAGAACC eekek-d7-kekee 477
    589610 rs362271 GTGTACAGAACCTGCCG eekk-d8-kkeee 478
    589609 rs362271 TGTGTACAGAACCTGCC eekk-d8-kkeee 479
    589608 rs362271 GTGTGTACAGAACCTGC eekk-d8-kkeee 480
    589607 rs362271 CGTGTGTACAGAACCTG eekk-d8-kkeee 481
    589606 rs362271 ACGTGTGTACAGAACCT eekk-d8-kkeee 482
    589605 rs362271 CACGTGTGTACAGAACC eekk-d8-kkeee 483
    589746 rs362271 GTGTACAGAACCTGCCG ekek-d8-kekee 484
    589745 rs362271 TGTGTACAGAACCTGCC ekek-d8-kekee 485
    589744 rs362271 GTGTGTACAGAACCTGC ekek-d8-kekee 486
    589743 rs362271 CGTGTGTACAGAACCTG ekek-d8-kekee 487
    589742 rs362271 ACGTGTGTACAGAACCT ekek-d8-kekee 488
    589741 rs362271 CACGTGTGTACAGAACC ekek-d8-kekee 489
    589517 rs363099 TGAGCGGAGAAACCCTC eeekk-d7-kkeee 490
    589516 rs363099 CTGAGCGGAGAAACCCT eeekk-d7-kkeee 491
    589515 rs363099 GCTGAGCGGAGAAACCC eeekk-d7-kkeee 492
    589514 rs363099 GGCTGAGCGGAGAAACC eeekk-d7-kkeee 493
    589513 rs363099 AGGCTGAGCGGAGAAAC eeekk-d7-kkeee 494
    589628 rs363099 GAGCGGAGAAACCCTCC eekk-d8-kkeee 495
    589627 rs363099 TGAGCGGAGAAACCCTC eekk-d8-kkeee 496
    589626 rs363099 CTGAGCGGAGAAACCCT eekk-d8-kkeee 497
    589625 rs363099 GCTGAGCGGAGAAACCC eekk-d8-kkeee 498
    589624 rs363099 GGCTGAGCGGAGAAACC eekk-d8-kkeee 499
    589623 rs363099 AGGCTGAGCGGAGAAAC eekk-d8-kkeee 500
    589531 rs363064 AGAATACGGGTAACATT eeekk-d7-kkeee 501
    589530 rs363064 GAGAATACGGGTAACAT eeekk-d7-kkeee 502
    589529 rs363064 GGAGAATACGGGTAACA eeekk-d7-kkeee 503
    589528 rs363064 TGGAGAATACGGGTAAC eeekk-d7-kkeee 504
    589644 rs363064 AGAATACGGGTAACATT eekk-d8-kkeee 505
    589643 rs363064 GAGAATACGGGTAACAT eekk-d8-kkeee 506
    589642 rs363064 GGAGAATACGGGTAACA eekk-d8-kkeee 507
    589522 rs16843804 AACCGTGGCATGGGCAG eeekk-d7-kkeee 508
    589521 rs16843804 TAACCGTGGCATGGGCA eeekk-d7-kkeee 509
    589520 rs16843804 TTAACCGTGGCATGGGC eeekk-d7-kkeee 510
    589519 rs16843804 TTTAACCGTGGCATGGG eeekk-d7-kkeee 511
    589518 rs16843804 CTTTAACCGTGGCATGG eeekk-d7-kkeee 512
    589634 rs16843804 ACCGTGGCATGGGCAGT eekk-d8-kkeee 513
    589633 rs16843804 AACCGTGGCATGGGCAG eekk-d8-kkeee 514
    589632 rs16843804 TAACCGTGGCATGGGCA eekk-d8-kkeee 515
    589631 rs16843804 TTAACCGTGGCATGGGC eekk-d8-kkeee 516
    589630 rs16843804 TTTAACCGTGGCATGGG eekk-d8-kkeee 517
    589629 rs16843804 CTTTAACCGTGGCATGG eekk-d8-kkeee 518
    589512 rs3121419 ACTATAGCACCCAGATT eeekk-d7-kkeee 519
    589511 rs3121419 GACTATAGCACCCAGAT eeekk-d7-kkeee 520
    589510 rs3121419 AGACTATAGCACCCAGA eeekk-d7-kkeee 521
    589509 rs3121419 GAGACTATAGCACCCAG eeekk-d7-kkeee 522
    589508 rs3121419 AGAGACTATAGCACCCA eeekk-d7-kkeee 523
    589704 rs3121419 ACTATAGCACCCAGATT eekek-d7-kekee 524
    589703 rs3121419 GACTATAGCACCCAGAT eekek-d7-kekee 525
    589702 rs3121419 AGACTATAGCACCCAGA eekek-d7-kekee 526
    589701 rs3121419 GAGACTATAGCACCCAG eekek-d7-kekee 527
    589700 rs3121419 AGAGACTATAGCACCCA eekek-d7-kekee 528
    589622 rs3121419 CTATAGCACCCAGATTT eekk-d8-kkeee 529
    589621 rs3121419 ACTATAGCACCCAGATT eekk-d8-kkeee 530
    589620 rs3121419 GACTATAGCACCCAGAT eekk-d8-kkeee 531
    589619 rs3121419 AGACTATAGCACCCAGA eekk-d8-kkeee 532
    589618 rs3121419 GAGACTATAGCACCCAG eekk-d8-kkeee 533
    589617 rs3121419 AGAGACTATAGCACCCA eekk-d8-kkeee 534
    589758 rs3121419 CTATAGCACCCAGATTT ekek-d8-kekee 535
    589757 rs3121419 ACTATAGCACCCAGATT ekek-d8-kekee 536
    589756 rs3121419 GACTATAGCACCCAGAT ekek-d8-kekee 537
    589755 rs3121419 AGACTATAGCACCCAGA ekek-d8-kekee 538
    589754 rs3121419 GAGACTATAGCACCCAG ekek-d8-kekee 539
    589753 rs3121419 AGAGACTATAGCACCCA ekek-d8-kekee 540
    589527 rs2298967 TTTTCTATTGTCTGTCC eeekk-d7-kkeee 541
    589526 rs2298967 CTTTTCTATTGTCTGTC eeekk-d7-kkeee 542
    589525 rs2298967 GCTTTTCTATTGTCTGT eeekk-d7-kkeee 543
    589524 rs2298967 TGCTTTTCTATTGTCTG eeekk-d7-kkeee 544
    589523 rs2298967 TTGCTTTTCTATTGTCT eeekk-d7-kkeee 545
    589640 rs2298967 TTTCTATTGTCTGTCCC eekk-d8-kkeee 546
    589639 rs2298967 TTTTCTATTGTCTGTCC eekk-d8-kkeee 547
    589638 rs2298967 CTTTTCTATTGTCTGTC eekk-d8-kkeee 548
    589637 rs2298967 GCTTTTCTATTGTCTGT eekk-d8-kkeee 549
    589636 rs2298967 TGCTTTTCTATTGTCTG eekk-d8-kkeee 550
    589635 rs2298967 TTGCTTTTCTATTGTCT eekk-d8-kkeee 551
    589507 rs34315806 TTTTCCGTGCTGTTCTG eeekk-d7-kkeee 552
    589506 rs34315806 CTTTTCCGTGCTGTTCT eeekk-d7-kkeee 553
    589505 rs34315806 ACTTTTCCGTGCTGTTC eeekk-d7-kkeee 554
    589504 rs34315806 AACTTTTCCGTGCTGTT eeekk-d7-kkeee 555
    589503 rs34315806 AAACTTTTCCGTGCTGT eeekk-d7-kkeee 556
    589699 rs34315806 TTTTCCGTGCTGTTCTG eekek-d7-kekee 557
    589698 rs34315806 CTTTTCCGTGCTGTTCT eekek-d7-kekee 558
    589697 rs34315806 ACTTTTCCGTGCTGTTC eekek-d7-kekee 559
    589696 rs34315806 AACTTTTCCGTGCTGTT eekek-d7-kekee 560
    589695 rs34315806 AAACTTTTCCGTGCTGT eekek-d7-kekee 561
    589616 rs34315806 TTTCCGTGCTGTTCTGA eekk-d8-kkeee 562
    589615 rs34315806 TTTTCCGTGCTGTTCTG eekk-d8-kkeee 563
    589614 rs34315806 CTTTTCCGTGCTGTTCT eekk-d8-kkeee 564
    589613 rs34315806 ACTTTTCCGTGCTGTTC eekk-d8-kkeee 565
    589612 rs34315806 AACTTTTCCGTGCTGTT eekk-d8-kkeee 566
    589611 rs34315806 AAACTTTTCCGTGCTGT eekk-d8-kkeee 567
    589752 rs34315806 TTTCCGTGCTGTTCTGA ekek-d8-kekee 568
    589751 rs34315806 TTTTCCGTGCTGTTCTG ekek-d8-kekee 569
    589750 rs34315806 CTTTTCCGTGCTGTTCT ekek-d8-kekee 570
    589749 rs34315806 ACTTTTCCGTGCTGTTC ekek-d8-kekee 571
    589748 rs34315806 AACTTTTCCGTGCTGTT ekek-d8-kekee 572
    589747 rs34315806 AAACTTTTCCGTGCTGT ekek-d8-kekee 573
  • Example 4 300 μg ICV Bolus 8 Week Study With Mice
  • Oligos were screened in human patient fibroblasts (either GM4022 or GM2173B) at 4 μM with electroporation (2 mm multiwell, 115V, 6 mS, 1 pulse, 3.5e5 cells per well). Target message was measured with an allele specific ABI primer probe set 24-hours post electroporation. Results were normalized to Ribogreen. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of each oligonucleotide is presented in the Table below and was calculated by plotting the concentrations of oligonucleotides used versus the percent inhibition of HTT mRNA expression achieved at each concentration, and noting the concentration of oligonucleotide at which 50% inhibition of HTT mRNA expression was achieved compared to the control. The IC50 at which each oligonucleotide inhibits the mutant HTT mRNA expression is denoted as ‘mut IC50’. The IC50 at which each oligonucleotide inhibits the wild-type HTT mRNA expression is denoted as ‘wt IC50’. “ND” means data not available.
  • Mice were separated into groups of 4 mice. Each mouse in each group of mice was administered a single 300 μg ICV dose of each of the oligonucleotides in the table below. At 3 hours post injection, each mouse was evaluated according to 7 different criteria. The 7 criteria are (1) the mouse was bright, alert, and responsive; (2) the mouse was standing or hunched without stimuli; (3) the mouse shows any movement without stimuli (4) the mouse demonstrates forward movement after it is lifted; (5) the mouse demonstrates any movement after it is lifted; (6) the mouse responds to a tail pinch; (7) the mouse has a regular respiratory rate. For each of the 7 different criteria, each mouse was given a sub-score of 0 if it met the criteria or 1 if it did not. After each of the 7 criteria were evaluated, the sub-scores were summed for each mouse and then averaged for each group. For example, if a mouse was bright, alert, and responsive 3 hours after the 300 μg ICV dose, and met all other criteria, it would get a summed score of 0. If another mouse was not bright, alert, and responsive 3 hours after the 300 μg ICV dose but met all other criteria, it would receive a score of 1. Saline treated mice generally receive a score of 0. A score of at the top end of the range would be suggestive of acute toxicity. In the table below, a subscript ‘k’ indicates an (S)-cEt modification; a subscript ‘e’ indicates a MOE modification; a subscript ‘d’ indicates a 2′-deoxynucleoside and an “N” without a subscript also indicates a 2′-deoxynucleoside. In the table below, an “x” represents a 2-thiothymine Subscripts “s” and “o” refer to phosphorothioate and phosphodiester internucleoside bonds, respectively.
  • Each mouse was then evaluated weekly by a trained observer for 8 weeks and examined for adverse events. Adverse events are defined as any behavior not typical in a naive matched control animal. Animals were evaluated for adverse events including, but not limited to: limb clasping, abnormal limb splay, abnormal gait, tremors, abnormal respiration, paralysis, spasticity, impaired righting reflex, hyperactivity and lethargy. For each group, the number of animals that exhibited any adverse events during any of the 8 weekly observations was calculated. For example, a group of animals where no animals exhibited any adverse events is given a score of 0.
  • TABLE 28
    300 μg ICV Bolus 8 Week Study With Mice
    # of Mice in
    Mut Wt Score at group with one
    IC50 Ic50 3 hours or more adverse
    Isis No. SNP (μM) (μM) post injection events for 8 weeks
    540083 rs7685686 ND ND ND 4
    540094 rs7685686 0.31 4.8 4.3 2
    540095 rs7685686 0.69 8.3 6 4
    540096 rs7685686 0.65 10 3.5 2
    540108 rs7685686 0.41 >10 0.8 4
    550913 rs7685686 0.12 0.6 2 3
    551429 rs7685686 0.24 >10 0.3 0
    566267 rs7685686 0.34 >15 1.5 0
    568876 rs7685686 0.1 >10 1.3 4
    571036 rs7685686 0.17 >10 1 4
    571037 rs7685686 0.11 >10 0 4
    575007 rs7685686 0.67 >10 1.8 0
    585246 rs7685686 0.6 >10 4.5 4
    571069 rs7685686 0.29 >10 0 4
    572771 rs7685686 0.54 >10 0 3
    572772 rs7685686 0.57 >10 0 0
    575008 rs7685686 0.18 >10 0 1
    460209 rs7685686 0.34 1.7 1.3 0
    476333 rs7685686 0.32 1.6 0 1
    540108 rs7685686 0.41 >10 0.3 2
    593199 rs7685686 ND ND 0 3
    593200 rs7685686 ND ND 0.5 0
    593201 rs7685686 ND ND 0 4
    593202 rs7685686 ND ND 0 4
    593203 rs7685686 ND ND 0 3
    593204 rs7685686 ND ND 0 4
    558257 rs7685686 0.6 >10 0 ND
    571039 rs7685686 0.34 >10 2.5 ND
    598229 rs7685686 ND ND 0 ND
    598300 rs7685686 ND ND 1.3 ND
    598301 rs7685686 ND ND 2.3 ND
    598302 rs7685686 ND ND 0.3 ND
    598303 rs7685686 ND ND 1.5 ND
    598304 rs7685686 ND ND 1.5 ND
    598305 rs7685686 ND ND 0 ND
    598306 rs7685686 ND ND 0.5 ND
    598307 rs7685686 ND ND 0.8 ND
    598308 rs7685686 ND ND 1.8 ND
    606560 rs7685686 ND ND 1.5 ND
    606578 rs7685686 ND ND 2.8 ND
    435871 rs363088 ND ND 4.8 3
    525366 rs363088 0.6 2.88 ND 4
    525368 rs363088 0.8 6.88 .3 4
    575172 rs363088 0.9 5.0 0 4
    575175 rs363088 0.4 2.64 0 4
    582658 rs363088 0.8 6.9 0 4
    582661 rs363088 0.4 3.0 0 4
    589595 rs363088 1.2 9.6 0 4
    589596 rs363088 1.4 >10 0 4
    591416 rs363088 ND ND 0 3
    589450 rs6446723 1.3 >10 3.8 0
    589532 rs363064 2.5 >10 5.8 2
    589537 rs7685686 0.8 4.8 2.8 2
    589546 rs6446723 1.3 >10 1.8 0
    589547 rs6446723 1.5 >10 2.3 1
    589567 rs6446723 0.8 9.6 6 3
    589601 rs362273 1.3 7 6 4
    589602 rs362273 1.4 >10 6 3
    589645 rs363088 1.5 >10 5.7 2
    589646 rs363088 3.2 >10 4.3