US20150252558A1 - Waffle box building technology - Google Patents

Waffle box building technology Download PDF

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Publication number
US20150252558A1
US20150252558A1 US14/417,486 US201314417486A US2015252558A1 US 20150252558 A1 US20150252558 A1 US 20150252558A1 US 201314417486 A US201314417486 A US 201314417486A US 2015252558 A1 US2015252558 A1 US 2015252558A1
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waffle
boxes
box
recited
type
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US14/417,486
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Jerry A. Chin
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Jerry A. Chin
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Priority to PH201300002 priority
Publication of US20150252558A1 publication Critical patent/US20150252558A1/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/04Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stone-like material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B1/34807Elements integrated in a skeleton
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B1/34815Elements not integrated in a skeleton
    • E04B1/34823Elements not integrated in a skeleton the supporting structure consisting of concrete
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/38Connections for building structures in general
    • E04B1/61Connections for building structures in general of slab-shaped building elements with each other
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04GSCAFFOLDING; FORMS; SHUTTERING; BUILDING IMPLEMENTS OR AIDS, OR THEIR USE; HANDLING BUILDING MATERIALS ON THE SITE; REPAIRING, BREAKING-UP OR OTHER WORK ON EXISTING BUILDINGS
    • E04G21/00Preparing, conveying, or working-up building materials or building elements in situ; Other devices or measures for constructional work
    • E04G21/14Conveying or assembling building elements
    • E04G21/142Means in or on the elements for connecting same to handling apparatus
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H9/00Buildings, or groups of buildings, or shelters adapted to withstand or provide protection against abnormal external influences, e.g. war-like action, earthquake, extreme climate
    • E04H9/02Buildings, or groups of buildings, or shelters adapted to withstand or provide protection against abnormal external influences, e.g. war-like action, earthquake, extreme climate withstanding earthquake or sinking of ground
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H9/00Buildings, or groups of buildings, or shelters adapted to withstand or provide protection against abnormal external influences, e.g. war-like action, earthquake, extreme climate
    • E04H9/14Buildings, or groups of buildings, or shelters adapted to withstand or provide protection against abnormal external influences, e.g. war-like action, earthquake, extreme climate against other dangerous influences, e.g. tornadoes, floods
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H9/00Buildings, or groups of buildings, or shelters adapted to withstand or provide protection against abnormal external influences, e.g. war-like action, earthquake, extreme climate
    • E04H9/14Buildings, or groups of buildings, or shelters adapted to withstand or provide protection against abnormal external influences, e.g. war-like action, earthquake, extreme climate against other dangerous influences, e.g. tornadoes, floods
    • E04H9/145Floods
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H9/00Buildings, or groups of buildings, or shelters adapted to withstand or provide protection against abnormal external influences, e.g. war-like action, earthquake, extreme climate
    • E04H9/16Buildings, or groups of buildings, or shelters adapted to withstand or provide protection against abnormal external influences, e.g. war-like action, earthquake, extreme climate against adverse conditions, e.g. extreme climate, pests
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/343Structures characterised by movable, separable, or collapsible parts, e.g. for transport
    • E04B2001/34389Set of building elements forming a self-contained package for transport before assembly
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B2001/34876Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form with a sloping or barrel roof
    • E04B2001/34884Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form with a sloping or barrel roof creating a living space between several units
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B2001/34892Means allowing access to the units, e.g. stairs or cantilevered gangways
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2103/00Material constitution of slabs, sheets or the like
    • E04B2103/02Material constitution of slabs, sheets or the like of ceramics, concrete or other stone-like material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H3/00Buildings or groups of buildings for public or similar purposes; Institutions, e.g. infirmaries, prisons
    • E04H3/02Hotels; Motels; Coffee houses; Restaurants; Shops; Department stores
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H3/00Buildings or groups of buildings for public or similar purposes; Institutions, e.g. infirmaries, prisons
    • E04H3/08Hospitals, infirmaries, or the like; Schools; Prisons
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A50/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE in human health protection, e.g. against extreme weather

Abstract

The Waffle box is a process of installation of Type II waffle boxes placed alternately facing each other which is best for buildings with common corridors. The wings that serve as corridor, wall, window, are improvements from the prior arts. Being an alternative building system with thinner walls and slabs, lighter and cheaper but is equally stronger, fast, resilient, green, and sustainable. It is a process and a product that has less cost with more value added.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • The present Continuation in Part patent application is the National Phase filing under 35 U.S.C. 371 of the Philippine Application No.: 12012000216 entitled “Waffle Box Building Technology”, filed 2012 Jul. 27 and International Application No.: PCT/PH2013/000002, entitled “Waffle Box Building Technology”, filed 2013 Jan. 23.
  • RELATED CO-PENDING U.S. PATENT APPLICATIONS
  • No applicable.
  • FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
  • Not applicable.
  • REFERENCE TO SEQUENCE LISTING, A TABLE, OR A COMPUTER LISTING APPENDIX
  • Not applicable.
  • COPYRIGHT NOTICE
  • A portion of the disclosure of this patent document contains material that is subject to copyright protection. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile reproduction by anyone of the patent document or patent disclosure as it appears in the Patent and Trademark Office, patent file or records, but otherwise reserves all copyright rights whatsoever.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • In reference to the prior art or Philippine Utility Model Registration No. 2-2001-000254 issued on May 19, 2005, with the Title: A Modular Wall Panel for Fence, Housing, or Building Units and Maker: Claude Edwin Andrews of Mandaluyong City, Philippines, the precast modular panels as claimed, are laid horizontally with poured concrete between joints. The same modular panels are laid piece by piece with some panels having tongue and grove to complete a certain height or length. It is noted in this prior art that the panel indentations are strictly around the perimeter edges.
  • The Philippine Utility Model Registration No. 2-2001-000254 is a useful model and a good contribution in the construction industry as a whole. This waffle box 27 invention defines a very specific thin wall 3 or slab 4 (sometimes called skin) with a series of orthogonal indentations on one of the faces called ribs 5 (FIGS. 2, 29) that runs in many directions (not in edges only).
  • Philippine Patent Number 24939, issued on Dec. 26, 1990 with the Title: Shelter Components and Stocking Process for Multi-Storey Building; Inventor: Cesar V. Canchela of Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines, claimed in Item #1, “for a unitary prefabricated reinforced concrete rectangular-like shape body with opened longitudinal ends”, “body having a planar bottom wall”, “a pair of opposed planar sidewalls”, “a pair of spaced apart outwardly extending post members”, “a pair oppositely disposed support members” and “a planar top wall”. FIGS. 1 and 2 of the said prior art also describes the claim.
  • A waffle slab tank for example as stated below dealt with tanks. http://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2005056936&recNum=1&maxRec=1&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=FP%3A%28waffle+box+concrete %29&tab=PCTDescription International application number PCT/AU2004/001728, inventor Stephen Cordell, title Slab Tank.
  • Another prior art, Philippine Patent Number 12302, issued on Jan. 16, 1979, with the Title: Pre-cast Reinforced Concrete Frame for a Multi-story Building Construction System, whose inventor Gregorio C. Concepcion of Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines, claims as follows:
  • “A concrete wall structure for use in multi storey building construction system, comprising of a set of lower frames anchored to the ground foundation such that the upper horizontal ribs of said lower frames are horizontally aligned with each other, . . . and a set of upper frames rigidly secured on top of said set of lower frames and consisting of spaced-apart frames such that the vertical ribs of the upper frames are vertically aligned with their corresponding vertical ribs of the lower frames . . . ”
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The figures below will describe and illustrate the waffle box 27 technology. The figures although numbered in progression are grouped in two types. Type I describes about the five (5) side waffle box 27 (FIGS. 1 to 26), while Type II describes about the four (4) or six 6) side waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 (FIGS. 27 to 56).
  • The Type I five (5) side waffle box 27 is ideal for houses, shelter or building with different sizes of rooms. The Type I waffle box 27 with one bottom side open are installed on top of the other from foundation 26, 26 a or base level to the topmost deck 31. The shelter or building can use different sizes of Type I waffle boxes 27. The general rule however, in using Type I waffle box 27, is to use same size waffle boxes and install them vertically in linear progression from foundation or base level to the topmost deck of the shelter or building. Then a different size of Type I waffle box 27 (but height must be the same) may be used in other parts of the same building, but the installation must be similar which is vertically in linear progression from foundation or base level to the topmost deck of the same shelter or building. The adjacent waffle slabs 2 are designed and fabricated to fit to the peripheral spaces around the Type I waffle boxes 27.
  • The Type II four (4) or six (6) side waffle box 27 with wings 10 use the same waffle boxes (uniform in width, length and height) from foundation 26, 26 a (FIGS. 21, 37) or base level to topmost deck 31 (FIGS. 21, 37), regardless of its position in the shelter or building. The waffle boxes 27 (FIGS. 21, 37) are placed horizontally with an extra space 24 in between them. These extra spaces 24 or units are created using the walls 1 of these two adjacent waffle boxes 27. The distance between the center lines of the thin walls 3 plus the rib 5 of the waffle box 27 and that of the extra
  • Space 24 are equal, so that when another waffle box 27 is laid on top of them (above the extra space 24, the corbel 7 will be able to receive and fit the succeeding waffle box 27. The process is repeated until the shelter or building is completed. The general guideline is that all centerline of the thin walls 3 plus the rib 5 of all the waffle boxes 27 at any level of the shelter or building are vertically aligned from the base level or foundation 26, 26 a up to the topmost deck (FIGS. 21, 37)
  • End waffle wall 30, combined waffle wall and slab 29 and waffle slab 2 are placed at exterior end or deck to complete the box system. (FIG. 36) illustrates these components.
  • Type II four (4) or six (6) side waffle box 27 with wings 10 have walls 1 in front and rear with punch opening for doors 12 and windows 12 b, 12 c or stairs, elevator shaft, etc. 12 d. Type II six (6) side waffle box 27 is ideal for mass production especially for large projects or buildings. With front and rear walls 1 open, of the Type II waffle box 27, the removal of forms is faster. The reduction of walls 1 as a result of the front and rear opening 12, 12 b will be addressed by rearranging the waffle boxes' 27 position (architect's' design) or in extreme cases introducing cast-in-place walls or other structural elements (structural engineer's design) at strategic areas in the shelter of building to maintain the structural integrity of the building. Punch opening or block out on walls 1 or slabs 2 intended for these cast-in-place structural elements can be integrated during casting of waffle boxes 27. Once poured, on site or enhanced, sewed or stitched, they become an integral part of the structure. These processes are called “enhancing” or “stitching” or “sewing” and discussed on page 10.
  • There are instances where waffle boxes 27 have punched openings 12, 12 a, 12 b, 12 c, 12 d (FIG. 29 b, 30, 33) to meet a desired need (window, door, stair, shaft, view area like atrium, or scenic elevator etc.) on almost all sides of the waffle boxes 27. These conditions are allowed provided that the general rule is that those critical horizontal and vertical ribs 5 including the corbel 7, 8, 9 are left intact and must seek clearance from the structural engineer.
  • Type I Five (5) Sides Waffle Box 27; (FIGS. 1 to 26)
  • FIG. 1 is a plan of the five (5) sides waffle slab 2 with some basic features.
  • FIGS. 2 and 2 a is a plan showing the bottom open side and the waffle wall 1 and its components like the wall 3, ribs 5, door and window opening 12. The ribs 5 are trapezoidal in shape for easy removal of forms.
  • FIG. 3 is a sectional elevation showing ribs 5, window opening 5 b, corbel 7 and inverted corbel 8. Also shown near the corbel 7 is a vertical and horizontal target 22 that will help plumb or align the building during the installation process. Below also shows the match groove 23 that will help align the lower and upper waffle boxes 27 during the installation process.
  • FIG. 4 is cross section showing waffle wall 1 and slab 2, ribs 5, window opening 12 b, corbel 7 and inverted corbel 8. Also shown on the corbel 7 are sockets for dowels 14. Shown on the inverted corbel 8 below are holes 15 e also for dowels 14.
  • FIG. 5 is cross section showing waffle wall land slab 2, window and door opening 12, corbel 7 and inverted corbel 8. Sockets for corbel 14 and holes for the inverted corbel 15 e and lifting 15 d are also shown.
  • FIG. 6 is a sectional elevation showing ribs 5, window and door opening 12, corbel 7, inverted corbel 8 and vertical/horizontal target 22.
  • FIG. 7 is sectional elevation showing ribs 5, waffle wall 1, door opening 12, inverted corbel 8 and holes for lifting 15 d. Also shown are dotted lines showing holes for dowels or pins 15, vertical and horizontal target 22 and match groove 23.
  • FIG. 7 a is similar to FIG. 7 but features the diagonal ribs 5.
  • FIG. 8 is a longitudinal section showing waffle wall 1 and slab 2, corbel 7, door and window opening 12, holes for lifting and dowels or pins 15. Also shown on the upper left is the wall and slab connection and also on right is the corbel 7 and waffle slab 2 connections.
  • FIG. 9 is a waffle box 27 to waffle box 27 and waffle slab 2 connections. The Type I five (5) side box is placed on top of each other. After alignment of the waffle boxes 27, the dowels or pins 17 are fixed and grouted. The waffle slab 2 is placed next. In the Type I five (5) side waffle box 27, these waffle slabs 2 around the waffle boxes 27 differ in length and width but not in height. These waffle slabs 2 are fabricated and installed individually.
  • FIG. 10 is a waffle box 27 and deck slab 2 connections. Also shown are the sealant 21, hole 15, dowel, or pin 17 and socket 14.
  • FIG. 11 is a bolt connection 18 a which is an alternative waffle box 27 to waffle box 27 connection. This type of connection can be also used as a temporary connection because the bolts 18 can be loosened and removed.
  • FIG. 12 is a welding plate 16 and/or dowel or pin 17 connections. The plates 16 are welded to fix the slab 2 to the corbel 7. The socket 14, hole 15, dowel or pin 17 is a separate type of connection that can be used as an alternative to fix the waffle slab 2 to the corbel 7.
  • FIG. 13 is a waffle box 27 to corridor 6 waffle slab 2 connections. Shown also are the socket 14, hole 15 and dowel or pin 17 connections.
  • FIG. 14 is waffle slab 2 to waffle slab 2 connections. This connection is used when two (2) waffle slabs 2 meet. Sealant 21 is shown in this figure.
  • FIG. 15 is waffle box 27 front wall connection. Shown are welding plate 16 and angle 16 a connection. Socket, hole, dowel or pin connection can be used also.
  • FIG. 16 is end waffle wall 30 connection. This connection applies when no adjacent slab is needed.
  • FIG. 17 is cast-in-place slab-on-fill and/or foundation 26 to waffle box 27 connection
  • FIG. 18 is an alternative lifting mechanism using a threaded cylinder with matching bolt with hook 13 a.
  • FIG. 19 is another lifting mechanism using rod with matching hook and eye 13.
  • FIG. 20 shows how the Type I five (5) side waffle boxes 27 are placed or installed on top of another. Also shown is the adjacent waffle slab 2. The waffle boxes 27 are uniform while the waffle slab′2 width and length may vary. The uniform waffle boxes 27 with their corbel 7 and connections support these waffle slabs 2 around them. This type of waffle box 27 is ideal for residential or multi-storey buildings with different room sizes. The general rule here is to make one or a couple of boxes uniform from foundation or base level to the topmost deck of the building so they can be installed or placed on top of one another. The waffle slabs 2 around the Type I waffle boxes 27 will follow. 25
  • FIG. 21 is a cross section of a completed horizontal and vertical installation of the Type I five (5) side waffle boxes 27 and waffle slabs 2.
  • FIG. 22 is a floor plan showing the side door opening 12 a that allows the user to expand sideward equivalent to two rooms or waffle boxes 27.
  • FIG. 23 is a floor plan showing the side door opening 12 a that allows the user to expand sideward equivalent to one room or waffle box 27.
  • FIG. 24 is a floor plan showing the side door opening that allows the user to expand sideward equivalent to one half room or waffle box 27.
  • FIG. 25 is an isometric of Type I 5 sides waffle box 27 with window and door opening 12.
  • FIG. 25 a is an isometric of Type I waffle box with window and door opening 12. This kind of waffle box 27 normally is installed on the deck. The bottom slab 2 is open for stair well, pipe chase, elevator shaft or the like.
  • FIG. 26 shows the progressive placement or installation of Type I 5 side prefabricated waffle boxes 27 and waffle slabs 2 around it.
  • B. Type II Four (4) or Six (6) Sides Waffle Box with wings 10, FIGS. 27 to 56
  • FIG. 27 is an isometric of Type II 4 or 6 side waffle box 27 with wings 10 (front, rear walls, and corridors),
  • FIG. 27 a is an isometric of a Type II 4 or 6 side waffle box 27 with wings (front and rear walls, and corridor) 10 showing progressive installation.
  • FIG. 27 b is an isometric of the installation process of Type II 4 or 6 side waffle box 27 with wings (front and rear walls, and corridor) 10. The installation of the waffle boxes 27 at any same level is one extra space 24 apart. The installation of the second row of waffle boxes 27 for a double loaded designed building is also shown. The new waffle box 27 will rest above the extra space 24 created by the 2 lower waffle boxes 27.
  • FIG. 27 c is an isometric of the installation process of Type II 4 or 6 side waffle box 27 with wings (front and rear walls, and corridor) 10. Also shown is the combined waffle wall with slab 30, waffle slab 2, and waffle wall 1. These four (4) structural elements comprise the structural box system of the shelter or building. The waffle slabs 2 are punched or left open if you need it as stair, air well, elevator shaft or the like.
  • FIG. 27 d is an isometric of the waffle slabs 2, waffle walls 1.
  • FIG. 27 e is an isometric of the Type II 4 or 6 side waffle box 27 with corridor wings 10.
  • FIG. 27 f is an isometric of the Type II 4 or 6 side waffle box 27 with corridor wings 10, with punch opening for stair well 12 d. Punch opening 12 d for waffle slab 2 can be wider or 100 percent open depending on the use, provided the perimeter frames, ribs 5, corbel 7, inverted or “z” corbel 8, 9 are left intact.
  • FIG. 28 is a plan of the Type II four (4) or six (6) sides waffle box 27 showing top waffle slab 2 including corridor 10 a and some basic features.
  • FIG. 29 is a plan showing the bottom waffle slab 2 and the waffle wall 1 and its components like the wall 1, ribs 5, door and window opening 12.
  • FIG. 29 a is a plan showing the Type II 4 or 6 side waffle box 27′ bottom waffle slab 2 and the waffle wall 1 and its components like the wall 1, ribs 5, door and window opening 12 and corridor wing 10 a.
  • FIG. 29B is a plan showing Type II 4 or 6 side waffle box 27 opening for stairwell 12 d. Openings for slabs 2 are variable as needed, provided the horizontal and vertical ribs 5 including corbel 7 and “z” and inverted corbel 8, 9 around are left intact.
  • FIG. 30 is a sectional elevation showing the wings 10, ribs 5, window opening 12, and corbel 7. Also is a vertical and horizontal target 22 that will help plumb or align the building during the placement or installation process. Below also shows the match groove 23 that will help align the lower and upper waffle boxes 27 during the placement or installation process.
  • FIG. 31 is cross section showing waffle wall 1, wings 10 and slab 2, ribs 5, window opening 12, corbel 7 and “z” corbel 9. Also shown are sockets 14 and holes 15 for dowels or pins 17 and holes for lifting rod 15 d.
  • FIG. 32 is cross section showing waffle wall 1, wings 10 and slab 2, window and door opening 12, corbel 7 and “z” corbel 9. Sockets for corbel 15 and holes for the “z” corbel 9 and lifting 15 d are also shown.
  • FIG. 33 is a sectional elevation showing wings 10, ribs 5, windows and door opening 12, corbel 7 and “z” corbel 9. Vertical and horizontal target 22 and match groove 23 are also shown.
  • FIG. 34 is sectional elevation showing corridor 10 a, ribs 5, waffle wall 1, door opening 12 a, “z” corbel 9 and holes for lifting 15 d. Also shown are dotted lines showing holes for dowels or pins 15, vertical and horizontal target 22 and match groove 23.
  • FIG. 35 is a longitudinal section showing corridor 10 a, waffle wall 1 and slab 2, corbel 7, door and windows opening 12, holes for lifting 15 d and dowels or pins 17. Also shown is the corridor rib 5.
  • FIG. 36 shows the placement or installation process of the Type II six (6) side waffle boxes 27. The waffle boxes 27 have one size only. First, they are laid horizontally with extra space 24 between waffle boxes 27. The waffle walls 1 of the waffle boxes become the wall of the extra space 24. The distance between the center lines of the thin wall 3 of the waffle box 27 and the extra space 24 are equal. On the next upper level, the Type II four (4) or six (6) side boxes 27 are placed on top of the extra spaces 24. The “z” corbel 9 of the waffle box 27 being installed on the upper level will rest on the corbel 7 of the two waffle boxes 27 which are already installed below. Once installed, the waffle slab 2 becomes the ceiling of the extra space 24. The installation process is repeated until the shelter or building is completed. The general rule is that the thin walls 3 from the foundation or base level up to the topmost deck are aligned. The number of waffle boxes 27 installed will create rooms or usable spaces equivalent to twice as much as their number.
  • Shown in the figure are end waffle wall 30, combined waffle wall and slab 29 and waffle slab 2 that are placed on exterior end or deck to complete the waffle box 27 system.
  • The foundation 26 or slab is also designed to fit to the “z” corbel 9 of the waffle boxes 27.
  • FIG. 37 is a cross section of a completed horizontal and vertical placement or installation of the Type II four (4) or six (6) side waffle boxes 27 including end waffle wall 30, combined waffle wall and slab 29 and waffle slab 2.
  • The figure shows that the number of usable spaces or units created by this technology is twice the number of waffle boxes' 27 fabricated and installed. The technology cuts the labor cost and construction time by a substantial figure by almost half.
  • FIG. 38 is a waffle box 27 to waffle box 27 connection. The six (6) side waffle box 27 is placed on top of the extra space 24, thereby having the “z” corbel 9 rests on the corbel 7 of the waffle boxes 27 previously installed below. The figure shows the socket 14, hole 15 and dowel or pin 17 connections.
  • FIG. 39 is a bolt connection 18 a which is an alternative waffle box 27 to waffle box 27 connection. This type of connection can be also used as a temporary connection because the bolts can be loosened and removed.
  • FIG. 40 shows welding plate and welding angle 16 connection.
  • FIG. 41 shows the front wall 3 connection using welding plate/anchorage and welding angle/anchorage 16.
  • FIG. 42 is waffle slab 2 to waffle slab 2 connections. This connection is used when two (2) waffle slabs 2 meet, in this case, at the corridor.
  • FIG. 43 shows welding plates and welding angle 16 connection, Shown are waffle deck slab 31 and corbel 7 connections.
  • FIG. 44 shows welding plates and welding angle 16 connection, Shown is end waffle wall 30 and corbel 7 connections.
  • FIG. 45 shows cast-in-place slab and foundation 26 and prefabricated waffle box
  • FIG. 46 is an alternative lifting mechanism using a bolt 13 b.
  • FIG. 47 is a ground floor plan for single detached house showing aligned waffle boxes 27 with an extra space 24 created at ground level and forwarded waffle box 27 at the second level. The garage, porch, living, dining, kitchen, stair well, or toilet and bath were created at the ground level.
  • FIG. 48 is a second floor plan for single detached house showing aligned waffle boxes 27 with extra space 24 at ground level and forwarded waffle box 27 at the second level. The bedrooms, stair well, family area, balconies, toilet and bath were created at the second level.
  • FIG. 49 is an attic plan for single detached house showing aligned waffle boxes 27 with extra space 24 at ground level and forwarded waffle box 27 at the second level and an attic with roof at the third level. The attic was created by utilizing the upper slab 2 of the waffle box 27. Roof was used to cover the extra spaces 24 at the second level and attic at third level.
  • FIG. 50 is a cross section showing the 3 waffle boxes 27 and the 3 extra spaces 24 plus the attic that were created. All the needed spaces like living, dining, kitchen, garage, stair, toilet and bath, balconies, family room, etc. of a typical house were provided for.
  • FIG. 51 is a ground floor plan for single detached house showing 2 aligned waffle boxes 27 with 3 extra spaces 24 (1 at ground and 2 at second level). The garage, living, dining, kitchen, stair well, or toilet and bath were created at the ground level.
  • FIG. 52 is second floor plan for single detached house showing 2 aligned waffle boxes 27 with 2 extra spaces 24 or bedrooms at the second floor level. A roof was made to cover this second floor level. The arrangement of the waffle boxes 27 are versatile and will depend on the ideas of the architect or user of the technology.
  • FIG. 53 is a cross section showing the 2 waffle boxes 27 and the 3 extra spaces 24 that were created. A roof covering is shown.
  • FIG. 54 is a ground floor plan for single detached house showing a single waffle box 27 with 2 extra spaces 24 created at ground level and one extra space 24 at the second level. The garage, living, dining, kitchen, stair well, or toilet and bath were created at the ground level.
  • FIG. 55 is a second floor plan for single detached house showing a single waffle box 27 with one extra space 24 at the second level. A bedroom and a stair well were created at the second level. 31
  • FIG. 56 is a cross section showing a single waffle box 27 and the 3 extra spaces 24 (2 at ground and 1 at second level). All the basic elements of a house were provided for.
  • FIGS. 57 and 57 a are waffle box building technology code.
  • FIGS. 60 and 61 are plans showing waffle box 27 that are designed for “sewing” or “stitching”
  • FIGS. 62 and 63 are sections showing waffle box 27 that are designed for “sewing” or “stitching”
  • FIGS. 64 and 65 are elevations showing waffle box 27 that are designed for “sewing” or “stitching”
  • FIG. 66 is an isometric emphasizing micro portal frames 35
  • FIG. 67 is an isometric showing the stilt foundation 26 a
  • FIG. 68 is an isometric showing the opening 36 earmarked for cast-in-place stiffeners of which the process is called “enhancing”
  • FIG. 69 is an isometric of progressive installation of waffle box 27 with wings 10, this time the waffles are inside
  • FIG. 70 shows waffle window sill or parapet
  • FIG. 71 shows waffle wall showing interior waffles
  • FIG. 72 shows waffle slab 2
  • FIG. 73 shows combined waffle wall and slab 29
  • FIG. 74 shows waffle slab 2 resting on foundation 26
  • FIG. 75 is an isometric showing progressive installation of waffle slab and waffle box 27 with wings 10, this time waffles are inside
  • FIGS. 76 and 77 are plans showing waffle box 27 with wing 10 that are purely ribs
  • FIGS. 78 and 79 are elevations showing waffle box 27 with wing 10 that are purely ribs 5
  • FIGS. 80 and 81 are elevations showing waffle box 27 with wing 10 that are purely ribs 5 with provisions for “stitching” or “sewing”
  • FIG. 82 is an isometric showing waffle box 27 with wing 10 that are purely ribs 5 with provisions for “stitching” or “sewing” while resting on stilt foundations 26 a
  • FIG. 83 is an isometric emphasizing micro portal frames 35 for waffle box 27 with wing 10 that are purely ribs 5 with provisions for “stitching” or “sewing”
  • FIG. 84 is a plan of waffle box 27 that are purely ribs 5 showing opening for stairwell, elevator shaft 12 d or the like
  • FIG. 85 is a plan showing waffle box 27 with provisions for “stitching” or “sewing”
  • FIGS. 86 and 87 are elevations of waffle box 27 showing ducts for “stitching” or “sewing”
  • FIG. 88 is an isometric showing installation of precast stair 40, 41, 42
  • FIG. 89 is a perspective showing of waffle box 27 with opening for stair 12 d
  • FIG. 90 is an elevation of waffle fence 38
  • FIG. 91 is a section of waffle fence 38
  • FIG. 92 is an isometric of waffle fence 38
  • FIG. 93 is a model house perspective of a 2-storey waffle box 27 house on stilt foundation 26 a.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SOME OF THE EMBODIMENTS
  • The Waffle Box Building Technology is an alternative prefabricated or cast-in-place building system that aims to solve the following pressing problems of any country:
      • a. The destructive effects of climate change like frequent flooding, strong typhoons, extreme temperatures; freezing in the northern and southern hemisphere and heat in tropical, middle east and African countries;
      • b. Natural and man-made calamities like strong earthquake, hurricane, tornado, sand storm, snow storm, tidal wave, flooding, fire or even war;
      • c. Destruction of natural resources like cutting of trees, quarrying and mining as a result of construction boom and economic progress;
      • d. Long construction periods, unpredictable quality, wastage of materials and man-hours due to use of the traditional post/slab/beam system which are poured on site including the repetitive hauling of materials and manpower up and down the building sites;
      • e. Backlog in affordable housing, schools and offices as a result of fast growing population, rapid urbanization and migration due to improving economies;
      • f. Seemingly higher construction cost due to inflation, scarce and expensive land in urban centers as a result of booming economies; and
      • g. Lack of skilled workers because of higher pay in overseas jobs and migration to host countries that need their skills.
  • For problem a) and b); waffle box 27 is designed with stilt foundation 26 a, concrete roof deck 31 and micro portal frames 35. These properties mitigate the destructive effects of climate change, man-made and natural disasters like flood, fire, typhoon, earthquake, storm surge, tidal wave, hurricane, tornado, snow, and sand storm among others.
  • Waffles 3, 4 can receive insulation 37 that results in lower electric bills both for cold and temperate countries. Insulation works against heat, freezing temperature and noise. Thinner walls 3 have less thermal mass, hence quicker to cool.
  • Waffle box is also green and sustainable. It is resilient, expandable and transferable. It uses less cement and steel which means less pollution and carbon footprint to produce them.
  • For problem c); waffle box 27 has thinner walls 3 and slabs 4 hence lighter (waffle 1.2) with lesser cement and steel. Reduced usage of raw materials like gravel (raw material for concrete), lime (raw material for cement) and iron or manganese (raw materials for steel) means lesser destruction of our mountains.
  • Waffle box is an industrial building system that does not use wood for fabrication and installation.
  • For problem d); waffle box 27 is mass-produced in factories under controlled working condition. The standard steel form produces quality and uniform boxes. It is pre-finished and plug-in units. Most of the works are done at ground level. It is fast and hedges against fast rising cost of construction and controls project cost overruns.
  • The repetitive hauling up and down of materials and workers in project sites (especially for high-rise buildings) is eliminated.
  • For problem e) and f); waffle box 27 has thinner and lighter wall 3 and slab 4 but equally stronger and highly resistant to earthquake and other building loads. It uses less cement and steel hence cheaper. It is mass produced and fast. It is best for double loaded designed building (common hallway and stair), that reduces cost while increase building occupancies.
  • For problem g); waffle box 27 is an industrial building system. It utilizes more machines and less manpower. Being repetitive, the learning curve is shorter.
  • The name of the invention “waffle box” 27 came from these succeeding terms and meaning.
  • Waffle (noun) also as defined by Encarta dictionary is “a pattern of indentations on both sides”, or “as in waffle iron for pancakes”.
  • Box (noun) as defined by Encarta dictionary is “something that is square or rectangular in shape”, “a container for objects or dry goods . . . ”, “an enclosed area . . . ”, “a small building that is used as a shelter”, and “a compartment . . . ”.
  • Wings (noun) also as defined by Encarta dictionary are “flat surfaces sticking out from the sides . . . ”
  • In its technical terms, the Diaphragms and Shear Walls, Design/Construction Guide, by APA (The Engineered Wood Association, www.apawood.org), quoted herein, “A diaphragm is a flat structural unit acting like a deep, thin beam.”, “A shear wall, however, is a vertical cantilevered diaphragm. A diaphragm structure results when a series of such vertical and horizontal diaphragms are properly tied together to form a structural unit. When diaphragms and shear walls are used in the lateral design of a building, the structural system is termed as “box system”.
  • This invention is about prefabricated or cast-in-place structural “waffle box” 27 made of concrete or other materials; a square or rectangular in shape, an enclosed area used as a shelter or room, with or without wings 10, 10 a, 10 b, with punched openings for windows 12 b, 12 c, doors 12, 12 a and stairs or elevator shafts, etc. 12 d that will form part of a shelter or building or any other similar structure for a specific use.
  • In addition, this invention is a prefabricated or cast-in-place structural “waffle” 1, 2 (a diaphragm of thin wall 3 or slab 4 with a pattern of orthogonal indentations on one of the faces called ribs) 5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, 5 d “box” 27 (a series of horizontal and vertical diaphragms and shear walls tied together or poured monolithically to resist vertical, horizontal, torsion and other building loads) building technology it is lighter and cheaper but equally resistant to earthquakes, typhoons, hurricanes, and other building loads, etc. compared to a planar walls or slabs.
  • The waffle box 27 will either have five (5) sides (Type 1) (FIGS. 1, 2, 3, 4, 25, 26) or four (4) or six (6) sides (Type II) (FIGS. 27, 27 a, 28, 29, 29 a, 29 b) as the case maybe. All the sides of the waffle box 27 are designed to carry structural (vertical, horizontal, torsion, etc.) loads of a building. The waffle box 27 is either square or rectangular in shape.
  • The ribs 5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c (sometimes called flange or chord) are rectangular or trapezoidal in shape for easy removal of forms (FIGS. 2, 2 a, 29, 29 b). The patterns of the ribs 5 to 5 d are vertical, horizontal, diagonal, longitudinal or transverse.
  • The sizes and spacing of the ribs 5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, and its reinforcement are dictated by the number of floors, use of the structure, sizes of rooms, zoning and other design factors of the shelter or building and is the product of the structural design. A strictly rib (no crisscrossing member) design is strong for loads in one direction while the waffle 1, 2 (vertical, horizontal, diagonal, longitudinal or transverse members) (FIGS. 7, 7 a, 34) design is strong for loads in both directions. In the same mentioned APA design guide, it stated further that, “A diaphragm acts in a manner analogous to a deep beam or girder, where the panels act as a “web,” resisting shear, while the diaphragm edge members perform the function of “flanges,” resisting bending stresses.”
  • The ribs 5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c are sometimes redesigned to serve a unique or special purpose. A corbel 7, 7 a, 7 b, 7 c, (FIGS. 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 38, 39, 40) for example is an improved rib that will hold and carry the upper waffle boxes 27, slabs 2 or walls 1 as the case maybe.
  • The rib or corbel 7 to 7 d has holes 15, 15 a, 15 b, 15 c, 5 d for fixing, lifting, and joining. It also has sockets 14, 14 a, 14 b, 14 c (FIGS. 9, 10, 12, 13) also for fitting or fixing the dowels or pins 17, 17 a (FIGS. 9, 10, 12, 13, 16, 38, 39, 42), for hauling 14 b, and for fork lifting 14 c.
  • Some ribs or corbel 7 has welding plates 16 (FIGS. 10, 12, 40, 43, 44) and welding angles 16 a (FIGS. 40, 43, 44) to attach one with the other in order to attain structural integrity of the shelter or building.
  • Still, some ribs or corbels 7, 7 a, 7 b, 7 c are also provided with lifting cylinders/bolts 13 a (FIG. 18), or lifting bolts 13 b (FIG. 46) for lifting purposes. They also have vertical and horizontal target 22 and match groove 23 for alignment, better quality control and speed in the installation process.
  • On the lower part of the waffle box 27, the ribs are developed as “z” or inverted corbels 8, 9 (FIGS. 3, 4, 5, 6, 17, 31, 32, 45) that will fit these corbels 7, 7 a, 7 b, 7 c. As a matching element of the corbel, 7 a, 7 b, 7 c, (FIGS. 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 16, 17), the inverted and “z” corbel 8, 9 has holes 15, 15 a, 15 b, 15 c, 15 d, (FIGS. 5, 7, 9, 11, 16, 17, 38, 39) welding plates 16 (FIGS. 10, 12) to best prepare these waffle boxes 27 for an integrated structural box system of the shelter or building.
  • These matching connections like the socket 14, 14 a, 14 b, 14 c, dowel or pin 17, 17 a, welding plate 16, welding angle 16 a, bolt 18, 18 a, 18 b and hole 15 b, 15 c, are then fixed (FIGS. 9, 11, 16, 37), grouted (FIGS. 9, 38), welded (FIG. 40), tightened (FIGS. 11, 39), painted or sealed 21 (FIGS. 9, 11, 38, 39, 40), etc. to avert misalignment and corrosion and to ensure the structural integrity of the shelter or building (FIGS. 21, 37).
  • Optional features that are called wings 10, 10 a, 10 b (FIGS. 27, 28, 29) or corridors 8 or slabs 4 with specific purpose are monolithically added on corners of the box. Once installed in accordance with the procedures as stated in the later part herein, the extra space 24 (FIGS. 21, 27 a, 36, 37) or other spaces around the waffle box 27 receives the needed wall covering, slab, corridor or balcony or even additional living spaces without the need of extra activities on site.
  • Punch openings for windows 12 b, 12 c, doors 12, 12 a and stairs or elevator shafts 12, 12 a, 12 b, 12 c, 12 d, etc. are integrated in the production process that will form part of the waffle box 27 for a specific use.
  • The weight of the structural box that was designed as waffle 1, 2 is lighter than those designed using the traditional flat walls and columns or slabs and beams or girders, because of the hollow sections between ribs 5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c 9 (FIGS. 2, 29). The walls 3 or slabs 4 (sometimes called skin) that connect the ribs are generally thinner. Furthermore, the term waffle 1, 2 (FIGS. 2, 28) completely describes this reduced mass.
  • A reduced mass or volume or weight requires thinner structural members, including foundation 26, and lesser or smaller steel reinforcements or the like, hence, cheaper shelter or building.
  • Thinner walls 3 and slabs 4 are lighter and require lesser materials like aggregates, cement and steel. This in turn will help preserve the destruction of our mountains (source of gravel and raw materials for cement and steel). Lesser cement and steel means lesser use of fossil fuel to produce them, hence lesser pollution and less carbon footprint. Thinner walls mean lesser thermal mass hence lesser heat absorbed during the day and faster to cool at night. Waffles wall 1 and waffle slab 2 can receive insulation materials to insulate noise, cool down the house or buildings and reduce consumption of electricity.
  • Lesser materials mean cheaper construction cost which can lead to affordable houses, schools and offices. More affordable houses are solutions to informal settlers, fast growing population and urbanization. More schools mean better education.
  • Another prior art is worth mentioning as it is useful in understanding this invention.
  • The special technical features of a planar box which has a flat surface with end posts is different from the waffle box 27; that has thin wall 3 and slab 4 with a pattern of indentations called ribs 5 to 5 d.
  • The planar box has posts while the waffle box 27 has none. The planar box has flat walls while the waffle box 27 has a thin wall 3 with a pattern of vertical, horizontal or diagonal ribs 5. The planar box is closed on the top and bottom slab, while the waffle box 27 can be both closed and open provided that the perimeter corbel 7, 7 a, 7 b, 7 c, 7 d or inverted and “z” corbel 8, 9 or other ribs are retained for structural integrity of the waffle box 27. Waffle boxes 27 with open slabs 12 d are used for stair well, air well, elevator shaft, pipes chase, atrium or the like, while the closed planar box is silent on this feature. The planar box is not the same as the waffle box 27 in form and in appearance.
  • Additional research was made in http://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/search.jsf, of which none appeared to have the slightest similarity with this invention.
  • The waffle box 27 building technology is consistent in its goal to provide a lighter but equally stronger, highly resistant to typhoons, hurricanes and earthquake, cheaper, and fast construction method that will address the backlog in the affordable housing, public and private school, and other shelter or building projects of any country.
  • Waffle box 27 is also resilient, green, and sustainable. It aims to preserve the world's natural resources, lessen pollution, lessen use of fossil fuel, and reduce carbon footprint.
  • It can mitigate the destructive effects of man-made and natural disasters like flood, fire, typhoon, earthquake, storm surge, tidal wave, hurricane, tornado, snow, and sand storm etc.
  • It can insulate against noise and hot and cold temperatures.
  • It can improve efficiency and quality in the construction of buildings, hedge against inflation, maximize use of expensive lands, increase building occupancies, and address the backlog in the affordable housing, schools and offices.
  • Waffle box 27 is an alternative housing solution to the fast increasing population and urbanization of any country and will combat the destructive effects of the world's climate change.
  • The waffle box 27 will have punched openings for windows 12 b, 12 c and doors 12, 12 a on its vertical walls (FIGS. 5, 6, 30, 31, 32). One door opening 12 a (closed during casting but can be opened later) (FIGS. 2, 25) more or less situated at the mid span of the longer vertical side wall is earmarked for sideward room expansion (FIGS. 22, 23, 24). This expansion which is equivalent to a minimum one half (½) size of the waffle box 27 (FIG. 24), one waffle box 27 (FIG. 23) or to as many as two waffle boxes 27, (FIG. 22) allows the occupant, user, or buyer for more options to expand.
  • Some waffle boxes 27 (FIG. 270, have punched opening for slabs 12 d which are intended for the stairwell, air well, elevator shafts, pipe chases, atrium or the like. The opening can be resized accordingly provided that the perimeter corbel or notch or other ribs are retained to maintain the structural integrity of the waffle box 27.
  • Still some waffle boxes 27 are fabricated with limited or even without walls in front and rear sides (FIG. 27 e) to give designers options for bigger windows and doors. In addition to this design option, this kind of waffle boxes 27 are best suited for mass production as the feature of free ends paves the way for fast and easy removal of interior forms. This will also make the waffle box 27 lighter.
  • In some instances, positioning of the waffle boxes 27 may be done in perpendicular with the other waffle boxes 27 in order to maintain structural integrity in both lateral and vertical directions of the shelter or building. This kind of mixed positions will require some features of the waffle box 27 to be adaptable.
  • Still, in some cases whereby these waffle boxes 27 (without front and rear wall) (FIGS. 27 e, 27 f) lacks the needed lateral frame as a result of the removal of its front and rear wall, or whenever necessary, the structural engineer may integrate other structural elements like walls, beams, etc. of different materials in the system to come up with a structurally viable shelter or building. This process is called “enhancing”.
  • Further from the last two (2) previous paragraphs, especially in the design of medium and high-rise buildings, and taking into account the complexity of these waffle boxes 27 with lesser walls 3 or those laid in perpendicular with each other, etc. the structural engineer may integrate post-tensioning 33, pre-stressing, and other technology to keep the buildings structurally safe. The ribs 5 can be designed to accommodate the ducts intended for the process. This process will be called “sewing” or “stitching”
  • The wings 10, 10 a, 10 b of the waffle box 27 are improvements of the prior arts that were enumerated in the International Search Report; 1. GB 2 056 524 A (Hanford Realty Pty Ltd) 18 Mar. 1981 (1981-03-18), 2. U.S. Pat. No. 3,495,367 A (Kobayashi Hideya) 17 Feb. 1970 (1970-02-17), 3. U.S. Pat. No. 3,976,741 A (Lowe James N et al) 24 Aug. 1976 (1976-08-24), 4. U.S. Pat. No. 3,643,390 A (Shelley Shelly W) 22 Feb. 1972 (1972-02-22), 5. GB 1 246 369 A (Wood Edgar Herbert [US]), 15 Sep. 1971 (1971-09-15), and the Philippine Patent Number 24939, issued on Dec. 26, 1990 with the Title: Shelter Components and Stocking Process for Multi-Storey Building; Inventor: Cesar V. Canchela of Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines.
  • Wings 10, 10 a, 10 b are cast monolithically with the main box. These wings 10, 10 a, 10 b serve as walls 10, doors 10 a, windows 10 b, corridors 6, or slabs 4 extending from the basic box (FIG. 28, 29, 30, 31, 27, 27 a, 27 b), to perform vital functions for the building or structure. Being monolithic with the box, these works are eliminated on project sites. Hence, waffle box 27 with wings 10 aims to solve tedious, expensive, poor quality, long construction methods that are normally done on sites. Shorter construction time hedges against rising cost of construction materials.
  • Here follows the notable differences among the prior arts mentioned in the International Search Report and waffle box 27 with wings 10, 10 a, 10 b:
      • 1. Hanford Realty Pty. Ltd. Is a three dimensional box, has waffle but has no wings. Waffle box 27 exhibits all the three features; a three dimensional box, has waffle 1, 2, and wings 10.
      • 2. Kobayashi Hideya is not a three dimensional box, has waffle but has no wings. Waffle box 27 exhibits all the three features; a three dimensional box, has waffle 1, 2, and wings 10.
      • 3. Lowe James N et al is also three dimensional box, has waffle, but has no wings. Waffle box 27 exhibits all the three features; a three dimensional box, has waffle 1, 2, and wings 10.
      • 4. Shelly Shelly W is also a three dimensional box, has no waffle (planar wall) and has no wings. Waffle box 27 exhibits all the three features; a three dimensional box, has waffle 1, 2, and wings 10.
      • 5. Wood Edgar Herbert is a three dimensional box, has no waffle (planar wall) and has wings. Waffle box 1, 2 exhibits all the three features; a three dimensional box, has waffle, and wings.
  • Therefore, waffle box 27 with wings 10, 10 a, 10 b is a box with a waffle and a wing that exhibits improved characteristics of the prior arts (FIGS. 27 a, 27 b,).
  • Waffle box 27 has a pattern of indentations on one of its faces. These indentations are called ribs 5. These ribs 5 run along the perimeter walls 3 and slabs 4 and are aligned, parallel and quadrant with the other. There being many and uniformly spaced in a waffle box 27 and in the series of waffle boxes 27 connected to one another to form a building, these ribs 5 including the tee (FIG. 35, 36) section become the diaphragms and shear walls of the building. They also function as micro portal frames 35 (FIG. 36, 37).
  • All the building loads (horizontal, vertical, torsional, etc.) that act on the building or structure are divided and reduced in smaller magnitude equivalent by the number of portal frames 35 in the building (FIG. 36, 37). Micro portal frames 35 that resist smaller loads are efficient and economical as compared to conventional post and beam that are spaced far apart from each other. Thus, buildings designed with micro portal frames 35 are highly resistant to earthquake, hurricane, tornado, super typhoon, tidal wave, storm surge, sand storm, snow, etc. which are prevalent in any parts of the world.
  • Waffle box 27 can rest on stilt foundation 26 a and has concrete roof deck slab 31 that mitigates the disastrous effects of flood, typhoon, storm surge, and tidal waves.
  • Waffle box 27 is an alternative housing solution that can combat the destructive effects of the world's climate change.
  • According to an article published in Sep. 6, 2014 http://business.inquirer.net/178173/helping-the-poor-own-their-homes, “Fifty-four percent of the world's population—about 3.8 billion—are now living in urban areas. And with almost 200,000 people being added to the world's cities every day, the United Nations estimates that by 2050 the world's urban population will stand at over 6.3 billion—nearly double of what it is today. According to global environmental research organization Worldwatch Institute, such rapid urban population growth will be especially burdensome for developing countries where 82 percent of the world's population currently lives.”
  • The population of the world is 7.046 billion as of year 2012 with annual growth rate of 1.1%, or 77.5 million people each year, based on https://www.google.com.ph/#q=population+growth+rate+in+the+world.
  • Some countries have higher annual growth rate (as of 2012), Singapore is 2.4%, Malaysia and Philippines is 1.7%, based on https://www.google.com.ph/#q=population+growth+rate+in+the+philippines. The time is ripe for new technological advancement in the construction industry especially in counties with fast increasing population and economy. The country with fast increasing population must supply the needed shelter for its people while the country with fast growing economy will prepare for more people who will look for greener pastures in their country. Urbanization becomes rapid.
  • Waffle box building technology is an industrial building system wherein waffle boxes 27 are produced in factories under controlled conditions. The production and construction is standardized, leading to fast and affordable houses and shelters. This is an alternative housing solution and will help address urbanization.
  • Described in the succeeding paragraphs are typical features of the waffle boxes 27 with five (5) sides Type I and four (4) or six (6) sides Type II.
  • Type I five (5) sides waffle box 27 and Type II four (4) or six (6) side waffle box 27 have different installation procedures. Type I was abandoned and Type II process is claimed by this invention.
  • Type I Waffle Box 27, 5 sides, bottom slab open, installation is vertical on top of one another.
  • Type I waffle box 27 has five (5) sides. The bottom slab is left open. This opening is designed to fit to the upper slab of that same Type I waffle box 27. They are installed vertically on top of the other (FIG. 20).
  • Type I waffle boxes 27 (FIGS. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 7) vary in width and length but not in height when positioned in any part of the shelter or building (FIG. 26). Type I waffle boxes 27 are installed in linear progression from foundation 26 or base until the boxes reach the topmost deck (FIGS. 20, 21); hence, each column of boxes must have uniform width, length and height. The user of this invention might opt for Type I waffle boxes 27 with another width and length but not height in some other section of the shelter or building, but must follow the general rule of installing a uniform waffle box 27 from foundation 26 or base until it reaches the topmost deck (FIGS. 20, 21).
  • The practice of using different Type I waffle boxes 27 in a shelter or building gives the user flexibility in the design. It is however, suggested to use a uniform waffle box 27 in any section of the building in order to save for the cost of formworks and to benefit from operating on the economies of scale.
  • A series of pre-designed waffle slabs 2 or waffle walls 1 (FIG. 27 d) must be installed around these Type I waffle boxes 27 in order to complete the structural box system of the shelter or building. Standard connection details like the dowels or pins 17 to 17 b, bolts 18 to 18 b, welding plate 16 and welding angle 16 a are available for users to choose from.
  • B. Type II Waffle Box 27 with wings 10 four (4) or six (6), installation is horizontal with extra space 24 in between waffle boxes 27
  • Type II waffle box 27 with wings 10 has four (4) or six (6) sides. They have uniform width, length and height in all parts of the shelter or building (FIGS. 36, 37).
  • The Type II waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 are laid horizontally with uniform space apart (FIG. 27 a), thereby creating one extra space 24 or room or unit between them. The horizontal distance of the center of the thin walls 3 of the waffle box 27 and that of the extra space 24 are equal (FIG. 36, 37). As a general rule, the center line of the thin walls 3 plus the rib 5 from the foundation 26 (FIG. 45) or base up to the topmost deck is aligned. Type II waffle boxes 27 have the same length, width and height (FIG. 27 b).
  • On the next upper level, the installation of the Type II waffle boxes 27 must start directly above the leftmost or rightmost extra space 24 and progressively towards the other end (FIG. 27 a). A waffle wall 1 and waffle wall and slab 29 are introduced at exterior end (FIG. 27 c) as the case maybe to complete the floor or level of the shelter or building. The horizontal installation of the Type II waffle boxes 27 is repeated to the next upper level until the structural box system of the shelter or building is completed (FIG. 27 a, 36, 37).
  • Using this horizontal installation process for Type II waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 means that when you install “x” number of waffle boxes 27, the result is “2x” number of usable boxes or spaces (FIG. 36, 37) with end waffle wall 1 and combined waffle wall and slab 29, (FIG. 36) being introduced at some exterior end to complete the structural box system of the shelter or building. As a prefabricated construction system, plus this special method of horizontal installation, the construction period of a shelter or building is very much shorter as compared with a building done using the traditional way (post, beam, slab, wall system).
  • The cost of labor to construct another room or livable space (extra space 24 between waffle boxes 27 is eliminated and he construction time is shortened, hence cheaper. This will solve backlog in affordable housing and schools due to fast increasing population and urbanization.
  • Should the users of the invention opt to design a double loaded shelter or building (FIG. 27 a) (two waffle boxes facing each other with common corridor), the horizontal installation of the line of waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 fronting the first row shall be alternate; the waffle box 27 facing the extra space 24 or the extra space 24 facing the waffle box 27 (FIG. 27 a). The Type II waffle box 27 with wings 10, (FIGS. 27, 27 b) with extending corridor 6 is best suited for this design.
  • According to www.globalpropertyguide.com/Asia/Philippines, land values have been appreciating recently. In the second quarter of 2013:
  • In Makati CBD, land values rose by 8.32% to PHP283,185 (US$6,462) and PHP325,275 (US$7,423) per sq. m. During the latest quarter, land prices increased by 2.06% in Q2 2013.
  • In Ortigas Center, land values increased by 6.45% to a range from PHP104,925 (US$2,394) to PHP171,860 (US$3,922) per sq. m. Quarter-on-quarter, land values rose by 1.75%.
  • In Bonifacio Global City, land values rose by 8.47% y-o-y and 1.8% q-o-q to a range from PHP200,850 (US$4,583) to PHP292,900 (US$6,684) per sq. m.
  • With these increasing rates of the land, it is economical to design and construct double loaded buildings (with common stairs and corridors). Waffle box 27 with wings 10 is best suited for this design. It does not only maximize the use of expensive land but as well as increase building occupancy. This is an alternative solution in the backlog of affordable housing and school buildings, fast rising population growth and urbanization in any country.
  • Users of the Type II waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 save on cost of formworks and enjoy the benefits from operating on the economies of scale.
  • Being mass produced at ground level, prefinished and plug-in units, waffle box 27 with wings 10 offers an alternative solution to the tedious, expensive, unpredictable quality, long construction periods of the traditional on site construction of post, beam and slab system and hedges against fast rising cost of construction and cost overruns.
  • Again, a prior art mentioned earlier uses a similar process of installation for a single loaded shelter or building, one (1) row as shown in (FIGS. 1, 2, 5, 6 and 9) of the said invention. The same prior art was useful in the understanding of this invention that gave way for a better or
  • improved horizontal installation process that is in accord with the invention's goal to address the backlog in the affordable housing, public schools, and other shelters or buildings in any country today thru an alternative building system that is lighter but equally stronger, high resistant to earthquake, typhoon or hurricane and subsequently cheaper and fast.
  • Philippine Patent Number 24939, issued on Dec. 26, 1990, with the Title: Shelter Components and Stocking Process for Multi-Storey Building; Inventor: Cesar V. Canchela of Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines, claims as follows:
  • Claim 5. “A stacking process for shelter components as recited in claim 4 wherein mounting one shelter component on top of the shoulder portions of the two shelter components includes a plurality of spaced apart downwardly projecting anchoring bolts oppositely disposed at the bottom portion of said one shelter component adapted to be snugly fitted to a corresponding plurality of spaced apart embedded metal tubes disposed on top of the planar sidewall of said two shelter components.”
  • Claim 6. “A stacking process for the shelter components as recited in claim 4 wherein mounting one shelter component on top of the shoulder portions of the two shelter components further includes an upstanding angularly bent embedded steel bars having a fixedly secured metal plates disposed on opposite planar sidewalls of said one shelter component adapted to be weldably secured to the corresponding angular metal plates fixedly secured to an interconnected generally V-shaped steel bars embedded on the shoulder portions of said shelter components”.
  • Both claims 5 and 6 are supported with FIGS. 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 of the said invention.
  • While there appears to be a similarity in the process of installation in both the planar box (prior art) and the waffle box 27 with wings 10 (this invention), both having space in between boxes and the next box above rests on both boxes below, and so on, there exists a seemingly obvious differences between the two arts which are summarized as follows:
      • 1. While the installation process is seemingly similar, the prior art is silent to address or describe in the specifications and also by way of figures how the stairs, elevator shafts, pipe chases, air wells, garbage chutes, or the like which are vital elements of a shelter or building, are incorporated during the upward installation of boxes. There is a need for an opening 12 d in the slab or even wall to accommodate these basic features of a building or shelter. This invention attempts to provide a unique solution to that need.
        • This invention of Type II four (4) or six (6) side waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 with punch opening for stair, elevator shaft, etc. (FIG. 27 f) that are laid similarly as the prior art, but will not need any introduction of cast-in-place walls or structure to accommodate those vital openings of the shelter or building. Stairs can be prefabricated and installed in the open stair wells without cast-in-place operations. Same with the others like elevators, etc. as the predesigned punched openings 12 are provided for.
        • This invention having included in the installation or stacking process the punched opening 12 d for the stair, elevator, chases and the like which are vital elements of a shelter or building laid a predicate that the prior art and this invention are two different special technical features. Cast-in-place operations will affect the concept of mass production.
        • The introduction of the waffle 1, 2 and wings 10 is an improvement of the prior arts and the installation of the second row of Type II waffle boxes 27 is totally different.
      • 2. While both prior art and this invention aim to address the backlog in the affordable or mass housing and other building project of any country by means of the stacking or installation process of the boxes (FIGS. 27 a, 36, 37) of this invention), the prior art cited on the single loaded shelter or building (single row building) as explained in the specifications and shown in FIGS. 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 of the said prior art. The double loaded design as featured by this invention utilizes a common corridor or hallway for the livable units in the case of housing project or classrooms in the case of school projects, thereby maximizing the use of the lot.
        • This invention considers both single loaded and double loaded designed buildings. Beyond the installation or stacking process of the first row of waffle boxes 27, there exists in this invention another unique product and process of installing the second row of waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 (FIG. 27 a), specifically designed for a double loaded shelter or buildings. The waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 have corridors 6 which are extensions (or wings) of both the top and bottom slabs 4, (FIG. 27 b, 36, 37). The protruding length of the corridor 6 is half the width of the hallway. Using the first row of installed waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 (also with corridors 6), the new waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 will be fitted alternately in front of the extra spaces 24 (FIGS. 27 a, 27 b, 36) aligning the edges of both the corridors 6 of the first row and the second row of the Type II waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 (FIG. 27 a). On the next upper level, the resulting structure will have the top corridor 6 of the first row of waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 meet with the bottom corridor 6 of the second row of waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 (FIG. 27 a). The installation process is repeated alternately for the waffle box 27 in front of the extra space 24 and the extra space 24 in front of the waffle box 27, (FIGS. 27 a, 36). As the top and bottom corridors 6 of the waffle boxes 27 meet alternately, the hallway is completed FIG. 27 a. The width of the hallway is the total length of the two meeting corridors 6 (FIG. 27 a, 35, 42).
        • Like in the previous specifications of the Type II waffle boxes 27 with wings 10, waffle wall 3 and combined waffle wall and slab 29 (FIG. 27 c) are introduced at exterior end to complete the structural box system of the shelter or building.
        • In the above difference #2, the lot is maximized by designing a double loaded high density shelter or building using the invention, which is an improvement of the prior art. The cost is cheaper as the cost of common facilities like the hallways, stairs, or elevators is distributed between the fronting units.
      • 3. Another unique feature of this invention is Type I waffle box 27 (5 sides) which is installed vertically on top of one another (FIGS. 20, 21). This installation process of Type I waffle box 27 is significantly different from the said stacking process of the said prior art.
  • All the waffle boxes 27 are precast and mass produced in fabrication sites without or in extreme cases a very minimal cast-in-place operation on site. All the waffle boxes 27 are uniform (except for the punched slab opening 12 thereby the user of the invention enjoys the benefit of producing by economies of scale.
  • While the above prior art describes a similar stacking process of a frame that also runs in parallel with the previous Philippine Patent Number #24939 that uses a planar box, there exist in this invention a unique product (waffle box 27) with wings 10 and installation process (beyond the single-loaded building) that will differentiate this invention from what was earlier contributed by the mentioned prior arts.
  • Basing on the above installation process of a double loaded designed shelter or building, there is a totally different concept of installation by this invention. First, the double loading concept and the second is the alternate installation of the second row of waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 which was not touched by the prior art and third, the vertical installation process of Type I waffle boxes 27.
  • Further to the Type II waffle box 27 with wings 10 with four (4) or six (6) sides, the waffle slab 2 will meet with the waffle wall 1 which will form a “z” corbel 9 (FIG. 38, 39, 44, 45) at the bottom (FIGS. 38, 39, 40). These matching connections like the socket 14, 14 a, 14 b, 14 c, dowels or pins 17, 17 a, welding plates 16, welding angles 16 a, and holes 15 b, 15 c, as earlier described are then fixed (FIG. 37, 39, 40), grouted (FIG. 38, 39), welded (FIG. 40), tightened (FIG. 39), painted or sealed 21 (FIG. 37), etc. to avert misalignment and corrosion and to ensure the structural integrity of the shelter or building (FIG. 37).
  • Buildings or shelters that are designed to have uniform room layout per floor (FIGS. 36, 37) (as in high rise buildings, dormitories, inns, mass housing, schools, etc) are easier, faster, and cheaper to construct using this invention.
  • The Type I waffle boxes 27 with five (5) sides (no bottom slab) are installed on top of one another (FIGS. 20, 21), while the Type II waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 with four (4) or six (6) sides are installed alternately on top of the two other waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 (FIGS. 36, 37). A waffle wall 1, combined waffle wall and slab 29 and a waffle slab 2 are special waffle individual units (not fabricated as box) that will be integrated at exterior ends and deck (FIGS. 27 c, 36), as the case maybe, until the installation of the waffle box 27 shelter or building is completed (FIG. 37).
  • The corridor of the Type I five (5) side is a precast slab 2 (FIG. 26) or a cast-in-place slab whichever is economical and feasible.
  • The uppermost deck (FIG. 20, 21) of the building using the waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 will be given special attention to control leak in the future. A slope and a sealant 21, (FIG. 42) is a must for the roof deck to be leak-free (FIG. 37).
  • The design of cast-in-place foundation 26 (FIGS. 17, 45) and the stilt foundation 26 a are dictated by the nature of soil, height and size of the building, earthquake zoning and other design parameters. Stilt foundation 26 a is best to mitigate flood, storm surge, tidal wave, etc.
  • In either type of waffle boxes 27 with wings 10, the stair well, air well, elevator shaft, pipe chase, and the like (opening 12 d is dictated by need) are left open (FIG. 27 f) with attachments or provisions for their specific use. Stairs 40, 41, 42 can be prefabricated concrete or steel.
  • In either case, these waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 create additional spaces around, between, below and above them without spending more for the vertical support (FIGS. 20, 21, 36, 37). This invention, especially the Type II four (4) or six (6) sides waffle box 27 with wings 10, creates almost double the number of usable spaces (FIGS. 36, 37) without the need for more extra activity and cost except in some end spaces (where a box can't fit) wherein a combined waffle wall and slab 29 (“L” shape slab) and waffle wall 1 is to be installed or constructed (FIG. 36).
  • In the case of single detach residential houses, the Type II four (4) or six (6) sides waffle boxes 27 with wings 10 are laid one space apart, some aligned in front while others are moved forward or backward (FIGS. 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56) as the case maybe, in order for the designers to be creative in aesthetic designs and specific purpose like balcony, stair, attic, toilet and bath, etc. Roof is an option while users of the invention can utilize the concrete slab 31 as deck. Walls are specially fabricated.
  • It is the goal of this invention to simplify, reduce, or eliminate the redundancy, repetitive work, wastages, etc. brought about by the numerous construction activities done above ground including hauling up of materials, tools, equipment and movement of workers up and down (especially for high rise buildings), resulting to speed, efficiency, economy, and quality of the building. The waffle boxes 27 therefore, including its electrical, plumbing, cable, telephone, internet, alarm, background music pipes, etc., wiring and architectural and other finishes are done or can be done at the ground floor level or off-site fabrication sites, thereby transforming these waffle boxes 27 as a pre-assembled, pre-finished or plug-in, and ready to use units of a shelter or building.
  • Fabrication of the structural waffle boxes 27; in sections or whole, is dictated by the hauling, lifting, stocking, and actual situations on site or off-sites. The mass production of the waffle boxes 27 is done in controlled fabrication sites.
  • Cast-in-place waffle boxes 27, in extreme or special circumstances are done or can be done at job sites.
  • Lifting mechanisms are made of metal rods 13, cylinder 13 a, bolts 13 b with matching hooks (FIGS. 18, 19), that are all embedded in the concrete (FIGS. 18, 19), or socket 14 b at the base in the case of a fork lifting equipment Their frequency, sizes and anchorages are all subject to the results of the structural design.
  • Simple but strong connection inverted and “z’ corbel 8, 9, holes 15, dowels/pins 17, bolts 18, steel angles 16 a or plates 16, lifting hooks 13, or cylinders 13 a, etc. (FIGS. 11, 12, 14) of different materials, sizes and shapes that encompasses the invention's goal of ease, practicability, efficiency, economy, stability and strength as shown or as presented in the drawings including the design, formworks, fabrication, lifting, hauling, placing, and fixing of the boxes to form a complete “waffle box 27” building system are covered by this invention.
  • Most specifically, as a prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated structural waffle box 27, this invention minimizes the repetitive hauling, lifting, transporting of materials, tools, manpower from the ground up to the building (especially for high rise building), thereby cutting construction costs, improving work efficiencies, and maintaining product quality under a controlled work place at the ground floor or factory sites.
  • With these savings, and improved quality and efficiency, waffle box 27 with wings 10 hedges against fast rising cost of construction, and diminishes the problem of cost overruns.
  • The space between the ribs 5 where the waffles are created can be used to hold heat and sound insulation 37 materials thereby upgrading this invention as an insulated concrete building technology.
  • Other than the purpose of creating a unique product and installation process claim for the invention, it is further aimed to develop a simple, durable, workable, economical, efficient, functional, light, fast and easy construction system that will solve the backlog in affordable housing, public and private schools, offices, hotels, dormitories, inns, apartments, etc, and in other small, medium or high rise building or shelter projects in any country. In the design and the actual implementation of this invention, some or several parts of the waffle boxes 27 and the technology as a whole will be modified to suit its adaptability to the present and future times.
  • Materials to be used for the present design and for the further development of the technology in order to maximize the benefits therein, can be any kind of concrete, steel, formed sheets, plastic, wood, laminates, synthetics or their combinations.
  • These stated improvements above become parts and partial of the invention.
  • For practical reasons in future site conditions, weight of waffle box 27 with wings 10, magnitude of projects, budget limitations, etc. the technology can shift to a cast-in-place method of construction but still using the same process of building the waffle boxes 27 either directly above one another or alternately above the others.
  • Some waffle box 27 with wings 10 may have lesser indentations or is purely ribs 5 (FIG. 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82). The positions of the ribs 5 are arranged to resist all directional loads of the structure. This kind of waffle box 27 with wings 10 will still be analyzed as diaphragms and shear walls using the micro portal frame 35 (FIG. 66, 83) which can also be used for cast-in-place houses. Slab on fill or slab foundation 26 (FIG. 17,21,37) can also be designed as waffles.
  • Covered by this invention are the following:
      • 1. For residential use whether one or two-storey, single detached, multi-dwelling, duplex, quadrant, row house, walk-up or multi-storey apartment, townhouse, dormitory, condominium, affordable or mass housing, or all kinds of shelters.
      • 2. For commercial use like office building, hotel, motel, inn, call center, mall, parking space, or all kinds of shelters of similar use.
      • 3. For institutional use like school building, learning center, day care center, hospital, clinic, government center, or all kinds of shelters of similar use.
      • 4. For any kind of box-like structures laid vertically, horizontally or diagonally like bridge, canal, caisson, well, tunnel, shaft, or the like that will fall within the basic principle of mass production, economics, speed, strength, etc.

Claims (30)

What is claimed is:
1. A horizontal and vertical process of installation using two (2) or more type II waffle boxes facing each other with extending corridor or wall which is a wing, the line of waffle boxes fronting the first row is alternate; the waffle box facing the extra space or the extra space facing the waffle box, which is best suited for double loaded shelter or building.
2. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein on the next upper level, the installation of the type II waffle boxes must start directly above the leftmost or rightmost extra space and progressively towards the opposite end, and is repeated until the structural box system of the building is completed.
3. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein the type II waffle boxes is made of a thin wall and slab with a pattern of orthogonal indentations on one of its faces called ribs and is poured monolithically to form a waffle box.
4. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein type II waffle boxes have punched openings for stair elevator shaft, or for any similar use.
5. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein the centerlines of the thickness of the thin wall plus the rib of the waffle boxes from foundation to the uppermost deck are aligned.
6. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein special elements such as the end waffle wall and waffle slab and the combined waffle wall and slab are introduced at the leftmost, topmost and rightmost part respectively, incorporating the features for joining, lifting, aligning, hauling that are shown in.
7. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein some cast-in-place structural elements like wall, beam, and other structural elements, are introduced in the system to come up with a structurally enhanced shelter or building, which will be termed “enhancing”.
8. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein the following features like trapezoidal corbel and “z” corbel or inverted corbel are designed to support and stabilize the waffle boxes.
9. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein the following features like sockets, holes, welding plate or welding angle with their matching pins, dowels, bolts, and sizes of welds are designed to join two or more waffle boxes.
10. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein the following features like vertical/horizontal target and match groove are designed for quality control and fast installation.
11. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein the following features like cylinder with bolt, rod with eye, bolt with fork or plate, socket for fork lift are designed for lifting and hauling of the waffle boxes.
12. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein the waffle boxes are made of all kinds of lightweight or standard weight concrete (standard or blended), plastic, wood or its derivative like laminated wood, metal including steel sheet or its improved products like the pre-formed, bended, punched sections, aluminum, fiberglass, or glass.
13. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein the waffle boxes can be prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in, or insulated.
14. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein all sorts of false or formworks to cast, fabricate, mold and create and turn these waffle boxes and its components like waffle wall, waffle slab, combined waffle wall and slab, foundation, stairs, etc. into usable parts of the shelter, building or any type of box-like structure.
15. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein some waffle boxes which are positioned in parallel or perpendicular with the other waffle boxes in order to maintain structural integrity in both lateral and vertical directions of the shelter or building, will introduce structural elements; example posttensioning, prestressing, etc., which will be termed “sewing” or “stitching”.
16. A horizontal and vertical process of installation as recited in claim 1 wherein the waffle boxes are analyzed and designed using a series of micro portal frames (series of “tee”, “cee” or “I” sections running along the perimeter of the waffle boxes) including those that are purely ribs to resist all kind of loads in different directions.
17. A four (4) or six (6) side rectangular prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated product termed as type II waffle box with wings, which is made of a thin wall and slab with a pattern of orthogonal indentations called ribs on one of its faces and is poured monolithically to form a waffle box, which is an improvement of the prior arts, wherein these monolithic wings extends from the basic box, and function as walls, doors, windows, corridors, or slabs of the building.
18. A four (4) or six (6) side rectangular prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated product termed as type II waffle box with wings as recited in claim 17 wherein the first level of waffle boxes are installed with extra space between them and the next upper layer of waffle boxes will sit direct above the extra spaces and with special members such as the end waffle wall and waffle slab and the combined waffle wall and slab are introduced at the leftmost, topmost and rightmost part respectively and is repeated until the structural box system of the building is completed.
19. A four (4) or six (6) side rectangular prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated product termed as type II waffle box with wings as recited in claim 17 wherein type II waffle boxes have punched openings for stair, elevator shaft, or for any similar use.
20. A four (4) or six (6) side rectangular prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated product termed as type II waffle box with wings as recited in claim 17 wherein the centerlines of the thickness of the thin wall plus the rib of the waffle boxes from foundation to the uppermost deck are aligned.
21. A four (4) or six (6) side rectangular prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated product termed as type II waffle box with wings as recited in claim 17 wherein special elements such as the end waffle wall and waffle slab and the combined waffle wall and slab are introduced at the leftmost, rightmost and topmost part, incorporating the features for joining, lifting, aligning, hauling that are shown in.
22. A four (4) or six (6) side rectangular prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated product termed as type II waffle box with wings as recited in claim 17 wherein some cast-in-place structural elements like wall, beam, and other structural elements, are introduce in the system to come up with a structurally enhanced shelter or building, which will be termed “enhancing”.
23. A four (4) or six (6) side rectangular prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated product termed as type II waffle box with wings as recited in claim 17 wherein the following features like trapezoidal corbel and “z” corbel or inverted corbel, are designed to support and stabilize the waffle boxes.
24. A four (4) or six (6) side rectangular prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated product termed as type II waffle box with wings as recited in claim 17 wherein the following features like sockets, holes, welding plate or welding angle with their matching pins, dowels, bolts, and sizes of welds are designed to join two or more waffle boxes.
25. A four (4) or six (6) side rectangular prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated product termed as type II waffle box with wings as recited in claim 17 wherein the following features like vertical/horizontal target and match groove are designed for quality control and fast installation.
26. A four (4) or six (6) side rectangular prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated product termed as type II waffle box with wings as recited in claim 17 wherein the following features like cylinder with bolt, rod with eye, bolt with fork or plate, socket for fork lift are designed for lifting and hauling of the waffle boxes.
27. A four (4) or six (6) side rectangular prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated product termed as type II waffle box with wings as recited in claim 17 wherein the waffle boxes are made of all kinds of lightweight or standard weight concrete (standard or blended), plastic, wood or its derivative like laminated wood, metal including steel sheet or its improved products like the pre-formed, bended, punched sections, aluminum, fiberglass, or glass.
28. A four (4) or six (6) side rectangular prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated product termed as type II waffle box with wings as recited in claim 17 wherein all sorts of false or formworks to cast, fabricate, mold and create and turn these waffle boxes and its components like waffle wall, waffle slab, combined waffle wall and slab, foundation, stairs, etc. into usable parts of the shelter, building or any type of box-like structure.
29. A four (4) or six (6) side rectangular prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated product termed as type II waffle box with wings as recited in claim 17 wherein some waffle boxes which are positioned in parallel or perpendicular with the other waffle boxes in order to maintain structural integrity in both lateral and vertical directions of the shelter or building will introduce structural elements; example posttensioning, prestressing, etc., which will be termed “sewing” or “stitching”.
30. A four (4) or six (6) side rectangular prefabricated, prefinished, plug-in or insulated product termed as type II waffle box with wings as recited in claim 17 wherein the waffle boxes are analyzed and designed using a series of micro portal frames (series of “tee”, “cee” or “I” sections running along the perimeter of the waffle boxes) including those that are purely ribs to resist all kind of loads in different directions.
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