US20150035440A1 - Detector controlled illuminating system - Google Patents

Detector controlled illuminating system Download PDF

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Publication number
US20150035440A1
US20150035440A1 US14/374,381 US201314374381A US2015035440A1 US 20150035440 A1 US20150035440 A1 US 20150035440A1 US 201314374381 A US201314374381 A US 201314374381A US 2015035440 A1 US2015035440 A1 US 2015035440A1
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US
United States
Prior art keywords
light
lighting
controller
area
illumination
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US14/374,381
Inventor
Yechezkal Evan Spero
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Spero Yechezkal Evan
Original Assignee
Yechezkal Evan Spero
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US10/604,360 priority Critical patent/US8100552B2/en
Priority to US201161535981P priority
Priority to US13/357,549 priority patent/US9955551B2/en
Application filed by Yechezkal Evan Spero filed Critical Yechezkal Evan Spero
Priority to PCT/IL2013/050066 priority patent/WO2013111134A1/en
Priority to US14/374,381 priority patent/US20150035440A1/en
Publication of US20150035440A1 publication Critical patent/US20150035440A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B37/00Circuit arrangements for electric light sources in general
    • H05B37/02Controlling
    • H05B37/0209Controlling the instant of the ignition or of the extinction
    • H05B37/0227Controlling the instant of the ignition or of the extinction by detection only of parameters other than ambient light, e.g. by sound detectors, by passive infra-red detectors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60QARRANGEMENT OF SIGNALLING OR LIGHTING DEVICES, THE MOUNTING OR SUPPORTING THEREOF OR CIRCUITS THEREFOR, FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60Q1/00Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices
    • B60Q1/02Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices the devices being primarily intended to illuminate the way ahead or to illuminate other areas of way or environments
    • B60Q1/04Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices the devices being primarily intended to illuminate the way ahead or to illuminate other areas of way or environments the devices being headlights
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B60Q1/02Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices the devices being primarily intended to illuminate the way ahead or to illuminate other areas of way or environments
    • B60Q1/04Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices the devices being primarily intended to illuminate the way ahead or to illuminate other areas of way or environments the devices being headlights
    • B60Q1/06Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices the devices being primarily intended to illuminate the way ahead or to illuminate other areas of way or environments the devices being headlights adjustable, e.g. remotely controlled from inside vehicle
    • B60Q1/08Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices the devices being primarily intended to illuminate the way ahead or to illuminate other areas of way or environments the devices being headlights adjustable, e.g. remotely controlled from inside vehicle automatically
    • B60Q1/085Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices the devices being primarily intended to illuminate the way ahead or to illuminate other areas of way or environments the devices being headlights adjustable, e.g. remotely controlled from inside vehicle automatically due to special conditions, e.g. adverse weather, type of road, badly illuminated road signs or potential dangers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B60Q1/02Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices the devices being primarily intended to illuminate the way ahead or to illuminate other areas of way or environments
    • B60Q1/04Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices the devices being primarily intended to illuminate the way ahead or to illuminate other areas of way or environments the devices being headlights
    • B60Q1/14Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices the devices being primarily intended to illuminate the way ahead or to illuminate other areas of way or environments the devices being headlights having dimming means
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    • B60Q1/1423Automatic dimming circuits, i.e. switching between high beam and low beam due to change of ambient light or light level in road traffic
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    • F21LIGHTING
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    • F21K9/00Light sources using semiconductor devices as light-generating elements, e.g. using light-emitting diodes [LED] or lasers
    • F21K9/20Light sources comprising attachment means
    • F21K9/23Retrofit light sources for lighting devices with a single fitting for each light source, e.g. for substitution of incandescent lamps with bayonet or threaded fittings
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    • F21LIGHTING
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    • F21K9/00Light sources using semiconductor devices as light-generating elements, e.g. using light-emitting diodes [LED] or lasers
    • F21K9/20Light sources comprising attachment means
    • F21K9/23Retrofit light sources for lighting devices with a single fitting for each light source, e.g. for substitution of incandescent lamps with bayonet or threaded fittings
    • F21K9/232Retrofit light sources for lighting devices with a single fitting for each light source, e.g. for substitution of incandescent lamps with bayonet or threaded fittings specially adapted for generating an essentially omnidirectional light distribution, e.g. with a glass bulb
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    • F21S4/20Lighting devices or systems using a string or strip of light sources with light sources held by or within elongate supports
    • F21S4/28Lighting devices or systems using a string or strip of light sources with light sources held by or within elongate supports rigid, e.g. LED bars
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    • F21S41/143Light emitting diodes [LED] the main emission direction of the LED being parallel to the optical axis of the illuminating device
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
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    • F21S41/147Light emitting diodes [LED] the main emission direction of the LED being angled to the optical axis of the illuminating device
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
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    • F21S41/60Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps characterised by a variable light distribution
    • F21S41/65Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps characterised by a variable light distribution by acting on light sources
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V19/00Fastening of light sources or lamp holders
    • F21V19/02Fastening of light sources or lamp holders with provision for adjustment, e.g. for focusing
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V23/00Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices
    • F21V23/04Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices the elements being switches
    • F21V23/0442Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices the elements being switches activated by means of a sensor, e.g. motion or photodetectors
    • F21V23/0464Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices the elements being switches activated by means of a sensor, e.g. motion or photodetectors the sensor sensing the level of ambient illumination, e.g. dawn or dusk sensors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V23/00Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices
    • F21V23/04Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices the elements being switches
    • F21V23/0442Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices the elements being switches activated by means of a sensor, e.g. motion or photodetectors
    • F21V23/0471Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices the elements being switches activated by means of a sensor, e.g. motion or photodetectors the sensor detecting the proximity, the presence or the movement of an object or a person
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V23/00Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices
    • F21V23/04Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices the elements being switches
    • F21V23/0442Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices the elements being switches activated by means of a sensor, e.g. motion or photodetectors
    • F21V23/0471Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices the elements being switches activated by means of a sensor, e.g. motion or photodetectors the sensor detecting the proximity, the presence or the movement of an object or a person
    • F21V23/0478Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices the elements being switches activated by means of a sensor, e.g. motion or photodetectors the sensor detecting the proximity, the presence or the movement of an object or a person by means of an image recording device, e.g. a camera
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/0033Heating devices using lamps
    • H05B3/0071Heating devices using lamps for domestic applications
    • H05B3/008Heating devices using lamps for domestic applications for heating of inner spaces
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B33/00Electroluminescent light sources
    • H05B33/02Details
    • H05B33/08Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application
    • H05B33/0803Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application for light emitting diodes [LEDs] comprising only inorganic semiconductor materials
    • H05B33/0806Structural details of the circuit
    • H05B33/0809Structural details of the circuit in the conversion stage
    • H05B33/0812Structural details of the circuit in the conversion stage with a controlled linear regulator
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B33/00Electroluminescent light sources
    • H05B33/02Details
    • H05B33/08Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application
    • H05B33/0803Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application for light emitting diodes [LEDs] comprising only inorganic semiconductor materials
    • H05B33/0842Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application for light emitting diodes [LEDs] comprising only inorganic semiconductor materials with control
    • H05B33/0857Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application for light emitting diodes [LEDs] comprising only inorganic semiconductor materials with control of the color point of the light
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B33/00Electroluminescent light sources
    • H05B33/02Details
    • H05B33/08Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application
    • H05B33/0803Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application for light emitting diodes [LEDs] comprising only inorganic semiconductor materials
    • H05B33/0842Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application for light emitting diodes [LEDs] comprising only inorganic semiconductor materials with control
    • H05B33/0857Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application for light emitting diodes [LEDs] comprising only inorganic semiconductor materials with control of the color point of the light
    • H05B33/086Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application for light emitting diodes [LEDs] comprising only inorganic semiconductor materials with control of the color point of the light involving set point control means
    • H05B33/0863Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application for light emitting diodes [LEDs] comprising only inorganic semiconductor materials with control of the color point of the light involving set point control means by user interfaces
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B37/00Circuit arrangements for electric light sources in general
    • H05B37/02Controlling
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B37/00Circuit arrangements for electric light sources in general
    • H05B37/02Controlling
    • H05B37/0209Controlling the instant of the ignition or of the extinction
    • H05B37/0218Controlling the instant of the ignition or of the extinction by the ambient light
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    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21WINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES F21K, F21L, F21S and F21V, RELATING TO USES OR APPLICATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS
    • F21W2131/00Use or application of lighting devices or systems not provided for in codes F21W2102/00-F21W2121/00
    • F21W2131/10Outdoor lighting
    • F21W2131/103Outdoor lighting of streets or roads
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21WINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES F21K, F21L, F21S and F21V, RELATING TO USES OR APPLICATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS
    • F21W2131/00Use or application of lighting devices or systems not provided for in codes F21W2102/00-F21W2121/00
    • F21W2131/40Lighting for industrial, commercial, recreational or military use
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21YINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES F21K, F21L, F21S and F21V, RELATING TO THE FORM OR THE KIND OF THE LIGHT SOURCES OR OF THE COLOUR OF THE LIGHT EMITTED
    • F21Y2113/00Combination of light sources
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21YINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES F21K, F21L, F21S and F21V, RELATING TO THE FORM OR THE KIND OF THE LIGHT SOURCES OR OF THE COLOUR OF THE LIGHT EMITTED
    • F21Y2115/00Light-generating elements of semiconductor light sources
    • F21Y2115/10Light-emitting diodes [LED]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B20/00Energy efficient lighting technologies
    • Y02B20/30Semiconductor lamps, e.g. solid state lamps [SSL] light emitting diodes [LED] or organic LED [OLED]
    • Y02B20/34Inorganic LEDs
    • Y02B20/341Specially adapted circuits
    • Y02B20/343Linear regulators
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B20/00Energy efficient lighting technologies
    • Y02B20/30Semiconductor lamps, e.g. solid state lamps [SSL] light emitting diodes [LED] or organic LED [OLED]
    • Y02B20/38Constructional details
    • Y02B20/383Adaptation to Edison sockets
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B20/00Energy efficient lighting technologies
    • Y02B20/40Control techniques providing energy savings
    • Y02B20/46Control techniques providing energy savings based on detection of the illumination level

Abstract

An illuminating device coupled with sensors or an image acquisition device and a logical controller allows illumination intensity and spectrum to be varied according to changing user needs. The system provides illumination to areas according to the principles of correct lighting practice for the optimal performance of visual tasks in the most efficient, cost effective manner. Aspects of the invention include: lighting fixtures which adapt to ambient lighting, movement, visual tasks being performed, and environmental and personal conditions affecting illumination requirements at any given instant. Lighting fixtures have spatial distribution of spectrum and intensity, providing both “background” room lighting, and “task” lighting.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims benefit of U.S. patent application United States Patent Application 20120206050 titled Detector Controlled Illuminating System, Filed: Jan. 24, 2012
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention
  • The present invention is in the field of radiation producing devices. More particularly, the present invention is in the technical field of lighting fixtures. However, radiation used for headlamps, heating, night vision, UV or visible light curing, medical X-rays and other radiation uses are covered as well. General lighting fixtures otherwise known as luminaires will be used as the primary example while other irradiating devices such as infrared heaters are covered as well.
  • DEFINITIONS, TERMS, ELEMENTS
  • In order to clarify the intent of the present invention and its dissimilar aspects from prior art, a nomenclature system is established.
  • Illumination: Used herein illumination refers to the deliberate application of light to achieve some practical, psychological or physiological in people and is also referred to as lighting. In general these human factors are not only related to visual acuity and comfort from the lighting but other aesthetic effects and may also include medical or biorhythm influences of radiation.
  • Lamp: A lamp, or light source in this disclosure generally relates mainly to a solid state LED light source but also include OLED as well as filament and discharge lamps as well which radiate energy. As a light source of ever increasing choice, LEDs have been packaged in numerous forms and used in lighting applications. In general however the design process has not zeroed in on providing the correct lighting solution. A number of LED illumination devices create “white” light by combining two or more LEDs of various wavelengths. White LEDs are also made using phosphors. The goal has not been to vary this color spectrum in real time to coordinate with the usage of the living space. The term “white” light is loosely interpreted to cover a range of illuminating light having spectral light distributions acceptable to the user for that application. HPS's yellow light has even been called white by some and the term is exclusive only of almost monochromatic sources such as LEDs and LPS lamps. The terms light spectrum, spectra, chromacity, spectrum, spectral and color are used to refer to the spectral power distribution of the light source. What is known as the light's color or color rendering ability measuring in a Color Coordinated Temperature, CCT or Color rendering Index, CRI level are other measured qualities of light. That is the spectral power distribution (SPD) of a light source, which is the radiant power of the light source at each wavelength or band of wavelengths across the visible spectrum can be altered in preferred embodiments the flexible lighting fixture of the present disclosure. So to can the relative intensities of light sources of various SPDs be altered to change the CRI. The CRI is a way of measuring how good a light source is at helping us discriminate colors compared with the light from a standard light source, such as daylight. The term “color” should be understood to refer to any wavelength of radiation within a spectrum; that is, a “color,” as used herein, should be understood to encompass wavelengths not only of the visible spectrum, but also wavelengths in the infrared and ultraviolet areas of the spectrum, and in other areas of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Lighting Fixture: A Lighting Fixture or luminaire (used interchangeably) is a device which is constructed around the lamp to provide lighting specific to the application including non-lighting considerations such as aesthetics, safety etc. Some LF designs are primarily based on aesthetics while others are based on tailoring the lumen output such that the lighting fixture output meets the visual task at hand. Between these two extremes there are many possible designs, with maintenance, fixture cost, hazardous and rough service location considerations also playing a role. This is essentially why the industry produces so many different types of luminaires; one type for high industrial building ceilings known as high-bay lighting, another for office lighting, a third for roadway lighting and a fourth for illuminating corridors. Each fixture has its photometric distribution characteristics, that is, how many candela at what angle are exiting from the luminaire. Other luminaire considerations include keeping the lighting from causing discomfort glare or from being a source of veiling reflections. The purely technical goal is to get the required amount of light at the work surfaces where visual tasks are carried out by man, animals, plants and machines.
  • Digital: The term digital used herein in refers to the luminaire concept as espoused by teachings of this invention and is loosely defined in parallel to the fine control associated with digital equipment. The multiple light sources of specific characteristics provide quanta of power and spectrum which are smoothly added or detracted to generate a changed lighting effect. The digital aspect arises from the sufficient progression of values, varying by minute degrees to produce a continuum so as be non-discernible or irrelevant to the user. The added controllability is realized by breaking up the light-production, into discrete, specifically aimable, and dimmable elements which can be addressed by control electronics for the purpose of affecting the intensity, spectrum and spatial distribution of spectrum and of intensity of the illumination provided by the luminaire of the present invention.
  • The overall combination of control capability and discrete light sources yields a digital lighting fixture. The terminology “digital” as used herein also refers to the discrete nature of the multiple LED lamps provided in the luminaire, whereby, “digital” control results from the individual control of the discrete, i.e., “digital” lighting elements, the LEDs, in the luminaire.
  • Controller: used herein a controller is a device, possibly in the form of a chip, analogue electronics, or computer, which monitors and physically alters the operating conditions of the lighting fixture's power, light source and detector systems. It can comprise any of power conditioning, computer processing, data storage and communications systems. The power signal controller is integral to the light fixture and powers the light sources with current at a voltage.
  • Correct lighting practice: A bare incandescent lamp illuminating a room is arbitrarily termed poor lighting practice. The bare light bulb hooked up to the electric power via a light switch, causes glare, wastes light, delivering the light to useless areas, has no provision for dimming and is energy inefficient. The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as well as other professional groups such as the International Association of Lighting Designers (IALD) have developed recommended lighting practices for specific applications in indoor and outdoor lighting. These recommendations and equations for implementing the recommendations can be found in the IESNA Lighting Handbook, 9th and/or 10th Editions (available from the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America 120 Wall St. Floor 17 New York, N.Y. 10005 included herein by reference. Factors in good lighting include lighting intensity levels which may be based on the age of the users of the light, the color rendering capacity of the light source, its color temperature, the non-production of glare, veiling reflections and energy efficiency amongst others. Recommendations for all aspects of lighting in terms of intensity, distribution, color temperature, color temperature as a function of light intensity and correct color rendering exist in the literature in terms of lighting applications that is the environment to be illuminated, in parameters such as lux for intensity, CRI for color rendering index and Visual Comfort Parameter (VCP) for glare. In recent years, the Unified Glare Rating (UGR) as recommended by the CIE has become widely accepted as a general formula for assessing glare. While the US may still use VCP ratings, all the lighting-practice engineering organizations worldwide have standards and recommended ratings for different activities. For example lighting levels of 500 lux and a UGR of 19 is recommended in offices while industrial areas intended for coarse work a UGR of 28 can tolerated. In good lighting practice, attention is given by lighting designers to the correct amount of uplight, that is, light exiting from the luminaire towards the ceiling, which prevents a gloomy “dark cave” effect. Attention is also given to the cut-off angle of the luminaire, usually provided by shielding elements, such that high intensity rays are not emitted at an angle where they enter the occupant's eye during normal activity. A correctly designed luminaire for indoor lighting may provide 30% uplight and 70% downlight in the angles from the nadir 0 to 60 degrees and then again 135 to 170 degrees.
  • Correct illumination or recommend lighting practice refers to lighting industry standards and recommendations for the illumination of living, recreation, architectural and work areas as described in standards and handbooks published by industry professional organizations such as the Illuminating Engineering Society, the International Association of Lighting Designers, IALD or International Commission on Illumination CIE. Because the present illumination device is capable of providing a varied illumination heretofore unachievable in a lighting system correct lighting also includes newly obtained best practice results from experimentation. These new lighting standards may be based on luminance or subjective good feeling of the tested participants and are taught to the artificial intelligence system. A governing equation in lighting and used in “reverse luminaire design” of the present invention is the cosine law or Lambert's law, Equation 1:
  • E = I cos θ D 2
  • Where: E=Illuminance in lux or footcandles, I=Luminous intensity in candles, D=Distance between the source and the point of calculation in meters or feet, θ=Angle of light incidence with illuminated surface
  • Another useful equation used in fixture analysis to avoid glare producing designs yields the level of discomfort on the DeBoer scale. The DeBoer rating scale (1-9) describes the level of discomfort where: 1=Unbearable, 3=Disturbing, 5=Just acceptable, 7=Satisfactory, and 9=Just noticeable. The allowable level is dependent on the application. A surgeon performing an operation may be very sensitive to glare while a chlorophyll producing plant is not. The equation to determine the rating is Equation 2:

  • W=5.0−2.0 LOG [E i/(0.003)(1+SQRT(La/0.04))(φi)̂0.45]
  • where: W=glare sensation on a scale of 1 to 9, La=adaptation luminance (cd/m 2), Ei=illumination directed at observer's eyes from the i-th source (lux), φi=glare angle of the i-th source (minutes of arc) from the observer's line of sight.
  • Using these equations and correct lighting practice covering preferred angles of lighting for visual tasks, it is possible to design from the specific application's illumination requirements the spatial light intensity distribution and yet avoid manufacturing a glare producing luminaire.
  • The present invention generally relates to an improved illuminator for use both in general and specialty lighting. The term general lighting includes use in living spaces such as lighting in industrial, commercial, residential, outdoor and transportation vehicle applications. By specialty lighting we mean emergency lighting activated during power failures, fires or smoke accumulations in buildings, microscope, stage illuminators, billboard front-lighting, hazardous and difficult access location lighting, backlighting for signs, agricultural lighting etc.
  • Economic, Energy Efficiency and Cost considerations: The major component in the cost of lighting approximately 80% is in energy costs. The commodity being purchased is lighting, the major lifecycle cost is electricity. To cut down on costs and also conserve energy it desirable to maximize the use of light generated. Efficiency includes the lumen per watt of electricity conversion, a “utilization factor” (which equals the light flux which arrives at a work site (e.g. upper surface of a desk) divided by the sum of all light flux of the lamp) and the uniformity of the illuminance over an area expressed in a minimum or maximum ratio to the design level. The customer is after the best lighting solution at minimal energy cost. Chances are, as experienced lighting designers know, that the light intensity, even in a good lighting design, is still not evenly distributed over the work surfaces. While care is taken in the lighting design computer runs not to fall below the minimum illumination intensity at any point in the room, there are non-trivial excesses at some points in the lighting layout design. This excess light, wasted energy as far as the customer is concerned. Lighting enables people t see or achieve a mood. The costs also includes the life cycle cost including initial, installation and maintenance costs among others. Economic considerations include environmental impact and any derived value such as a brighter light used for important meetings or persona.
  • LED lamps and ballast systems can reduce maintenance costs due to an average rated life of 100,000 hours. This is five to eight times the typical service life of conventional fluorescent and metal halide lamps. The present system is especially well suited for applications where relamping is difficult or expensive. The lack of maintenance means the fixture can be used in explosion proof hazardous locations as the fixture is sealed for life.
  • The controlled radiation of light into a living space with a specific spatial intensity distribution also having optimal spectral characteristics for the seeing tasks at hand is provided by the present invention. Each visual task application has its own correct lighting solution with optimal light intensities, light color, and the light is emanating at angles which will not cause glare that interferes with vision or causes discomfort. Tasks in living spaces vary with time so it is another objective of the present invention is to provide the optimal lighting solution in “real time” (at that specific moment in time).
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART
  • In prior art illuminating devices a universal light source such as an incandescent or fluorescent lamp emits light in many directions up to a 360 degree light distribution where in practice only a limited angular light distribution is needed in order for people to carry out visual tasks. So as to control the light distribution to certain angles, reflectors and refractors are used to redirect the light where it is needed. A great deal of light is wasted in the inherent inefficiencies in redirecting the light and shielding the glare causing light sources. In addition the actual placement of the light rays where needed, but not beyond, is often inexact and wasteful.
  • In addition it necessary to have a wide variety of lighting fixtures each with dedicated optics and even then, there is much wasted light or insufficient lighting in the area covered by the luminaire. In addition the light intensity and color spectrum of the luminaire is fixed while the visual tasks going on in the space are changing all the time. Usually, there is no provision for either detecting the changes going on in the living space nor is the lighting fixture equipped with apparatus to effect the necessary changes in the lighting. In addition individuals often have their personal lighting preferences as to the color and intensity of the lighting. Prior art lighting fixtures have no provision for the localized provision of preferred lighting to individuals.
  • A home lighting fixture is often left on at full power when really only lighting for orientation purposes is required. A light switch on the wall is provided and sometimes this has a dimmer option. An electronic power supply with programmable electronic controller with communication over a dedicated data line or alternately over the power line or alternately wireless is also possible in present art such as with the DALI (Digital Addressable Lighting Interface) protocol. With digital signals, power supplies become individually addressable compared to analog systems where only circuits are addressable. Additionally, DALI allows for bi-directional communication between the power supply and control. DALI also brings the capability of broadcast messaging to ballasts. With DALI or any other protocol much more than dimming can be effected. Control of spectrum, occupancy sensor controls and specific spatial intensity distributions can be modified. However, the present-day lamp or fixture is not designed to fully and efficiently take advantage of these new control capabilities.
  • In United States Patent Application 20100302779 by Chemel titled Fixture with Replaceable Light Bars he describes an intelligent LED-based lighting system. The LED based lighting systems may include fixtures with one or more of rotatable LED light bars, integrated sensors, onboard intelligence to receive signals from the LED light bars and control the LED light bars. In this system while an adjustable system of moving bars is illustrated so that the LED luminaire can retrofit a variety of older discharge lamp based luminaires, advantage has not been taken of the multiplicity of light sources to obtain a superior light distribution lighting solution that is now obtainable with multiple sources.
  • Spero in United States Patent Application 2004/0105264 describes the design of a multiple light source system using unique placements of the LEDs on the structure of a lighting fixture to generate an application specific light distribution pattern capable of providing recommended illuminance levels. The lighting fixture has means for being affixed within a living space to be illuminated in a unique orientation in relation to the surfaces therein. Subsequently, the lighting fixture is designed by positioning LED light sources thereon that emanate light in direction and intensity as required by the lighting application. The geometric layout is determined by using knowledge of the distances and angles from the light sources to the living-space surfaces as dictated by the inverse square law and Lambert's Cosine Law of Incidence. The combination of the unique placement of the LEDs on the lighting fixture and the unique orientation of the fixture in the living space results in the predetermined illuminance being obtained on the room surfaces. A problem with this technique can arise in non-standard illumination instances which may be the majority of lighting applications. For example in industrial plant lighting, such as in open chemical processing facilities or where there are desks, shelves, machinery or other elements requiring an unpredictable light distribution. Much energy is wasted in these facilities with the wasted light often contributing to light pollution.
  • People need light for the performance of visual tasks, its aesthetic value or security. Light generated but not used by people is wasted energy, money and causes air and light pollution. Standard lighting fixtures, even those that are somewhat area based, such as a low bay or bedroom luminaire, because of the different object and usages within the area, either provide too much light and are wasteful or provide insufficient lighting inhibiting visual performance. Therefore it would be beneficial to have a lighting fixture that is further configurable to meet the demands of the actual lighting application where it has been installed. In addition it would be beneficial if the lighting fixture was responsive in real time to the lighting needs at that moment. It is no longer necessary to have fixtures providing illumination where there is nothing to be seen.
  • Thus there is a need for a lighting fixture having provision for the differentiation over space and time of the light's intensity and color that could be set-up in the field and/or adjusted in real-time to the changing lighting requirements. Such an exigency based fixture would provide correct illuminance in terms of chromaticity, homogeneous or aesthetic lighting generally and task lighting locally for the visual tasks at hand.
  • Examples of the inflexible prior-art approach based on today's designs include: lighting is often provided in rooms where daylight contributes significantly to the overall lighting level or in areas near the window but the lighting system is not flexible enough spatially to take advantage of the daylight contribution and reduce power; or the lighting is always on at maximum power irrespective of whether or not there is activity in the room to justify the lighting level.
  • Even when external dimming controls are provided to the lighting fixture, the color quality of the lighting is deleteriously affected. At a lower lighting level a warmer color temperature is generally required and the luminaire lamp color is not adjustable.
  • Objectives of the Invention
  • The present invention provides a unique approach to solid-state illuminating devices that is a departure from conventional prior art LED lighting practice. Prior-Art LED lighting technology manufacturers have been taking LED junctions and packaging them in ever more-powerful configurations to carry out the function of lamps. These LED lamps are teamed with reflectors and/or refractors similar to the techniques practiced with standard lamps or put on strips which is just another way of distributing the light over the area to be illuminated. This invention comprises a different approach which is to provide the end user with the most correct lighting solution not a new technology lamp to replace the old one. The present invention comprises a novel multi-light source approach to the design and construction of solid-state lighting fixtures (vs. solid-state lamps), which is termed a “Digital Lighting Fixture”, due to the control of individual lighting element “digits” to provide the “correct” lighting solution for the situation at hand.
  • In contrast to a prior art, single large, lamp replacement like light source, the present invention provides multiple, small sized sources of differing characteristics such that the effect of the whole is greater than the sum of the individual parts. The determining size factor then becomes when is there a sufficient progression of values varying by minute degrees or continuum so as be non-discernable or irrelevant to the user. That is, LEDs can be of a single wavelength (color, frequency), or have a SPD similar to fluorescents, have small optics close in to the individual light sources since they operate coolly, and have stable conversion efficiency over a wide range of currents and light output. The added controllability offered by breaking the total light output up into discrete (“digital”) specifically aimable and dimmable elements which can be addressed by control electronics to effect intensity, spectrum and spatial distribution of intensity and spectrum, yields a lighting fixture (vs. lamp) of unparalleled performance. Unique to this patent is the approach. It is the approach of a lighting manufacturer who provides lighting solutions versus that of a lamp manufacturer who produces a generic lamp.
  • Further objectives of the present invention are (among others) to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art and effect the following: Light is generated only when, where and in the proper amount and color that can best be used by people or is their personal preference. This will save wasted energy, money and air and light pollution while increasing visual performance and comfort. An exigency based lighting fixture is presented that provides correct illuminance in terms of chromaticity, homogeneous or aesthetic lighting generally and task lighting locally for the visual tasks at hand while preserving high visual comfort.
  • A number of unique illuminating device embodiments are achievable using the basic elements presented above. A few examples presented in the disclosure include: (1) an industrial lighting fixture for use in chemical and process plants where lighting that normally spills out of the existing structure as wasted light, is not produced to begin with; (2) a bedroom luminaire where normal activity and night-light lighting levels are provided as well as the ability to provide individualized lighting to each person; (3) Living room lighting with provision of modes for typical uses such as television viewing, reading with the provision of radiant spot heating based on the users unique location and usage at that instant in time; (4) A therapeutic luminaire designed to use illumination and irradiation on persons to alter biological disorders or schedule sleep or awakening; (5) a luminaire for emergency and security forces having a non-readiness situation intensity and chromacity and second high-readiness situation setting of a unique intensity and/or chromacity, where the unique chromacity does not damage the biological visual purple pigment of the retina that is responsible for enabling night vision. It thus eliminates the time these security forces would need to adjust from normal lighting to low-light night vision conditions; (6) a restaurant luminaire which illuminates foods and/or people in their best light while providing for the correct level and chromacity of ambient lighting for generating the optimal dining atmosphere; (7) A general luminaire which the end user configures themselves in situ to best suit their desired lighting preferences. The field adjusted luminaire comes with the lighting elements and their power supplies but the user re-arranges in particular directions and sets their light output levels and/or chromacity to obtain the preferred output; (8) A do it yourself modular lighting fixture which is a structure capable of receiving light sources over its surface where the user chooses the light source with its chromacity and intensity level. The user builds up the light distribution pattern on their own and connects the sources to the integral modular power supply; (9) A single light engine device for a room or outdoor location with concentrated light output capable of being beamed distances to reflectors or refractors which redirect the light to be more optimally used in a localized area.
  • The overall objective of these exemplary embodiments is the disclosure of an exigency based lighting fixture that provides correct or user preferred illuminance in terms of chromaticity, homogenenaity, aesthetic considerations over a general area and/or task lighting provided in a small area for the visual tasks at hand. Providing illumination only where, how and when it is needed to efficiently carry out visual tasks minimizes wasted light thus minimizing energy use for lighting. To achieve this efficiency goal there is a need for a lighting fixture having provision for 1) the differentiation over space and time of its light intensity and color 2) that can be set-up in the field and/or 3) adjusted in real-time to changing lighting requirements.
  • It is further the goal of this disclosure to teach how to construct a situational, exigency based lighting fixture which besides having sensors and processors and software for adducing the geometry, contents, occupancy and light usage in order to calculate and deliver the correct lighting can now additionally consider other, often subjective optimal lighting, human factors engineering and economic criteria. The situational, exigency based lighting fixture intended to illuminate an area to be lit with one or more light sources which will illuminate where needed, in the correct amounts at the time needed to accomplish visual tasks and/or effect physiological and/or psychological effects and/or create an atmosphere while also optimizing any of luminance, the pleasing aspects of the lighting, the appearance of surface colors, and the accuracy of the light in terms of color rendition in the area, and minimizing glare, flicker gloomy lighting while balancing tradeoffs between factors including: aiding the visual acuity of persons, the accuracy of the light placement on objects, the accuracy of the light in terms of color rendition, the pleasing aspects of the lighting in the area; and economic considerations related to the accurate and/or timely performance of visual tasks, performance efficacy and energy cost of supplying the luminance requirements. The luminaire is configured to perform in the geometric area where it has been installed either manually or automatically by software and has detectors to determine the luminance requirements in real time, even as the luminance requirements change for persons in the area.
  • While these objectives should not be understood to limit the teachings of the present invention, in general these objectives are achieved in part or in whole by the disclosed invention that is presented in the following sections. One skilled in the art will no doubt be able to select aspects of the present invention as disclosed to affect any combination of the objectives described above.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • A lighting device incorporates one or more discrete light sources and their ancillary optical and electrical control equipment in an integrated illuminating element. The overall lighting effect is the result of the combination of these multiple sources, detector and control components operating together. Preferably, the power conditioning circuitry, light sources, logic control circuitry, sensors and optical elements are packaged together in one integral device but not necessarily so. The system contrives a lighting device which replaces the present day multi-component lighting fixtures or luminaires including: the lamp; optical light control element/s such as reflector, refractor and shade; power conditioning devices such as a ballast; control equipment such as switch, dimmer, and timer. Detectors, emitters and sensors for light intensity, spectrum, temperature etc such as photodiodes, photocells thermocouples etc are provided. These provide data input to the controller, allow feedback and enable recalibration. In the present concept over the life time of the fixture there is no lamp replacement only fixture replacement. It's assumed that after 50,000 to 100,000 hours it is time to change the fixture.
  • The present invention also relates to lighting fixtures comprised of many directional light sources that are mounted with different aimings so as to correctly illuminate an area. The LED light sources are moveable so that they can be adjusted to best illuminate the area where the luminaire has actually been installed. In addition they may be controllable by a microprocessor as to the light intensity and color so as to best assist people to see what they are doing at that moment, be it reading a book, watching TV or assembling an automobile. The lighting fixture is equipped with a “smart” camera (similar to a cell phone's processor controlled digital camera) which inputs data on the lighting, occupants and current conditions within the room. The result of this added sophistication is that electricity is spent on generating only useful light. The energy savings greatly reduces electricity costs and environmental impact.
  • The present invention more specifically relates to lighting fixtures whose spatial light distribution and/or spectral power distribution is capable of being adapted, either manually or automatically, to provide the illumination needed in that specific surrounding and at that specific time. The Field Adjustable Multiple-Light-Source Luminaire, FAML, is thus a universal product that can be tailored onsite so as to provide design illuminance and color spectrum to the relevant surfaces in the specific lighting installation. Thus a preferred embodiment of the invention is a lighting fixture comprised of many light sources which can be separately aimed and powered so as to illuminate areas or objects in a room or outdoors in a most correct, efficient and comfortable manner.
  • To affect this directional lighting versatility, in a preferred embodiment the luminaire is comprised of many directional light sources that can be re-positioned so as to illuminate in different directions. The light sources at a particular aiming may all be one color, say white or may be of different colors which when combined together yield a different colored light beam. Altering the radiated power of one color light source versus the other allows for the creation of light in a myriad of colors. The luminaire has some light sources at the same aiming and others at different aimings and may come in a standard configuration for the general type of lighting application from the factory. Upon installation, if the factory preset lighting distribution does not fit the actual surroundings, the installer will customize the configuration by adjusting the light source aimings and light intensity output such that the correct amount of light is supplied to where it is needed while not at all or minimally illuminating areas where it is not needed. The installer will also make provision for the existence of other lighting fixture in the same or adjacent areas. When light is provided at higher angles and glare would result from the LED light source being visible, the light is not wasted by covering it with a shade or passing the light through a diffuser thereby losing the directionality and light flux due to absorption. Instead taking advantage of the small étendue of the light source, an optical spreader is used to increase the area from where the light is exiting thus lowering the luminous exitance while maintaining directionality.
  • To effect the provision of lighting that is in concert with the actual illumination needs at a given time, in an embodiment of the FAML, a camera serves as a sensor capable of detecting light, color and contents of the living space. The fixture is equipped with a logical controller. Using computer vision technology to recognize people, objects and surroundings the lighting fixture can provide the lighting requirements needed in the room at that moment in time. The computer vision system has been taught to recognize different visual tasks such as an individual operating a machine, reading a book or watching TV using computer vision methodologies as in known in the art. The logical controller has instruction sets as to what color lighting at what intensity is preferable for that specific visual task. Thus if no one is in the room the lighting is off or a dimmed, aesthetic lighting is provided for the good feeling of those looking in. When people enter the room, immediately general room lighting is turned on and following that, specific task lighting is provided and adjusted to the right level and color based on where they are in the room and what they are doing.
  • An automatic embodiment of the FAML would include motion control elements for the light sources. Coupled with the camera and logical controller, the light distribution is altered automatically as required by changes in the physical surroundings, people or environment. In a similar fashion to how a preprogrammed moving head stage light follows the performer about the stage the FAML logical controller will automatically locate the person in the room and provide locally the lighting needed for the performance of visual tasks. To save energy, the rest of the room will then be illuminated at a lower, yet comfortable lighting level.
  • There are two stages to be able to have a “smart” fixture. The first inventive device is a Lighting Fixture to illuminate a prescribed area that is capable of providing a differentiated light delivery over the area to be lit. That is: the LF has apparatus that is capable of delivering light to one sub-area that is different in intensity or spectral power distribution from a second area. The second stage is the design of a human-vision-centric control system of said newly invented differentiated light delivery system which is capable of taking gainful advantage of this heretofore unavailable flexibility in light delivery. Therefore all prior art control systems, even those using cameras are not capable of the substantially continuous (non-stepwise) coordinate dependant variation in the illuminance over an area. This is clearly seen in a sunlight harvesting application such as when sunlight from a window drops off as the distance from the window increases and the digital illumination fixture compensates in concert. Nor are they capable of adapting the illumination to the real time visual need of occupants.
  • In order to control lighting in a room's micro climate one needs need to control light delivery such that subzones in a room are independently addressable. Up to now the concept has been that a central sensor and controller controls the light fixtures within the room to obtain the lighting effect. The central controller decides centrally what illumination is required and sends via a communications protocol a signal to the dimming ballast. So many individually powered LFs are controlled by a central controller which sends a control signal to the networked device which has apparatus for interpreting the dimming signal and effecting the power change. The novel illuminating devices of the present disclosure instead, in a number of the embodiments, use a multiple light source lighting fixture having an integral controller on a powered lighting fixture (one may also use other locations as light sources via an unpowered satellite “light distributor”). A centrally located sensor detects what is going on in different parts of the room, adduces the coordinates, and via an artificial intelligence, expert system interprets the best practice illumination required and the controller via the LED drivers and light sources generates photons directed to said coordinates. The camera readings are based on coordinates in correlation with the area specific light sources. It is to be understood that in a departure from prior art where illumination is specified on a plane such as the work plane 85 cm above the floor in the present illuminating device the coordinates include the horizontal plane as well as vertical planes and a full x,y,z, coordinate which may include a painting on a wall or part of a table is specifiable. In a preferred embodiment the sensor is an integral sensor for each fixture. If there are other lighting fixtures illuminating the room and they also have their own sensor for viewing the area within their purview. The fixtures communicate via communications protocol apparatus such as WiFi, Bluetooth or via the white light they produce. This is similar to how IR light in fiber optic cables is used in today's communications networks. That is, where the fixtures have mutual coverage the sensor picks up the undulating white light frequencies. The fixtures first communicate and establish a communications “handshake” between them and use the fixtures unique identifier for the node or assign an identifier. Further communication identifies the luminance provided by each fixture so that each provides its correlated part of the lighting and the prescribed lighting level is maintained. If one sensor sees for other fixtures the communications between fixtures may still be via light or WiFi communications device etc.
  • Because the uniqueness of the DLF able to deliver light limited to specific coordinates and the uniqueness of the pixelated sensor array knowing the coordinates of the occupant, for the first time we capable of micro-managing the illumination in an environment. Without this combination of the digital LF differentiated light delivery device with digital sensor all other illumination control systems will not be able to perform a continuous illumination of the area. Instead a quanta of luminaires will be dimmed with the entire area under the fixtures purview being affected.
  • The present illuminating system makes maximal use of machine perception technology known in the art. The controller is equipped with the processing power to use input from sensors such as cameras, microphones, sonar and others to deduce aspects of the world under it purview and beyond. The control of the fixture may be manual via switches, remote control and/or automatic and may use speech recognition, facial recognition and object recognition.
  • The lighting control system uses artificial intelligence methodologies known in the art where information is fed to the processor from a computer vision system or other detector and input devices such as ultrasound, infrared, sonar, remote controllers microphones to decide among many factors, be they aesthetic, economic, physiological in controlling the light output. In a preferred embodiment the computer vision which is the ability to analyze visual input is coupled in a camera with a luminance metering capability as well as a geometric metering ability in terms of knowing the distances to surfaces so as to calculate the inverse square law and Lamberts law as it applies to illuminance intensity calculations. The camera may also have been constructed and programmed to perform a surface temperature reading capability as is known in the art. This information can then be communicated to the HVAC system in a smart home network such as WiFi or Seabee etc.
  • The controller's computer acts as an artificial intelligence expert system in that emulates the decision-making ability of an expert human lighting designer or engineer. The expert system is designed to solve complex lighting problems by reasoning about knowledge, like an expert, and not only by following the procedure programmed by the developer. Expert systems are among the truly successful forms of AI software and are known in the art and have herein in this novel lighting fixture been turned into practice. Until now only separate spot lights set up by a designer could give different surfaces over part of a room a different intensity or SPD where now 1) it can be done in an integrated system. 2) it can be done automatically based on a sensor and 3) it can change with changing occupant and objects. The expert system is thus uniquely capable of weighing both performance, human and economic considerations in driving the illuminating device light production and delivery characteristics. As opposed to a mathematical solution the AI system mimics human reason to deliver a decided upon illumination.
  • A special lamp could be made for light therapy or for not interfering with melatonin production. However being developed with multiple light sources of various SPD in conjunction with a controller now allows such a fixture that can vary between normal lighting and therapy lighting when needed.
  • Visual performance models imply that virtually all tasks done in offices and schools could be done just as well at much lower illuminance than those currently used. However, illuminances have not been reduced because people like an interior to appear bright. Dim, gloomy lighting can induce a sense of visual discomfort which may change the observer's mood and motivation to carry out a task, particularly if the work is prolonged. Thus, if a perception of brightness could be maintained at a lower illuminance, energy consumption and carbon emissions could be reduced. Thus a preferred embodiment of the differentiated light delivery lighting fixture includes light sources to provide selective lighting to surfaces in the instantaneous Field of View of the occupant. The detector system has knowledge of the eye location and orientation and thus the FOV. When the fixture controller will dim in a surrounding area it will compensate for gloom by selectively illuminating a surface such as the ceiling with minimum energy to offset any negative influence on mood.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 represents a block diagram of the elements making up a Digital Lighting Fixture system.
  • FIG. 2 is an illustration of a preferred embodiment of this invention of a retrofit LED Digital Lighting Fixture in the form of a replacement lamp
  • FIG. 3 is a LED lighting fixture for use in a suspended ceiling application.
  • FIG. 4 is an illustration of the isolux pattern obtained from a Digital Lighting Fixture.
  • FIG. 5 is a universal luminaire embodiment using an adaptive digital lighting fixture which is programmed to illuminate the area as is needed.
  • FIGS. 6A through 6C depict a streetlight fixture designed according to the teachings of this invention.
  • FIG. 7 is a flowchart of a typical design procedure for a multi-source lighting fixture of the present disclosure
  • FIG. 8 shows a multiple light-source headlamp capable of optimally carrying out the diverse illumination functions used in driving under various environmental conditions and surroundings.
  • FIG. 9 is an illustration of an anti-glare system using the multiple light source headlamp.
  • FIG. 10A is a perspective view of a configurable LED luminaire comprised of many light modules; FIG. 10B is a view of light module optical accessories;
  • FIG. 11 is a perspective view of a light guide;
  • FIG. 12A and FIG. 12B are perspective view of basic embodiments of the present invention;
  • FIG. 13 is a perspective view of a substantially linear embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 14 is a block diagram of the elements comprising the controlled illumination invention;
  • FIG. 15 is an exemplary flow chart for a computer program run to obtain the optimal illumination;
  • FIG. 16 is a perspective view of a universal lighting fixture structure with means for attaching light source and sensor elements mechanically and electrically;
  • FIG. 17 is a perspective view of a lighting fixture capable of producing both a differentiated spatial light intensity distribution as well as a spatially differentiated light spectrum distribution.
  • FIG. 18 is a perspective view of a field adjustable multiple light source lighting fixture;
  • FIG. 19A and FIG. 19B is a perspective view of satellite light source from the side and from the front respectively;
  • FIG. 20 depicts an adjustable luminaire in a lighting application;
  • FIG. 21 is a perspective view of a luminaire with a special night-light functionality;
  • FIG. 22 is a perspective view of an adjustable luminaire with added irradiation functionality;
  • FIG. 23 is a perspective view of an industrial lighting fixture for use in hazardous locations;
  • FIG. 24 is a process flow chart for a computer lighting fixture design program.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The system is built around a “digital” light source. That is, the emanating lighting effect is the sum of the characteristics of a multiplicity of discretely controllable “digit” sources. The difference between the individual “digit” light sources and their summation manifests itself in the resultant light characteristic, be in its intensity, spatial intensity distribution, spectral energy content and spectral intensity distribution. All of these characteristics are also variable with time. A light source for this purpose may be electroluminescent such as a Light Emitting Diode (LED) junction, Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) or carbon-related field emission devices such as a nanotube-phosphor-combination, HID, fluorescent or even an incandescent source. While a one-source lamp will not have the flexibility to effect the most correct illumination characteristics, such as maintaining correct intensity and color temperature for the lighting task at hand over changing environmental conditions, two or more differentiated sources will have an increased operating range. This flexibility is useful as for example in a multi-source luminaire with spatially differentiated dimming capability used in an office lighting application. In a normal day's operation, such as in a windowed room between peak daylight and nighttime hours, the intensity and color temperature of the light varies greatly over different portions of the room. The smooth variation possible with many light sources (“digits”) vs. one light source offers superior flexibility in providing the actual lighting needs. Therefore, the illuminating device may be described as a “digital” light source or as a Multiple Solid-state Light Source (MSLS), comprising many “digits”, SLSs, and essentially replaces the lamp of present-day luminaires.
  • As used herein, the term “light source”, LED or “solid state light source” means any system that is capable of receiving an electrical signal and producing light in response to the signal. Thus, the term “light source” should be understood to include light emitting diodes of all types, light emitting polymers, semiconductor dies that produce or emanate light in response to current, organic LEDs, electro-luminescent strips, and other such systems. Incandescent and discharge light sources are also included and multiples of incandescent and discharge light sources also provide a digital luminaire. In an embodiment, a “light source” may refer to a single light emitting diode package including multiple semiconductor LED dies that are individually controlled. The combined unit of compatible, mass producible, apparatus, including the solid-state lamps, their optical assembly, electronic control gear and structural fixture equipment, provides a unique Digital Lighting Fixture (DLF) device.
  • In a preferred embodiment the DLF is provided with an onboard controller. The controller may be a computer board, embedded device, a Digital Signal Processor, etc. In general, the term “logical controller, controller or computer” can be broadly defined to encompass any device having control circuitry or a processor which executes instructions from a memory medium. The present invention provides an illuminating device which serves as a replacement for the lamp, socket, reflector, electric power control gear, dimmer and mechanical structure of a present-day lighting fixture or luminaire. A semiconductor junction packaged integrally with light controlling components provides a Solid-State Light Source SLS and many together form an MSLS, which when combined with power conditioning, and optionally logic control, communications and affixing elements, provides a DLF. The basis of the invention is the use of a multitude of discrete light emitting sources (“digits”) to generate light. The light control elements can be applied on a per junction basis or on a “white” color generating set grouping such as RGB or on a larger set which may be convenient for manufacturing or other color rendering considerations. The requirement for controllability is however, that the SLS output is definitive in relation to spectrum and spatial distribution.
  • The discrete light emitting elements by operating and not operating, at full power or at a fraction of, either partially or in unison, generate light with optimal intensity, spectral distribution, and spatial distribution of intensity and spectral distribution for the viewing task at hand. This is accomplished without recourse to separate (exterior to the DLF) reflectors to redirect the light, filters to alter color, shades to control glare or dimmers to control intensity.
  • A “light bulb” of the present invention is comprised of a multitude of LED's where each LED or group of LED's may be of the same or different wavelength, (color-where said wavelength may be mono or multi-chromatic), light output, spatial distribution and operating frequency (as when an alternating signal is used or it is multiplexed). The light from an LED or group of LED's of red color operating with an LED of blue and green color impinging on an object would appear to the viewer as “white light”. By varying the number and/or light power output of a specific color LED or group of LED's relative to the others, a different intensity and color temperature of light with a “warm” or “cool” appearance may be effected. “White” LEDs can also be used in the invention alone or with other monochromatic LEDs. A white LED comprises an emitter in the blue spectrum covered with a phosphor which fluoresces in yellow such that the combined output appears white. White LEDs come in various angular light distribution patterns and color temperature variations. White LEDs of different SPDs can also be combined to vary intensity and spectrum.
  • Typically, an incandescent or HID lamp is used in conjunction with a reflector to redirect the light to obtain a desired light pattern where more of the light is directed where it is most useful. A luminaire for area lighting will have a “bat wing” candlepower light distribution pattern, which yields equal horizontal illumination on a surface as it compensates for the “inverse square law” (a function of the cosine of the angle and the distance squared from the source). Generally, such an optical assembly has efficiency less than 80% due to losses on the reflector's surfaces. The MSLS needs no reflector to redistribute the light since each discrete SLS “digit” is aimed such that the candle power intensity varies with angle as is needed to give the optimum illumination on the room work surfaces for a given mounting height. The MSLS lamp distribution is pre-designed according to typical house or office settings. Thus, there is no need for a reflector to redirect the light and its consequent inefficiencies in order to obtain a “bat wing” distribution. The present approach by LED manufacturers is to provide single high output LEDs with optics yielding a “batwing” distribution. These batwings are usually less than optimal and are circular. The “digital” approach of this invention would yield a finer control and thus a more accurate batwing, generating a more even distribution in a rectangular/square vs. circular pattern.
  • In a DLF it is possible to combine a task light having a very narrow “spot” beam at the correct aiming with a general area lighting “flood” beam into one fixture. The digital lighting fixture is positioned according to recommended lighting practice near a workstation and correctly oriented such that the DLF gives a wide (though still controlled, so as not to cause glare on a computer display) general illumination distribution as well as a narrow distribution aimed at the desktop for high intensity task lighting. In a preferred embodiment a positionable task lighting spotlight located on a section of the DLF can be aimed manually or by servomotor to project onto the work area.
  • The surface area, from which discomfort-glare causing rays exit, is designed such that the luminous exitance is within recommended UGR levels for home use. The fixture has no need for a shade to protect from glare; the glare was never produced at those angles to begin with due to proper geometric design. To get the desired luminous exitance expressed in terms of lumen per sq. meter or luminance in terms of candela per sq. meter, the light exiting the source of specific intensity at angles which normally reach the room occupant's eyes, is spread over an area such that the exiting light is non-glaring. These lighting design parameters serve as the product specification and are incorporated into the initial design. There is no need to add on components to achieve correct lighting.
  • The dimming capability of the MSLS is quite dramatic. A typical LED of today such as an Agilent® HLMP25-ED-xxxx will produce light at a tenth of a milli-Ampere and may be operated up to 50 mA. At 0.1 mA it may produce 5 milli-lumen while at 50 mA over 1000 ml. This is a hundredfold range. Another radiation output control technique is to provide pulsed power in place of constant current. LEDS are operated on DC as well as pulse power and current as well as timing in terms of duty cycle, pulse width and other signal modulations are useable by the controller to effect intensity changes. These pulsed modulations unobservable to the user can be used in a communications system with other fixtures to coordinate lighting and/or pass information between them. With a built in or exterior motion detector, the DLF can be operated at emergency lighting levels, sufficient for orientation, and then immediately power up to full level when someone enters the room.
  • In another embodiment, the electronic luminaire has a light level detector and automatically adjusts the output to the required level. If the lighting level on only one side of the room is enhanced by the sunlight, directional luminance meters, external or integral to the DLF, detect the imbalance and the controller dims only those SLS oriented to illuminate in the sunlight illuminated direction. This detailed spatial distribution intensity control is not possible with other lamp types.
  • In order to better understand the embodiments and methods of this invention reference is now made to the following figures:
  • FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the elements which in combination provide a digital lighting fixture (DLF). The DLF serves as a complete luminaire solution including: power conditioning circuitry, control electronics, sensors, mechanical fixture and light source. The DLF replaces the lighting fixture, ballast, socket, lamp, dimmers, reflector, gaskets and fasteners with a sealed for life electronic assembly. An electric power source 1, supplies power at line Voltage 110 to 480V or at low Voltage 12-24 Volt to the DLF 2. The DLF includes more than one light source 3, which is preferably an electroluminescent solid-state light source but may be any other light source, such as incandescent, high intensity discharge, fluorescent, etc such that the individual characteristics of each lamp's light are combined in operation to achieve a sum of the characteristics presenting a benefit not achievable from a single source alone. The light sources are affixed or contained within a mechanical device 4, which may serve as containment to all of the components and facilitates affixation to building surfaces. The electric power is received in the correct waveform, voltage and current from the power source 1, or is conditioned within the DLF 2, by power conditioning elements and circuitry 5. The direction of light exiting from the DLF as a whole or from each SLS individually is controllable by optical elements 6, such as reflective surfaces and or refractors, and may be electronically variable optical elements.
  • The separate light sources may be of the same color and intensity characteristic or may have different color and intensity characteristics. Thus for a 3-stage light bulb equivalent, each of three sources can have the same lumen rating or two sources are used where one is twice the output of the other. In a finely variable, digital embodiment the effect of continuous dimming effect is achieved when the differences in the lighting level is imperceptible to the people in the room. Typically a 5% change will not be perceived. Thus with twenty equivalent intensity LEDs as a base (one additional would add less than 5%), additional quanta could be smoothly added, or on the other hand, to in reality perform perceptible dimming (which is the objective) a greater than 5% change should be effected. The same is true for the final spectral color of the light emanating from the DLF to illuminate objects. The eye adds the radiation reaching the eye and cannot perceive the separate components, contrary to the ear's recognition of sounds where each frequency is individually resolved. Therefore, quanta of specific spectral color energy may be added to the mix without perception. For example changes up to 200 degrees Kelvin in HID lamps are not perceived. Thus to effect a noticeable color change, a quanta of spectral color power would need to be added or detracted from the sum.
  • In a preferred embodiment the DLF contains logic control electronics unit 7. Logic control electronics unit, 7, receives input and/or feedback from motion, intensity and/or spectral sensors 8, or from manual controller 9 and increases or decreases or turns on or shuts off the power to one or more of the SLS to effect the desired change. That is, the control logic unit 7 has stored parameters for intensity and spectral distribution and operates the MSLS lamp within the predefined range. The control unit may include a DSP or computer with storage media, computer algorithms, signal input and output electronics, analog to digital converters, and communications elements to carry out intensity, distribution, dimming and color balance control. Computer algorithms and instruction sets 7A are induced by the logical controller to manipulate data, calculate results generate output signals and maintain the operating parameters within the specifications. Measured parameters are checked against the stored parameters and the control circuitry adjusts the power to SLS.
  • Sensors 8 include any of the following: light, temperature and motion detection devices. Two types of optical detection sensors may be used: A photo detector with specific spectral sensitivity to detect a specific color. For example a standard red, blue and green set which would then indicate how “white” the light is. Alternately, a wide spectrum photo detector that irrespective of color measures the intensity of each excited die as it is test fired, based on the eye visual sensitivity curve. The optical sensor may be lensed and capable of forming an image, that is a camera and the detector may be a detector array of photodiode pixels. The detector array may be a CMOS or CCD VSLI array and may be monochromatic or color as in a monochromatic or digital camera. Such arrays are readily available in mega-pixel resolution.
  • With changes in ambient lighting the light sensors detecting conditions at a specific location receive input. The detector instantaneously reads the ambient during a momentary shut off the artificial light source. The momentary shutoff is of short duration, e.g., less than one millisecond duration, at rates undetectable to the users as the eye does not discern flicker rates above 1/100th of a second. The controller then readjusts the driving circuitry to the correct power level. The sampling of multiple sensors around the DLF can be simultaneous using buffers in the controller to facilitate analysis by methods known in the art. Alternately, the light sources and coordinated detectors at specific locations are turned off, sampled, turned on again and sampled, to verify that the illumination is within recommended specifications. Interaction between DLFs, located in close proximity to each other, is avoided, by the use of the short-duration momentary shutoff controller readjusting time interval. The probability of simultaneous controller readjustment of two adjacent DLFs is very small. Further, the timer which controls the time between the controller readjusting time intervals, is preferably analog, such that there is very low probability of two DLFs having the same time between controller readjusting intervals. Since an LED device is operable over a wide range of currents, when an LED serves as the light source, dimming and color balance are smoothly and infinitesimally variable.
  • Light plays a central role in the design of a visual environment. The architecture, people and objects are all made visible by the lighting. Light influences people's ability to carry out visual tasks, impinges on their comfort for good or for bad affects their well-being as well as having an aesthetic effect and creating mood in a room or area. It is the goal of the present lighting fixture to maximize light's benefit for people within the environment it is intended to irradiate.
  • In an alternative embodiment of the detector controlled illuminating device of the present disclosure a novel illuminating system is described which is capable of providing light to be used by beings in a more optimal manner. These uses include enabling people to see correctly and comfortably, to render other beings, surfaces or objects in their field of view in a visually pleasing manner and to effect psychological or physiological changes in people or other living creatures. It does this by having a programmed control system change the intensity of the lighting, the color, or SPD, of the lighting, the angle from which the lighting is coming from and changing the lighting over time. The automatic control system uses algorithms to perform this light optimization while taking into account the tradeoffs between economic factors such as energy efficiency, the amount of room occupants, identity of room occupants, transmitted signals from the electric utility for use in load leveling/shedding factors, glare, light pollution and light trespass factors and light source lifetime among others.
  • The novel lighting fixture for optimally illuminating surfaces or an area has 1) at least one light source capable of operating at different power levels and 2) a controller providing the different power which 3) is in communication with a processor which 4) is in communication with a detector capable of sensing information within the area to be lit where said information is supplied to the processor which 5) uses stored instruction sets to asses data in lookup tables and/or perform calculations based on algorithms to determine the illumination requirements of the area to be lit in real time. The processor then passes the light source power level requirement to the controller which partially or fully powers the light source.
  • In a preferred embodiment the lighting fixture is comprised of many light sources where each light source covers only a segment of the area to be lit. The light sources may be of the same or different SPDs. In addition there may be more than one light source illuminating a segment and the additional sources may have different color wavelength of light such that the light delivered to one segment may have a different SPD from that of a second segment. Often one type of color wavelength may be more efficient at converting electricity to visible light and may be more economical to operate. A white LED such as a CREE XM-L2 in cool white CCT of 6000K may offer 130 lumen per Watt while at CCT of 2800 warm-white and CRI of 90 only 79 lumen per Watt. A red led used to bias the color to a warmer temperature at 58 lumen per watt. The processor computational system comprises software which adapts as said luminance requirements change, while balancing tradeoffs between factors including: aiding the visual acuity of said persons in the area, the accuracy of the light placement on the objects in the area, the accuracy of the light in terms of color rendition, the non-glaring and/or pleasing aspects of the lighting for the persons in the area; and economic considerations related to the energy cost of supplying the luminance requirements.
  • In a preferred embodiment the lighting system power usage in homes buildings and outdoor areas can be regulated when utilities have a shortage of power to supply and initiated power cuts or emergency power outages occur. Almost 20% of the electricity generated goes for lighting and thus even a 50% reduction in the lighting could have a major effect on electric utility load leveling efforts to stave off power failures. As a result of the camera vision/detector system being installed in each area to be lit a plethora of information is now available from the computer vision/detector system regarding what is the occupancy of the room and what the immediate visual needs of users are and even what lighting is being used of aesthetics.
  • This micro-level knowledge of the demand for power allows utilities or building energy control systems faced with a power crunch a heretofore unachievable load balancing or load-shifting flexibility. The micro-demands for lighting they are now prioritorized based on type of usage. That is while critical lighting affecting safety or productivity may be minimally dimmed, lighting for aesthetics in the same room could be eliminated (better that having a power outage). The controller has a communications device such as WiFi and via a connection to the internet or other telecommunications network communicates with the utility or building energy management system which is in contact with the utility. When the controller receives a demand for power reduction, the controller is programmed to decrease the power for lighting and/or other energy uses such as HVAC to the various based on the importance of the use criteria.
  • Not only is lighting based on occupants but so is air conditioning and heating. That is the detector system information on occupancy allows the utility or the individuals building energy use control to decide where it can back off power usage.
  • In a similar fashion a building energy management system wishing to take advantage of Time of Day metering also known as Time of Usage or Seasonal Time of Day, metering with higher rates at peak load periods and low tariff rates at off-peak load periods can use the detector system garnered information and to automatically control usage on the part of the power consuming devices (resulting in automatic load control), This also allows the utilities to plan their transmission infrastructure appropriately as a part of a Demand-side Management system.
  • In most prior art lighting practice, illuminance, that is the amount of light reaching the surface, is used as the measure of a lighting systems performance. Illuminance is the luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area given in lux=lumen per square meter and is most often the criteria used to check if there is enough illumination for people to carry out their visual tasks. It would have seemed that the measure of luminance, that is the light “leaving” a surface in a particular direction would have been used instead. Sometimes called brightness, luminance is the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction given in candela per square meter (cd/m2). It indicates how much luminous power will be detected by an eye looking at the surface from a particular angle of view and is the measurable quantity that most resembles a person's perception of brightness. Thus while in some embodiments of the lighting fixture the detector readings are translated into illuminance in preferred embodiment luminance is used in the processing for needed illumination.
  • However it turns out that until now illuminance values were the only practical way to specify the required lighting. This is because the reflectance from different colored and textured surface of objects or structural surfaces in the area to be lit may differ between settings. A constant illuminance from a lighting device over an area will result in dissimilar luminance readings on the different objects but each object has an optimal luminance for viewing. For example, if a dark oil painting is to be seen in its best light than the light intensity, SPD and angle must be such that it highlights nuances and special effects in paintings. Well lit full spectrum original paintings allow the viewer to see the colors, brushstrokes and marks made by the artist in creating the painting. The case for illuminating a light pastel water color painting is less demanding. This expertise falls under the purview of a lighting designer. The case of illuminating for reading differs if it is a book with 12 pixel font size being read recommended in the Illuminating Handbook at a 500 lux illumination versus if the lighting was used to read engineering drawings, where 1000 lux should be specified by the lighting engineer. These recommended values were arrived at by studying at what illuminance value did visual performance of a test group of people become accurate.
  • So for practical purposes, the illuminance coming from a light source was a value that could be measured and delivered in a repeatable way while luminance required both the illuminance and reflectance of the surface and until now was not controllable in the field. In prior art practice to achieve correct luminance, a lighting designer would normally use many spot lights distributed around a room each illuminating a very specific surface such that a desired luminance would be obtained. Thus, until now there was no single lighting device capable of delivering illumination such that different surfaces would be at the optimal luminance. Therefore today, other than in road lighting, one will find the recommended practice lighting used in the illumination handbooks in terms of illuminance recommendations making it sufficient to measure the light coming from the light source.
  • However, the illumination system of the present disclosure is capable of providing illumination based on recommended practice lighting specified in terms of luminance. This offers a superior user experience while at the same time allowing for minimal energy usage. The novel illuminating device, which utilizes a computer based vision system having image recognition capabilities to obtain information on the surface textures, reflectances and kind of objects or occupants in the area to be lit, now enables a totally different, superior approach. This is because the detector reads luminance and at the same time the illuminating device has control over where the light is going, at what intensity and what color. The combined system allows for one surface to have one illuminance level falling on it to achieve its recommend practice luminance while a second surface has a different illuminance to achieve its recommend practice luminance.
  • Using real time luminance to prescribe the quantity of illumination required to perform different visual tasks will also enable further cost reductions and energy savings. In a paper Perceived room brightness: Pilot study on the effect of luminance distribution by D K Tiller et al Institute for Research in Construction published in Lighting Research & Technology, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1995, pp. 93-101 the authors prove that luminance is superior in ensuring that designed spaces are pleasant and facilitate occupant behavior. Not only is this true for complicated and subtle subjective effects that might be cued or enhanced by lighting, such as using the lighting in a restaurant to enhance feelings of intimacy, it is also the case for other subjective reactions that relate to more basic perceptual processes, like apparent brightness. Brightness perception researched in the branch of psychology known as psychophysics shows that correct design attention to several “nonquantitative” lighting factors will compensate in some degree for reduction in overall quantity of light. On the minimalistic control side investigators of the opposite of brightness, namely gloom, had subjects report that the light was ‘getting dim’ when the luminances on a simple visual acuity task ranged from 110 to 28 cd m−2; luminances between 28 and 3.6 cd m−2 were judged as ‘gloomy’. While other investigators found ambient lighting was described as ‘gloomy’ only when the adaptation luminance in the field of view ranged from 5 to 9 cd m−2. Their findings show that a nonuniform distribution of luminance made rooms appear brighter than identical rooms with uniform luminance distributions. Specifically rooms with a nonuniform distribution of luminance were judged as requiring between five and 10% less working plane illuminance to achieve equivalent brightness than identical rooms with a uniform luminance distribution. The controller stored algorithms will take these apparent brightness parameters into account when driving the different light sources aimed at the various room or area surfaces. This nonuniform distribution of luminance is a further benefit of using the spatially differentiated light delivery of the multiple light source lighting fixture throughout a room to achieve a further energy savings through manual or site specific adaptable lighting design.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates the teachings of the present invention. In this case, although packaged to appear as a typical “A” shaped light bulb, the device is actually a lighting fixture capable of providing a complete lighting solution which takes the lighting environment and changes therein into account. Although shaped like a lamp with a screw base to facilitate replacement when the “lamp” burns out, this is not necessarily the intent. Rather, in the present concept, after 100,000 hours (over 30 years in typical use) it's time to refurbish the room and change the fixture. The outward design is thus generated by what people expect to purchase and not what a DLF, that is not a lamp should look like. The lighting fixture is configured as a lamp so that it can be placed in the owners present decorative fixture that they find hard to part with. It has articulating joints and extenders that allow it to radiate light directionally without interference from the old fixtures shades or globes. Where the present decorative fixture has a number of lamps and the globes would look dark ruining the aesthetics an inexpensive low wattage LED lamp capable of just lighting the shade or refractor globe is supplied for the lighting effect.
  • A retrofit MSLS lamp or digital lighting fixture/luminaire 16 intended to replace the lamp, fixture, reflector or shade and control-gear combination of a typical lighting fixture, includes a screw base 17, which receives line power into the electronic power conditioning circuitry 19. In a preferred embodiment, control circuitry 20 is provided in the lamp body 24. The input to the control is from an external source or internal logic circuit or both and in a preferred embodiment a sensor pack 21 with one or more radiation and communication sensors capable of detecting motion, day/night, spectrum, luminance etc is provided. In external control, a control signal rides on the power signal and enters via the screw base 17 or an infrared, light or other radiation detector provided in 21 picks up the wired or wireless control signal. Discrete packaged light sources, e.g. Solid-state Light Source SLS 23 containing one or more junctions are mounted on the DLF lighting fixture body 24 and connected to the controlled power circuitry that determines which of the SLS 23 will operate and at what power. Each SLS with it spectral and distribution characteristic is mounted in a specific location on the surface of the DLF with an angle α, 25 from the nadir. Any angle from the nadir is possible including 180 degrees and the light flux can serve to provide uplight or illuminate a picture on a wall.
  • In this replacement lamp arrangement, that is where the old fixture is being converted the socket may be mounted inside a refractor globe or shade. The lighting fixture however can be correctly oriented to the room or its contents such as a work desk or wall painting. To ensure that the DLF has a specific mounting orientation to the room irrespective of the socket stop point, a reaiming arrangement is provided such that the set light distribution which is nonsymmetrical will be in correlation to the geometry of the room. The screw base 17 is connected to the lighting fixture via an extender arm 22 that allows the fixture body 24 to be extended out of the globe so the light so the directional light sources can illuminate their specific sub-areas in the room as designed. The extension arm is held in place by friction or pin 26. The swivel joint 22A allows for the LF to be brought level and rotating ring 20 allows the body 24 to alight the light sources with the room's square geometry. Thus a light source 23A which is mounted in a specific location radically around the lamp at an angle β, 27 in reference to corner of room marker 18 and a design start point on the circumference of body 24. The SLS are placed at an angle β horizontally and vertically angled a to illuminate specific areas and also have their own spatial light distribution beam angle θ1 28A. An SLS aimed to illuminate an interior area may have a wide distribution or a distribution without a sharp cutoff 28A while those SLS located at the edge of the area to be illuminated may be of narrow distribution θ2 28B and have a sharp cutoff. This technique is similar to how a sport playing field is illuminated with multiple floodlights. Floodlights of narrow beam spreads such as a NEMA 2 are used to illuminate at the edge of the illuminated area while wider NEMA 4 beam spreads are used near the center of the playing area. The MSLS lamp will have concentrations of SLS at specific aimings to provide a wide “flood” type distribution to one part of the room and a “spot” type distribution to another such as to a painting on the wall. Each illumination target is at a different light intensity and color temperature or color rendering.
  • In another embodiment SLS, which perform an equivalent to a task light function with a very narrow beam, are combined with SLS performing a general background lighting function in one fixture. While general lighting recommendations in an office call for the provision of 300 to 500 lux over the working plane, specific task lighting, for example where copy work is to be illuminated by auxiliary lighting, 1,000 lux is required. To this end a section 29, containing SLS on the DLF, provides a narrow beam of higher intensity, to provide added light flux to the working surface. In an alternate embodiment section 29 on the DLF is on a swivel and can be manually adjusted to be aimed at the worktable. In an alternate embodiment the swivel is positioned by a servomotor and controlled by a remote control unit. In an alternate embodiment to the fixed task light section 29, in an attempt to cut down on separate fixture types with left or right handed spot or other asymmetric orientations, the MSLS portion of the DLF body 24 is rotatable in relation to the affixing base 17. The socket may be located deep inside the shade and interfere with the directional LED light output to sub areas within the area to be lit. Thus extender arm number 22 has two concentric tubes with a fixing screw 26 to secure the position after adjustment to bring the DLF to an unblocked position. The friction swivel joint 22A allows for angular adjustment with the nadir and the rotating joint 20 allows the fixture to be correlated with the corners of the room's geometry for the uniform lighting.
  • In another embodiment, modulating the output of wide distribution and narrow distribution LEDs by the controller varies the net resultant beam spread characteristics. The fixture is placed near a workstation and gives a wide distribution general lighting as well as a narrow high intensity beam for increased illumination level task lighting on demand.
  • In order to assure an even distribution of light from a point source over an area, it is necessary to take the effects of the angle and distance to the illuminated surfaces into account as stated in the inverse square law. Often a “batwing” type of candlepower light distribution is used. In a prior art luminaries the reflector, which concentrates reflected rays in the higher angles, accomplishes this. In a preferred embodiment of the MSLS there are more, or more powerful, SLS over a range 1 aimed at higher angles to increase light flux at those angles in order to maintain an even light distribution. If the lamp is specifically oriented in relation to the room concentrating more light into the distant corners effects a squared distribution pattern, which would fill in the corners of a square room with equivalent illumination. An added amount of SLS are added on the DLF body 24 at 90 degree angles on β, 27 where SLS aimings will push added light into areas corresponding to the “corners”. To effect uplight towards the ceiling or for indirect lighting SLS 23A are aimed towards the ceiling such that an optimal utilization of the light is achieved.
  • In the preferred embodiment color of light emanating from an SLS 23 is “white” light. This is accomplished by using a “white” light producing arrangement of LEDs that is comprised of two or more spectrally differentiated junctions, which then combine their light output such that the illuminating light appears white. Other white LED technologies use phosphor or other coatings over the junction which causes a shift to longer wavelengths. The separate junctions in an SLS or separate SLS may be independently controlled. In a multi-junction SLS the total color of the illumination may be shifted to “warm” or “cool” light in correct accordance with the illumination level (see FIG. 10) or other considerations. In another preferred embodiment, a motion detector is used to conserve energy. The room lamp is dimmable to a lighting level sufficient for safe orientation. A motion sensor 21 picks up activity and increases the illumination level to meet the activity level. This integral placement significantly reduces the wiring from sensor to power supply and again back to lamp in prior-art dimmer—motion sensor applications.
  • In alternate embodiment each SLS 23 may have a non-white color. The operation of many SLS in unison of different or similar wavelength may be used to create any color desired from white to monochrome in any specific region to be illuminated. A spectrum sensor 21 inputs data to controller 20, which maintains color at predefined level. Such a feedback mode allows for the MSLS to maintain constant color over the full lifetime of the lamp even if specific wavelength SLS shift output characteristics such as light flux and spectrum with age within bounds of the sensors calibration over age. Constant color is maintained in a room with an influx of a less desirable color temperature light on one side. Spectrum sensor 21 with a specific orientation would detect a “cool” light reflection emanating from a specific side of the lamp and will increase “warm” e.g. 2000K light to compensate. Over the long lifetime the DLF could recalibrate its spectral sensors 21 to white light based on readings of daylight where such daylight is available and the controller has determined that the room at the time of calibration is being illuminated with white light “daylight” of a specific color temperature per orientation and time of day.
  • The method for using a digital camera for luminance measurements is known in the art and the publication Measuring Luminance with a Digital Camera by Peter D. Hiscocks, P. Eng Syscomp Electronic Design Limited Sep. 16, 2011 describes one technique. Also software that operates on standard digital camera equipment can be used in the changeover to a luminance based standard. These are readily available such as from suppliers such as Toptical Scientific Corp, Taipei City, Taiwan. Their CAMERA PHOTOMETER is based on the commercially available Canon EOS 450D digital reflex camera. The software allows for calibration and full set luminance values to be obtained for surfaces in the room. The camera being a color camera also obtains accurate surface color, spectral reflectance information. Thus the camera vision processor running such instructions sets will obtain real time feedback for the controlled illuminance sources. This as at the individual pixel coordinates of the camera photodetetor matrix have been correlated with the light sources illuminating at those coordinates. The luminance readings at the known camera coordinates are translated by the processor into higher or lower power signals to the LEDs responsible for illuminating at those coordinates.
  • FIG. 3 is a LED lighting fixture 40 intended as a replacement for 2′×2′ fluorescent lay-in troffer with task lights & integral occupancy sensor—dimming. While according to the teachings of this disclosure an LED fixture would not generally look like a fixture for a previous generation of lamp type, for practical considerations the customer and building industry is used to things looking a certain way. The look alike fixture however differs greatly from the prior art as it divides the area into be lit into a number of zones each capable of being independently illuminated by one LED or a group of LEDs. The group may be of similar SPDs or one or more LEDSs may be monochromatic LEDs or white LEDs of a different CCT. The mix of SPD allows for the color of the lighting to be varied during dimming to warmer colors or adjusted to the occupant's preferences by the programmed controller 41 which is in communication with the LED drivers 42. The fixture can deliver an ambient lighting level or a task lighting level over the entire area it illuminates. The light sources 43 have relatively narrow beams are aimed at a specific sub-area in the area to be lit. The additional light sources 44 are aimed at the same area or different areas such that a uniform illuminance is obtained. An one or more zone specific occupancy sensors 45 can detect the presence of people in the area to be lit. Thus if only half a room is occupied the lighting in the other half can be adjusted to save energy. A light sensor 46 which is location specific can detect where illumination is being provided by the sun and provide the information to the controller dim the light sources illumination for harvesting available sunlight thus saving energy. The fixture is capable of being equipped with one or more tasks light 47. The task light can provide concentrated high intensity lighting for those tasks requiting high illumination over a small area in place of over the entire area to be lit thus saving energy. The task light has a power cable on a spring loaded roll up drum 48 and can be moved along the acoustic ceiling until it is proximately at the correct position to provide light at the correct angle to the user. Thus the task light, similar to a small LED narrow beam flashlight is pulled out from the fixture near to the position above. It has a clip which clips to a support cross tee. Alternately, to hide the cables the wire is drawn above the acoustic tiles and a small hole is drilled into which is placed the task light.
  • FIG. 4 is an isolux pattern of the illumination on the work plane. By driving higher intensity of light into the corners a squared distribution is obtained. When using circular light distributions the illumination must be overlapped to prevent darks spots between the circles wasting light. Typically many lighting fixtures are placed in a commercial lighting location and usually those locations are not round but square. However, the prior art lighting fixture light distribution is round and without overlapping coverage one would have a lot of dark holes in-between fixtures and in the corners of the room. So to get even coverage one must increase the size of the circle so that the in-between is covered and that the lighting reaches the coroners as well. This increase in size is up to 36% additional energy usage. In addition the lighting is far from being uniform over the area being lit with extra, wasted illumination on the overlaps.
  • In another preferred embodiment shown in FIG. 5 the DLF is an Adaptive Digital Lighting Fixture. As opposed to a DLF described earlier, is not pre-designed with light source aimings based on a pre-known application. Instead the DLF is equipped with a plethora of light sources ready for most of the conceivable lighting tasks in the illuminated area. The light sources are then controlled such as to adapt the lighting to the room construction and the lighting tasks at hand. The same technique applies to outdoor area lighting applications. This universal DLF is the preferred design when the cost of having an overabundance of light sources is low enough such that other economic considerations such as minimizing stocking units in inventory, repeated changing of the room tenants etc will be more expensive. It is similar to purchasing a 100-Watt lamp where a 40 W lamp would suffice and always operating it on 60% dimming. The capacity is there but it is unwise to use it since electricity is costly.
  • The adaptive or intelligent DLF 190 shown in FIG. 5 has multiple light sources 191 placed about the body 192 having a geometric shape. The shape, which influences the spatial light distribution, may be of a fixed or flexible design. In a flexible design, solenoids, servo motors, actuators, pumps, controlled fluid or air pressure devices 193 are used to realign surfaces, moveable plates or expandable tubes or cylinders 194 to morph the topology of the fixture. The ADLF is equipped with an electronic power supply, computer control and communications unit 195. One or more light sensors 196 are placed strategically to detect necessary inputs. Alternately one or more digital cameras 197 with a photodetector array which is equipped with a lens which can be a 360 degree lens or a fisheye lens is placed with a field of view of the area to be illuminated. The geometric shape of the body 192 is such that an asymmetric lighting pattern is produced for the provision of a non-circular lighting pattern in a typically rectangular room. Because more light needs to be directed to the far corners of the room, more surface area for projecting SLSs at that position is required. If multiple fixtures are used in a large room then squared lighting patterns will obviate the need for overlapping coverage as with circular distribution luminaires or the prior art. Concave section 198 increases the ADLF surface area available for light source mounting at the room corner orientations. In bottom view 199, a section of the body 192 is shown with asymmetric surface cut out 198 which increases the available surface area on the ADLF.
  • Spatially differentiated motion detectors 200 are provided on the Adaptive Digital Lighting Fixture along with the light sources 191 and light sensors 196. Typically motion detectors have been associated with lighting in motel rooms to shut off the lighting if there is no activity. There is another level of control that can include matching the lighting to type and amount of activity. On sport fields for example, 200 lux may be used general sport activities, 1,000 lux for night practice sessions while 3,000 lux is used in a televised game. Taken to the extreme, one or more limited field-of-view motion detectors 200, or camera 197, can be used to follow the whereabouts of room occupants. The DLF controller acts to provide heightened lightning to the occupants” present locations. The controller has stored look-up-tables, instruction sets and algorithms which it uses to processes the information communicated from the sensors or a camera and in response control the light provided to the illuminated area.
  • A special or standard remote control unit 201 can be used to operate and program the ADLF. In one embodiment the control 201 is equipped with a laser pointer and/or light sensor 202 that is used to assist in providing positional an angular data on the location of work surfaces, room structures and dimensions. The control 201 can then pass on information concerning the visual task performed at that specific location. This data now enables the controller 195 to use stored algorithms, look-up-table templates to calculate and program the correct lighting intensities and spectrum for that room location as explained earlier in the block diagram as functionality 7 and computer processes 7A. The photometer on the remote control 201 held at the specific location will then corroborate the illumination and spectral performance of the ADLF with the specific light source aiming being programmed at the particular instant. The communication can be optical in the visual or infrared wavelength or wireless. An antenna 203 is provided for wireless communication. The adaptive DLF is thus manually capable of being programmed with all the input parameters necessary for a computer program 7A as is practiced in the art of lighting design, to determine the correct intensities and spectrum to carry out the visual tasks at a specific room location. This is a unique property for a single luminaire. Lighting designers are usually forced to compromise and provide the entire room or area with the highest common denominator of lighting in the room. With the ADLF non-glaring, spectrally correct lighting at minimum intensities is provided and this affords significant energy savings. The added daylight and activity related dimming functions are another significant energy savings factor with its ensuing economic and environmental benefits.
  • A calibration system is provided in the form of calibration element 204 constructed such that it has coverage of the light source radiation on the ADLF body 192. The calibration element 204 is a reflective rod or strip the surface of which 205 has a wide spectrum, non-angle of incidence dependency and stable reflection characteristics over time. The reflectance of 205 is known at each wavelength and it serves as the standard reflector for the calibration routine. The reflective rod or strip is moveable so that it can reflect light back to the outward facing photodetector 196 based on the ADLF body 192. To test SLS performance the calibration element 204 is rotated about the body 192 by actuator or motor 206. When the reflecting surface 205 is opposite a column of SLSs 191, the controller times the firing of each independently addressable SLS 191 location and acquires detector 196 intensity readings uniquely for each SLS. The results of the test firing are analyzed in controller 195 which has the functionality described in FIG. 1 of components 7 and software 7A. Correction is made to the junction power supply parameters in order to maintain metametrically balanced outputs for white light and overall lumen production. The controller 195 re-powers the SLS 191 again using the updated power supply instruction set and retests for accuracy. The process continues until the SLS performance is repeatable at different power levels. In another embodiment the ADLF is provided with a calibration wand 204 on which inward facing photodetectors 207 are placed. The calibration wand is capable being positioned such that the detectors 207 can detect SLS 191 performance as the wand 204 is rotated about the body 192 and SLS 191 are independently tested as describe in the previous embodiment. Both the reflective rod/strip and calibration wand 204 are narrow such that when not in use, rod/strip/wand 204 is parked at a specific position where it does not block light sources 191. In another embodiment the rod, strip or wand is stored and is only deployed when calibration is required. When called upon, the deployed rod, strip or wand 204 is rotated around the DLF body 192 to read SLS 191 intensities. Alternately, the DLF body 192 rotates and the rod, strip or wand 204 remains fixed.
  • An ADLF 190 outfitted with computer calculation, communication, calibration and other feature may be costly, such that using a number of units to illuminate a room is impractical. Correct lighting practice encourages the use of multiple point light sources to illuminate an area using a number of criteria. A single fixture cannot cover an area larger than glare and mounting height considerations allow. There is a limit on the maximum angle of light provision. Another consideration has to do with the production of shadows. Finally due to the cosine law there is a practical maximum angle at which the lighting can be delivered. At large angles the lighting effect becomes negligible. Therefore, due to all the above considerations it is advantageous to have multiple lighting fixtures in a room. A single ADLF 190 is used in a large room. The ADLF is designed to be used with one or more satellite reflectors 220 which are strategically positioned about the room. The satellite has provision for being attached to a supporting structure such as a ceiling or light pole and being fixed with a certain orientation in relation to the ADLF 190 and the working surfaces below. The satellite's inward facing surface is a highly efficient specular, semispecular or diffuse reflector or combinations thereof. A part of the surface 221 is provided with a full spectrum, white reflector which may be a spot or a band across the top bottom or middle or all combinations thereof used in calibrating the intensity and or spectrum photodetectors and/or light sources over the lifetime of the DLF. A part of the surface may be a special reflector 221 such as a retroreflector which will serve as a ray targeting aid useful in the installation process of the satellites. The targeting can be manual using a red laser pointer or automatic using the detectors 196 on the ADLF 190 and the retroreflector 221 on the satellite 220. A section 222 of light sources, which may be high power light sources, is dedicated to provide sufficient light to the other areas of the room or for specific task lighting applications such as to computer terminals which require lighting at small angles from the nadir. The section 222 may be on a swivel so as to be aimable at the satellite 220. Section 222 projects light 223 at the satellite reflector 220. In use, the satellite is installed substantially over the work area to intercept rays 223 from 222 so as to provide task-lighting 224. The specular reflector 220 is positioned and angled such that it concentrates and re-directs the light rays 224 downward onto an area or worktable. The downward directed light coming at very small angles will illuminate the worktable 225 but will not cause veiling glare reflections on the computer screen 226. To provide general lighting to room extremities, the satellite reflector is specular, semispecular or diffuse and has a surface geometry for reflecting the incident light 223 so that it spreads the light evenly over the area to be illuminated.
  • In place of the manual programming technique for ADLF 190, a semi-automatic self-programming process using luminance measurement via detectors 196 is provided. The camera 197 has a view of the room its contents and occupants. Pattern recognition techniques known in the art are used to identify room occupants, furniture, office equipment such as computers etc, room structures such as walls and windows.
  • The intelligent lighting fixture system 190 is adaptive to the room structure, usage and occupants on a dynamic basis. In one embodiment a hand held laser pointer and sensor on the remote control 201 is used to assist in providing positional an angular data on the work surfaces and room structure enabling the controller to corroborate program lighting for the location with the specific light source aiming being programmed at the particular instant. The room occupants also use the remote control 201 at any instant to input lighting preferences or call up stored lighting scenarios to the DLF 190. Thus the controller 195 or a controller 195 which communicates with a PC computer is provided with an interactive program which based on application look up tables will determine recommended light intensity and spectrum for the application at hand. Procedures useful in the lighting design process, lookup tables and specific application guidelines can be found in the IES Lighting Handbook 8th edition pages 447-903. A number of commercially available programs are available which prescribe lighting based on the application and calculate the illuminance based on the fixture. In this invention the procedure is reversed in that the recommendations are first used to generate the illuminance on or luminance from the room surfaces. The computer program 7A is used to calculate the light intensities required at each angle in order to produce the desired illuminance or luminance results. Luminance in cd/m 2 is the reflection of the light flux lumen/m 2 from a surface having a reflectance property and is more similar to what the eye sees. The algorithms are processed onboard the ADLF 190 or run on a PC which communicates with the ADLF. Computer programming for lighting calculations and correct lighting practice recommendations is known in the prior art. Commercial programs using procedures based on IES, ILDA and other standards and professional lighting engineering and design organizations are available. Lumen Micro® and Simply Lighting® from Lighting Technologies Inc are examples of such programs which provide tools to create and simulate lighting layouts for both indoor and outdoor applications. Simply Lighting® is a suite of Windows®-based lighting analysis tools that are designed to answer the questions you need answered using a step-driven application targeted at a specific lighting application. Lighting Analysts, Inc AGI32® is a program used to predict lighting system performance for any application from one to hundreds of luminaires, interior or exterior. Users can build environments for most any electric lighting application with unlimited luminaires, calculation points, and reflective or transmissive surfaces including day lighting effects. The program used in this invention is an adaptation of a state of the art lighting programs. It is capable of receiving data inputs automatically or manually interpreting them according to correct lighting practice and calculating the candlepower distribution from the illuminance back to the luminaire. A post processor and outputs the operational instructions to the controller 195 for the application at hand.
  • The operation of the system is demonstrated in home use but the method is the same for office, store and industrial applications. The input program 7A is user friendly including the use of icons representing pieces of furniture, e.g. table, lounge chair, equipment such as TV, computer etc, and visual tasks being performed such as reading, and watching TV. The homeowner moves about the room with the remote control 201. At a specific location the homeowner enters the furniture type, possible occupant postures, sitting reclining, standing etc, and visual tasks to be performed. The room and its surfaces is defined the by being positioned at a wall, entering into 201 that it is a wall at that position and at another position entering that it is a window. The control unit 201 is optionally outfitted with a photometer 202 which can be used to read the surface reflectance of the wall and transmit the data to the lighting program 7A. This is the same process a lighting designer uses to enter data to the lighting analysis programs. The lighting program as known in the art then specifies the correct lighting levels, aimings and spectrum for the different locations and uses throughout the room. This is reversing the typical design process as described earlier where the lighting fixtures performance is simulated on a computer and the results calculated. Here, the required illuminance results are known first and the fixture is then programmed to make them happen. The controller 195 uses its stored performance characteristics to determine the power supply to the SLS so that it provides the required intensities and obtain the required illuminance. The lighting calculations and programming of the power supply 195 of the light sources 191 is preferably performed in real time such that the sensor 202 detects the illuminance to corroborate the performance while the homeowner is still at the location. If the lighting is not to specification then the controller 195 readjusts the parameters so as to bring them in line. This trial and error process continues until the readings are within tolerance. The process is best carried out in the dark or when there is non-varying daylight. Alternately, the photometric reading sensors are on the luminaire and they are used to corroborate performance. Alternately, the process is automatic using feedback from the surroundings and pattern recognition to determine surroundings and applications.
  • Providing correct lighting for the various activities a homeowner in a room involves the use of numerous lighting regimes. Typically he or she would move about the room performing various activities with diverse lighting requirements. First, moving from the table where work was performed on the computer to a lounge chair to read the paper and finally moving to the sofa for a little relaxation watching TV. In prior-art practice, several lighting fixtures of different design are used to carry out the different tasks. In order to conserve energy each one would have to be turned on and off or dimmed as the resident moves about the room. A glare-shielded luminaire would be used for correct illumination in the computer task, while a floor lamp may provide lighting for reading on the lounge chair. General lighting from an overhead luminaire is sufficient for TV viewing. According to the present invention, as the room occupant moves about the room performing varied tasks, the motion detector 200 or camera 197 picks up the new location and from its stored templates which correlate location to lighting application, controller 195 provides the correct lighting regime.
  • According to the teachings of the present disclosure, the room lighting needs are provided by one or more DLFs or ADLFs including satellites or combinations thereof placed such that they are capable of providing lighting at the correct non-glaring angles for the lighting tasks at hand. The ADLFs are programmed as to the whereabouts of furniture, computer monitors, TVs etc as described above. The ADLFs and DLF can communicate with each other and an ADLF can control a DLF and vise versa so that level lighting is accomplished in the room. Two or more DLFs can share in the illumination requirements of a location located between them. The DLF turns off its illumination towards a specific location, reads the ambient luminance and then correctly powers the SLS to provide the additional illumination.
  • In non-color critical applications for example in low lighting used for orientation a further energy saving can be obtained. When color rendering is not important in the lighting application at hand it is possible to shift the workload onto the more efficient LEDs. This of course must also take the eye sensitivity at the specific lighting intensity into account. While a purely scotopic rod eye response at extremely low light levels, less than 0.01 lux gives added sensitivity to the 510 nano-meter green blue, photopic vision at levels above 100 lux is most sensitive to the greenish yellow 555 nm wavelength. In most illuminated cases low lighting would not be below 5 to 10 lux where the sensitivity peak is around the 550 nm yellowish green. Thus two factors are used by 7 in 7A to calculate the most efficient light color of the DLF; the LED radiation power per watt multiplied by the eye sensitivity curve for the present illuminance value.
  • In a preferred embodiment, using pattern recognition techniques the ADLF 190 is semi or fully automatic in programming itself to correctly function where installed. The DLFs or ADLFs will adapt to the seating arrangement of room occupants in real time. In the preferred embodiment, the addition of a machine vision system with pattern recognition capabilities as is known in the art, easily deduces room occupancy and usage. The camera 197 including a wide angle or fisheye lens camera is mounted on the DLF or ADLF. In an alternate embodiment, one or more cameras in communication with the lighting system controller, has coverage of all, or part of the area to be illuminated. The camera may also serve as an illuminance and spectral measuring device as the individual detectors in the array, for example as on a CCD or CMOS array, may be read for their individual stimulus. The detector array pixels are calibrated to the room coordinates. The calibration routine can be manual or automatic. A manual method includes walking a controller around the room and programming in the coordinate to the camera system or alternately using a PC CAD program to input room coordinates overlaid on the image obtained from the camera such that the lighting system coordinates and the camera coordinates are the same. An automatic routine as in 7A uses timed firing of a coordinate-specific light source, or array of light sources and the following reading of the camera detector of light reflected to that specific coordinates pixel, or set of pixels to corroborate action between light sources and the detectors. The detector pixels 197 can then be used to obtain images of the room which the controller 195 can assess as furniture, equipment or occupants. Pattern recognition methods known in the art, including neural networks, can provide a generalized stored application library of usages to the controller or the controller is an artificial intelligence controller and can learn the actual room usage with time. Outputs from the CCD arrays are analyzed by appropriate computational means employing trained pattern recognition technologies, to classify, identify or locate the contents. These techniques known in the art are covered in texts such as: Schalkhoff, Pattern Recognition, statistical, structural and neural approaches, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1992 and Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition by Christopher M. Bishop, Chris Bishop, Oxford University Press; (January 1996) included herein by reference. Thus, the controller with or without human intervention will program the ADLF lighting system to carry out lighting within the realm of correct lighting practice. This includes providing the correct illumination in real-time based on occupant whereabouts, activity being performed and outside factors such as sunlight contribution, time of day factors etc. Advanced robotic vision techniques including object segmentation and selective-attention modeling (It, Visual attention and target detection in cluttered natural scenes in Optical Engineering, Vol. 40 No. 9, September 2001 included herein by reference) will aid in identifying various room objects and the lighting program 7A will associate with their location the visual tasks and recommended lighting characteristics. In case if the machine settings are not acceptable to the users, provision is made for human intervention. Through the data input device 201 a user, the ultimate “sensor” corrects or customizes the lighting arrangement and reprograms the controller.
  • In a further ADLF intelligent lighting system improvement over prior-art practice, machine vision is used to control surrounding luminance. A prime example is an office application where a computer Visual Display Terminal is in use. This is an application where the quality of the localized task lighting is important. Contrast plays a major role in seeing and glare plays a role in producing veiling reflections as causing fatigue. The correct illuminating solution involves the control of surrounding luminances. A prior art workstation design will include partition, carpet, ceiling and desk surface reflectance which reduce the luminance in the workers field of view. Using the ADLFs ability to recognize the computer screen chair, desk and surrounding floor and ceiling, the illuminance in lux on each element is varied to obtain the optimal luminance. That now allows any color scheme to be used by the interior designer on the work cell decor. The ADLF will control the luminance by varying the spatial light intensity distribution over the different surfaces.
  • In another embodiment using the camera 197, the controller 195 is instructed to identify and track a roving speaker during a video presentation. A signaling device is used by the speaker to allow the pattern recognition program to initially lock-on and recognize a target attribute as is known in the art of object tracking. The signaling device can be a laser light pointer 202 aimed at the camera or a hand held remote control 201 in communication with the camera vision system. The controller 195, based on the camera input runs the pattern recognition routines, derives the coordinates and generates instructions to drive the specific light sources with aimings which will project light at the speaker as the speaker move about the room. It is to be understood that in a theater lighting application there is no need for a preprogrammed moving light using motors to change position. Instead a fixed DLF or ADLF with multiple light sources powers the necessary light sources to illuminate the performer as he or she moves about the stage. This actually is similar to the banks of shuttered lights used in present day stage lighting. Only now the digital aspect of discrete multiple light sources allowing for a smooth transition of aimings with instantaneous control of almost infinite variation of spectrum and intensity is accomplished. The controller, once locked-on to the performer using images from the camera 197, will now follow the performer around the stage illuminating instantaneously in the intensities and spectrum as preprogrammed in the choreographic setup or in correspondence to the music or some other characteristic as in known in stage lighting practice.
  • In FIGS. 6A through 6C a streetlight fixture designed according to the teachings of this invention is shown. The design and functionality distinction as compared to prior-art streetlights is derived from the multi-light source, digital design. In FIG. 6A the aesthetically designed DLF streetlight 240 is shown in a front view. The geometric shape is a derivation of the surface geometry for mounting the SLS perpendicularly thereon to obtain photometric light distribution compatible with the requirements of the street lighting application. These photometric distributions are expressed in terms of luminaire cutoff angle which refers to the angle beyond which rays capable of producing glare are prevented from exiting the fixture. Another type of classification used by the IES, refers to the elongation of the light pattern along the road in terms of Long, Medium and Short and another categorization, perpendicular to the roadway called “Type”, describing the distance in units of mounting height (where the fixture is mounted), that is illuminated. The novel design includes SLS with over 100,000 hour lifetime allowing for the fixture to be factory sealed for life. This obviates the need for cleaning reflectors, as all the exterior surfaces are cleanable by rain and there are no light sources at the sharp bottom drip point where dirt normally accumulates. The compact design 240 shown mounted on a pole 241 in side view FIG. 6B has a small exposure area, reducing wind induced drag force loads on the pole. This low wind factor and low weight of the electronic components allows for the use of a less expensive pole. The pole arm 242 fits into slipfitter 243 which is provided to perform the mechanical fixing means of the DLF 240. FIG. 6C is a side section view through the center of the fixture. The electrical power and communications connection is made to a connector block 244 mounted such that it accessible for the external wiring of the fixture during installation. The grid power is connected to power supply 245 and the data to the controller DSP 246. A dedicated communications line is used or the data is sent over the power line using communications protocols as known in the industry and the DLF communicate with each other or with a central control. The SLS aimings are shown in front view FIG. 6A where the SLS aimings to the right 247 and left 248 along the roadway show how an even distribution pattern out to the maximum design distance from the pole center is obtained. This distance is a function of the fixture mounting height and cutoff angle. Hole-through SLS units have been drawn to illustrate the point but the principle the design is valid for SMD, SMT, the chip 94 design of FIG. 6 as well as other package arrangements known in the art. Many more SLS 249 are concentrated at the larger angles 250 to illuminate out to the extremes of the area covered by the DLF. Fewer SLS 251 are needed at the small angles near the pole to maintain with equal illumination. The SLS at the cutoff angle 250 have a tightly controlled beam spread 252 to maintain a sharp cutoff, minimize glare and eliminate spill light. The SLS 253 in the interior have a wider beam spread 254. The DLF 240 projects light in a highly controlled pattern perpendicular to the roadway as well SLS 255 as seen in the side sectional view FIG. 6C are aimed such that the cutoff angle 256 is out to the road width with or without the shoulders as designed. In applications where illumination for a sidewalk is required, “house side” illumination is provided by inward SLS aimings 257. On a dual carriageway road where the illumination provided is limited to a single carriageway, the lighting from the roadway fixture need not be symmetric about the nadir along the roadway. While approaching the streetlight, glare is to be avoided and the cut-off angles must be small for light aimed at the advancing vehicles. However, after passing the streetlight, the lighting in the direction of travel may be provided at increased beam angle from nadir and still not cause glare. This would significantly increase pole spacing saving cost and eliminating hazardous poles.
  • In all stages of the SLS positioning and aiming design process which works in reverse of the normal process by engineering from the illumination required on the working surface back to the light source. Glare ratings for the design are checked to make sure they are within the acceptable limits. If the light source concentration is such that drivers or pedestrians in normal eye viewing conditions would experience glare then the luminous exitance is lowered by design changes in the geometry or light source attributes. The ramifications of a dynamic and exact light control are numerous in a street light luminaire. First there is no spill light and no light trespass. If the position of a luminaire is such that light is shining into a house the individual SLS at that aiming is not powered by the control 246. All the light power is placed where needed in the designed for illumination intensity, neither in deficit nor excess. While prior art luminaire show 80% of the light falling in the area designed to be illuminated, the DLF will have a near 100% utilization factor.
  • When artificial intelligence methods known in the art is combined with the fine control and functional flexibility of the DLF additional advantages are realized. A detector or camera 258 in concert with a logic controller 246 is capable of providing the road lighting needs to a driver or group of drivers in according to the time of day, needs of the roadway layout and usage at any moment. The detector 258 will provide signal to the controller 246 of the ambient lighting conditions. When daylight is no longer sufficient for viewing such as at dusk the DLF will add lighting. At dawn the process is reversed. In an alternate embodiment the roadway lighting can be dimmed if there are no approaching vehicles. The detector or camera 258 is capable of detecting oncoming and retreating traffic. The headlights and backlights are used or more sophisticated pattern recognition is used to determine traffic on the roadway. When there is no traffic the luminaire will shut off or illuminate at a fraction of the power used to generate the 5 or 10 lux used in street lighting. Taken to the extreme the controllability of the DLFs or series of communicating DLF street lights allows for the lighting to precede the vehicle by the stopping distance, say 300 ft. at 65 MPH (91 meters), and dim the unused lighting behind the driver if it is not necessary for other drivers. In a curved roadway application where an integral fixture sensor may not identify an oncoming vehicle on time, the detection of an automobile at a distance can rapidly be transmitted from one or more antecedent luminaire forward along the direction of travel using the fixture's pulsed light sources or a separate wired or wireless communications device.
  • An Artificial Intelligence, AI control system with camera vision can perform additional decision functions for street lighting in non-pure lighting science related to issues such as light trespass. That is, in streetlights where the installation is such that the detector system that light is entering through a window it instructs the controller to not generate light in that specific direction. In a dual carriageway lighting fixture with higher angled lighting in the direction of travel, where the detector assesses that oncoming headlight are now preset, such as when during road construction. The AI system instructs the control lighting above the cut-off angle to lower non glaring power. This will mean that sections of the road are temporally not being properly illuminated but this is better than the glare. In the late hours of the night when traffic is low this dimming function can save significant amount of energy. A typical 250 W HPS streetlight will consume over 25,000 Kwh in its 20 yr lifetime. On moonlit nights the dimming of the DLF can be greater as moonlight provides up 0.10 lux. The dimming of SLS actually improves their lighting efficiency and prolongs lifetime. Dimming of HID sources has a negative return, typically 10% light at 50% power.
  • The color spectrum of the light is also varied in the DLF to match the intensity levels. Here an additional efficiency boost is achieved when the added scotopic eye sensitivity to 510 nm bluish white similar to the pale moonlight is taken into account. It has been shown that certain colors of light i.e. of different spectral power distribution (SPD) are perceived to be more glaring than others in night driving. Studies of drivers (Flannagan, M. J., (1999). Subjective and objective aspects of headlamp glare: Effects of size and spectral power distribution, Report No. UMTRI-99-36). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.) indicate that blue-white color has been found to cause more glare discomfort than yellow light. On the other hand, studies have shown that driver night vision is better under the blue-white spectral power distribution. Recent laboratory studies have also shown, for example, off-axis detection peripheral detection can be better for bluish, metal halide lamps than for yellowish, high pressure sodium lamps at the same photopically specified light level (Bullough, J. and Rea, M. S. 2000. Simulated driving performance and peripheral detection at mesopic light levels, Lighting Research and Technology, 32 (4), 194-198). In the DLF streetlight luminaire it is possible to use the blue-white SPD to illuminate most of the roadway yet increase the cutoff angle, which is determined by glare considerations, by using yellow-white SPD light at the large angles which throw the light further along the road. The higher angle lighting provides more vertical lumens and is actually more effective at illuminating objects along the roadway. The increased visibility afforded by the added vertical lumens at high angles offsets the decrease in visibility due to the yellow-white SPD. This means that the overall visibility over the roadway sections is constant. Thus, SLS near the angle 250 would have a yellow-white non-glaring SPD while interior SLS such as 253 would have the superior blue-white SPD. The higher the cutoff angle, the fewer luminaires that are required to illuminate a roadway. The same differentiation would be possible with SLSs 255 in the side view of which some illuminate the sidewalk 257, some the right lane and others the left lane. The SPD of the SLSs at the high glare causing angles 250 facing the oncoming driver aimed to cover the near lane would be yellowish while those SLS covering the same lane but now to the rear of the receding driver, will still be of bluish-white SPD. The opposite is true for the far lane. The SPD of the SLS aimed 257 at covering the sidewalk would again be in the blue-white to aid in peripheral vision detection of pedestrians or objects approaching the roadway from the side. When the AI camera vision system observes an animal or pedestrian approaching the road it may highlight the situation by flashing the lighting or some other change thus alerting the driver to the extra need for awareness.
  • As with all correct lighting practice the visual surroundings at any instant in time determine the amount of illumination required to carry out visual tasks including the luminance of background surfaces. Roadway luminance as detailed in the IES Handbook pages 751-779, is the preferred factor used in specifying required illumination levels. Freshly paved blacktop with its diffuse reflection will change over time to a mostly specular reflection. The higher luminance value pavement requires less illumination to see objects. This characteristic changes over time with wear and periodic road maintenance and illumination levels need to vary accordingly. A detection by sensor system 258 of the present road luminance will provide the controller will the data necessary to power the light sources at the required illumination. A significant saving in energy for illuminating the roadway can be obtained when the luminance detector meets the criterion of the luminance and/or small target visibility standard. This is because the small target visibility of object on the road varies with distance from the lighting fixture and thus a luminaire that can vary the lighting positionally along the roadway based on actual values of roadway reflectance will give the minimal power solution as it doesn't need to be overdesigned. Roadway activity is another factor in determining illumination levels. This factor often changes over days of the week or seasons of the year. An adaptive DLF with detectors 258 and computer devices 246 capable of recording this traffic activity will provide the correct illumination for the traffic situation at hand.
  • Though the design of a streetlight has been detailed the same design process is valid for floodlights and other outdoor lighting applications. The use of the SLS of specific spatial candlepower distributions at particular aimings, the use of tighter beams at the edges of coverage, the non-glare design and the optional use of logical control are as applicable to DLF floodlight design as to the street light design.
  • FIG. 7 is a flow chart which illustrates the general design concept which allows anyone to build a multi-light source lighting fixture from the ground up, tailor made to the final application. This process differs fundamentally from prior art lighting fixture design. Rather than building a fixture around a common lamp and then coercing the usually isotropically radiating lamp to perform in a certain application, the lighting application is used to describe the light source construction. The light source construction is unique in that its flux density is spatially differentiated over its volume in concert with its final orientation when in use. The light source design then defines the supportive power, control and mechanical elements. These elements are then integrated into a single unit with shared components and packaging. The method for designing an application oriented luminaire designed according to correct lighting practice, providing the correct light intensity, spectrum, and spatial distribution of intensity and spectrum, suited to the specific lighting application, would comprise a number of steps some of which can be left out of the process while others may be added including a) determining the lighting application, and the recommended lighting practices for the application b) determining the luminaire mounting height, illumination area covered and surrounding conditions typical of the application c) determining candlepower required to effect the required illumination over the area d) selecting SLS types capable of producing required intensities and spectrum at highest conversion efficiencies at lowest economic cost e) determining SLS beam spreads f) determining SLS aimings for the required distribution pattern g) determining electronics to control and power SLS h) determining lighting fixture surface geometry and size i) testing whether the glare rating for the viewing angle is acceptable j) if the glare rating is not acceptable, then changing SLS beam spread, fixture geometries, or size, resulting in an acceptable glare rating; and, h) when the glare rating is acceptable, then designing the luminaire aesthetics for the application. In a AI based controller which can see people's eyes and detect if the illumination in that direction is glaring the steps i and j can be modified within reason to take the control capability into account.
  • The digital lighting concept is extended to transportation vehicle applications. A headlamp for an automobile uses multiple light sources based on electro luminescence of semiconductor junctions. The proposed unique approach is to combine the lighting engineering function i.e. the correct light distribution, color spectrum and level necessary for the visual task at hand into the lamp such that the digital lamp obviates the need for additional light controls and fixtures. The digital electronic lamp utilizes ⅓ the energy and has over 100,000 hours lifetime versus 2000 for an automotive incandescent lamp and can be rapidly switched on and off without deleteriously affecting lifetime. (Quite the opposite, off time is not part of the lifetime). The multiple light-source, digital device, is an electronic headlight which provides the driver with the correct aiming, illumination level and distribution (e.g. parking lights, low beam, high beam, lighting around curves and corners) based on input from the vehicle's speed, steering wheel position, turn signal indicator and detection of approaching headlights. These functions are carried out automatically however; the standard manual override controls are still maintained.
  • Headlamp glare is addressed in two alternate ways. European regulators recognize the danger presented by excessive headlamp glare, and so European cars with HID lamps must have dynamic headlamp leveling. On-the-fly headlamp vertical aim adjustment has been required by European directives for quite some time now, but dashboard dial control of the vertical aim is no longer acceptable. Recent European regulations require that the headlamp leveling of HID-equipped cars be linked to the suspension system of the car so the lamps don't glare as much to oncoming traffic when the rear of the car is loaded-down or the car is heading up a small hill. The digital headlamp solves this problem by automatically sensing the angle of the headlamp assembly and will employ in real time only the properly aimed light sources to illuminate so as not to glare oncoming traffic.
  • An alternate method of glare control is accomplished by rapidly switching on and off the headlamp light output or only the high beam portion thereof at such a rate that flicker is not observed by the driver. This persistence of vision is the same effect on which motion picture viewing operates using shutters to intermittently block the light while the frame changes. On the oncoming vehicle, a variable light transmitting element, an electronic shutter, located in the driver's field of view is rapidly switched to a blocking state synchronized in time with the on state of the oncoming car's headlamp. The situation is vise versa for the driver in the other vehicle such that in the instant one driver is seeing the other is not.
  • The Spectral Power Distribution, SPD, of the headlamp is also variable as a function of the area being illuminated. Studies by Flannagan cited earlier, have shown a preference by drivers for yellow tinted headlights on oncoming vehicles. The drivers find the yellowish colored light of an incandescent less glaring vs. the bluish “white” light of an HID Metal Halide lamp. On the other hand recent studies by Bullough, cited earlier, on driver's peripheral night vision show the clear benefits of HID MH headlamps in detecting pedestrians and objects along the side of the road. Thus an ideal solution is to have the SPD in that part of the beam visible to oncoming drivers be of the less glaring yellowish type while the beams headed everywhere else would be of the blue-white SPD for increased driver visibility. In fog or snow the color spectrum would also be adjusted so as to maximize visibility. Yellow colored lights are used in fog and snow conditions to prevent flashback. Thus according to the teachings of this invention the DLF headlamps serve as the fog-lamps. The digital headlamp will automatically or manually be adjusted to the optimal intensity and SPD lighting parameters for the environmental conditions at hand.
  • Present advances in automobile lighting include Adaptive Frontal-lighting Systems which aid in seeing around curves and other features in the road. In these systems the light distribution pattern and color spectrum will be changed according to the instantaneous road conditions at hand. Thus, the headlamp now has much more flexibility than the high beam/low beam variation of today. At any instant in time the intensity, spectrum and beam pattern of the headlamp may be varied as a function of the drivers intent, lay of the road and environmental factors. A GPS system on the car may also let the headlamps system know of curves up ahead, one way traffic and others factors such the headlamp may be operated in the optimal mode at that instantaneous location. With sensors sensitive to environmental surroundings such as ambient light, fog or snow conditions etc. lighting can be adapted to the optimal operating regime.
  • Additional features include an optional concentrated flashlight type of beam to illuminate distant overhead and roadside signs, which due to the narrow directed beam will not blind oncoming traffic. Image recognition via a camera will allow the beam to follow the retroreflective sign as the vehicle moves or the signs will be provided with a special marker for this purpose. In this way the headlamp cutoff above horizontal except for the concentrated sign beam can be total.
  • FIG. 8 illustrates a preferred embodiment of a digital automotive headlamp. A headlamp is a specialty lighting application unrivaled in terms of the need for controllability and is especially suitable to the methods and devices described in this disclosure. The headlamp fixture is unique in the continuum of beam patterns, intensities and color spectrum. The number of possible control modes are: 1. Parking Lights. 2. Low Beam lights; 3. High Beam; 4. Cornering Lights; 5. Load leveling adjustment; 6. Integral turn signal indicator, 7. Programmable alternate beam spread selection so that one headlamp fulfills the different sets of legal regulations for the high and low beam in different regions of the world such as the U.S.A., Japan and Europe; 8. Driver preferential color; 9. Oncoming vehicle or vehicle-ahead driver's preferred color 10. Color of ambulances extra headlamp provides red flashes to be more easily picked up in rear view mirror; and 11. Non-Glaring pulsed headlamps.
  • Input data to the controller would first and foremost be in the control of the driver and would consist of an overriding manual selector switch. Otherwise headlamp control is automatic, from turning on automatically when ambient lighting levels fall to such a level where it is advantageous to have headlamps on, either to aid in illuminating the way ahead or facilitate being seen by others, to automatic dimming of high beam due to detection of oncoming vehicles and shut off when ambient lighting levels are sufficient. A possible control system for such purposes is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,281,632 by Stam, et-al from Aug. 28, 2001 titled: A Continuously variable headlamp control incorporated herein by reference. The patent describes how continuously variable headlamps offer greater flexibility for roadway illumination but offer challenges in automatic control design. Each continuously variable headlamp has an effective illumination range varied by changing at least one parameter from a set including horizontal direction aimed, vertical direction aimed, and intensity emitted. Stam discloses a system for automatically controlling continuously variable headlamps on a controlled vehicle includes an imaging system capable of determining lateral and elevational locations of headlamps from oncoming vehicles and tail lamps from leading vehicles.
  • Using a control system such as that above, many driver functions are automated. With the digital headlamp, automatic control of headlight beam is a function of speed of travel, that is: when vehicle is in Park the parking lights are on, when speed is low the lamp beam is aimed sufficiently forward to give ample reaction to brake for objects in the vehicle's path per the speed it is traveling up to the intensity, angle and thus distance which is the upper legal limit for the beam. If there is no oncoming traffic then it operates as the high beam. If there is oncoming traffic then it acts as the regular low beam.
  • Additional features can include an optional very narrow flashlight type of beam. Present day LEDs come in very narrow aimings such as two half angle 8 degrees which may not be narrow enough (a 10 meter spread for 150 meters down the road which may be sufficiently aimed to the right) but with need, smaller angles are also feasible. Such a beam at the correct narrow aiming can continue to illuminate far ahead (in high beam) without blinding oncoming traffic. Analysis by a detector or an imaging system of the oncoming vehicles position (using its headlights for example) can be used to determine which exact aiming is the maximum allowable for any given traffic situation and road layout. For the very limited region of illumination that might cause glare to oncoming traffic one or more white light lasers having a narrow nonspreading beam are used. A mix of argon and krypton can result in a laser with output wavelengths that appear as white light or To create white light, the beams of blue, red, green, and yellow diode lasers are merged. A camera vision system inputting to an AI based controller would also be able to determine the actual vehicle if it is a truck or car to further fine tune the beam intensities and angles used to illuminate for the driver.
  • Using color and pattern recognition techniques it is possible to determine what is a sign. It is then possible to provide the equivalent of “task lighting” and use the controller and properly aimed SLS to follow and illuminate distant overhead and roadside signs for a longer time, yet not blind oncoming traffic due to the narrow beam.
  • Wavelength specific SLSs in the infrared or near Ultra Violet spectrum, not visible to the driver by the unaided eye are used for communication between vehicles and roadway controllers or toll booths. Infrared SLS will provide radiation to be reflected from objects for night vision cameras. UV SLS are used for or illuminating UV fluorescent dyes in clothing bicycles and baby carriages to increase pedestrian visibility as is known in the art.
  • In FIG. 9 a headlamp 270 of a land, sea or air vehicle 271 is shown in front view 272, side view of a section 273 and top view of a section 274. A discreet SLS light source such as an LED 275 with specific location within the cluster 276 has a specific spatial light distribution, color wavelength and aiming relative to the vehicle, such as straight ahead, and or downwards and or off towards the right or left. The SLS may have one junction and be monochromatic or have a many junctions and provide a wide spectral power distribution and the power to the SLS may be varied. An SLS can also be a “white” LED. For example a typical “white” LED such as a Luxeon® white LED such as LXHL-XXXX will have a colder “bluish” 4,500K color temperature. LED 277 at a second location within the same cluster may have a similar or dissimilar aiming, wavelength and spatial light distribution. The concept cluster shown by the dashed lines, is used to describe a control function and is not necessarily related to contiguous placement. In general a cluster may be deemed a separate grouping due to a function it performs, either exclusively or in conjunction with other clusters or sub-clusters, such as high beam function versus a second cluster 278 which may provide a parking light function. The same SLS may be used, albeit at different intensities, for both the above functions and thus clusters may overlap and be discontinuous. As two LEDs may be of different wavelengths, operating in unison at different power levels will yield a variable light “color”. A possible combination of two or more LEDs such as a blue, 470 nanometer and an amber 590, nanometer wavelength LED would yield a “white” light similar to the yellow tint of sunrise at the correct power intensity setting for each lamp. Coincidentally aimed LEDs 275 and 277, at the correct output intensity of each LED, with more power in the amber will accomplish this. Thus when following another vehicle, assuming, as drivers have reported, that they find yellow incandescent colored headlamps less offending than the HID blue-white color, the external controller 279 which receives traffic data from sensors 280 would shift wavelength specific radiant power contributions of SLSs such that the resultant on the CIE chromacity diagram would be yellowish. If however there is no car immediately ahead or oncoming traffic, then assuming as drivers reported they see further with bluish light, then the energy of the 490 nanometer LED is increased and the resultant color will shift to bluish white, allowing the driver to better ascertain road conditions further up ahead. The LEDs, their packages, wavelength and light source type are mentioned by way of example and it is clear that any other types of discreet light sources, such as the chip 95 of FIG. 6, with differing aimings wavelengths and distributions could be used to accomplish the same functions.
  • To further illustrate the innovative DLF headlamp device, a cluster 281 would be used to illuminate around a corner. Thus when the turn indicator has been selected or the steering wheel has been rotated by the driver, the DLF headlamp is powered by the controller to illuminate sideways at angles which according to the speed of travel is correct. (A driver can't make a 90-degree turn traveling 90 kph but from a stop, the turn may be around a corner.) In a preferred embodiment a multitude of LEDs in 281 are differently aimed in top view 274 showing the top view of the cluster 282 with SLS 283 angled less outwards and SLS 284 angled more outward with the forward aiming (distance ahead of the vehicle) of the more angled SLS 284, closer in for illuminating sharp turn, than that of the less angled SLS 283 for a shallow curve. Side sectional view 273 shows a general downward aiming with SLSs of front view 272 cluster 285 corresponding to cluster 286 shown from the side. The cluster 286 is the most angled downward such as for a slow driving as in a parking light type of application where the idea is not to cause glare yet be seen. The parking light function can also be done with higher angled LEDs by just lowering the intensity to very low non-glaring intensities. Cluster 287 of the front view would be the main illuminating workhorse and is shown in side view 273 as angled SLSs in cluster 288 and top view 274 as cluster 289. The top cluster 276 shown in side view 273, as 290 would perform alone or in tandem with part of 287 the high beam lighting function.
  • Many more degrees of flexibility are possible with the digital headlamp by varying the timing of the LED operation. For example, more intense illumination of red LEDs for a fraction of time would give the effect of flashing ambulance lights if required by the type of vehicle and could be effected by programming alone without the need for a different type of headlamp greatly reducing the different types of headlights that need to be installed on a vehicle or maintained in inventory. That is the same MSLS light engine device could be placed in different aesthetic packages by different manufacturers and could provide different functions. In one embodiment the digital headlamp carries out all the functions in a single unit 270. SLSs have different locations and aimings 291 and 292 to carry out the functions. In another embodiment 293 the spotlight sign illuminating function or corner lighting function is in a separate package 294 with its aiming 295. The low and high beam lighting is accomplished with fixture 296 and its general aiming 297. The separate units may be dictated by design or sales considerations and yield more flexibility but are within the scope of the overall integral digital lamp headlight device. The controller 279 will addresses the power supply of each DLF headlamp 270, 296 and 294 independently such that each lamp performs its functions separately.
  • In another embodiment FIG. 9 the digital headlights 300 and 301 on vehicle 302 are also part of an anti-glare system operating between two or more vehicles 303. The system is designed to prevent discomfort and disability glare from oncoming headlights or glaring headlights viewed in the rear view or side mirrors. The anti-headlight-glare system works based on the “persistence of vision” of the human eye-brain system and is accomplished by the synchronization of the illuminating and light attenuating or blocking devices which intermittently enable the driver to see the night scene ahead but not the counter-timed glare of oncoming vehicles. The elimination of blinding glare will increase traffic safety, as a driver may lose vision may for a number of seconds following a glare event. It will also prevent driver fatigue caused by glaring headlights. Another of the advantages of the anti-glare system is that it increases the distance that a driver can see at night by allowing the use of more powerful headlamps aimed at higher angles, thus illuminating more of the road ahead while not blinding oncoming traffic. The anti-glare system consists of pulsed headlamps 304 and 305 on the oncoming vehicle 303 and a synchronized on/off switched light filtering or blocking element 306A in between the driver's eyes 307 and the glare sources 304 and 305. The light attenuating element is normally highly transmissive of light i.e., see-through. When energized, the light-attenuating element turns non-transmissive and attenuates or totally blocks the glare intensity. The attenuating element is similar in operation to the fast acting automatic darkening welding helmets commercially available, only here the off switching is also very rapid. The glare, or light-attenuating element may be the windshield, a part of the windshield be a specific element located on or within the windshield 306A and 308A or on a visor located in front of the driver shown in 306B and 308B. The light attenuating device 306A or 306B is synchronized with the oncoming headlight such that when low-beam or even high beam, glare causing headlamps 300 and 301 of vehicle “one” 302 is “on” the light attenuating device 308A or 308B on vehicle “two” 303 is toggled into a mode which reduces or totally blocks the light beams. Conversely, in the next instant, when the headlamps 304 and 305 of vehicle “two” 303 is “on”, that is, in the glare causing mode, the light attenuating device 306 on vehicle “one” 302 is switched into a mode, which reduces or totally blocks the light beams. The light-attenuating device 306A or 306B consists of an LCD, ferroelectric, SPD, electrochromic or any other medium that can be switched between substantially light transmitting to substantially light blocking in the form of a screen, visor or film. It may be placed on the windshield from without or within, in between the glass layers of the windshield safety glass 306A or positioned anywhere in between the drivers eyes and windshield 306B including being worn as eye glasses. A motorcyclist would have it installed in the visor of the helmet or on a windscreen. The speed of vision is slow relative to electronic pulsation and depending on the illumination level persistence of vision will fuse on/off levels into a constant flicker free level. Motion pictures operate at 24 frames per second. For scotopic nighttime levels 10 HZ is sufficiently flicker free while at high levels of illumination 60 Hz is required. Totally flicker-free operation is assured at 120 Hz operation even for peripheral vision which is more sensitive to movement.
  • LEDs are excellent light sources for a pulsed lamp since they are not damaged by on/off cycling (actually off-time adds to the overall lifetime) as are the prior-art incandescent and other cathode based lamps. Rise time to full output is on the order of microseconds, much faster than necessary. The pulsed SLS is operated at a higher power during the on-time of the duty cycle to offset for the off-time in order to produce the required illumination. This is typical of normal LED operation which may be run in DC mode or pulsed, AC operation. Actually, HID lamps cycle on/off at twice the line frequency and the eye integrates the light intensity over time. However, it should be understood that incandescent or any other lamp switchable within the constraints of the flicker free visual requirement are acceptable for use according to the teachings of this invention. In an alternative embodiment, the lamp may be a state of the art incandescent, halogen or HID lamp and the switching is accomplished by an additional light-attenuating element placed in front of the light source. Alternately, electronic signal control circuitry can rapidly switch an HID or incandescent headlamp used in the anti-glare system. The lamp need not totally turn off, the requirement is that during the seeing portion of time when the driver's light attenuating element is letting light through un-attenuated, the light intensity reaching the eye is non-glaring. Therefore it shall be considered that present state of the art incandescent and HID headlamps operated in a pulsed mode fall under the realm of the present invention. That is, any headlamp system where the high beam is toggled such that it is synchronized with a light-blocking element before the driver's eyes in the approaching vehicle is included within this disclosure. It is also to be understood that the headlamps when not in high beam mode may not be totally off rather they can be in a non-glaring low beam mode. This leaves the vehicle visible to oncoming traffic.
  • It is to be understood that for the system to work, all oncoming vehicles using high beam synchronized blocking must be working according to the same timing among them versus all the traffic headed in the opposite direction. A timing protocol based on major heading determines the synchronization. Thus, on a substantially north south route, a train of traffic headed north will all be similarly timed and counter synchronized with all southbound traffic. The blocking screen's timing is synchronized with the oncoming high beam headlight's timing either universally, through a global clock system such as that of the global positioning system GPS or the National Institute of Standards and Technology atomic clock broadcast over radio station WWVB located in Fort Collins, Colo. or locally through communication among vehicles in proximity to being within the line of sight. A combination of directional data together with a timing protocol based on direction will determine the synchronization among proximate north/south and east/westbound vehicles. The vehicles direction data is derived from an onboard compass or gyro or GPS to eliminate the influence of roadway curves in cases of borderline directionality, the vehicle's direction for synchronization is not the instantaneous reading but rather is based on distance traveled over time and previous headings history. A stop and turn for example will change the synchronization while a smooth curve will wait for an oncoming cars synchronization to indicate that the road ahead is actually in a new heading unless sufficient elapsed time makes it clear the car is on a new course. The protocol will give benefit to the north on a 45 degree North/East heading and to the south on a 135-degree heading. GPS location and route recognition can also be used to set synchronization protocols for opposing vehicles. In one embodiment, the communication between vehicles for synchronization is effected through the headlamps themselves either through modulations in visible light LEDs of the digital headlight itself or with LEDs, radio or infrared emitters dedicated for the purpose 173. Detectors 174 on the vehicle, pick up the signal and signal-processing equipment passes the information on to the controlling unit 175.
  • Glare attenuating elements can be placed over the mirror surfaces or the side windows where the glare from the side mirrors passes. Thus not only the glare from oncoming headlights through the windshield is blocked but also glaring beams emanating from following vehicles, reflected off the rear and side view mirrors is controlled. To eliminate glare off the mirror 176 from reaching the driver's eyes from the side mirrors 177, a pulsed blocking screen or film 178 is placed on the driver facing side of the mirror's the reflecting surface. Similarly a rearview mirror 179 is embodied with a pulsed blocking screen or film. The timing of the modes in this instance is such that the light-attenuating mode occurs at the same time as the glaring or high beam headlamp mode since all cars in the same direction are in glaring mode at the same instant. All mirrors are synchronized to block the headlight glare coming from the rear which are on at the same synchronization time as that of the first lead vehicle in the traffic train.
  • In another embodiment additional information used to control the headlight aiming can come from analysis of the driver's eye movement and gaze. The headlight aiming system obtains information from a driver eye tracking system concerning the driver's gaze (i.e. what the driver is looking at). Analysis of saccade can be used to instantaneously predict where the driver will end up looking and the headlight intensity in that aiming changed to illuminate the area where the driver wishes to see in advance of the driver's re-accommodation. A machine vision system using pattern recognition and other object identification techniques to discern eye gaze direction, is contrived of the camera 316 with a view of the driver's eyes, infrared emitters 317 and the computer logic system 311. The data obtained is analyzed according to eye tracking methods and algorithms known in the art of in a computer routine 7A to adjust the light aimings of the headlamps according to the drivers gaze at required intensities. The allowed intensities at any aiming take glare considerations into account so as not to cause offending glare. In another embodiment an outward and inward facing camera 316 is used to acquire both images of the scene ahead and the driver's gaze and using both sets of data adjust the headlamp illumination.
  • Accordingly it has been illustrated in the streetlight and headlamp application the benefit of a multiple-light source illuminating device. The flexible characteristics of the DLF allow for spatial variations of the intensity and spectral power distribution of the light over the area covered. When the element of variation of intensity and SPD with time over the area covered is introduced another dimension of flexibility is introduced. These properties are unique to the DLF and allow them to deal with dynamic lighting situations in a way not afforded by prior-art lighting devices. When combined with devices capable of detection changes in the surrounding environment the flexible DLF is capable of changing the illumination so as to provide the optimal lighting solution in real-time.
  • Referring now to the invention in more detail, in FIG. 10A there is shown an illuminating or irradiating device which is capable of being adjusted in situ to match the radiation output with the actual illuminating requirements of the surround where the lighting fixture has been installed. As an example, the device is a lighting fixture and the installation is in a chemical processing plant which is an open facility with piping and vessels placed in the structure with walkways, floors and stairs made of metal grating. The walkways, vessels, machinery and piping needs to be illuminated at night by lighting fixtures placed on the structural support uprights along the walkways. In this lighting application example the walkways are at the exterior edge of the structure with the piping and machinery towards the interior. Beyond the walkway safety fence there is no structure and no need for illumination. The spatial light distribution pattern of the lighting fixture shown in FIG. 10A can be arranged so as to illuminate inwards towards the vessels, machinery and piping as well as downward along the walkways and stairs but not outward into free space.
  • The lighting fixture 410 is comprised of light sources 411. The multiple light sources are referred to as LEDs, Light Emitting Diodes which is but one type of exemplary light sources used herein. Light sources referred to in this disclosure include any of a wide range of visible and non-visible electromagnetic radiation emitting or generating devices formed from organic or inorganic semiconductor materials such as LEDs, organic light emitting diodes, OLEDs and all gaseous high and low intensity discharge lamps, incandescent filament and other solid state light sources. The light sources 411 shown in FIGS. 10A and 10B have means to be coupled with apparatus for modifying the light output of LED chips or arrays of chips 412 such as a reflector 413 which yields a symmetric light distribution or an asymmetric reflector 414 which yields a substantially asymmetric light distribution. An optical lens or light guide 415, or other refractive or diffractive device may be used to modify the light output as well as phosphors or filters within the light guide 415 which may be used to add or filter out certain wavelengths. The spatial light distribution of the light source refers to the luminous flux emanating from the light source 411 at various candle power intensities as a function of the angle. The light source 411 has a characteristic angular light distribution 416 also called herein beam spread and when installed on a lighting fixture attached to the building, object therein or lighting pole with a specific orientation in the surrounding living space, the beam axis 417 will have a particular aiming towards surfaces within the living space and therefore the light source will illuminate only the specific surfaces it is intended to fall upon. In an embodiment of the invention a light source module 411 is comprised of the one or more LED chip 412, optical modifying device 413, 414, or 415, a heat dissipative element 418 such as a heat sink and a physical and/or electrical connecting element for the LED chip 412 such as a printed circuit board 419. In one embodiment a very narrow beam laser LED is mounted in the array of chips 412 such that it shines along the optical axis of the light module 411. In an embodiment of the LED the beam spread has been determined on the die level without the need for additional optical modifying devices as part of the light module 411.
  • A preferred embodiment of the invention is a lighting fixture comprised of many light sources of which some or all can be separately aimed and powered so as to illuminate areas, surfaces or objects in a room in a most correct, efficient and comfortable manner or for a desired lighting effect. The overall luminaire 410 spatial light distribution at various angles is comprised of that of the individual light sources. Thus when the multiplicity of light sources having their respective light distribution patterns, which are substantially directional and subtend lesser angles than those of the overall light distribution pattern are mounted and arranged on the lighting fixture structure their respective directional light distributions combine to form a wider overall light fixture distribution pattern. The overall distribution pattern is efficiently formed directly by the multiplicity of light sources without recourse to inefficient reflectors or refractors. Using a goniophotometer to measure over space the emanating light intensity in the various directions one obtains the overall spatial light distribution pattern of the luminaire 410.
  • Using commercially available LEDs such as the Artavi 10° product from Illumitex which offers 90% of the light output in 10 degrees of the beam, it is possible to generate well controlled light distribution patterns with minimal spill light. Thus the Coefficient of Utilization (CU) or the utilization factor of the luminaire is high. That is, the ratio of the luminous flux (lumens) from a luminaire received on the work-plane to the lumens emitted by all the luminaire's light sources alone. The Illumitex LED package emits light in a uniform, highly-precise beam directly from the source. The result is that with die-level optical integration, the need for cumbersome and inefficient secondary optics to control light is obviated. Using well defined light beams to illuminate the area allows for the floor surface in the distant corners of a square room to have the same illuminance as the floor at the nadir, directly beneath the luminaire. This results in high uniformity which is a measure of variation of illuminance over a given plane, expressed as either the ratio of the minimum to the maximum illuminance or the ratio of the minimum to the average illuminance and a measure of the energy efficiency of the luminaire system.
  • In order to alter the spatial light distribution, the lighting fixture 410 has apparatus such as joints and flexible electrical connections giving it the ability to morph or change shape. That is, by the alteration of fixture geometry, moving structures or arms on which the light sources are mounted or by changing the LEDs' refractor or reflector geometry, the direction of the light emanating from groups or even individual light sources is modified so as to generate an overall site specific light distribution pattern. For example LEDs are mounted on moveable luminaire structural elements such as the end of posts, on bars or curved arms which can be adjusted to provide various symmetrical and asymmetrical illumination patterns as the installation requires. In the lighting fixture 410 the arms, such as arm 420 has apparatus to swivel around the central support post 421. The arms 420 are rotatable so that they may be concentrated at a specific aiming so as to produce higher illumination intensity in a specific area. The individual LEDs aimings can further be adjusted as the hinged sections of the parabolic arms 420 can also be opened or closed along the hinges changing their vertical aiming from the nadir.
  • In an embodiment of the invention control electronics 422 have electronic means and circuitry configured to provide different power levels to LEDs or groups of LEDs such that the light intensity in any given direction and angular aiming may be varied as needed. In an embodiment of the invention the power supply and control electronics 422 are further defined to provide power only in the amount needed using a logical controller 428. Controller 428 performance can be further enabled with sensor 429 providing information about the surroundings. The resulting light fixture embodiment described is thus a Field Adjustable Multiple-light-source Luminaire or FAML.
  • Thus in FIG. 10A the beam spread 423 of LED 411 differs from the beam spread 424 of a LED light source 425 which may have a wider area from which the light exits so that its higher angled light output will not be as bright so as not to cause glare. An accessory reflector 426 may be used to shield from glaring rays. The method disclosed for reducing the glare from concentrated high luminance light sources is the use of light guides to reduce the luminous emmitance or luminance of a very bright LED. Light guides using the principle of total internal reflection redirect the light. They may in addition be used to increase the area from which the light flux is exiting and thus reduce the luminance or luminosity of the light source.
  • FIG. 11 shows a light guide which can be used to redirect the light from a light source and/or increase the area from which the light is exiting in order to reduce the apparent brightness. The light guide is constructed of a transparent material with an index of refraction greater than that of air. The light guide 430 will accept light rays emanating at large angles away from the beam axis and bend the rays to smaller angles from the axis thus producing a narrow beam. Light produced by the LED 412 at various angles enters the aperture 431. The light then bends as total internal reflection contains it within the walls of the curved light guide and exits from the light guide at surface 432 with a different aiming. More than one light guide can be used and when stacked light exiting the light source at different angle can be directed outwards at different angles or the same angle. Light guide assembly 433 is shown with two light guides stacked but many similar or different beam modifying characteristic light guides can be stacked for a unique total light distribution resulting from the source. Thus in FIG. 10B the optical device 415 can be a light guide assembly 433 as shown in FIG. 11 which has been added over a light source in FIG. 10A aimed at a potentially glaring angle as shown covered by the light guide assembly 433. The exit surface 432 may be a lens, a Fresnel lens or microlens whose optical features enable precise control of uniformity, exit angle and beam spread. In addition any of the surfaces may be covered with optical substrate or films to reduce light loss on entry or exit, frustrate the total internal reflection or filter or control the light. Light guides may also be asymmetrical.
  • In an alternate embodiment when using a single light source in a FAML yet an asymmetric spatial light distribution is desired, light guide assembly 434 made of light guide segments 435 is designed take light from the single light source and spatially differentiate its delivery to different parts of a room. For example, if the light fixture light source is located on the ceiling in the center of a square room and the assembly 434 is turned over so the light exits downward; then when the light exits the surface 436 with a Lambertian distribution and the segments are aimed in the direction of the corners of the room, a substantially homogeneous illumination can be obtained on a work plane near the floor in the square room. More than one segment of assembly 434 can be stacked and light guides with different light exiting directions can take the light of one light source and symmetrically or asymmetrically distribute over an area. Combined with reflective control elements 437 added within, upon the surface or external to the light guide further light control can be achieved.
  • While light guides are known for their ability to carry and redirect light, in this disclosure another novel embodiment of a light guide used as a light control device is its use to increase the area from which the light from the LED is exiting from thus reducing the light source luminance or glare. In an embodiment where the inlet aperture 431 cross section is small and the cross section of the light guide exit surface 432 is large there will be a significant reduction in the light source luminance and it will appear less bright and cause less glare to persons viewing it. Thus while persons in a room would find high brightness LEDs disturbing it is possible to add optical devices that while maintaining or increasing the directionality of the illuminating beams spreads the light to exit over a larger area thus reducing the luminous emmitance.
  • The Spectral Power Distribution of the luminaire refers to the distribution of light energy emitted by the light source arranged in order of wavelengths. In an embodiment of the invention the LED chip 412 is made of many separated LED chips or LED array. The array of semiconductor LED chips or dies 412 are of the same material and have a similar wavelength or are of different composition and produce a variety of wavelengths. In an embodiment the controlling power circuitry 428 is connected independently to each chip. The result of using differentiated composition chips 412 or phosphors with them is that the light output is a mix a various wavelengths of light and therefore of variable chromacity. Thus a warm color temperature of lighting can be produced as well as a cool daylight color temperature. Thus when the light sources that make up a light module 411 are not all producing the same color spectrum or wavelength, the luminaire's chromaticity, spectral power distribution or spectral light distribution is alterable by the controller 428 via driver 422 energizing to a greater or lesser degree the individual light sources. These light sources may be substantially monochromatic or wide spectrum with different wide SPDs and monochromatics complementing each other. Using the principles of additive color mixing of light sources to control the change in chromacity via the differentiated powering of coincidentally aimed light sources, the luminaire produces a unique spectral light distribution having a certain color temperature and/or color rendering index of light at all or any particular aiming.
  • For example the curvilinear light guide 430 can be used to combine different colored LED chips 412. Thus if 3 different colored LEDs were stacked and their light entered into one or more light guides the light guides will re-orient the light and aim them in the same direction whereupon they will mix. The mixed light when falling upon a surface and reflected to a person's eye will generate a uniquely observed color lighting effect. When phosphors are added to the light guide material other chromaticity may be generated. Thus a blue LED could generate one color temperature with one light guide and another color temperature in another light guide. If the guides are co-directional the colors will be mixed. Physical movement of the inlet aperture from one light guide of particular phosphors to another would then serve as a way of changing the correlated color temperature, CCT and/or color rendering index, CRI of a light source. Thus an active way of controlling the spatial and spectral output of the LED light source 411 is to reposition the light guide apparatus 433 or 434 thus changing the angular or spectral characteristic of the light modification.
  • Individual bars or arms 420 by their structural geometry determine the aimings of the light sources mounted on them. Thus using Lambert's cosine law and the inverse square law the arm geometry is designed such that more luminous flux can be directed to surfaces further away or surfaces at greater angles to the incident light to achieve a more homogenous light distribution. In addition when mounted in a living space the arm 420 can be rotated into a better aiming in order to optimally illuminate the area. Thus as a principle teaching of this invention the light sources attached to the arms have already been given the capability of generating a unique spatial distribution pattern in the factory set format. Most importantly, this preset distribution carries though to the homogeneous illuminance of room surfaces even after specific installation adjustment requirements have been made.
  • After adjustment the position of the arm can be input into the controller 428 or the camera 429 can be used to determine the lighting effects produced by the new arm arrangement. This calibration is accomplished by energizing a light source or array of light sources and reading the with the camera sensor array the luminance values off the surface. Comparing the new results with prior control luminance values at known power settings the present luminaire configuration is determined. Thus the in factory calibration of light output vs. power is used after installation to set up for the illuminance readings and adjustment process. Before moving the factory set aimings the room objects are viewed. The camera luminance measures at any coordinate point under its purview are now based on a known luminous intensity from the artificial source. From that the reflectance values of the room and object surfaces are obtained and stored for use in the controller's following lighting algorithms.
  • Alternately, a reference sheet of known reflectance is placed on surfaces to aid in the re-calibration. Alternately, in place of calibrating the camera luminance readings to illuminance readings via a reflective sheet of known reflectance the object recognition capacity of the camera vision system can recognize various object such as couches, the textile and wood thereon. The controller memory has prior stored reference luminance values for a number of surfaces of different reflectivities thus allowing the controller to guess from the recognized surface at hand which reflectance model is a best fit. Thus the controller using the camera luminance readings can compute the illuminance and drive the light sources such that the desired illumination level is achieved.
  • Alternately, in place of an integral camera to align the arms on the light fixture to an optimal position for the efficient illumination of the area and also minimizing spill light an non-integral digital camera can be used such as a web-cam or cell phone camera can be used. The controller for running the computational algorithms can be in a non-integral computer or even via the web and the results of the analysis for reprogramming the controller can be communicated back to the controller. This would enable the use of a less powerful onboard controller. Again the camera luminance readings can be calibrated using a reflective sheet of known reflectance at one or more reading vacations or the object recognition of the camera vision system can recognize various object such as couches, the textile and wood thereon and form a stored library assign typical reluctances to these surfaces.
  • The calibration is carried out as described earlier in the patent with embodiments such as the ADLF 190. The non-integral camera view is geometrically correlated with the light fixture light sources aimings by a technique as the controlled firing of individual LEDs where the light geometric coordinates are picked up a correlated with the camera pixel matrix coordinates seeing that area. The correlation is then stored in the processor memory for use by the controller in driving the specific light sources. Movements of the light source supporting structures are picked up by the camera light sensor such that the installer receives feedback on the effects of these changes until the desired light output reading is obtained on the display screen. The unique positioning and additional installer re-aiming of the light sources 411 on the support arms allow for uniform illumination to be achieved. A further dimension of illumination control is now achieved by adjusting the power driving the LED 411.
  • The data stored in the controller 422 can now be used for applying recommended lighting practice to specific lighting application or lighting tasks that luminaire is called on to perform. Herein this disclosure, a logical controller executes instruction sets based best lighting practices as recommended by lighting engineers and published in handbooks such as the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America IESNA and standards such as ANSI or CIE. The latest by the IESNA is the 10th edition ISBN-13: 9780879952419, Publisher: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America that has numerous recommendations and best practice standards specifically related to LED lighting. The specific location lighting task information or programming may be manually input to the luminaire controller via an input device such as a keypad or be remote input controller using infra-red communications or other wireless device using a communications system such as, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth™ etc communicated via a computer or smart-phone or via a speaker microphone system. To determine lighting requirements in an area based on usage and characteristics of the users, the controller uses a speaker to communicate queries from a lighting specification questionnaire and receives audio response processed by a voice recognition software application as input for the purpose running the lighting design algorithms.
  • FIG. 12A is a perspective view of an embodiment of a modular industrial lighting fixture with the addition of another adjustable arm 420 where the same LED driver electronics 422 are capable of powering additional arms when added or not powering them when they are subtracted such as in FIG. 12B. The arms 420 are rotatable so that they may be concentrated at a specific aiming so as to produce higher illumination intensity in a specific area. The individual LEDs aimings can further be adjusted as the hinged sections of the parabolic arms 420 can also be opened or closed along the hinges changing their vertical aiming from the nadir. In an alternative embodiment the driver electronics are modular in concert with the light source arms 420 such that when an additional arm is added an additional plug and play driver module is added as well with full communications and hookup capability to the logical controller 428.
  • An example using a FAML in an industrial, commercial or house lighting application may be a hallway lighting function. An embodiment of an asymmetrical lighting fixture shown in FIG. 12B with two arms 420 at 180 degrees with light source modules 411 laid out on the arms at higher angles to illuminate along the hallway will do a more economical job of illuminating then would the four armed symmetrical luminaire of FIG. 12A. The light sources illuminating the hallway at higher angles from the nadir may have large areas to reduce the luminous emmitance to comfortable, non-glaring levels using optical light guides such as 430 to increase area while maintaining directionality. When the camera sensor element 429 detects people entering the hallway, the logical controller 428 increases the power driving the LEDs and the lighting intensity is increased from zero power or some low level of lighting sufficient for orientation purposes to full level. After the person has passed under the luminaire the LEDs on the approach side can already be dimmed again saving power. It is to be understood that the luminaire embodiment of FIG. 12B is only showing the practical operational elements. Obviously, when used as a home hallway lighting fixture additional aesthetic elements can be added to improve the fixtures artistic appeal.
  • In an embodiment of this invention the adjustments to the light output distribution, intensity and chromacity are made automatically by the logical controller 428 operating per programmed instruction sets based on data supplied by sensors regarding living space geometry, environment and contents including living beings. Such sensors 429 use sound or electromagnetic radiation to measure distances to surfaces within the intended design illumination range of the lighting fixture. An embodiment of the invention uses as a sensor an electronic camera with a lens 427 allowing it to view the surroundings. Natural light sources or light sources on the luminaire firing at known timings and chromacity can be used with the sensors 429 and logical controller 428 to determine distances, movement, reflectance, surface colors and other information about the surroundings during set up and in real time. The camera chip transfers the image information to the logical controller. Using real time image processing methodologies with image and scene recognition technology known in the art, room or outdoor area elements, objects and people are identified. Using face recognition techniques an individual may be identified and personal lighting preferences or functions can be provided by the luminaire. The controller being programmed to illuminate people, objects and surfaces according to best lighting practice or user preferences then manipulates fixture elements to adjust the lighting to meet the standards or personal preferences. In addition the computer vision can recognize the visual task being performed. The logical controller 428 then uses control of the power signal to the LED to provide recommended practice light intensities.
  • Light entering the digital camera 429 through its lens 427 is converted into electric signals by a CCD or CMOS image sensor. The lens can be an optical lens or a wide angle lens or a Fresnel lens giving the sensor array a view of the area illuminated by the lighting fixture or a wider area covered by a group of lighting fixtures under control of the logical controller. More than one camera sensor 429 with different areas of coverage can be used if more accuracy is required for image processing. The processor based control system for illumination has stored data and programs for driving the LEDs at the correct levels in order illuminate according to recommended lighting practice and stored algorithms which it uses to process pattern recognition, image recognition and other computer vision methodologies known in the art to recognize a particular object, surface or individual as well as distances to surfaces, their color, reflectance and the geometry of the environmental surround. The same image recognition camera may be used as the luminance meter or a separate light sensor may be employed. A further capability of the digital lighting fixture using image recognition methodology known in the art that it can recognize the individuals and provide personal preference lighting conditions or determine the optimal lighting parameters as required by their age. A processor based control system for illumination having stored data and algorithms which uses image recognition algorithms to recognize a particular individual. Using image recognition algorithms and artificial intelligence techniques known in the art, based on the appearance and movements of the occupants, the camera vision system will automatically guess their age and sex. The processor runs the computer vision routines to determine an occupants age or sex and sends instruction to a building's utility devices to provide individualized services such as heating and lighting on basis of age or sex.
  • The personalized control of the illuminating device or other appliances in communication with the controller can be effected by using a brain-computer interface, (BCI, often called a mind-machine interface (MMI), or sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface (BMI). Using apparatus to read brain activity, a direct communication pathway between the brain and the external device can be effected. The BCI can be combined with the computer vision system having knowledge of the surround to help the controller relate the brain activity to the visual aid required to carry out the desired function. For example in an automotive application the brain activity related to eye saccade can replace eye gaze tracking in knowing where the eye desires to see next and illumination can be provided on time, in advance of the visual task to be performed next.
  • The sensor 429 can be an LSI chip enabling high-speed processing of the generated image data by a digital image processor function within the logical controller 428 using algorithms known in the art for motion, scene and/or face detection. From these signals the logical control affects lighting changes as needed to perform visual tasks or create ambiance. The sensor and transducer pack 429 is sensitive to a wide range of electromagnetic or sonic pressure variations and has means for determining luminance, temperature and humidity. The logical controller 428 having communications capability can transfer information gained from the sensor pack 429 to other home automation networks or it can supply information to other home heating, cooling, security, lighting and host of other appliances. With a view of the front door the luminaire sensor can serve data to the home automation network on whether someone has entered of left the house.
  • In a preferred embodiment of this invention the lighting fixture is equipped with a camera vision system comprised of the digital camera 429 and logical controller 428 having computer algorithms for performing computer vision and has the capability of identifying the eyes of occupants in a room (this is similar to present day face detect mode used in digital camera technology such as a Canon PowerShot SD900, where the processor face recognition identifies the triangle of two eyes and a nose and focuses automatically). The camera vision system is capable of detecting glare causing visual discomfort on the eyes of room occupants caused by the lighting fixture and the logical controller will accordingly reduce the intensity of the illumination reaching the eyes from the responsible light source. The camera vision system can detect the glare by assessing the amount of light reflected back to the camera from the eyes of room occupants and determining on the basis of a scale, such as the de Boer rating scale for discomfort glare, whether or not glare is occurring. Alternatively the logical controller 428 upon detecting eyes will set the light source intensity shining in the direction of the eyes to a level that will not cause glare.
  • In addition the camera vision system 428 will prevent the lighting fixture 410 from producing veiling reflections on objects such as glossy magazines or computer screens. Using machine vision technology known in the art such as neural networks training and other pattern recognition techniques the vision system has sensor, algorithmic and computational means for identifying devices or objects. Using lookup tables to identify a possible veiling glare situation in the users field of view the logical controller 428 adjusts the lighting by providing illumination from a different angle such as beaming light off the ceiling in place of direct lighting and/or altering the intensity of the direct lighting.
  • Actual vision and perception is not only a function of the illuminance falling on the object being observed but also of the luminance of surfaces in the surround, spectral distributions of the object and background and the general illuminance level to which the eye has adapted. Veiling luminance and veiling reflections may even be as interfering so as to disturb the ability to see. Described is a method of using the an embodiment of multiple light source lighting fixture of the present invention with finely controlled light delivery to assist people to better see objects or carry out visual tasks such as reading. The method comprises altering the intensity and/or color of the illumination delivered to the task versus other surfaces in the visual surround (that is they are in the viewer's field of view) such that the luminance of the object, the luminance of the background, the contrast and the veiling reflections are controlled so as to produce optimal vision conditions. To accomplish the spatially differentiated light delivery to the object of the visual task such as a book or computer screen the light sources to produce task lighting have multiple, narrow beams with minimal spill light. The limited coverage area of each beam and sharp cutoff is such that the lighting fixture controller can target a book while not substantially illuminating the desk. Other light sources illuminate the desk and other surfaces in the visual surround at an optimal background level luminance. The background level is determined by factors such as whether it is an office environment where others are present and a dark office is unpleasant or if the reading is at home and a lower background can be tolerated.
  • With the eye recognition capability the lighting fixture can, irrespective of the glare consideration, lower the illumination in areas where eyes are not looking thus saving power. Thus as in the FIG. 12B hallway lighting application the logical controller upon identifying the occupant's eyes can illuminate at higher intensity the areas forward of the occupant in their field of view but limit light rays to below the eye level and dim the areas not in the visual path of the occupant. The same capability for dimming is available in many other lighting applications such as in other rooms in a house, warehouses, stores, factories as well as outdoors. In sports lighting glare can be eliminated by the controller 428 following the ball and calculating which light sources 411 are adding to vision and those which are detracting and reducing the intensity of those detracting. Thus the lighting fixture 410 provides illumination in real time only where people need it to carry out visual tasks while the illumination in other areas is off or dimmed to comfortable or aesthetic lighting levels.
  • An alternate embodiment of the FIG. 12B fixture configured for use in a highway lighting fixture application having a camera vision system has controllable light distribution and logical means for providing illumination based on the vehicle's position in relation to the lighting fixture 410. In low traffic conditions in order to save energy used for lighting, the controller 428 using stored algorithms increases illumination with the approach of a vehicle and changes the beam cut-off levels as the automobile advances towards the lighting fixture to eliminate glare from the driver's eyes. It then dims the lighting after the vehicle has passed and is no longer useful. Note that LED's directed upwards would not be present unless used for sign lighting etc. Thus in this novel application of the technology the sign would be illuminated by the controller instruction set only when there are drivers to see them. When multiple vehicles are presents the operating regime changes to illumination from the adjacent luminaire located behind the vehicles. By using communication between the luminaires 410 the optimal lighting regime is coordinated between them.
  • In a preferred embodiment the illumination device 410 of FIG. 10 with computer vision capability, also having means for communications with other devices and human factors engineering algorithms that allows it to predict in certain situations what a room occupant is interested in doing, has wired or wireless electronic communications apparatus for communicating the information it obtained via the camera for actuating or closing other devices. For example a person sitting down in front of the TV can have the TV turned on automatically and have heating concentrated on that area of the house. The camera based lighting system via a central logical control unit or the home computer inputs data on the house occupants' whereabouts and aids in the control of house lighting and heating and cooling. Thus the lighting fixture 410 communicates data and integrates with intelligent home automation systems as 1) it provides an ideal location for the sensors which includes any of sensors 429 for: temperature, humidity, motion and artificial vision and 2) the smart illuminating device 410, itself which has a logical controller 428 capable of communicating with and being controlled by the automated home network.
  • The lighting fixture being the world's most ubiquitous device serves as the ideal platform for simple and intelligent camera vision systems for use in home, commercial, outdoor and industrial facilities control systems to the end of surveillance, the use of energy and supplying people with sound, lighting, heating, cooling, fragrance and a host of other office and home appliances and amenities. These might include controlling an automatic window blind based on sunlight ingress or smoke detectors among others. A lighting fixture is almost always installed in any living space, from work spaces to entertainment spaces and an infrastructure of power lines and often data lines are already installed to them. Thus, a lighting fixture is ideal as a platform for sensors, transducers and detectors. It is also ideal as a platform for delivering lighting, sound, radiated heating and the dispersion of fragrance. For example a multiply placed speaker sound system for providing a listening experience upon receiving from the camera's information on the users' whereabouts can better tailor the sound delivery based on their location as in known in the art thus enhancing the sound experience. Computer recognition of the person/s in the room can call up from memory the users individuals listening and sound setting preferences. A fragrance system will provide aroma based on room occupancy and location if there is apparatus in the fragrance system for delivering fragrance to separate areas of the room. Again here a computer recognition of the individual can tailor the type of fragrance. The controller can be programmed to dispense on entry to the room and a specific fragrance programmed for a specifically recognized occupant. Similarly in communication with an entertainment system it could play the recognized occupants personal preference upon entry on the sound or TV system.
  • In an automated embodiment of the invention the light sources 411 and 425 are mounted on moveable elements 420 having actuators or motors that are controlled by the logical controller. The automatic mechanization of light source supporting fixture parts allows for the direction of the light output to be altered by the logical controller thus enabling the luminaire to perform better in the specific lighting application where the fixture 410 has been installed. This may be a onetime rearrangement of the light source aimings or may be performed in real time as the lighting requirements in the living space change. Similarly, based on changed parameters in the surrounding, the logical controller 428 adjusts as required the light intensity in any direction and/or the chromacity. Thus hereby we have demonstrated the systems unique lighting agility and energy saving capacity where the controller 428 can affect a dimming function based on factors in the surrounding such as the real-time sunlight contribution within parts of its coverage area, the amount of people in the room or the density and positions of cars on a highway.
  • FIG. 13 is an alternative embodiment of a field adjustable multiple light source lighting fixture 440 with light source modules arranged in a substantially linear form. Thus light source module 441 may be aimed towards the nadir while light source module 442 is aimed sideways to illuminate a different area off to the left. Light source module 443 is aimed at a higher angle from the nadir and illuminates a third area. The modules are connected mechanically and electrically to each other and to the power supply 444 and logical controller 445. A different configuration is affected by changing the angle between modules on joint 446 which is capable of bending in the x and/or y direction. Detents and/or markings are provided on the joints 446 indicating different angular settings. Thus instructions for each joint's 446 setting can be given to the homeowner or lighting fixture installer by a lighting design computer program known in the art. The light sources are specified and the room dimensions are entered into the program and the light source aiming angles are specified for the FAML 440. Whereas, in a special aiming configuration with light sources directed at different aimings, an even or homogeneous light distribution will be affected over the area under the fixture, the light fixture can be rearranged so that all the light sources are aimed in the same direction and thus a distribution similar to that of a single light module's own spatial light distribution will be obtained. Thus, if the light module light distribution is narrow, and they are all aimed in the same direction a spot light distribution will be obtained from the fixture 440.
  • Alternatively the LEDs can all be aimed at the ceiling or objects on the wall for an indirect lighting effect or soffit lighting effect. Alternately, some LEDs can be aimed in the same direction and others at differentiated aimings obtaining both a spot and flood light distribution from fixture 440. Light source modules can be added to the chain or detracted depending on the lighting application. In addition the light source modules can be enclosed in an aesthetic enclosure 447 hiding the actual light source modules. As shown in FIG. 13, the embodiments are depicted in their practical light engine form with the skeletal light source support structure. It is clarified that the skeletal support structures in the luminaire embodiments presented may be embellished with outer enclosures of a more aesthetic nature. The only requirement is that the outer structure does not interfere substantially with the light and heat transfer from the light engine outwards. Thus the disclosure has shown a FAML that can be agile in meeting differing illumination requirements, aesthetic and energy efficient in providing illumination in a specific lighting application.
  • The unique approach of this multiple light source luminaire invention over previous art luminaires is that in prior art, even when many LED sources are used the spatial light intensity distribution output of the luminaire is determined by the primary or secondary optics on the light source. Whatever light distribution there is emanating from the light source that is the light distribution of the luminaire. In this invention the overall light distribution of a single luminaire is comprised of many smaller light distribution patterns. It could be argued that a track lighting luminaire with its multiple light sources is such a fixture. As opposed to a dispersed track lighting luminaire used to spot light specific areas spread in a room the FALM is a centralized, integral lighting unit with both general area lighting and spot lighting functionality under the uniting structural, logical control and electronic circuitry of the luminaire.
  • FIG. 14 is a block diagram of the functional elements comprising adjustable LED luminaires 450 disclosed in this invention. The block diagram illustrates the power and communication connections between the elements. The power source 451 can be electrical utility power or battery power which is altered in a power conditioning element 452 such that it may operate the transducer and sensors pack 453 and other electricity users such as the logical controller 454 and LED drivers 456. The logical controller 454 receives information from the input communications and sensors 453 and provides instructions to the power controls 455 and LED drivers 456 so as to drive the LEDs 457 as required by the lighting application. To alter intensity and/or the SPD chromacity of the light output by LED chip arrays 457 the logical controller uses techniques such as multiplexing of the power signal going to the light sources or pulse width modulation thereof. In another embodiment, the light module 411 includes control electronics which divides power up between the LED chips 412 according to instruction signals received from the central controller 428. Thus the light module 411 receives from the central control electronics both a power and control signal. The control signal may be modulations on the power signal. The light module controller then re-divides the power to the individual LED chips 412 as required to obtain light intensity and chromacity. To lengthen the times between the power signals to the light module, the light module 411 may be equipped with an energy storage means such as a capacitor or battery.
  • A unique feature of the adjustable lighting fixture is that extra lighting element modules 457, i.e. those not needed in a specific application can be deactivated. Thus if an arm 420 is removed, the corresponding LED driver circuit 456 can be deactivated. In a modularly built system the customer can purchase light source modules for the application such as four light source modules 457 for symmetric illumination as in fixture 410 or just 2 modules for a two arm 420 hallway light as in FIG. 12B. The electronic circuitry allows for LED drivers 456 to be added as needed and thus the customer would purchase the matching LED driver circuitry 456 for the hallway light configuration.
  • In a preferred embodiment the LED light fixture system is provided with mechanical means 458 for changing the structural shape which affects the direction of the illumination produced by the LED module 457. By re-aiming the light sources a new fixture 450 light distribution pattern is obtained. The feedback of the new position of joint 446 is accomplished by input from a position sensor at joint 446 which is part of the sensor pack. In a manually adjusted system joint 446 is provided with markings and/or detents for vertical and horizontal angular positions such that instructions given to the user for aiming the light sources are in understandable terms. The logical controller 454 uses the new geometric data to recalculate the light distribution. Alternately, or in addition to, the camera acting as a light a sensor coupled with the logical controller's firing of the newly adjusted LED sources 457 at a known timing, obtains the new light distribution pattern. In addition results are corroborated with the position sensor data. The logical controller 454 with new knowledge of the light distribution calculates, using computer programs such as FIG. 15, how to best provide required illumination based on algorithms run on the processor 454 pulling stored lookup-data from the data storage of 454 or received information via the communications device of 454. The transducer sensor pack 453 is comprised of any of the following devices: an ultrasonic transducer and receiver, an electromagnetic radiation source and detector, including IR, UV, Light and Laser sources/detectors, a speaker and a microphone for audible output and reception, a display screen for viewing and a projection system among others. Thus, the intelligent light system 454 can receive voice input from the user which the logical controller equipped with voice recognition programs will interpret into commands and give feedback. The input to the fixture can be via a wired input device, voice recognition of commands similar to those used in computers and mobile phones, other noises such as clapping, computer recognition of hand movements and gestures known in the computer game industry, a remote control device or wireless communication from a computer. Thus a user of the lighting can override lighting choices made by the logical controller and input their personal lighting preferences which if desired, are stored for the future. The logical controller is programmed to interpret the input signals into functions to be carried out by the FALM 450 in terms of spatial, spectral and intensity distributions of the light in space and in time. In addition, the logical controller working in unison with any of the sensor pack, transducers and light sources contrives an artificial intelligence system capable of making decisions based on one or more lighting criteria for the area to be lit. This is a unique illuminating capability where the sensor is capable providing information on the lighting environment elements in terms of distances from light sources, the luminances and/or the spectral reflectance characteristics of the various surfaces, the identity of people and elements, the visual task being performed and the processor has data on preferred performance regimes based on human and economic factors and the controller driving the light sources is geometrically correlated with the delivery of delivery of the light to the individual surface of the environment to produce the decided upon illumination.
  • FIG. 15 is an exemplary flow chart for a computer program run by the logical controller of the lighting fixtures disclosed in this invention to provide correct or the decided upon illumination. Based on information obtained by the sensors or manually input the logical controller 428 of light fixture 410 again shown in FIG. 14 as logical controller 454, calculates and sends control signals to power controller 455 and LED drivers 456 to produce the optimal illumination for the visual tasks being performed by people within or adjacent to the area being illuminated. The computer routine first acquires information regarding the light distribution pattern of the luminaire in its present configuration. Using data from the initial calibration stored in data storage 454 and powering a LED 457 at a specific aiming, the digital camera light sensor array reads the luminance value and/or spectral reflectance returned by surfaces. The processor using the inverse square cosine law obtains the reflectance of those surfaces which are then registered in the data storage 454 for further use in determining spatial distribution of light flux from the luminaire after adjustment. Thus a feedback control routine is effected by the controller and sensor devices using the stored computer routines. Use of luminance lookup values will obviate the need for knowing the reflectance of surfaces and translating the camera luminance readings back into illuminance. The logical controller 454 next determines the lighting environment in which the luminaire has been installed and area and or volume for which the luminaire is to provide illumination obtaining a correlation between the camera pixels and light source areas of coverage in x, y, and z coordinates. If other intelligent luminaires are present, the communications program coordinates between them. If the neighboring luminaire is unintelligent, then the installer powers it on and off and the controller 454 records the differences in illumination due to its influence for future use. Using pattern recognition technology known in the art of machine and computer vision, the controller 454 identifies architectural features of the room such as windows and walls as well as furniture and appliances. Powering the LED light sources 457 or transducers 453 and reading the reflected signal captured by the sensors 453, the logical controller 454 obtains a first guess result for the iterative process of customizing the luminaire for the installed location. Running algorithms, the processor 454 determines the luminance values obtained from the sensors 453 and compares with best practice lighting recommendations. If necessary, the logical controller corrects on its own the light source 457 aimings via control of joint 458 which is equipped with automatic means for movement. Alternately, via communication with other devices or people it relays the necessary angular setting information for them to carry out the adjustment. In an AI expert system configuration a full physiological and economical gamut of criteria are used to reach a decision as to the best lighting. The controller next measures the obtained luminance and checks if the recommended or best practice luminance level has been reached. The customer may also receive a report of the measured luminances from the lighting fixture system 450 and input to the logical control the desired changes. Alternately, the customer based on their own or other users' visual experiences can input desired corrections to the logical controller 454 which then re-adjusts the light source aimings. If re-aiming the light sources 457 alone cannot solve the required illumination requirements the controller 454 determines and communicates the need for the installation of additional light sources or communicates which light sources are superfluous.
  • In a preferred embodiment of the invention the logical controller 454 receiving image input from the camera 453 and running pattern recognition software will identify what is the visual task a person is trying to perform. The computer routine receives images from the camera and by determining the proximity of persons to objects such as books, newspapers, computer screens, telephones, televisions, cereal bowls, a writing pad, etc that are recognized by the computer vision techniques predicts what visual task the user is trying to perform. The logical controller 454 then drives the light sources 457 according to recommended lighting practice levels stored in its data storage. In another preferred embodiment of the invention the user can command the logical controller as to the visual task being performed and the type of lighting desired such as “warm white” or “more light” and their preferred intensity level. The user input to the logical controller 454 may be thru a keyboard on the light fixture or via an electronic device in communication with the light fixture via the communications apparatus of 454 therein or audible or visual commands detected by the microphone or image sensor apparatus of the sensor pack 453. Alternately, a smart mobile phone application with a Bluetooth or Wi-Fi communications capability serves as the remote controller and will handle the voice recognition, present a touchpad menu for control input or provide keyboard for command entry. If the logical controller makes an incorrect decision in the eyes of the user, the user can override the last change by a signal such as snapping ones fingers or voice command etc. Unique to this invention people are able to choose the lighting that suits them best and the fixture, having differentiated light delivery, can provide a first user with one type of chromacity and/or intensity and a second type for a different user in a different area.
  • The logical controller 454 provides its own feedback by checking in real time via the sensors 453 if the illumination provided by driving the light sources at the current setting is in accordance with recommended illuminance or luminance lighting levels and SPD chromacity. In addition by using pattern recognition and knowing the location of the user's eyes the logical controller can determine if the illumination is causing glare discomfort or veiling reflections. The logical controller by comparing new images with previous images detects if there is a change in the lighting requirements. If changes have occurred, the illumination determining process of FIG. 15 is repeated and a new configuration of driver settings and/or light source aimings is obtained.
  • Yet another feature of the present invention logical controller and software is that the lighting fixture 450 has apparatus to check the illumination level of the lighting set-up upon installation and provide feedback so that manually made aimings are directed to obtain a desired illumination or luminance. The camera 453 serving as a light meter obtains luminance readings on surfaces in the living space. It inputs data to the controller 454 which provides readout either on a display on the FAML 450 or communicated to another device having a display. The installer using a calibrated reference reflective sheet of known color and reflectance values placed on surfaces at particular aimings will check if the desired illumination and chromacity is being provided. The reference sheets can also be used to calibrate the room surfaces for future camera sensor 453 readings by storing in 454 the actual surface readings vs. those of the reference sheet. Once the camera 453 is calibrated as to the reflectance and color of room surfaces the FAML 450, in a servomechanism enabled embodiment, with automatically movable light sources 457, will perform its own re-configuration to reach optimal light provision. The calibration is affected by using the camera array 453 to detect luminance as a measure of the lighting fixture instantaneous illuminance in that direction vs. the power level at which the light source is being driven. To calibrate the illumination system, the logical controller 454 can use a given LED installed on the fixture which serves as a light source standard when driven at known voltage and current. The light intensity vs. driving power for the light sources can be carried out in the factory after assembly is complete. Alternately, an additional light sensor of superior accuracy stability is provided for in the sensor pack 453 and can be used to calibrate the camera sensor array.
  • In a preferred embodiment the control unit 454 is optionally outfitted with a photometer 453 which can be used to read the luminance and spectral reflectance of the room surfaces and transmit the data for use in the lighting program FIG. 15. Using the same process a lighting designer uses to enter data to the lighting analysis programs the installer inputs to the controller as to the illuminance or luminance goals for each surface. The lighting program as known in the art then specifies the correct lighting levels, aimings and spectrum for the different locations and uses throughout the room. This is reversing the typical design process where the lighting fixtures performance is simulated on a computer and the results calculated. Here, the required illuminance or luminance results are known first and the fixture is then programmed to make them happen. The controller 454 uses its stored performance characteristics to determine the power supply to the light sources so that it provides the required intensities to obtain the required illuminance. The lighting calculations and programming of the power supply 456 of the light sources 457 is preferably performed in real time such that the sensor 453 detects the illuminance to corroborate the performance while the installer is still at the location. If the lighting is not to specification then the controller 454 readjusts the parameters so as to bring them in line. This trial and error process continues until the readings are within tolerance. The process is best carried out in the dark or when there is non-varying daylight. Alternately, the photometric reading sensors are on the luminaire and they are used to corroborate performance. In a preferred embodiment the camera for vision is also the photometer. Alternately, the process is automatic using feedback from the surroundings and pattern recognition to determine surroundings and applications.
  • A number of circuits in devices 452, 455 and 456 are utilized to power equipment in the fixture 450 and carry out control. The power supply may be a constant voltage supply or current source. The control circuitry comprises feedback sensors 453 coupled to the logical controller 454 to detect light intensity and color spectrum of the radiation. Associated logic circuitry, responsive to the detected light intensity and color spectrum over the spatial distribution, controls the power delivered to the individual LED diodes, so as to provide a desired intensity distribution over space. In an example using a combination of different colored LEDs, the logic circuitry 454 is responsive to the detected color spectrum of the outputted light. It controls the driver 456 to selectively increase or decrease power to individual coincidentally directed light emitting diodes as is needed to obtain the desired color spectrum of the illumination as well as it luminous intensity.
  • FIG. 16 is a universal lighting fixture 470 comprised of a structure 471 with means for attaching mechanically and electrically to any of the elements selected from the group consisting of electric power conditioning apparatus, a logical controller with processing and storage capacity, light sources, radiation sources, transducers and sensors. The structure can be factory manufactured or come in a do-it-yourself DIY version. The lighting fixture has a geometrical shape calculated by the inverse square cosine law for set types of light pattern distributions. In one embodiment the structural shape of fixture 470 is such that an even, homogenous light distribution will be obtained on a work plane below when the Plug and Play light source modules 472 are connected. In a do-it-yourself lay-up-able embodiment of the luminaire 470, the luminaire light source elements 472 are configured by the user in situ according to the illumination needs where the fixture 470 is hung. They may be reconfigured when the lighting needs changes such as when furniture is rearranged in the room. The lighting fixture structure 471 covered with removable facet covers 473. Facet 474 has been opened exposing the receptacle 476 to accept additional light source module 477. The receptacle 476 is provided with a connective affixing means 478 for having light source module 477 attached to it both mechanically and electrically. Light source module 477 is also provided with a complementary connector element 479 which mates with connector 477. Connector 478 is wired to a power conditioning and control elements provided with luminaire 470 as needed by the configuration. The additional light source module 477 with its characteristic beam spread 480 mounted on a opened facet 474 on the structure 471 is at a different aiming via the position on the luminaire 471 where it is being mounted. The light sources 477 have a characteristic beam spread 480 and optical axis 481. The receptacle 476 allows for some rotation of the installed light source 477 on the X Y or Z axes. Thus when a number of light sources are laid up and aimed in the same direction they will add intensity to the light distribution in that direction and when added on the curved fixture 471 surface at different angles they will increase the coverage area of the lighting fixtures illumination. Markings are provided on the structure with the angle of the position thus the user following instructions can attach the light sources at angles which will yields an even light distribution up to the cutoff angle.
  • A lighting design computer program known in the art will simulate to the user what the light output will be from the luminaire as it is configured. A logical controller on the luminaire can determine from the plugged in light source units which have a identifying data chip 479 in the connector relaying what its light distribution is and communicates to a simulation program the present configuration aimings and light source characteristics. In addition a sensor 482 is provided on the luminaire. The camera like sensor 482 measures the resultant light output and relays those results to the simulation program. Thus the user can build a customized lighting fixture that ensures proper lighting intensity where needed and does not waste light where not needed. The plug and play light source characteristics are known to the controller and their operating characteristics may then be programmed via the lighting simulation program. Using the lighting simulation program, the employed element characteristics, now a part of the controllers feedback loop, are used to direct the user to rearrange the lighting modules to further refine the fixture's 470 light output.
  • The do-it-yourself lighting fixture 470 has special lighting fixture accessories that are attachable to the structure. Spot light module 482 with a narrow beam spread is an example of a special accessory. It can be a light source or a radiation source such as an Infra-Red heating source or a combined heat and light source. It is mounted on the fixture via swivel joint 483 which is manually positioned at an angle required for the illumination task. A special laser pointer LED 484 is provided in the center of the light source LED array 485 to facilitate exact aiming of the spot light. The lighting module 482 is provided with connection means to the power and control signals via the joint 483. The module is also provided with cooling fins 486 to maintain optimal temperature for the LED sources. The swivel joint 483 can be a motorized joint with motion in two axes controlled by the logical controller. Thus the logical controller 454 in conjunction with the camera vision system 475 when identifying a person in need of spot lighting as per the computer program of FIG. 15 will pivot the spot light 482 so that it is aimed in the direction where the task lighting is required. At the same time the lighting fixture 470 will maintain general lighting at recommended levels over the rest of the room thus significantly saving energy.
  • In another embodiment one or more light sources, acting as a spot light 482 of limited beam angle, is on an automated swivel joint. The controller 454 receiving input from the camera and using computational image recognition algorithms in a program as in FIG. 15 follows the person around the room providing them with higher intensity lighting for their visual tasks. Further image recognition capability which may also be complemented by video analytics technology where computer vision is used to filter and manage real time video for security and intelligent traffic monitoring, helping to recognize activities as they happen in real-time which enables the controller to determine any of the following: a change in the persons activity, in what direction the eyes may be directed, what objects the person is viewing and what visual task the person needs to perform. Based on that information the controller 454 powers the spot light sources 482 and general lighting sources 472 to provide the correct lighting for the specific visual task undertaken, be it reading a book or watching TV.
  • An irradiation device embodiment of this FAML invention can use the computer vision and aim-ability function to provide infrared heating to individuals in indoor and outdoor settings. The heat radiation sources can be infrared filament lamps or infrared LEDs in addition to other wavelengths. The irradiating devices 472 mounted on the irradiation fixture can provide general area heating or spot heating 482 to people or objects. Computer recognition of individuals is used to irradiate them as they move about the living space. Using face recognition algorithms and stored personal preferences from the data storage, the logical controller 454 will aim the heating rays specifically where on their body they prefer to be heated as well as in what amount and at what times. The camera 475 has sensors sensitive to infra-red wavelengths around 12 μm (micrometers) radiated from people. The controller obtaining the information from the body temperature sensor will run algorithms to calculate radiation parameters and will control the irradiation in time and intensity on the individual to maintain comfortable heating per best practice standards, drawing on stored data of heating practices, or personally input preferences. People may be sensitive to radiation heating on certain parts of the body. For example heating on the head area causes some people discomfort, the camera and controller processor system can use image recognition to identify parts of the body and the controller can provide a different radiation level to the head vs. the rest of the body. Other people feel the cold in the legs etc. In addition the controller can obtain information on other environmental parameters such as the temperature, humidity etc which affect the heating regimen. Thus the camera sensor 475 is an energy saving sensor replacing the room heating thermostat used to maintain the entire room at a high ambient temperature with a more accurate and localized actual measure of the individual's temperature. The radiating fixture 470 will them provide localized heating on an as needed basis to maintain comport. The FAML logical controller 454 runs the algorithms and provides spot heating only when necessary and in the right amount. Just as moveable head stage lighting follows the performer about the stage the camera/controller vision system follows the person around the room or outdoors and keeps them warm with an infra-red lamp 482. It is to be understood that the irradiating source can be supplying UV radiation, visible light, or any other radiation for therapeutic, pleasure or manufacturing purposes such as UV, EB or heat curing adhesives etc.
  • In an embodiment of the FAML the infrared radiation sources are added to the light source and can work together when necessary to provide heat and light. Thus in a living room fixture where the house heating has been turned down to energy saving levels an individual can receive concentrated light for reading as well as concentrated beam of infrared heating.
  • FIG. 25A and FIG. 25B shows an embodiment of this invention for use indoors or outdoors the light source arrays are mounted at the end of rods extending from the light fixture housing containing the control equipment. In an example lighting application, the fixture 487 is located over a table in a living room. The rods 488 supporting the light source modules have means for re-positioning either manually or automatically. In a manual system, the user based on the future use of the luminaire, sets up the spatial light distribution to best meet the visual requirements of people within the living space by re-positioning the rods. In one embodiment, for set up purposes, a red laser pointer is built into each array as was laser 484 in FIG. 24. Alternately, a laser pointer accessory is clipped onto the individual light module to assist in aiming. The user by trial and error using their own eyes as detectors or sensors 489 eventually reaches a functional light distribution with the lighting fixture for that specific installation. In an automatic system when the camera sensor 489 detects a person sitting at the table the automatic servos move the rods 488 so that the light output of many sources is aimed towards the table below producing high intensity task lighting as shown in FIG. 25A. When a room occupant is seated on the couch in the living room and watching TV the lighting fixture structure is changed to the configuration of FIG. 25B which offers general lighting at a lower intensity. The camera vision system will recognize a TV screen and the controller using the program of FIG. 15 will not illuminate light sources shining in the screen's direction that are aimed towards it at angles which would cause glare.
  • An outdoor FAML 487 equipped with camera vision capabilities for the detection and/or tracking of people, is another embodiment of this invention which has a number of improvements over present area illumination technology. The outdoor lighting fixture 487 is first configured to the geometrical peculiarities of the specific yard where it has been installed and is calibrated with the sensors 489 readings. If the area to be illuminated is rectangular with a narrow distance ahead of the fixture and a wide area of to the sides, the light sources mounted on the moveable arms are moved closer together in y axis while on the x axis the light source are distanced from each other and are at aimings angled higher to cover the extended width on the x axis. To compensate for the larger are the LEDs on the x axis are driven at higher power to cover for the larger area. Conversely for a square area the light sources are distributed evenly so as to illuminate on the intensity level set at the factory as in FIG. 25B. If there is an area where high intensity task lighting is needed the luminaire is configured with multiple light sources coincidently directed to intensely illuminate that area as in FIG. 25A. The lighting level for security and orientation is usually low and when people arrive on the scene the light level increases. When people are present in the specific area where high intensity is needed for tasks the spot light function is engaged. If infrared lighting is need for the security camera then provision is made to have IR sources aimed at the specific areas of concern.
  • FIG. 17 is a perspective view of a lighting fixture embodiment 490 capable of producing both a differentiated spatial light intensity distribution as well as a spatially differentiated light spectrum distribution. The luminaire 490 has multiple light source modules 491, 492 and 493 with each module comprised of more than one LED chips which can be powered by the logical controller and control electronics 494 at differentiated power levels. LEDs are arranged in arrays of RGB (substantially red, green and blue color LEDs) or arrays with of any of ROYGBIV LEDs completing white LEDs to produce varieties of white light. The logical controller 494, using algorithms based on the principles of additive color mixing of light sources to control the change in chromacity affects, via the differentiated powering of coincidentally aimed light sources, the production of a unique spectral light distribution having a certain color temperature and/or color rendering index of light. This may be accomplished at once for all light output from the luminaire 490 or any particular aiming 495. The logical controller operates with data storage and program similar to the system shown in FIG. 14 and FIG. 15.
  • Alternately, to vary the CCT or CRI, in place of an RGB or MCY (substantially magenta, cyan and yellow LED's) or some alternative LED colorimetry system, the luminaire is equipped with different types of phosphor based white light LEDs 491 of different color temperature, where one or the other is used for a specific lighting task. In another embodiment, a monochrome LED can be added to the white LED to adjust its color temperature or rendering shifting its CCT and/or CRI. In addition, the use of shorter wavelength LEDs with nano-dots or quantum dot optics such as those from QD Vision, whose Quantum Light™ optics and films improve the color gamut of LEDs as they absorb some of the cool, blue LED light and efficiently re-emit it as warm, red light. This balances the lighting color spectrum, creating a pleasing incandescent quality light yet at significantly higher efficiency. Thus the fixture 490, in addition to having a controllable non-symmetric light intensity distribution in different directions also has a controlled spectral light distribution in different directions enabling a unique color rendering of one surface and a different color rendering of a second surface.
  • As an example of the luminaire's benefits and agility to provide correct lighting where it is needed at minimal energy consumption, an embodiment of the invention, a spatially and spectrally adjustable restaurant lighting fixture is presented in FIG. 17. In a restaurant lighting application it would be beneficial for the customer experience if those dining, the food and ambience would all appear at their best. The problem is that even at high CRI, some color temperatures are better than others at making food appear more appetizing to customers than another. As the portions served under a single prior-art lighting fixture vary, some of them will not be shown in their best light. For example, light at 3500K−4100K helps accentuate the textures and colors of fish and white meat while the rosy hue of a 2250K light source will accentuate the color and juices of red meat. Thus it would be beneficial if the light which is illuminating the specific table setting can be varied in accordance with the food being served. The FAML with its capability of delivering spatially differentiated illumination will render each portion in its best light. Using programmed scene recognition algorithms, the luminaire's computer vision system comprised of the camera sensor 496 and logical controller 494 identifies the food on the plate, looks-up in storage the recommended CCT and powers each of the different colored LED chips aimed thereon at the correct power level in order to provide the optimal color illumination.
  • In addition the logical controller can determine on its own the preferential color of the illumination based on the reflections off of the food. The controller runs a computer routine where it rapidly varies the light spectrum to preset CCTs and/or CRIs shining on the food on the plate. The camera records the image at each preset and the logical controller 494 compares the image coloring with stored rules of recommended practice for color rendering and determines the best illumination color setting. The controller 494 resets the illumination characteristics until the next change on the table occurs. The recommended practice programmed into the controller is based on IESNA illuminance information or restaurant illumination as described in industry literature such as Successful Restaurant Design by Regina S. Baraban, Joseph F. Durocher John Wiley and Sons, 2001.
  • The lighting fixture 490 has means to illuminate separate portions at a table comprised of directable or aim-able lighting modules 491 etc which are on moveable structural parts 497. The lighting fixture 490 also has computational means of providing the optimal color and intensity of light so as to render people, food, objects in their best light as well as to build a dining room ambience through lighting according to recommended practice or user preferences. The moveable structural bars 497 are manually positionable so as to aim the light sources towards the people, table and surrounding. In a preferred embodiment, the moveable structural parts 497 connected to the light modules are automatically moveable via actuator or servo motors controlled by the logical controller 494.
  • We have described a system for improving the appearance of the food but the same system applies to making the customer appear at their best. In another fixture embodiment the intensity and chromacity of the lighting illuminating the customer is adjusted manually via input means or automatically via stored algorithms to suit the customer's preferences. The fixture 490 has separately amiable light sources such as LED module 492 to illuminate the food and light source 493 to illuminate the customer. The specific group of light sources for each task may be manually positioned or a camera vision system has algorithmic means to identify and track the position of people and objects and the logical controller has motion control means for re-aiming the light sources towards targeted elements and changing the power level to the LED chips.
  • In an automated embodiment, controller 494, based on image recognition of images provided by camera sensor 496, moves the powered structural parts 497 to re-aim the light sources on the food, table or those dining as needed. Thus as an example of the unique, differentiated lighting capability of the novel luminaire 490, multiple light sources are used as follows; a number of wide angle light distribution light sources 491 are used to illuminate the table at a low 100 lux illuminance with a warm 3000K color temperature to build dining ambiance; while narrow beam, spot LED 492 illuminates the fish on the plate at 300 lux and 4000K CCT (in conjunction with ambient lighting LED 491) to help accentuate the textures and colors of the fish; while the light module 493 is aimed at a diner with low enough luminous exitance so as not to cause glare but with a color spectrum that is complementary to that of general lighting module 491 such that it enhances the makeup and skin color of the customer showing them at their best. When the visual task of the customer reading the menu is recognized by the computer vision system, the logical controller 494 can increase the light module 491 output to 300 lux making the reading easier. The controller re-dims the light module 491 when the menu is recognized by the vision system 496 as being put away.
  • In an integrated restaurant illumination system embodiment, the customer will first try out the lighting in the rest room where they may apply makeup under a FAML luminaire having capability of producing light in a variety of chromacities, which the customer can experiment while viewing themselves in a mirror. The rest-room lighting fixture has a readout or is equipped with communications means, as is the lighting fixture controller 494 with which it is in contact. Having discovered their CCT and/or CRI lighting preference, the customer uses an input means and communications means to set the lighting fixture 490 at the table to the same successful chromacity obtained in the restroom.
  • In another embodiment a lighting fixture on the wall or floor such as a torchiere or a ceiling mounted fixture serves as a light engine for the entire room replacing a number of lighting fixtures while increasing the efficiency and quality of the lighting. FIG. 17 is a perspective view of a FAML lighting fixture 500 capable of providing both general and task lighting. The fixture body 501 has power conditioning electronics and logical control electronics and has light sources mounted on curvilinear light bars 503 that are configurable. This geometry and configurability enables light source aimings that will provide a substantially homogeneous illumination on a work plane through the room in which it is installed. It will also offer customization of the illumination to the actual geometric and usage peculiarities of the living space where the fixture 500 has been installed. In addition the lighting fixture 500 is equipped with one or more spot lights 504 having a narrow light beam spread which are able to provide high intensity illumination over a small area. As opposed to general area lighting, the spot may provide task lighting. It is a principle of this invention that the fixture 500 provides as much light as is needed in the living space, no less and no more. Thus the LED powering circuitry as shown in FIG. 14 is configured such that each light source covering a different area is capable of being driven at a different power level. The differentiated electronic power supply is configured such that if a homogenous illuminance is required by recommend lighting practice within a living space, the illuminance in the area covered by higher angled light source 505 is at recommended level even if that area is at a greater distance and angle from the luminaire than an area illuminated by a second light source 502 as dictated by the inverse square cosine law. The adjustable lighting fixture structure is provided with moveable joints 506 which have means for being positioned at specific angles which are relatable to a lighting design software program such as those commercially available to lighting designers. The software can be run on the logical controller 501 or on a remote computer. When the light source module 502 etc light distributions and aimings are input into the lighting design software program along with the room dimensions and surface reflectance's, the illuminance within the room is calculated. The powering of the LED modules is then adjusted via controller electronics 501 to obtain the recommended practice illuminance.
  • Normally, a light fixture must be placed substantially above the area to be illuminated so as not to produce glare and veiling reflections. For example computer screens are to be protected from light rays at large angles from the nadir to prevent veiling reflections. In addition the illuminance of light rays at large angles from the nadir striking horizontal surfaces decreases as described by the cosine law. In addition, the quality of the lighting is a function of the balance of vertical as well as horizontal lumens illuminating an object. A tennis ball illuminated on top but not on the sides flying at 80 mph will be difficult to see. It is also important to provide illumination from multiple angles to prevent shadows that can be created by single lights. Thus, many lighting fixtures would be needed to illuminate a large room to insure the visual performance and comfort of its inhabitants. In an embodiment of the invention, a single light engine device for a room our outdoor location allows for the light to be generated in one place and then beamed from the concentrated light sources 504 at small angles of divergence to reflectors or refractors which redirect the light to the users in a localized area or to other reflectors so as to go around corners and illuminate areas not in the luminaire's direct line of sight. A single location for the light source simplifies the provision of power to the fixture. A builder doesn't need to run wiring all over the ceiling and not having an outlet box in the right place in a room or lot is no longer a problem. In addition a single location allows for greater investment in an efficient cooling system as well as for the removal of waste heat from an air conditioned environment and reduces installation and fixture costs. It also allows for greater investment in computer vision and logical controller apparatus enabling higher quality lighting at lower energy expenditures.
  • A necessary prerequisite for this remote lighting technology to be effective is the ability to generate concentrated beams of light with low divergence angles at high beam utilization. That is, 1) that most of the initial light generated gets out of the optical apparatus used to generate the tight beam and 2) most of the light flux is within the narrow beam with minimum spill outside the beam. A commercially available LED product such as the Artavi 10° product from Illumitex offers 90% of the light output in 10 degrees of the beam. The beam efficacy is above 80 lumen per watt proving that it is possible to generate well controlled light distribution patterns with minimal spill light. However, to reduce the size of the remote reflectors at the mounting heights and distances typically found in rooms, a 5 degree beam spread is even more attractive. Typically 3 meter distances are beyond the coverage of a comfortable cutoff home and office luminaires mounted at 2.7 meter ceiling height. Thus large room lighting needs would not be best met with a single light source due to the visual discomfort due to glare at higher angles of light emission. Therefore, it is highly beneficial to have an efficient manner of moving light in narrow beams of limited divergence over large distances to reduce the cost of lighting installations. LED optics as shown in FIG. 12 including a collimating lens for narrow beam generation are available with a light collection efficiency of >85%. Its function is based on the optical principle of total internal reflection, which contributes to the high efficiency of the optical system. Further measures can be taken to collect the 15% escaping light such as an encompassing reflector system.
  • FIG. 19 is a perspective view of satellite secondary light source which is a light modifying element capable of redirecting light from primary light sources such as lamps or the sun while not producing light on its own. In this embodiment the light engine 500 is equipped with light sources 504 capable of projecting at an exact aiming 508 high intensity, narrow light beams with minimal beam spread to the distant light modifying elements 510 in the room such that the light rays 511 from the light source 504 that are reflected off of theses surfaces 512 become local light source rays 513 at smaller angles from the nadir (directly down at zero degrees angle) substantially above or behind the user's eyes thus providing comfortable non-glaring lighting. These light direction modifying devices 514, referred to herein as Satellite Light Source, STLS, are reflective surfaces or refractors or combinations thereof or other optical light modifying apparatus. The satellite light sources may be ubiquitous insofar as a reflective decal on the wall or a painted wall or ceiling with sufficient reflectivity will function well as a secondary source. Thus specially installed STLS can work together with room elements of sufficient reflectivity using direct lighting and indirect lighting to achieve lighting goals. The secondary light source may be attached via an extended rod to the luminaire itself or may be a highly reflective large diameter ceiling medallion. The illumination advantages of having secondary light sources are many and include: lighting exits the light source at angles which do not cause glare, the lighting comes from additional directions to that of the luminaire avoiding shadows, and adds light from angles that contribute to the proper mix of vertical and horizontal lumens. In addition there are a number of practical, economic and efficiency advantages.
  • In a manual system, the fixture's 500 concentrated light sources 504 can be aimed using a laser pointer to aim the light beam 508 to target 519 on the re-directive optical device. This manual method may also be used to initially calibrate an automatic aiming system with preset scenario positions for the concentrated light sources stored into the logical controller 501. In an automated embodiment, the light engine uses a computer vision capability to identify the whereabouts of persons performing visual tasks in the room. The controller then aims one or more concentrated light sources at the optical device which re-distributes the light locally. The light engine can be equipped with more than one aim-able concentrated light source and can provide more than one user with task lighting. Thus, a ceiling fixture 500 may have light sources providing a general lighting function with light aimed at the ceiling edges to perform an indirect, soffit lighting type of lighting effect, with task lighting performed by the concentrated light source aimed on the task directly from the fixture itself or via a re-directive STLS optical device. In a preferred embodiment an infra-red or visible laser on the concentrated light source assists the automated computer vision system in aiming all the light producing and modifying elements such that maximum light is directed on the visual task in real time. Undetectable infra-red sources may also be included in the light source array make-up so as to assist in computer vision recognition. These non-visible sources may be pulsed to aid in tracking of people, their eyes and objects while not disturbing normal vision.
  • The light engine 500 of FIG. 18 together with the re-directive optical devices of FIG. 19 can be used to integrate light energy obtained from the sun with the artificial lighting system. That is, where a building has apparatus for the collection of sunlight and its transport via light guides or fibers into the building's interior, the light fixture 500 will serve to distribute the sunlight within the living space. Whereby the light engine 500 has any of: a) optical device for accepting the solar light, b) optical guide paths for conducting the light; c) optical devices for redirecting the path of the light and d) filters for adjusting the amount and spectrum of the light to be used so as to be able to distribute it within to the room to where it is needed. These optical devices and filters include light valves, prisms, controllable piezoelectric light guides, MEMS devices, optical switches and mirrors to redirect or modulate light beams. In addition, the light engine has optical devices which when necessary, can direct the sunlight to the satellite re-directive optical devices deployed around the living space. When light from the sun is no longer sufficient the artificial lighting system powers the light sources to make up for the shortfall. The light engine may be placed on a wall and integrally include the sunlight collection system outdoors with the artificial light generation and distribution system indoors. It would be similar in concept to how a wall air-conditioner system works. The sunlight collection system via the controller would take the need for the lighting into account based on occupancy and environmental conditions. In the summer the system using dichroic or other filter method would remove the infra-red spectrum from the light while in the winter when heating is needed would pass the radiation indoors. The sunlight collection system using controlled re-directive optical devices to capture the sunlight will redirect the light through windows or optical paths to aid in light is required within the room.
  • FIG. 20 depicts an adjustable luminaire 500 in a lighting application where the user needs for illumination vary with time. The STLS 510 is a specially mounted remote reflective surface, strategically placed in the room so as to illuminate work, living or entertainment stations or alternatively is a wall or ceiling surface with sufficient or modified reflectivity. The re-directive optical devices have an optical design capable of efficiently redirecting the light symmetrically or asymmetrically for the performance of visual tasks such as looking at a computer screen or reading. They have means of attachment 515 to the ceiling, wall or placed on a piece of furniture. The STLS may be of fixed light modification characteristics or have means 516 for moving the reflecting surfaces 512 and selecting between various light distribution patterns. That is, the satellite light source 510 has manual or automatic means 516 for changing its optical performance, say from a spot light to a flood light distribution and/or it has automatic or manual means 517 for changing the direction of the satellite's illumination. In addition the outgoing beam 508 from the FAML 500 to the STLS 511 can be modified by the controller 501 via the light source 504 in a way that changes the output luminous flux to the visual task. The outgoing beam spread is varied or its aiming changed to a different area 518 on the STLS with a different light modification characteristic. To change the beam spread of light 508 exiting from light source 504 the logical controller 501 has means to vary the LED chips being powered or the configuration of beam modifying optical device 509. The optical device may be a lens using refraction or a reflector, a combination of both or any other light ray modifying device.
  • In order to aid in aiming the concentrated light source 504 such as with the laser pointer device described earlier, there is a target area 519 on satellite 510 for use with manual or automated computer vision aiming. In an automated satellite embodiment there is need for electric power to control apparatus used for light beam aiming, sensors and communications. A hook up of control mechanism 517 to electricity from a battery or the mains power supply is provided for in attachment means 515. In an advanced embodiment, satellite light source 510 is powered by photovoltaic cells 520 receiving light energy and converting it to electric energy which may be stored in the movement control apparatus 517. The movement control apparatus 517 also has communications capability with the lighting control system and light engine 500. To obtain better images for scene recognition software or for eye tracking, a camera or sensor 521 is positioned on the satellite light source 510. Thus the STLS can provide high definition images of people and objects within a living space for use with the lighting control system as well as with other home automation or security systems.
  • In an automated embodiment of this invention the logical controller 501 can communicate with and modify the secondary satellite light source 510 optical performance, say from a spot light to a flood light distribution, via controlled joints 516 or alter the STLS aiming via rotation apparatus 517 to illuminate a different area or object in real time as picked up by the camera 507 and analyzed in controller 501. As the illumination need in the room changes, the controller 501 sends a light beam with tailored spread, intensity and chromacity to the re-directive STLS optical device or room surface best positioned in the room to provide the optimal lighting. The controller 501 determines the visual task needed to be performed at that moment and chooses the optimal STLS device in the room to send light towards. The controller re-directs light source 504 which is mounted on moveable joint 506 to beam correct intensity and chromacity light flux to that STLS. In instances where an installed STLS device is not correctly positioned to provide lighting at optimal incident angles, the wall or ceiling (if their reflectance and color values are reasonable) can be used. In order to power sensors and actuators on a STLS satellite not connected to the mains power supply, a battery can be used. In a preferred embodiment in place of a cumbersome power mains supply hookup, a photocell or power transducer is mounted on a portion of the STLS. It is used to translate light energy or radiation from the FAML or other energy source to electric power for use by power consuming elements such as sensors, automated motion equipment or communications devices on the STLS.
  • To further illustrate the capabilities of a multiple light source lighting fixture with differentiated control of the spatial light distribution coupled with a camera sensor system, an example of usage in a home environment is described. As shown in FIG. 20 a man seated on a chair reading a book 122 is detected by camera sensor 507 and the vision recognition software recognizes the scene and the logical controller 501 runs algorithms and looks up the recommended lighting level and set up from the data storage as described earlier. The light engine luminaire controller 501 adjusts concentrated light source 504 via joint 506 so that it is aimed at satellite reflector 510 which has been attached to the ceiling or wall. Reflector 510 is positioned and angled relative to the incoming beam 523 such that that the reflected beam 525 illuminates the book 522. The reader now receives illumination to read the book from the rear over his shoulder which is superior to receiving light from the luminaire 500 in front. To corroborate if enough light is being provided for the visual task of reading, the controller 501 uses feedback control methodology obtaining an approximation of the luminance on the book 522 from camera 507. The light intensity of beam 523 can be raised or lowered by logical controller 501 to conform with recommended practice. If the user is unhappy with the lighting system's performance, he signals logical controller 501 audibly or electromagnetically to affect a change and obtain their personally preferred lighting characteristics.
  • The table lamp 524 next to the man on the chair is another embodiment of this invention and consists of remotely positioned electricity to light energy conversion device 500 which beams light to a STLS mounted on a table atop a post which captures the beam 511 coming from centralized light engine 500 and redirects it downwards on the book 522. Thus the controller 501 has the capability to use an alternative path to illuminating the book 522. Instead of from behind and above the reader, it controls adjusting means 506 to redirect light source 504 such that it is aimed at table satellite lamp 524 which illuminate the book from the side. Another alternative illumination method to illuminating the book 522 is controller 501 directing light source 504 to illuminate the reflective wall section 525 proximate to the book 522. The logical controller 501 uses the camera sensor 507 and vision system 501 to check if there are obstacles in the beam path and choose the best illumination scheme at the lowest energy use for getting the visual task done. Most importantly, the user themselves have control access to the wide variety of optional lighting schemes from which to choose the one they prefer. Their preferences are then stored for future instances of the same application in controller 501. The logical controller 501 sensing that the TV 526 is being observed, such as when the TV screen is turned on and the book closed, adjusts luminaire 500 light output in that section of the room to the recommend lighting level and chromacity for TV viewing.
  • Another room occupant is sitting at the dining room table. She is sipping a cup at the same time as he is watching TV. At the same time logical controller 501 discerns, using scene recognition algorithms, that based on her head position, she is reading a book 527 and not watching the television screen 526. The concentrated light source 528 is aimed by controller 501 to provide direct illumination to perform the visual task of reading the book that she is assumed to be undertaking. If not happy with the lighting level she may command the lighting controller, either audibly or by a gesture picked up by the camera vision system or electromagnetically through a control device, to affect a change.
  • To further save energy the logical controller 501 receives input from the light sensor 507 that natural lighting from the window 529 is contributing to the illuminance on the book 527. To get an accurate reading of illuminance on the book from the natural lighting source, the logical controller will, for an instantaneous fraction of a second, indiscernible to the human eye, turn off the artificial lighting of luminaire 500. If the natural lighting is not at the required level per correct lighting practice, the controller drives area lighting LED light source 528 as needed to compensate. When the sun changes position, the altered contribution is picked up by the sensor 507 and the intensity of illuminator 504 is adjusted by the controller. Further power saving is obtained due to the differentiated light delivery capacity of the luminaire as well as its differentiated area sensor system. Light sources 502 on the light bar 503 whose aimings are towards surfaces illuminated by the sunlight are reduced in power while those directed at areas in the room far from the window not receiving a significant solar illumination are powered at the usual level.
  • In another embodiment of this invention, the centralized light engine 500 is adapted for use in an open plan office lighting system. The large office space is divided into cubicles and workstations beneath an acoustic ceiling. The light engine 500 is mounted within the plenum space above the acoustic ceiling in a location central to a number of workstations. It is equipped with a number of high intensity narrow beam light sources 504 which project light to STLS satellite light sources 510 which is a light guide or reflector which redirects the beam through a transparent aperture in the acoustic ceiling to the workstation below. The STLS sensor 507 detects whether an office worker is at the workstation and communicates with controller 501 to power the light source 504 so as to provide lighting at the workstation. The camera sensor 507 relays images to the controller which analyzes the data to determine the visual task being performed and drives the LEDs so as to obtain the correct illumination. When the workstation is vacated, even temporarily, the lighting returns to the low ambient lighting level. More than one STLS can be used per workstation to provide illumination to individual objects, surfaces or other STLS or light guides beneath the acoustic ceiling which can provide illumination under overhanging shelves on work surfaces.
  • The artificial vision scene recognition system algorithms programmed into the controller 501 are obtained by methodologies known in the art such as using neural network architectures and learning algorithms for pattern recognition, image processing, and computer vision. The remote lighting system that has been disclosed herein, the home example of which has been illustrated in FIG. 29 and an office example in the preceding paragraph is a generalized illumination technique for providing distinctive area illumination from a single light engine is a unique teaching of the present invention; whereby a centralized area lighting system is comprised of 1) one or more primary light sources which generate light from electricity capable of directly and indirectly illuminating a living space, 2) differentiated secondary light sources, dispersed over the area that receive light energy from the primary light source and 3) sensors that are in communication with the controller which provide feedback on the illumination, help in aiming the light output from the sources and collect images for identifying visual tasks to aid the controller in directing and regulating the light. The light is sent either directly to the areas to be lit or to the secondary STLS, wall, ceiling, or satellite light sources. The result being that the lighting system provides correct and comfortable lighting for a variety of visual tasks being carried out in different, distinct sections of the area.
  • As opposed to prior art lighting design specification given at the highest common denominator illuminance in the hope of getting the human eye to see with an acceptable visual acuity, the camera equipped system is able to work on a tailored to fit luminance basis because this is what the eye sees, the light reflected off of surfaces. Therefore as the goal of illumination is to present objects to be viewed in their best light the area specific luminance detection device will offer an overall better vision experience while using minimal amount of energy. As an example of how the luminance based logic control system adapts the color and intensity of the lighting a board room lighting application is presented. The mahogany table in the living room or board room is no longer illuminated by light engine 500 at the set general illuminance for meeting rooms of 250 lux obtained from the lighting handbook lookup tables. Instead the computer vision and light-source control artificial intelligence systems 501 work in unison to illuminate the table with a color spectrum and intensity that provides the most pleasant and or accurate visual experience for the room occupants. To calculate the driving power necessary for the light sources the control system 501 has stored algorithms and lookup tables based on the best practice luminance and SPD to achieve the optimal lighting effect for a table of that color and reflectance. If a table cloth is placed on a table the light source 502 output is adapted accordingly to meet the AI decided upon illumination.
  • When the camera vision system 507 detects that a printed document 527 has been placed on the table the illuminating device controller 501 then changes the spectrum and/or intensity of light delivered to that 527 location's coordinates to best enable a person's viewing of the book. To know what is going on in the boardroom, the microphone in the detector pack 507 can also be used in unison with the camera vision to supply better information to the artificial intelligence system running on the processor 501 to further define the instantaneous usage of the room for the expert system. Based on the knowledge that someone is presently talking, especially if a slide show presentation is showing, would help the AI system decide what is occurring in the room so as to decide best between what may appear to be conflicting visual activities.
  • Although earlier mention was made of measuring and maximizing the light delivery of the lighting fixture based on luminance, in a preferred embodiment the light measuring device has the ability to deduce the spectral reflectance of surfaces and the control system had stored data and algorithms for processing based on two other factors the eye can sense. The illumination delivered is now based on measurable properties of the illumination and the surface. One is the appearance of surface colors is defined by the product of the spectral reflectance curve of the material and the spectral emittance curve of the light source shining on it. As a result, the color of surfaces depends on the SPD of the light source used to illuminate them of which the controller 501 can control based on stored lookup tables or algorithms which indicated what is the best SPD to illuminate this specific surface with. For example, what SPD is good for steak to appear best to the customer and what SPD illumination is optimal for pink lipstick. The other is the Color Rendering Index or CRI an indication of color accuracy as measured against a standard. So where the said appearance is a subjective measure based on tested opinions the CRI is measurable. Thus the processor 501 bases the SPD of light delivered to the specific surface as a function of optimal aesthetics and/or optimal rendering accuracy.
  • Recent findings show that the color of lighting can affect the energy efficiency of lighting systems. When the spectral properties of ambient lighting are shifted to be more like the color of daylight (more white), the human eye responds the same as if lighting levels were increased—the pupils of the eyes get smaller, spaces seem brighter, and people see things more clearly. In a field of lighting called Spectrally Enhanced Lighting S. M. Berman In an article titled “Energy Efficiency Consequences of Scotopic Sensitivity” published in the JOURNAL of the Illuminating Engineering Society Winter 1992. A later article in Lighting Research and Technology March 2006 vol. 38 no. 1 41-49 shows a comparison of traditional and high color temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children. As we describe commercially available LEDs are now available in various CCTs from cool to warm white where the controller will use of one over the other where the expert system choice can be determined by the lighting usage, energy saving and comfort factors. In an equation for application dependant lighting requirements Berman suggests multiplying the Photopic Lumen rating P by (S/P)n with P being Photopic lumens and S being Scotopic lumens. The controller then uses the value of n for the specifically identified lighting applications where for reading tasks the processor would look up the value n=0.78 and for computer tasks n=1.0. If the illumination goal is merely optimizing energy wise the “perceived brightness” of a space Berman finds n=0.58 to most correctly predict human response.
  • We thus claim the apparatus 500 capable of real time adjustment of the lighting according to algorithms or lookup tables with calculate-able or stored specifications for the angle of incident lighting, SPD and intensity scenarios for various skin colors, makeup, furniture and artwork colors and architectural surfaces. The initial lighting intensity and SPD values produced by the controller/processor may then be further optimized by the expert system to be correct in terms of one or more factors including visual performance, aesthetics, economic considerations, occupancy and load shedding among others. The users of the lighting can customize the lighting criterion according to their personal preferences by inputting the data to the controller and can switch between them.
  • For the case of illuminating the oil painting on the wall the controller in a novel way changes the lighting similar to how a photographic editing computer programs enhance a picture to make it look better. This is a novel technology reversing what camera or computer image editing programs do in automatic image enhancement. The computer algorithms in 501 have features that correct contrast, color, hue and brightness imbalances because of insufficient illumination characteristics in the lighting at hand. In this novel lighting system, those algorithms are used by the processor/controller to change in real time the characteristics of the illumination produced in each sub-surface area in order to obtain better looking visual environment.
  • Focus groups of individuals may be used to train the artificial intelligence lighting system on how to identify and best illuminate surfaces and objects in order to enable this new science of automated illumination. Using an experienced lighting designer to vary the lighting intensities and/or SPD for large numbers of typical lighting applications and various scenes to be picked up by the cameras and then using neural networks and other artificial intelligence programming techniques to teach the computer how to adjust the lighting while at the same time minimizing the energy used. Other methodologies, algorithms and techniques which are used in digital image processing include: pixelation, linear filtering, principal components analysis, independent component analysis, hidden Markov models, anisotropic diffusion, partial differential equations, self-organizing maps, neural networks, and wavelets among others. In a book titled Real-time Retinex Image Enhancement: Algorithm and Architecture Optimizations by Glenn Derrick Hines, Publisher College of William and Mary, 2006 and Signal Processing for Image Enhancement and Multimedia Processing (Multimedia Systems and Applications) by Ernesto Damian Springer; 2008 edition (Nov. 30, 2007) incorporated herein by reference multiple re-rendering techniques are disclosed and these algorithms are used by the lighting fixtures processor in real time to power the individual LEDs such that the optimal rendering has been obtained. The processor may also use algorithms from a field known as physically-based rendering which aims at producing photo-realistic imagery. Where spectral light and reflectance design optimization using linear spectral color models, quadratic programming offers tools to augment a palette of lights and material reflectances with constructed spectra yielding specified colors or spectral properties such as metamerism or objective color constancy. These algorithms are able to emphasize or hide parts of a scene by matching or differentiating colors under different illuminations. Using regularization and error minimization in a linear subspace representation it can characterize full spectra of lights, surfaces, and transmissive materials in an efficient linear subspace model by forming eigenvectors of sets of spectra and transform them to an intermediate space in which spectral interactions reduce to simple component-wise multiplications during rendering.
  • The adaptive illumination system 500 making use of the multiple light sources having differentiated areas of coverage as well as differentiated intensities and/or spectral power distributions is further capable of taking into account the visual function of the user such as based on their age or their personal preferences. The illumination now provided can be altered to prevent fatigue or care for other physiological factors such a pineal gland melatonin production and light therapy. As luminance better mimics the human experience, the detector based lighting device provides a superior, less energy wasteful illumination.
  • FIG. 30 is a perspective view of a luminaire with a special night light functionality. In locations such as a bedroom or tent used for security forces, besides the luminaire's standard white-light illumination function, there is need for an additional nightlight function for providing light of different chromacity or wavelength. Thus in an embodiment of the adjustable luminaire of this invention, a number of modes of lighting, varying in light intensity alone or both in intensity and chromacity are provided for by night light luminaire 530. The luminaire is comprised of multiple light sources 531, 532, and 533 of different color spectrum and/or wavelength. The LEDs are powered by electronic power condition gear 534 and logical controller 535 which implements these modes based on programmed times via the light fixture's internal clock as well as by an input device. An optional sensor pack 536 is provided which has a camera array or a light and/or occupancy sensor.
  • Using light at wavelengths that have different effects in the stimulation of the rods and cones in the eye, it is possible to provide night vision that does not require adaptation time normally required to best see in darkness. In addition it is possible to provide night light vision with light at wavelengths that do not interfere with the production of melatonin, the sleep hormone, by the pineal gland which is sensitive to light. In addition it is possible to provide bright light to increase serotonin levels and aid in waking. There are also instances where one occupant of a room needs to arise while another desires to remain sleeping and not be awakened by the turning on of a disturbing light. Thus it would be preferable for the lighting fixture used in sleeping areas to possess a lower illumination mode which allows for limited visual tasks to be carried out by some, while not intense enough to awaken others. It would also be preferable that the lighting intensity and/or spectrum be unique such that it does not disturb the sleep cycle of others who may be sleeping in the room by avoiding the suppression of melatonin production by the pineal gland.
  • An application for the use of the luminaire 530 is in permanent or temporary sleeping quarters for military or security personnel. The power conditioning equipment 534 is able to receive power at different voltages from 10 volts to 480 Volts from DC to any frequency any source of power. In a military setting it is important that soldiers exiting the sleeping quarters are able to immediately perform visual tasks in the darkness without waiting for their eye to adapt to the dark. This is because rhodopsin, also known as visual purple, a biological pigment of the retina that is responsible for enabling vision in low-light conditions, immediately photo-bleaches when exposed to light and it takes about 30 minutes to fully regenerate. Thus it would be beneficial for security force personnel who need to move around the living quarters to ready themselves for duty could use light at low levels that would not interfere with the rhodopsin. Thus, when the quarters are occupied only by non-sleeping individuals, the logical controller 535 powers the white light sources 531 at the power level set for high-activity general lighting. When the quarters are occupied by sleeping individuals, the logical controller 535 dims the white light sources 531 and powers the special wavelength light sources 532 and 533 at low intensity.
  • The special wavelength light sources are chosen as a function of the eye's photoreceptor's sensitivity. The rods (responsible for night vision) are most sensitive at a particular color blue-green (507 nm). Thus low lighting by light source 532 at that wavelength would provide the greatest visual response while minimizing energy causing the rhodopsin breakdown. A problem however with scotopic rod vision is that nothing can be seen directly in front of the eyes (no rods in the center of the retina). To see in the extreme dark one must learn to look about 15-20° off center. Not doing so results in the night blind spot which can cause mishaps and physical injury. On the other hand, the center 1.5% of the retina (the fovea) which provides the most detailed vision is packed almost exclusively with red sensitive cones. Thus to correct for the night blind spot light source 533 producing low levels of red light at a greater than a 650 nm wavelength are powered to illuminate. Experimentation shows that red LEDs with a peak around 697 nm seem to work best to supplement the low intensity blue-green 505 nm wavelength LED 532. Other wavelengths to accomplish the night vision functionality are possible and the two described here are by way of example.
  • Thus in an embodiment of the luminaire 530 for use where there is immediacy in the performance of low light visual tasks, there is provided an illumination capability with light sources of wavelength which interfere minimally with seeing in the dark. FAML 530 for use in airplane cockpits or living quarters used by security forces in a state of high readiness has a controller 535 and control gear 534 which drives special wavelength light sources 532 and 533 at the above mentioned wavelengths at low intensity. Either of light sources can be present and used independently or most beneficially in unison in the luminaire 530 to facilitate night vision. When maximum dark adaptation is required the red light intensity is set by the controller 535 and monitored by optional light sensor 536 to provide a low luminance of 0.07-0.35 cd/m2 (0.02-0.10 ft-L). In normal states of readiness the controller employs light sources 531 producing white light general lighting at an illumination level recommend by the IES for normal activities which is dimmed to a night light setting during non-alert low readiness situations. The nighttime low setting is such that the light flux will yield an illuminance of 0.15 lux on the floor with the chromacity of 4000K similar to moonlight.
  • In an embodiment of the multiple wavelength producing lighting fixture 530 light sources are provided that can be used to aid in the onset of sleep and/or in the onset of awakening. The multiple light source fixture is equipped with control and light source apparatus to illuminate persons or animals with light at wavelengths that are conducive to sleep or awakening. Kayumov et al. showed that light containing only wavelengths greater than 530 nm does not suppress melatonin production even in relatively bright-light conditions. Also Brainard et al in “Evidence for a Novel Circadian Photoreceptor” The Journal of Neuroscience, 15 Aug. 2001 shows that in normal healthy humans, equal photon density exposures of 1.9×1018 photons/cm′ at 460, 630, and 700 nm monochromatic light elicited a significant melatonin suppression at 460 nm while only small reductions of plasma melatonin levels at 630 and 700 nm. Thus the lighting fixture 530 has a general lighting light sources 531 which has radiation at wavelengths that suppress melatonin production and other light sources 532 and/or 533 which are at wavelengths above 570 nm and do not suppress melatonin production. Individuals with difficulty in going to sleep who are aided by increasing the melatonin level can then instruct logical controller 535 to provide only melatonin friendly illumination at the necessary time of day so as not to interfere with their or the children's sleep time. To aid in awakening the controller would illuminate the living space with light sources 531 which have melatonin suppressing wavelengths helping the individual to awaken. Research shows that if the light is in a particular spectrum (around 460 nanometers, which is in the blue range) greater benefits can be derives even from much dimmer light.
  • In places where individuals with sleep disorders reside in the hours before going to sleep, it would preferable to have illuminating devices capable of influencing sleep patterns. Thus it may be preferable to use lighting house wide to control sleep times. In a preferred embodiment the lighting fixture in the living room, bedroom or office would aid in the onset of sleep or aid in the onset of awakening with the lighting fixture making use of intensity variation and chromacity. The lighting intensity in the patients surround is controlled with reference to the planned sleep hours to adjust the circadian cycle and/or induce hormones so as to assist sleepers to arise by the use of light that is stimulating.
  • FIG. 22 is a perspective view of a multiple light source adjustable luminaire with added irradiation functionality. Returning to the geometrically adjustable FAML design with light sources for general lighting on moveable light bars and aim-able spot lighting sources we present an innovative added functionality illumination device. In this embodiment the luminaire 540 has means for limiting at certain times the spectrum of the illumination visible to an individual with difficulty in falling asleep. A fully featured FAML embodiment would be comprised of: a logical controller 541 having means for processing algorithms, data storage, communications and control capability for the task of influencing sleep cycles; power conditioning means 542 for powering controllers, sensors and light sources; standard full spectrum chromacity light sources combined with uniquely driveable light sources 543 that produce light at wavelengths most effective in stimulating or suppressing nocturnal melatonin; and sensors for detecting light and/or images 544. That is, the logical controller 541 can drive LED chips comprising light module 543 that produce a wide range of wavelengths or selectively drive only chips within a permitted wavelength range for some medical, therapeutic or even aesthetic effect. The narrow beam spread, spot light illuminating source 544 also has light producing semiconductor chips of a variety of wavelengths that can be independently powered from driver electronics 542. The light sources 543 and 544 are on movable mounting elements such as light bar 545 and there is the provision of sensors for logical control and feedback in sensor pack 546.
  • The use of the luminaire to affect sleep cycles is as follows: prior to going to sleep the individual will command controller 541 of the FAML 540 to illuminate their surroundings exclusively using light sources producing wavelengths greater than 530 nm. Light sources 543 and 544 of one or more wavelengths above 530 nm may be employed. Utilizing algorithms or stored preset power levels the logical control via the metametric mixing of light source chips in 543 and 544 illuminates the area or visual task with a color close to white light. Thus, the individual will be able to carry out routine tasks such as watching television in the living room or reading a book in bed. However the pineal gland will be “fooled” into producing melatonin as if the individual was sitting in darkness.
  • The melatonin friendly white light can be generated for example by using commercially available Osram Golden Dragon Plus LEDs LT, LY and LR W5AM as the light source chips or diodes comprising the light modules 543 and 544 in the FALM bedroom luminaire 540. When powered by driver 542 at 20 Watts at approximately 350 mA, about 1,200 lumen of very warm white 1200K Color Coordinated Temperature, CCT, light can be produced using the following mix: 156 lumen of 528 nm higher wavelength green light mixed with 400 lumen of 590 nm yellow and 640 lumen of 625 nm red. This mix yields a good color rendering index, CRI of 80 while still allowing for melatonin production. Alternately a single monochromatic LED above 530 nm could be powered but vision and comfort would be compromised. The same luminaire 540 in a second operating mode, that is not required to stimulate melatonin production, can at the same wattage produce a cooler color temperature light. This is achieved by powering blue light source diodes in addition to the previous mix while having the logical controller 541 adjust the power level of each LED chip. For example with the addition of two watts or 48 lumen of 470 nm blue LEDs (e.g. Osram LB W5AM) a 4250 Kelvin CCT daylight white light can be produced using 600 lumen of 528 nm green light mixed with 500 lumen of 590 nm yellow and a mere 100 lumen of 625 nm red yielding a good color rendering CRI of 82.
  • In another embodiment, the same fixture 540 is used for the standard lighting in the bedroom in a normal high output operating mode. Thus by powering more light sources still at approximately 350 mA a higher lighting level and whiter chromacity is achieved. For example doubling the power to 40 Watts with the addition of four watts or 100 lumen of 470 nm Blue LEDs (e.g. Osram LB W5AM) a 3800 Kelvin CCT cool white light can be produced using 500 lumen of 528 nm green light mixed with 400 lumen of 590 nm yellow and 150 lumen of 625 nm red yielding a good color rendering CRI of 82. A similar effect can be achieved without increasing the number of light sources but instead increasing the current to each LED. This usually however results in shortening of the LEDs useful lifespan. Using a controller 541 and power source 542 capable of powering each LED individually a full range of dimming to very low light levels can be achieved. In a alternative methodology of using different wavelength LEDs for generating melatonin friendly light, a white LED or any other wide spectrum light source could be used with the manual or automatic introduction of a light filter to remove wavelengths lower than 530 nm as needed.
  • Thus the same bedroom fixture 540 can serve as a night light obviating the need for an additional night light lighting unit in the same room. Again, the night light mode has special chromacity to allow visual tasks to be performed yet with minimal interference to sleep as described above in FIG. 21. Utilizing the non-symmetric light distribution capability of the FAML when in night light mode, higher intensity lighting for orientation could be provided in areas of movement around the bed or on the way to the bathroom while zero or only very low intensity night lighting would fall near the head of the sleeping person. The fixture 540 is illustrated as having been hung on the ceiling of a bedroom above the beds for two occupants with the spot lights 544 facing the wall above the head of the beds. In the spirit of the adjustable luminaire of the present invention, the light bars 545 holding the light modules 543 have been swung out of direct view of an individual lying on the bed with their eyes facing upwards to the ceiling. The flexibility of the invention is again demonstrated insofar as this re-configuration ability is unique to the multiple light source lighting fixture making it a truly universal lighting fixture. In this unusual case of the eyes facing upwards, indirect lighting via the ceiling becomes the recommended lighting practice alternative of choice, especially if the TV is mounted high off the floor.
  • In another embodiment, the FAML bedroom luminaire 540 is equipped with a camera 546 and the logical controller has means for image recognition and computer vision. Thus now as opposed to a standard night light which is always on, the innovative night light 540 using computer vision analysis could be highly dimmed or off most of the time making it easier to sleep and saving power. It would be reactivated when there is major movement on the part of the sleeper indicative of the need for illumination or a baby crying is picked up by microphone in sensor pack 546 in anticipation of light being needed by the parent awakening to care for the child. Greater movement such as getting out of bed would further increase light levels for proper orientation and object avoidance.
  • As a further customization of the illumination characteristics, when utilizing the light source aim-ability feature of the FALM, one occupant of the room could receive controlled exposure to lighting conducive to melatonin production while other occupants in the room at the same time receive a normal, fuller spectrum illumination. Thus the right side spot light 544 could be of melatonin friendly light wavelengths for the individual receiving its light while a second individual in the second bed receives a full spectrum of light for reading from the left side spot light 549.
  • In addition to using light of specific wavelength for treatment of sleep disorders and other circadian rhythm disorders such as delayed sleep phase syndrome, light therapy or phototherapy can be used for the treatment of vitamin D deficiency, skin disorders (for example psoriasis, acne vulgaris and eczema, and some psychiatric disorders for example seasonal affective disorder. As described earlier the spot light source 544 can be moved by actuators under the control of the logical controller 541 much as a moving head stage light follows actors on the stage. This is a unique feature of a computer/machine vision capable FAML irradiating device which can follow and irradiate the patient while they are carrying out their daily activities and is of major benefit. To ensure that the light therapy rays from the FAML strikes the retina from the best angle, a portable STLS may be placed on the floor or furniture in front of the patients eyes. In instances where the FAML is providing UVB radiation such as in vitamin D therapy and high intensity UVB is hazardous to the eyes, the computer vision system would make sure to stop radiation unless it knew that the eyes were not being irradiated. Other medical applications of light therapy also include pain management, accelerated wound healing, hair growth, improvement in blood properties and blood circulation, and sinus-related diseases and disorders. Many of these use low level laser therapy and red light therapy in the 620-660 nm range.
  • In an embodiment of the therapeutic luminaire 540 having radiation sources controlled by a logical controller using computer image recognition algorithms that enable face recognition the device is capable of providing the correct dosage to an individual. For example curing SAD winter depression caused by serotonin deficiency by treatment with bright light therapy the luminaire's logical controller 541 will measure the individual patient's exposure time ensuring that it complies with the medically prescribed dosage to preserve serotonin levels for that time of year. In an embodiment where the computer vision system 546 has capability for eye recognition and tracking, a more accurate dosage intensity and exposure time is metered. The dosage analysis is based on either computer knowledge that the eye is exposed by actually measuring the radiation reflection off the eye which may include a daylight component in addition to the artificial luminaire component. Thus a more accurate therapy record may be obtained and reported to a monitoring computer or health practitioner if necessary. If a satellite light re-directive STLS device is positioned fore of the patient, a specular mirror section is provided on the STLS and may be used by the camera imaging system to capture the eye or reflections off of the eye and verify the dosage received. Non-disturbing infra-red radiation may be used by the transducer sensor system 546 to capture and measure the eye reflections for imaging and dosage measurement purposes. Using eye-tracking algorithms the controller logs all the time the eyes have received the therapeutic radiation dosage and adjust the treatment accordingly. Having communications apparatus the controller conveys the treatment history to medical care supervisory personnel.
  • Another embodiment of the luminaire assists people to awaken at any hour by irradiating them with shorter wavelengths of light or safe UV, which suppress melatonin production. A FAML 540 is provided with: a logical controller 541 having algorithms and data for the task of influencing sleep cycles and with light sources that produce light at wavelengths most effective in suppressing nocturnal melatonin. It then uses a time and intensity controlled exposure to illuminate the person or animal at a prescribed interval time in advance of the wake time. Decreases in melatonin production in human and animals are known to be caused by environmental lighting, especially short-wavelength lighting (between 460 and 525 nm). Test results strengthen earlier findings that the human circadian system is more sensitive to the short wavelengths of light than the longer wavelengths. It is principally blue light, around 460 to 480 nm, that suppresses melatonin, increasingly with increased light intensity and length of exposure (Wirz-Justice, A; Benedetti, F; Terman, M (2009). Chronotherapeutics for Affective Disorders: A Clinician's Manual for Light and Wake Therapy. Basel: Karger. ISBN 978-3-8055-9120-1. It is also possible to use violet colored LED to which the visual response is low such as a 420 nm wavelength. The disturbance to sleeping individuals may be lower, however, though studies demonstrated a clear fluence-response relationship between 420-nm light and melatonin suppression the response is weaker.
  • Thus a person sleeping in their bed could program the lighting fixture controller 541 to begin irradiation with the melatonin suppressing wavelength LEDs in advance of the wake up time as required. Again, with the light aiming differentiation capability of the FALM 540, two people in the same room with different wake-up times could receive different dosage at different times as programmed into the controller. One person could be irradiated with melatonin producing radiation or none at all while the other receives melatonin suppressing irradiation. Alarm clock functionality can be added to the logical controller 541 of the bedroom illuminating device and/or an additional device 547 is provided. It will use lighting and/or sound from alarm speakers 547 to awaken the individual when wake time finally arrives. Voice commands can be used to program and turn off the alarm clock. To ensure the user is really awake the alarm clock can ask the user to solve a mathematical equation before stopping the alarm.
  • In another embodiment example of a bedroom application (a living room or kitchen lighting application would be much the same), the FAML 540 is located on the ceiling near the room center. It uses distributed light sources 543 or optical means over a single light source to provide for homogeneous ambient lighting and concentrated light sources 544 or optics to create a narrow beam for task lighting. The concentrated sources 544 and 549 may be used to provide illumination for the visual task of reading a book thus replacing the night-table lamps. It is preferable that the beam not come from above and in front of the reader lying in bed as the rays from above will disturb reader. Also one occupant of the room may desire to sleep while the other is reading. Thus a re-directive satellite light source STLS is placed directly behind or off to a side and behind the reader. The STLS has a substantially specular reflectivity rather than a diffuse one so as to maintain a concentrated spot beam with little spill light beyond the book. Of course the book itself is a Lambertian reflector but the maximum has been done to minimize disturbing others. The FAML 540 configuration can be adjusted upon installation to have the narrow beam spot light aimed at the STLS. The STLS itself may be manually adjusted by the user to best direct the light for the visual task at hand such as reading a book in bed. The user will keep the laser pointer on the target disc while swiveling the STLS until the book receives the maximum light. This is similar to adjusting the shade of the table lamp which it replaces. When properly aligned there is very little spill light and the other occupant of the room can sleep undisturbed. In an embodiment having a computer vision enabled luminaire capable of determining the book position, the controller 541 will automatically re-direct the light beam 548 from the movable light source 544 and/or re-aim the movable STLS so as to maximize illumination effectiveness. Alternatively, the wall or surface behind the bed or the headboard has sufficiently good optical characteristic enabling light from the beam to be used or has had a specially reflective decal placed on it. In a computer vision enabled embodiment the logical controller 541 is programmed such that when the reader puts the book away the light goes out or slowly dims into the night light mode.
  • It has been demonstrated that a single bedroom luminaire 540 can replace two other typical bedroom lighting fixtures. The night-table lamp and the nightlight. In addition, by using the directional light output capability of the FAML fixture, this spectrally accurate lighting may be further limited in its illumination coverage to bedroom areas where movement is possible, thus not shining towards a sleeping person's eyes. Using machine vision techniques for image recognition, the position of those sleeping and those up and awake is determined. In addition computer vision allows for automatic tracking spot lighting similar in function to how a moving head stage light for stage performers follows them about the stage. All this can be carried out by the automated lighting fixture 540 where the light sources are moved by the controller so as to illuminate only the person awake in the room. The trajectory of the light beam is checked by the controller such that the light beam does not fall on the head of anyone else sleeping in the room.
  • FIG. 23 is a perspective view of an industrial lighting fixture for use in hazardous locations. These are locations that are characterized by the presence of combustible gasses or dust particles. So that the explosion proof lighting fixture 550 can to obtain ExProof certification for use in hazardous locations, it is constructed in a unique manner which prevents ignition of the gases or dusts by electricity or heat produced by the fixture. The intrinsic safety protection techniques used in its construction enable safe operation in explosive atmospheres and ensure that the available electrical and thermal energy in the system is always low enough that ignition of the hazardous atmosphere cannot occur. The intrinsic safety of the illuminating device 550 includes the control of component temperatures even in fault conditions (such as an internal short inside an electronic device). The electrical control gear 551, logical controller 552 and LED light sources 553 are all thermally protected. The temperature of a failed component will not rise to a level higher than the autoignition temperature of a combustible atmosphere. Current limiting safeguards, such resistors and fuses, are employed in the electronic circuitry throughout to ensure that in no circumstance can a component reach a hazardous temperature.
  • To a major extent the fixture is intrinsically safe as it is hermetically sealed for life. This is accomplished because the LEDs 553 are driven at or below design currents as well as having the junction being thermally cooled to well below allowable temperatures due to lifetime and explosion proof certification considerations. Note that in prior art ExProof fixtures the lamp needs to be replaced and therefore allowance was made in fixture design for opening the fixture to replace the lamp. Under these low current cool operation conditions the LEDS will provide 90% of their initial lumen output even after 100,000 hours or over 20 years of night operation. This in turn allows for a design where the LEDs are encapsulated for life in resin type materials 554. There is no possible contact with explosive materials between electrical or heat generating components. Thus in this novel hazardous location fixture design, the LEDs, electronics and electrical components are intrinsically safe in a sealed for life fixture. This is an inherent safety design and allows for the fixture to be located even in the most hazardous locations including underground mines or inside of tanks i.e. division 1 and zone 0 classified hazardous areas. In an embodiment of the fixture there are no screws to open for access to the internal fixture parts other than on the wiring box 555 which connects the Exproof fixture to the power mains. The wiring box itself is approved for zone 0 hazardous locations and has explosion proof sealing apparatus. While prior art fixtures that can be opened for service may not be properly closed by service personnel thus becoming an explosion hazard this sealed fixture is foolproof in that there is no access for life.
  • Referring now to the adjustable lighting fixture embodiment in more detail, in FIG. 23 there is shown an illuminating or irradiating device 550 which is capable of being adjusted to match the radiation spatial distribution with the actual illuminating requirements of the surround where the lighting fixture 550 has been installed. The light sources 553 are mounted on curvilinear support structures 556. The rear side 557 of the support structure (or light bar) 556 is a heat exchanger structure of increased surface area for the transfer of heat from the LED junctions to the surrounding air. The front surface material 558 of the support structure is highly transmissive to light allowing the light generated by the light sources 553 to exit the luminaire. These curvilinear support structures 556 possess a unique geometry and thermal transfer characteristic and are innovative in a number a ways. The luminaire is comprised a multiplicity of light sources having respective spectral distributions and respective light distribution patterns which are directional and subtend lesser angles than those of the overall luminaire light distribution pattern. The light source mounting structure 556 is configured to mount the light sources 553 so arranged on the structure such that the respective directional light distribution patterns and the respective spectral distributions combine to form an efficiently distributed overall light distribution pattern. This overall light distribution has been calculated to efficiently provide the surface areas intended for illumination by the fixture 550 with the design illuminance. In this unique configuration the overall light distribution pattern, subtending greater angles than that of the respective light distribution patterns is produced directly by the multiplicity of light sources without recourse to inefficient non-integral reflectors and/or refractors.
  • As the overall spatial light distribution of luminaire 550 is comprised of the sum of the narrower beam light sources 553, each light source covers a specific area proximate to the luminaire. The aiming angles of the sources of known light flux and beam angle are determined by using the inverse cosine law to determine the amount of light flux required to illuminate the surfaces to be covered by the luminaire. Once the aiming angle with reference to the nadir is known there is yet another design criterion that needs to be met. There is great importance in maintaining the light emitting diode junction at low temperature. To remove the heat from the junction it is important for the LED assembly 553 to have excellent thermal contact with the heat sink 557 at every aiming angle. Thus the construction of the support structure has been dictated by the individual light source aimings that are designed to illuminate both near and distant surfaces with the recommended illuminance. In addition, the rear side of the support structure 556 which is exposed to the outside air is integral with the heat sink 557 which is most beneficially in direct contact with the LED junction to maximize thermal transfer away from the diode structure to the environment. Uniquely both of the design requirements have been met by the unique construction of the support arm 556. The final benefit of the unique curvilinear light bar is the strength it imparts to the structure. In an embodiment the shock proof glass lens 558 is slightly recessed within the light bar channel 556 allowing for the edge 559 to act as a protective bumper protecting the glass from breakage even if impacted by a metal tool. Often explosion proof glass globes are protected by a guard. The curved metal guards protect the glass from mechanical breakage in the harsh industrial setting. The shape of the bars 556 and the recessed glass cover maintains this protective design approach to effect shielding from mechanical breakage.
  • An exemplary embodiment of the adjustable explosion proof fixture in a chemical processing plant characterized by an open facility design is presented. In the facility, piping and vessels are supported by the skeletal support structure with walkways, floors and stairs made of metal grating. The walkways, vessels, machinery and piping all need to be illuminated at night by lighting fixtures placed on the structure along the walkways. In this lighting application example the walkways are at the exterior edge of the structure with the piping and machinery towards the interior. Beyond the walkway fence there is no structure and no need for illumination. The configuration of the lighting fixture as shown in FIG. 23 has been arranged so as to illuminate inwards towards the vessels, machinery and piping as well as along the walkways and stairs but not outward into free space. The luminaire has been mounted on an upright beam at height of 3 meters at the inward edge of the 1.5 meter wide walkway. The LED bar 560 is rotated 15 degrees off the nadir out of the page around the axis 561 to be aimed at the center of the walkway and the LED 553 beam spread is 30 degrees. LED 562, because it is projecting to the work plane further away at a higher angle from the nadir, will, following the inverse square and cosine law, have a narrower beam spread (at least along the width of the walkway i.e. the beam 564 may be rectangular or elliptical, taller than it is wide) ensuring that most of the light is utilized and not spilled over the edges of the walkway. The light bars 556 and 563 have mechanical means to be rotated 360 degrees about the center 565 and have been aimed to the same side, inwards to the facility. Thus they illuminate the piping and machinery and do not shine out of the facility wasting the energy or even causing light pollution as would a standard prior art luminaire. Now in their new configuration, the light intensity output of each LED must be reset in the driving electronics 551 and controller 552 so as take into account overlapping coverage on surfaces to be maintained at the recommended illuminance.
  • In a preferred embodiment a sensor apparatus 566 is capable of measuring the illuminance or luminance of surfaces in the processing facility and providing the logical controller 552 the necessary feedback information to control the power to the light sources 553 etc so that the illuminance or luminance goals are met. Alternately, if the light bars have been incorrectly configured in aimings that do not allow for coherent illumination of the surfaces, the controller communicates the necessary aiming modification to the installer. An example of the logical controller 552 circuitry, computing apparatus and algorithm processing were described above in FIGS. 14 and 23. In an embodiment where sensor 566 is a digital camera and the logical controller 552 has means for computer vision, an installer can use reference sheets of known reflectivity and luminance to calibrate the illumination level setting of the individual light sources within the logical controller 552 based on the fixtures initial factory calibration data. For example, when setting up the system the installer can customize the illuminance level on each element of interest. The system calibrates light coverage by firing LEDs at synchronized timings with the vision analysis system 552 determining which LED illuminates what surface. Next the installer can input the desired illuminance via the reference sheet by indicating on it the number of lux desired on the surface. For example attaching a note with 200 lux printed on it on a valve. The image recognition software then provides the logical controller the illuminance goal of 200 lux on that surface and the logical controller 552 powers the light sources 553 etc aimed towards that surface with the necessary power signal to obtain the needed light flux. Feedback is provided to the installer if additional light sources are needed or their re-aiming is required. Information is provided to the installer through visual display on the logical controller 552 of the luminaire or another display device in communication with the logical controller 552.
  • In another embodiment the cooling of the harsh environment luminaire 550 is effected by using liquid cooling of the LED light sources. The coolant may be anything from deionized water (approximately 18.2 megohm-cm) to heat-conductive oil. The oil may be part of the methodology used to secure intrinsic safety classification from ignition danger of electrical circuits in explosive environments. It may also be an optically transmissive medium which couples optically with the light sources to produce a desired light distribution with other complementary optical devices. The oil may be pumped mechanically with a pumping apparatus such as a long life diaphragm pump to cool the diode junction. Alternately, in a preferred embodiment shown here, thermo siphon effect circulation is utilized to convect the thermal transfer fluid from the light bars 560, 556 and 563 to the central heat exchanger 568. The thermo siphon return post 567 serves as the path for the cooled lower density cooling fluid to return to the light bars 560, 556 and 563 from the heat exchanger 568. The benefit of the thermo siphon system is that it is motor less, doesn't require power and is highly reliable. It also adds longevity and efficiency to the LED light sources by offering superior heat transfer rates maintaining the diode junctions at the lowest possible temperature.
  • FIG. 24 is the process flow chart for novel web based computer application that can help the customer design the multiple light source luminaire for their particular lighting application and order it compete correctly configured from the factory. Alternately, in a DIY luminaire version, they can receive all the necessary luminaire parts with their unique set of assembly instructions for their lighting application. The build-the luminaire-to-order program turns the customer into a professional luminaire and lighting designer. In creating the tailor made luminaire the customer, aka lighting fixture designer, has control of illumination performance based on the skeletal light engine design as well as a choice of various aesthetic luminaire outer body designs. The program is novel insofar as it builds the lighting fixture from multiple light sources according to the dictates of the living space. Prior art practice used hitherto in other lighting programs take standard lighting fixtures with known photometric data as to the light distribution and calculates the resultant illuminance obtained on the workplace or room surfaces. Here the process begins with specifying a surface illuminance and using goal solving techniques, the application builds the fixture's light distribution. Next, in a unique process, the computer application using engineering and look-up table algorithms chooses light sources and places them on the fixture to obtain the desired light distribution.
  • In practice the customer inputs the lighting application geometry, fixture mounting position, living space elements and projected usage answering a live questionnaire. Digital camera pictures of the living space uploaded to the site may aid the program in generating the architectural CAD lighting layout. The customer assigns visual task information to areas of the room, e.g. reading chair, adult over 50 years old etc. The layout process ends with a map of the room surfaces now assigned with illuminance levels. The program assigns a specific orientation of the luminaire within the living space e.g. fixture orientation mark facing east window. The luminaire in practice must be hung in the room in the instructed orientation. A preliminary grid is assigned to the room surfaces based on the distances from the luminaire to the surface and the light intensity limits of the light sources. By using the inverse square and cosine law with known illuminance, distances and angles the program solves for the luminous intensity. By working a luminaire design program such as Photopia™ from LTI Optics in reverse, the light source ray distribution properties are obtained. The program then looks up in the light source library the light source with the best matching spatial intensity distribution for illuminating the specific grid area. The design program then arranges the selected light sources on a fixture skeleton structure to obtain the overall necessary illumination. The web application next simulates the fixture performance through lighting design software applications known in the art such as AGI32™ from Lighting Analysts. The computer routine checks the lighting layout against best practice guidelines for visual comfort from glare, lighting levels and recommends need for additional light modules, luminaires or reflective satellite light sources. The customer can review the simulated lighting output in their application and after a few fine tuning iterations a final design can be satisfactorily achieved. Now that the fixture skeleton and light source positions thereon are known, the customer then chooses from the available candidates of aesthetic luminaire outer façade choices that can be used with the dictated skeletal structure. The final fixture outer design and lighting performance is simulated. Should the customer be unhappy with the aesthetics or performance they may begin again with the option of forcing an aesthetic design which may dictate a less than optimal skeletal structure. When satisfied, the customer orders the luminaire to be assembled by the manufacturer to spec. In the DIY version the web application generates the fixture parts list for the kit to be sent to the customer. It is clear that the application is not only web based but can be a downloadable version run from a computer.
  • In another version of this Do-It-Yourself lighting designer application, the main skeleton lighting fixture with the power supply electronics and the camera based vision system and controller is supplied to the customer. The camera vision system measures the room geometry and identifies room contents as described earlier via algorithms known in the art for measuring distances with a camera and pattern recognition techniques for identification. Based on the information garnered about the lighting application such as by following a computerized lighting application design questionnaire and checklist (activities performed in the room, age of the occupants etc), the lighting layout is specified and the lighting fixture design with the light source layout is determined using the lighting design software. The answers to the question are input via a speaker microphone system on the lighting fixture or via come other input device such as a computer or smart-phone in communication with the controller. Once the illumination needs have been determined and the fixture designed the rest of the light sources are ordered up and the DIY fixture similar to 470 in FIG. 16 is assembled
  • While the preferred embodiment of this invention comprises an adjustable luminaire having means for changing the spatial light distribution as well as the spectral light distribution, it is clear that embodiments of this invention may offer only the spatial light output distribution adjustability as for example when using a single color spectrum LED for all the light sources or only color spectrum adjustability where spectrally differentiated light sources have been used but there is no means for adjusting the spatial light distribution. Many of the novel features of this invention disclosed herein in this continuation in part of the earlier disclosure of the Multiple light illuminating system included herein by reference apply to the lighting fixture embodiments of that disclosure as well.
  • CONCLUSION
  • We have been disclosed a luminaire with control of at least one of the light intensity, light spectrum and light direction and that further being combined with a controller and directional sensors such as a camera having an artificial vision system capability is uniquely able to effect the provision of lighting on an as needed basis in the optimal intensity, spectrum and placement.
  • There has thus been shown and described, among other things, a multiple-source lighting technology which allows for the design and construction of illuminating devices. Many changes, modifications, variations and other uses and applications of the subject invention will, however, become apparent to those skilled in the art after considering this specification and the accompanying drawings which disclose the preferred embodiments thereof. All such changes, modifications, variations and other uses and applications which do not depart from the spirit and scope of the invention are deemed to be covered by the invention without departing from the spirit or scope of the following claims.
  • Although a limited number of preferred embodiments of the present invention have been illustrated in the accompanying drawings and described in the foregoing detailed description, it is possible mix and combine the features of one embodiment with another to create a DLF with differing characteristics as taught in the method herein. Therefore, it will be understood that the invention is not limited to the embodiments disclosed, but is capable of numerous rearrangements, modifications, and substitutions without departing from the spirit of the invention as set forth and defined by the following claims. The invention should therefore not be limited by the above described embodiment, method, and examples, but by all embodiments and methods within the scope and spirit of the invention.

Claims (35)

What is claimed is:
1. A processor controlled illuminating system for illuminating an area, said illuminating system comprising:
a) a light fixture comprising at least one light source having at least one of controllable light intensity and spectral light distribution;
b) at least one detector adapted to sense information related to the instantaneous lighting conditions of entities present within said area and to pass the sensed information to a processor;
c) a processor adapted to use any of algorithms and look-up tables to process said sensed information and to determine the instantaneous lighting requirements for said area; and
d) a controller that is integral to said light fixture and is adapted to adjust at least one of the light intensity and the spectral light distribution of said at least one light source to provide said lighting requirements determined by said processor;
wherein, said processor is adapted to determine said instantaneous lighting requirements for said area by balancing tradeoffs between human factors and economic considerations related to visual task efficacy and to supplying said changing lighting requirements.
2. The illuminating system of claim 1 for use in any of residential, office, commercial, roadway, industrial, outdoor and indoor lighting, wherein the instantaneous lighting requirements for said area include the optimal values of at least one of: illuminance, luminance, the appearance of surface colors, and the accuracy of surface colors.
3. The illuminating system of claim 1, wherein the human factors include: aiding the visual acuity, visual comfort, direction of the light placement on objects to be seen, the pleasing aspects and physiological effects of the light on persons in said area.
4. The illuminating system of claim 1, wherein said light fixture includes a multiplicity of directional light sources having a differentiated light delivery.
5. The illuminating system of claim 1, wherein the at least one detector is integral to said light fixture.
6. The illuminating system of claim 4, wherein the at least one detector is adapted to sense at least one of texture, reflectance, color, and location of surfaces; the identity and location of objects; and the identity, the location, and the orientation relative to said light fixture of people within the area to be illuminated.
7. The illuminating system of claim 1, wherein the processor is adapted to determine the lighting requirements of the surfaces, objects, and persons within the area to be illuminated by using at least one of artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, and video analytics.
8. The illuminating system of claim 1 where the detector comprises at least one of (i) a camera being a photo sensor array coupled with an optical lens, (ii) one or more photo sensors, (iii) an ultrasound transducer and sensor, (iv) microwave transducer and sensor, and (v) pyroelectric detectors.
9. The illuminating system of claim 4, wherein the illuminated area is indoors and the system further comprises a detector for detecting variable illumination from daylight and/or sunlight entering indoors, wherein the controller takes into consideration the area now illuminated by the daylight and/or sunlight and adjusts the light intensity of the directional light sources to meet the varied illumination requirement.
10. The illuminating system of claim 1, wherein the one or more detectors detects information regarding one or more individuals within the illuminated area, said information is at least one of (i) age, (ii) sex, and (iii) recognition of an individual for matching with stored data about that individual's needs and wherein the controller adjusts the light intensity and/or spectrum of the illumination provided to the one or more individuals based on illumination requirements from at least one of (i) best practices looked up and calculated from stored data, (ii) age and/or sex of the individual, (iii) personal preferences input to the controller and stored in memory, and (iv) commands received by the controller from an input device.
11. The illuminating system of claim 1 adapted for optimally displaying food, wherein the one or more detectors detect an identity of one or more foods and wherein the controller adjusts the light intensity and/or spectrum of the illumination on the one or more foods based on illumination requirements received from the processor.
12. The illuminating system of claim 1 comprising electronic circuitry apparatus for the controlled powering of the light source and other illuminating device elements; wherein the controller is in communication with the light source controlling power circuitry.
13. The illuminating system of claim 4, wherein the one or more detectors are configured to sense a presence of glare on a person's eyes in the illuminated area, and wherein the controller is programmed to adjust an intensity of the directional light sources to reduce the glare.
14. The illuminating system of claim 4, wherein: (a) the light fixture has a movable structure for aiming the directional light sources mounted thereon in a defined direction; (b) the detector is a camera for obtaining images, said camera functioning as a detector for at least one of (i) a light detector (ii) a spectrum detector, (iii) a motion detector, (iv) a measuring detector for sensing a geometry of the illuminated area, and (v) a detector for sensing at least one of work surfaces and objects and at least one of vehicles and beings; (c) the controller is adapted to adjust a light intensity and a direction of any of the directional light sources; and (d) the processor comprises stored algorithms and data for identifying at least one of (i) tasks being carried out by people, (ii) location of people, (iii) frequency of area usage by people, (iv) traffic density in the illuminated area, (v) work surfaces, (vi) objects, people and/or vehicles, and (vii) roadway surface luminance.
15. The illuminating system of claim 4, wherein the processor is adapted to satisfy the illumination requirement that different parts of the illuminated area are to be illuminated at a different intensity and/or at a different spectrum than another part of the illuminated area.
16. The illuminating system of claim 14, adapted to be adjustable by an installer based on room geometry and/or usage, wherein the detector and processor combination provides feedback to said installer so as to aim the light sources such that the illumination requirements can be met by the re-adjusted light source aimings.
17. The illuminating system of claim 4, wherein the controller receives real time information from the camera and wherein the processor, using image recognition capability, directs the controller to adjust at least one of (i) the intensity, (ii) the spectral light distribution and, (iii) the direction of the light sources based on at least one of (i) where people requiring illumination are located, (ii) what object the person is viewing and (iii) what visual task the person needs to perform.
18. The illuminating system of claim 14, further wherein the movement of the light source direction of at least one of the directional light sources mounted on the movable structure is automatically controlled by the controller.
19. The illuminating system of claim 18 adapted to provide a different illumination to a sub-area based on usage, wherein the controller, interpreting images from the camera, adjusts the moveable light sources such that they provide the required illumination in a sub-area proximate to individuals as they move around in the illuminated area.
20. The illuminating system of claim 4, wherein the illuminated area is a road and the entities include road signs.
21. The illuminating system of claim 14, further comprising at least one directional light source on an automatic swivel joint, said at least one light source adapted to provide a spot light of limited beam angle for task lighting while other light sources provide general illumination to the illuminated area.
22. The illuminating system of claim 1, wherein the detector is a camera integral to the light fixture and the controller comprises communication capability to other devices; wherein the camera in a first location obtains information and the controller process said information and communicates said camera obtained information to a second device.
23. The illuminating system of claim 22, wherein the illuminated area is a road and the second device to which the camera obtained information is communicated is a lighting fixture.
24. The illuminating system of claim 23, wherein the processor uses information obtained from the cameras and exchanged between the first and second fixtures for identifying traffic requirements in the illuminated area and, from the locations and geometry of vehicles in said illuminated area, determining the illumination requirements of the illumination area; thereby directing the controller to adjust the directional light sources to meet said illumination requirements.
25. The illuminating system of claim 24, wherein the controller is programmed to adjust at least one of (i) increase illumination with an approach of a vehicle, and (ii) change beam cut-off levels as the vehicle advances toward the lighting fixture to eliminate glare.
26. The illuminating system of claim 1, wherein at least one of the at least one light sources emits non-visible radiation in a sub-area proximate to individuals in the area, wherein: (a) the at least one light sources that emits non-visible radiation is a directional radiation source that emits the radiation is in a defined direction; (b) the at least one detector is adapted to sense a location of individuals in the area; and (c) the controller is adapted to adjust at least one of (i) a radiation intensity, and (ii) a direction of the irradiation based on sensed location.
27. The illuminating system of claim 26, wherein: (a) the non-visible radiation is infra-red radiation intended to provide a desired heating to one or more individuals in an area; (b) the light fixture comprises at least two directional heat radiation sources pointing in different directions; (c) the detector is a camera with capability for sensing at least one of (i) a presence of one or more individuals in the heated area, (ii) the identity of the individuals, and (iii) a body temperature of individuals present in the heated area; and the processor further has processing capability for determining the heating requirements of the individuals in the area from at least one of (i) algorithms to calculate radiation parameters, (ii) stored data of heating practices, (iii) image recognition algorithms for identifying the individual based on the camera information, and (iv) an identified individual's personal preferences.
28. The illuminating system of claim 26, wherein: (a) the at least one directional radiation source is capable of being moved so as to direct radiation in a defined direction; (b) the at least one detector is capable of providing information on the present location of individuals in the area; and (c) the processor is programmed to process the detector information and to direct the controller to move the radiating sources so as to follow the one or more individuals.
29. The illuminating system of claim 27, wherein: (a) the camera is capable of providing images of different parts of the body of individuals to the processor for image processing; (b) the radiation sources are adapted to direct radiation to different parts of the body; and (c) the processor further programmed to run the image recognition algorithms to identify different parts of the body, to compute the desired radiation level to the different parts of the body and direct the controller to adjust the radiation from sources directed at the different parts of the body.
30. The illuminating system of claim 27, wherein the processor is adapted to control the irradiation in time and intensity on the individual to maintain comfortable heating based on at least one of: (i) best practices, (ii) feedback from the heat detector configured to detect body temperature of different parts of a body, (iii) personal preferences input to the controller and stored in memory and (iv) commands input from an input device.
31. The illuminating system of claim 27, wherein: (a) the light sources emit radiation for therapeutic purposes; (b) the radiation may be any of (i) UV radiation, (ii) red light therapy in the 620-660 nm range, and (iii) light therapy for SAD and other disorders; and (c) the processor and controller aim the radiation sources to the location where the individual is located and control the time and intensity of the radiation.
32. The illuminating system of claim 27, wherein at least one of the light sources emits visible light and at least one of the light sources is designed to substantially radiate heat, whereby the system is capable of providing both a desired light and heat radiation to the individuals.
33. The illuminating system of claim 22 where the detector system serves in a home, building or area and the second device to which the camera obtained information is communicated for services including any of appliances, surveillance, gas or fire detection, energy delivery devices, sunlight control entertainment fragrance and other services.
34. The illuminating system of claim 22 where the detector system serves in a home, building or area and the second device to which the camera obtained information is communicated to electric power supplying entities and the two way communications to the controller interfaces with electricity power supply network for load modifications.
35. The illuminating system of claim 9, wherein the illuminated area is indoors and the system has been adapted to receive and distribute sunlight in the area, wherein the controller takes into consideration the area now illuminated by the daylight and/or sunlight and adjusts the light intensity of the directional light sources to meet the varied illumination requirement.
US14/374,381 2002-07-12 2013-01-24 Detector controlled illuminating system Abandoned US20150035440A1 (en)

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US201161535981P true 2011-09-17 2011-09-17
US13/357,549 US9955551B2 (en) 2002-07-12 2012-01-24 Detector controlled illuminating system
PCT/IL2013/050066 WO2013111134A1 (en) 2012-01-24 2013-01-24 Detector controlled illuminating system
US14/374,381 US20150035440A1 (en) 2003-07-14 2013-01-24 Detector controlled illuminating system

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