US2014116A - Breakwater construction - Google Patents

Breakwater construction Download PDF

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Publication number
US2014116A
US2014116A US575102A US57510231A US2014116A US 2014116 A US2014116 A US 2014116A US 575102 A US575102 A US 575102A US 57510231 A US57510231 A US 57510231A US 2014116 A US2014116 A US 2014116A
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construction
water
walls
breakwater
bodies
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US575102A
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George W Powers
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George W Powers
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B3/00Engineering works in connection with control or use of streams, rivers, coasts, or other marine sites; Sealings or joints for engineering works in general
    • E02B3/04Structures or apparatus for, or methods of, protecting banks, coasts, or harbours
    • E02B3/06Moles; Piers; Quay walls; Groynes; Breakwaters Wave dissipating walls; Quay equipment
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A10/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE at coastal zones; at river basins
    • Y02A10/11Hard structures, e.g. dams, dykes or breakwaters

Description

Sept. 10, 1935. G. w. PowERs BREAKWATER CONSTRUCTION Filed Nov. 14, 1931 l N V EN TOR. George Powers Irl/dll BY mm@ @am A TTORNEYS.

Patented Sept. 10, 1935 UNITED YSTATES PATENT OFFICE BREAKWATER CONSTRUCTION George W. Powers, Cleveland, Ohio Application November 14, 1931, Serial No. 575,102

9 Claims.

This invention relates to the art of breakwater and like construction, as for instance sea-Wall, jetty, pier or wharf.

Heretofore, in such construction, there have been usually employed wood or concrete, and in some instances they have been formed exclusively of rock. Such construction has, however, involved considerable labor and inconvenience especially in those cases requiring the use of coer dams. Also, these structures have required the expenditure of considerable time and money.

As is Well known, it has been common practice to build such structures entirely at the place of their actual location, and the objectionable features above noted are obvious to any one who is familiar with this old practice.

There has also been made some attempt to build such structures of pre-formed concrete units which may be iloated to the point of location and then sunk and anchored into permanent position, with the sections or units connected together. Again, however, the use of concrete requires considerable time, labor, and expense in the forming of the units, and this practice is also open to the same serious objection as is the still older practice above referred to, namely, the lack of durability.

Accordingly, the object of the present invention is to devise a construction of the class above referred to, which consists entirely of metal and which may be conveniently and quickly fabricated at the shop and which may then be transported in the form of units to the place of permanent location and there conveniently assembled.

More specifically, my present invention contemplates the construction of a plurality of units each comprising a skeleton framework of metal bars which denne a bottom and side and end walls, and to which are then secured sheet metal plates so as to entirely enclose each unit excepting the top thereof.

The joints of each unit may be sealed in any suitable manner so as to render the same substantially water-tight. The units may then be floated to the point of final location and then connected together in any suitable manner, and sunk to permanent position. This is accomplished by the admission of water to the inside thereof and the lling of the same with earth and rock through the top.

The purpose contemplated by this invention is therefore to provide a structure of this character which possesses greater durability and which may be fabricated and set in place at a comparatively reduced cost and with increased convenience, and with a range of variation in strength permitted by the possible substitution or addition of light or heavy structural brace members or other parts of the individual units.

Another object of this invention is to provide a convenient and efficient means for supporting bracing a sectional conduit for use as a Water intake or as a means o-f discharging sewage.

Other objects will be apparent from the following description and claims when considered 5 together with the accompanying drawing.

Fig. 1 is a perspective View of a breakwater constructed in accordance with my invention;

Fig. lEL is a transverse sectional view thereof;

Fig. 1b is a sectional detail View of Fig. 1 to show the joint;

Fig. 2 is a perspective view of a jetty constructed in accordance with my invention;

Fig. 2a is a transverse sectional view thereof; Fig. 2b is a sectional detail view of Fig. 2 to show l5 the joint.

Fig. 3 illustrates another form of construction embodying my invention.

Fig. 3a is a transverse sectional view thereof;

Fig. Ilb is a sectional detail view of Fig. 3 to 20 show the joint;

Fig. 4 is a perspective view of another form of breakwater constructed in accordance with my invention;

Fig. lSL is a transverse sectional View thereof; and

Fig. 4b is a sectional detail view of Fig. 4 to show the joint.

In all of the several forms of construction herein illustrated, there is provided a plurality of units which are fabricated in the shop and which are later connected together at the point of permanent location, as above indicated. Each unit comprises the skeleton frame-work which is made up of metal bars l of angle or T-form or any other suitable form and which are arranged so as to deiine a bottom and sides and ends as well as a top. I have provided also the interiorly arranged brace bars 2 of metal which may also be of any suitable form and which extend across the inside of the frame-work of each unit and are connected tol the other bars of the skeleton frame-work. In all cases, the metal bars are secured together by means of riveting, bolting, or welding, and these. bars may be provided at any interval desired according to the size and strength contemplated for the unit.

Secured to the bottom, sides and ends of the skeleton frame work of each unit, are metal plates comparatively heavy gauge, these plates being riveted, bolted or Welded to the flanges of the metal bars. In case the size of a unit should require more than a single plate to enclose the bottom or side or end, then the intermediate bars 2 may be of T-form so as to aiord double 5 width of flange surface for engagement of the abutting edge portions of the adjacent plates which are applied to a given bottom, side or end.

The joints at the edges of the metal plates may be sealed in any suitable manner so'as to render 6,

the same water-tight. The top of the skeleton frame work of each unit will remain open, at least until the units have been set in permanent position.

In each of the several forms of construction herein illustrated, the bottom is provided with a valve 3 for closing an opening therethrough. This valve may be opened by means of the rod 4 which extends up through the unit so as to be accessible from the top thereof.

The form of breakwater illustrated in Figs. l, la and 1b, has both sides 5 inclined and may extend in a direction substantially normal to the shore line, or in any other direction desired, according to prevailing conditions in any given case. This form of construction may be utilized as a means for positioning and housing a conduit 6 which may be employed for either the discharge of sewage or as an intake pipe for water supply. A section of this pipe will be placed in each unit of the breakwater and will be held in position between the brace bars 2. Upon securing the breakwater units together, the adjacent ends of the pipe will be connected together by means of any suitable form of pipe joint, as indicated in a general way by reference numeral 6a. The inner end of this sectional pipe will of course be connected to the proper point in the sewage system or in the water supply system, as the case may be, and the extreme outer end of the pipe will be open. This pipe will preferably be of cast iron or galvanized sheet metal, although any kind of pipe may be employed, as for instance concrete, wood, or tile.

The ends of this form of breakwater are indicated by reference numeral I and the bottom by reference numeral 8, while the top thereof remains open until filled with earth and rock, as above explained.

The bottom bars I of the end units, and the other units also if so desired, are extended as indicated at Ia, for engagement by piles as a means of securing the breakwater in set position.

The form of breakwater illustrated in Figs. 2, 22L and 2b is intended for use along the shore line, with the inclined side 9 facing outwardly. In this case, the outer side 9 is inclined to a comparatively greater degree, so as to permit sand and silt to be Washed over the jetty and deposited back of the upright rear side I D. This is for the purpose of building up a beach or shore at the rear of the jetty. The ends of the jetty are indicated by reference numeral II and the bottom by reference numeral I2. The extension Ia is indicated upon the outer side of the jetty.

In the form of construction illustrated in Figs. 2, 2a, and 2b, also, the top of each unit is left open so as to permit the unit to be lled with earth and rock. If so desired, in any or all of the various forms of construction herein illustrated, the top may be closed with metal plate or in any other manner desired.

In the wharf construction illustrated in Figs. 3, 3a and 3b, each unit is of rectangular form, with the bottom I3, front side I4, rear side I5, and ends I6. Here too, the bar projections at the bottom are indicated by reference numeral Ie, as in all of the other forms herein illustrated. After the units of the wharf construction have been connected together and anchored in place by filling the same with earth and rock, the top throughout the entire length thereof will be closed with concrete or in any other manner desired, as for i instance creosoted timbers, so as to provide a floor thereupon, as indicated at II. This form of structure is well adapted also for use in the construction of a foundation for a light house.

The form of breakwater illustrated in Figs. 4, la and 4b is adapted to extend along the shore with the outer inclined side I8 thereof facing the water. This outer wall I8 may extend at any angle desired and is provided at the upper part thereof with an outwardly over-hanging portion I9, preferably of curved form, adapted to dei-lect the water outwardly, this portion I9 being given 10 proper form to cause such deflection of the water without substantial resistance and hence without serious strain upon the over-hanging portion. This form of breakwater has the bottom and the upright back 2l. In the form l5 of device illustrated in Figs. 4, and possibly in that of Fig. 2, the valve may be omitted in case the structure should be located upon the shore or at the waters edge so that it is not necessary to float the units out to their point of location. 20

In all of the several forms of construction, the ends of each unit are provided with bolt holes 22 near the top thereof for the bolts 22a, for the purpose of bolting the units together. This may be done either immediately prior to or after sinking 25 the units to set position. Any other means may be employed for connecting the units together, as for instance interlocking joints formed in the end walls of the units.

Also, in all of the several forms of my invention, the valve rod will be removed so as not to extend above the construction after being completely anchored in permanent position. For this purpose, the upper part of the rod 4 may be made removable.

If found necessary or if desired, there may be employed brush mats on the bottom of the body of water in which the units are placed so as to afford a better surface to receive the same in set position. Also, the outer sides of the units, in all of the several forms except that shown in Fig. l, may be made of increased height and the bottoms inclined accordingly so as to better adapt the units to be accommodated to the inclination of the bottom of the body of water. In this way, there will be ensured effective engagement of the assembled structure with the bottom of the body of water so as to thereby ensure the same against dislodgment by the force of the water therebeneath. Likewise, if so desired, the shape and dimensions of the units disclosed in Fig. l may be varied according to the inclination of the bottom of the body of water so as to ensure proper engagement of the breakwater therewith. Such variation can be estimated for any given set of conditions.

In all of the above forms of breakwater or jetty, the outer or exposed sides of the structures, after being nally set in xed position, may be provided with rip rap stone or rock along the base thereof as a means of breaking the waves and thereby reducing the destructive force of the same upon the entire structure.

As above indicated, my present invention means a decided saving in time and labor and hence cost in construction, and a still further saving because of the long life of the metal structure. It also possesses a high degree of efficiency. Furthermore, by virtue of the hollow, metal construction, there will be realized a certain degree of yieldability or flexibility in the walls against which the force of the water is impinged, with the result that there is less danger of the structure being destroyed or dislodged by such force.

It is to be understood that all of the several CIK forms of device herein disclosed may be referred to as breakwater construction and it is in this sense that this generic expression is employed in the following claims.

What I claim is:

1. A breakwater construction comprising a series of buoyant, hollow, metallic bodies, each body consisting of bottom, side and end walls of iiexible sheet metal and having an open top, means within each body for bracing the walls thereof, said brace means being spaced at suflicient intervals to aiord substantial uninterrupted extent of iiexible side walls, means provided upon each body for admission of water thereinto, and means for connecting the bodies together, whereby said bodies may be floated in empty condition to approximate position and then connected together and filled with water and other material so as to anchor the same in set position, the side walls having suiiicient uninterrupted extent between the brace means and possessing sufcient fiexibility to absorb the force of the water thereagainst.

2. A breakwater construction comprising a series of buoyant, hollow, metallic bodies, each body consisting of a skeleton framework of metal bars so arranged and connected as to provide bottom, sides and ends, flexible sheet metal secured to said framework so as to enclose the bottom, sides and ends thereof, the top of each body remaining open, means provided upon each body for admission of water thereinto, and means for connecting the bodies together, whereby said bodies may be iioated in empty condition to approximate position and then connected together and filled with water and other material so as to anchor the same in set position, the side walls having suiiicient uninterrupted extent between the bars and possessing sufficient iiexibility to absorb the force of the water thereagainst.

3. A breakwater construction comprising a series of hollow, metallic bodies, each body consisting of a skeleton framework of metal bars so arranged and connected as to provide bottom, sides and ends, and the metal bars of the bottom of some of said bodies extending beyond the sides thereof so as to provide projections for engagement by piles to serve as positioning means for the bodies when in fixed position, sheet metal secured to said framework so as to enclose the bottom, sides and ends thereof, the top of each body remaining open, and means for connecting the bodies together, whereby said bodies may be connected together and filled with water and other material so as to anchor the same in set position.

4. A breakwater construction comprising a series of unitary hollow, metallic bodies, each body consisting of bottom, side and end walls of sheet metal and having an open top, means within each body for bracing the walls thereof, said bracing means serving also to support within each body a section of conduit lengthwise thereof and substantially coterminous therewith, and means for connecting the bodies and conduit sections 'together, whereby said bodies may be connected together and the conduit sections may also be connected together, and the bodies may then be lled with water and other material so as to anchor the same in set position.

5. A breakwater construction comprising a series of hollow metallic bodies, each body consisting of bottom, side and end walls of flexible sheet metal and having an open top, means within each body for bracing the walls thereof, said bracing means being spaced at sufficient intervals to afford substantial uninterrupted extent 5 of flexible side walls, means provided upon each body for admission of water thereinto, and means for connecting the bodies together, whereby said bodies may be connected together at the point of permanent location and filled with water and other material so as to anchor the same in set position, the side walls having sufficient uninterrupted extent between the brace means and possessing sufficient flexibility to yield to and absorb the force of the water thereagainst. l5

6. A breakwater construction comprising a series of hollow metallic bodies, each body consisting of bottom, side and end walls of iiexible sheet metal and having an open top, means within each body for bracing the walls thereof, said bracing means being spaced at sufficient intervals to afford substantially uninterrupted extent of iiexible side walls, and means for connecting the bodies together, whereby said bodies may be connected together at the point of permanent location and filled with suitable material so as to anchor the same in set position, the side walls possessing suflicient flexibility to yield to and absorb the force of the water thereagainst.

'7. A breakwater construction comprising a 30 series of buoyant, hollow, metallic bodies, each body consisting of bottom, side and end walls of sheet metal and having an open top, at least one of said side walls being flexible, means within each body for bracing the walls thereof, said brace means being spaced at suicient intervals to afford substantial uninterrupted extent of the flexible side wall, and means for connecting the bodies together, whereby said bodies may be connected together and filled with suitable material so as to 40 anchor the same in set position, the flexible side wall in each instance having sufficient uninterrupted extent between the brace means and possessing suiiicient exibility to absorb the force of the water thereagainst.

8. In a breakwater construction, a hollow metallic body consisting of bottom, side and end walls of sheet metal and having an open top, whereby said body may be filled with suitable material so as to anchor the same in set position, means within said body for bracing the Walls thereof, at least one of the side walls having its brace means spaced at suflicient intervals to afford sufficient uninterrupted extent between the brace means and thereby possess suflicient flexibility to absorb the force of the water thereagainst.

9. A breakwater construction comprising bottom, side, and end walls and including a front wall against which the force of the water is adapted to be impinged, all of said walls consisting of sheet metal and at least said front wall being flexible, said construction being open so as to permit filling of the same with anchoring material, means within the construction for bracing the walls thereof, said brace means being spaced at sufcient intervals to aiord substantial uninterrupted extent for the front wall and thereby afford the same suflicient iexibility to absorb the force of the water thereagainst.

GEORGE W. POWERS.

US575102A 1931-11-14 1931-11-14 Breakwater construction Expired - Lifetime US2014116A (en)

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Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2515059A (en) * 1945-07-17 1950-07-11 Rowbotham Frederick William Flood bank and similar structure and units for use in the erection of such structures
US2967398A (en) * 1958-01-02 1961-01-10 Alonzo L Smith Breakwater
US3335572A (en) * 1965-02-25 1967-08-15 Tsujioka Tokutaro Modular panels for the construction of water blockades
US3347051A (en) * 1964-10-16 1967-10-17 Newport News S & D Co Bulkhead structure and method of making thereof
US3393520A (en) * 1965-09-07 1968-07-23 Arthur B. Butterworth Container and method of building a breakwater
US3431734A (en) * 1966-06-13 1969-03-11 Giuseppe Vattuone Totally or partially prefabricated structure bar-dam for the protection of harbors
US4064700A (en) * 1975-08-07 1977-12-27 Japan Port Consultants, Ltd. Marine engineering structure with wide base using a truss
US4074538A (en) * 1975-03-26 1978-02-21 Jurgen Peter Janus Wall structures
US4661014A (en) * 1983-12-23 1987-04-28 Groupement D'interet Economique Prefabricated civil engineering module, method for the construction of a structure including said module and resulting structure
US4820079A (en) * 1987-07-24 1989-04-11 Wheeler Jack L Method of coastal erosion control using massive sea block system
US4954012A (en) * 1987-07-24 1990-09-04 Wheeler Jack L Method of coastal erosion control using massive sea block system
US5129756A (en) * 1987-07-24 1992-07-14 Wheeler Jack L Apparatus for and method of coastal erosion control using massive sea block system
FR2677052A1 (en) * 1991-05-31 1992-12-04 Oceanide Breakwater
US5176468A (en) * 1992-05-22 1993-01-05 Poole Robert R Shoreline erosion control and refurbishing means
US20100047018A1 (en) * 2006-11-06 2010-02-25 Francesco Ferraiolo Wave-motion reducing structure
US7708495B1 (en) * 2007-11-20 2010-05-04 Chris Antee Levee system
US20100215435A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2010-08-26 Gushi Luo Breakwater
US20110033242A1 (en) * 2009-08-06 2011-02-10 Steele Flood Stop System Llc Modular-unit floodwall system
US20120230768A1 (en) * 2011-03-08 2012-09-13 Rowland Lyle R Water Containment System
US10550534B1 (en) * 2019-07-31 2020-02-04 Kuwait Institute For Scientific Research Method for damping ocean waves in a coastal area
US10731309B2 (en) * 2018-10-17 2020-08-04 Beau G. Adams Reservoir bag

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2515059A (en) * 1945-07-17 1950-07-11 Rowbotham Frederick William Flood bank and similar structure and units for use in the erection of such structures
US2967398A (en) * 1958-01-02 1961-01-10 Alonzo L Smith Breakwater
US3347051A (en) * 1964-10-16 1967-10-17 Newport News S & D Co Bulkhead structure and method of making thereof
US3335572A (en) * 1965-02-25 1967-08-15 Tsujioka Tokutaro Modular panels for the construction of water blockades
US3393520A (en) * 1965-09-07 1968-07-23 Arthur B. Butterworth Container and method of building a breakwater
US3431734A (en) * 1966-06-13 1969-03-11 Giuseppe Vattuone Totally or partially prefabricated structure bar-dam for the protection of harbors
US4074538A (en) * 1975-03-26 1978-02-21 Jurgen Peter Janus Wall structures
US4064700A (en) * 1975-08-07 1977-12-27 Japan Port Consultants, Ltd. Marine engineering structure with wide base using a truss
US4661014A (en) * 1983-12-23 1987-04-28 Groupement D'interet Economique Prefabricated civil engineering module, method for the construction of a structure including said module and resulting structure
US4820079A (en) * 1987-07-24 1989-04-11 Wheeler Jack L Method of coastal erosion control using massive sea block system
US4954012A (en) * 1987-07-24 1990-09-04 Wheeler Jack L Method of coastal erosion control using massive sea block system
US5129756A (en) * 1987-07-24 1992-07-14 Wheeler Jack L Apparatus for and method of coastal erosion control using massive sea block system
FR2677052A1 (en) * 1991-05-31 1992-12-04 Oceanide Breakwater
US5176468A (en) * 1992-05-22 1993-01-05 Poole Robert R Shoreline erosion control and refurbishing means
US20100047018A1 (en) * 2006-11-06 2010-02-25 Francesco Ferraiolo Wave-motion reducing structure
US8142105B2 (en) * 2006-11-06 2012-03-27 Officine Maccaferri S.P.A. Wave-motion reducing structure
US20100215435A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2010-08-26 Gushi Luo Breakwater
US7708495B1 (en) * 2007-11-20 2010-05-04 Chris Antee Levee system
US20110033242A1 (en) * 2009-08-06 2011-02-10 Steele Flood Stop System Llc Modular-unit floodwall system
US20120230768A1 (en) * 2011-03-08 2012-09-13 Rowland Lyle R Water Containment System
US10731309B2 (en) * 2018-10-17 2020-08-04 Beau G. Adams Reservoir bag
US10550534B1 (en) * 2019-07-31 2020-02-04 Kuwait Institute For Scientific Research Method for damping ocean waves in a coastal area

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