US20120208755A1 - Compositions, Devices and Methods of Use Thereof for the Treatment of Cancers - Google Patents

Compositions, Devices and Methods of Use Thereof for the Treatment of Cancers Download PDF

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US20120208755A1
US20120208755A1 US13/372,326 US201213372326A US2012208755A1 US 20120208755 A1 US20120208755 A1 US 20120208755A1 US 201213372326 A US201213372326 A US 201213372326A US 2012208755 A1 US2012208755 A1 US 2012208755A1
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Karling Alice Leung
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BioMedicines Inc
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K38/00Medicinal preparations containing peptides
    • A61K38/16Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof
    • A61K38/17Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof from animals; from humans
    • A61K38/22Hormones
    • A61K38/26Glucagons
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K45/00Medicinal preparations containing active ingredients not provided for in groups A61K31/00 - A61K41/00
    • A61K45/06Mixtures of active ingredients without chemical characterisation, e.g. antiphlogistics and cardiaca
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M31/00Devices for introducing or retaining media, e.g. remedies, in cavities of the body
    • A61M31/002Devices for releasing a drug at a continuous and controlled rate for a prolonged period of time
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07KPEPTIDES
    • C07K14/00Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof
    • C07K14/435Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof from animals; from humans
    • C07K14/575Hormones
    • C07K14/605Glucagons
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M37/00Other apparatus for introducing media into the body; Percutany, i.e. introducing medicines into the body by diffusion through the skin

Abstract

The use of GLP-1 receptor agonists, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or exenatide, for the treatment of cancer is described. The GLP-1 receptor agonists are typically delivered using an implanted osmotic delivery device that provides for continuous delivery of the GLP-1 receptor agonist for at least one month. Additional beneficial agents, such as anticancer agents, can also be administered.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/443,628, filed 16 Feb. 2011, now pending, which application is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The present invention relates to formulations and methods for treating cancer. Aspects of the present invention provide formulations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists for use in mammals for the treatment of cancers.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate. The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy compounds ATP and NADH. Increased aerobic glycolysis is seen in a variety of cancer cells, a phenomenon known as the Warburg theory. Under aerobic conditions, some tumor cells produce as much as 60% of their ATP through glycolysis (Nakashima et al., Cancer Res. (1984) 44:5702-5706) as opposed to normal cells which normally generate ATP through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In addition to increased aerobic glycolysis, increased glycolysis is also seen in tumors that reach a size that exceeds the capacity of blood supply due to hypoxia. For a review of the Warburg theory and implications thereof, see, e.g., Chen et al., J. Bioenerg. Biomenzbr. (2007) 39:267-274.
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an important hormone and a fragment of the human proglucagon molecule. GLP-1 is rapidly metabolized by a peptidase (dipeptidylpeptidase IV or DPP-IV). A fragment of GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (also known as GLP-1 (7-36) amide, glucagon-like insulinotropic peptide, or GLIP) is a gastrointestinal peptide that potentiates the release of insulin in physiologic concentrations (Gutniak et al., N Engl J Med (1992) 14:326(20):1316-22). Food intake, as well as stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, stimulates secretion of GLP-1 in the small intestine of mammals. Further, GLP-1 stimulates the production and secretion of insulin, the release of somatostatin, glucose utilization by increasing insulin sensitivity, and, in animal studies, also stimulates beta-cell function and proliferation. GLP-1(7-36)amide and GLP-1(7-37) normalize fasting hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients (Nauck, M. A., et al., Diabet. Med. 15(11):937-45 (1998)).
  • Exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, is a molecule purified from Heloderma suspectuni venom (Eng, et al., Biol. Chem. (1992) 267:7402-7405) and shows structural relationship to the hormone GLP-1(7-36)amide. Exendin-4 and truncated exendin-(9-39)amide specifically interact with the GLP-1 receptor on insulinoma-derived cells and on lung membranes (Göke et al., J Biol. Chem. (1993) 268:19650-19655). Exendin-4 has approximately 53% identity to human GLP-1 (Pohl, et al., J. Biol. Chem. (1998) 273:9778-9784). Unlike GLP-1, however, exendin-4 is resistant to degradation by DPP-IV. A glycine substitution confers resistance to degradation by DPP-1V (Young, et al., Diabetes (1999) 48(5):1026-1034).
  • The increased dependency of cancer cells on the glycolytic pathway is an important metabolic difference between normal and malignant cells. The present invention provides a unique solution to disrupting cancer cell energy reliance on the glycolytic pathway.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to compositions, devices and methods for treating cancer. The invention utilizes GLP-1 receptor agonists to restrict glucose as an energy source for cancer cells and tumors. The GLP-1 receptor agonists can be used alone or in combination with other beneficial agents, such as anticancer agents, antidiabetic agents and the like, as well as in combination with anticancer treatment modalities, such as radiation, surgery and chemotherapeutic regimens.
  • Thus, in one aspect the invention relates to a method of treating cancer in a subject in need of such treatment, comprising administering a GLP-1 receptor agonist to said subject.
  • In certain aspects of the method, the GLP-1 receptor agonist is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a derivative of GLP-1, or an analog of GLP-1. In some embodiments, the GLP-1 receptor agonist is GLP(7-36)amide comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:1.
  • In other aspects of the invention, the GLP-1 receptor agonist is exenatide, a derivative of exenatide, or an analog of exenatide, such as a synthetic exenatide peptide comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:2.
  • In additional aspects of the invention, the GLP-1 receptor agonist is selected from the group consisting of lixisenatide, liraglutide (VICTOZA®), albiglutide (SYNCRIA™), semaglutide, taspoglutide, BYETTA®, BYDUREON® and LY2189265. In some embodiments, formulations comprising the GLP-1 receptor agonist are delivered by injection.
  • In further aspects, the GLP-1 receptor agonist is delivered using an implanted drug delivery device, such as an osmotic delivery device, that provides continuous delivery of a suspension formulation of GLP-1 receptor agonist for a period of at least one month.
  • In other aspects, the GLP-1 receptor agonist and/or other beneficial agent is provided in a suspension formulation comprising: (a) a particle formulation comprising said GLP-1 receptor agonist and/or beneficial agent; and (b) a vehicle formulation, wherein the particle formulation is dispersed in the vehicle.
  • In additional aspects, the suspension formulation may further comprise a particle formulation comprising a GLP-1 receptor agonist and/or beneficial agent and one or more stabilizers selected from the group consisting of carbohydrates, antioxidants, amino acids, buffers, and inorganic compounds. The suspension formulation further comprises a non-aqueous, single-phase suspension vehicle comprising one or more polymers and one or more solvents. The suspension vehicle typically exhibits viscous fluid characteristics and the particle formulation is dispersed in the vehicle.
  • In another embodiment, the suspension formulation comprises a particle formulation comprising a GLP-1 receptor agonist and/or a beneficial agent, a disaccharide (e.g., sucrose), methionine, and a buffer (e.g., citrate), and a non-aqueous, single-phase suspension vehicle comprising one or more pyrrolidone polymer (e.g., polyvinylpyrollidone) and one or more solvent (e.g., lauryl lactate, lauryl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, or mixtures thereof.
  • The particle formulations of the present invention may further comprise a buffer, for example, selected from the group consisting of citrate, histidine, succinate, and mixtures thereof.
  • The particle formulations of the present invention may further comprise an inorganic compound, for example, selected from the group consisting of citrate, histidine, succinate, and mixtures thereof. NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3, KCl, KH2PO4, CaCl2, and MgCl2.
  • The one or more stabilizers in the particle formulations may comprise, for example, a carbohydrate selected from the group consisting of lactose, sucrose, trehalose, mannitol, cellobiose, and mixtures thereof.
  • The one or more stabilizers in the particle formulations may comprise, for example, a antioxidant selected from the group consisting of methionine, ascorbic acid, sodium thiosulfate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, cysteins, thioglycerol, thioglycolic acid, thiosorbitol, butylated hydroxanisol, butylated hydroxyltoluene, and propyl gallate, and mixtures thereof.
  • The one or more stabilizers in the particle formulations may comprise an amino acid.
  • In one embodiment, the solvent of the suspension vehicle of the present invention is selected from the group consisting of lauryl lactate, lauryl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, and mixtures thereof. An example of a polymer that can be used to formulate the suspension vehicle is a pyrrolidone (e.g., polyvinylpyrrolidone). In a preferred embodiment, the polymer is a pyrrolidone and the solvent is benzyl benzoate.
  • The suspension formulation typically has an overall moisture content less than about 10 wt % and in a preferred embodiment less than about 5 wt %.
  • In additional embodiments, a beneficial agent, such as an anticancer agent, in addition to the GLP-1 receptor agonist is delivered to said subject. In certain embodiments, the anticancer agent is a chemotherapeutic agent and/or an anticancer antibody. The additional beneficial agent can be delivered prior to, subsequent to or concurrent with the GLP-1 receptor agonist. In some embodiments, an implantable drug delivery device may be used to deliver formulations comprising an anticancer agent. In one embodiment, the device is an osmotic delivery device.
  • In some embodiments, implantable drug delivery devices deliver a GLP-1 receptor agonist formulations and/or other beneficial agent formulations at a substantially uniform rate for a period of about one month to about a year. Such devices may, for example, be implanted subcutaneously in convenient locations.
  • The present invention also includes methods of manufacturing the suspension formulations, particle formulations, suspension vehicles, and devices of the present invention as described herein.
  • These and other embodiments of the present invention will readily occur to those of ordinary skill in the art in view of the disclosure herein.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • FIGS. 1A and 1B present the sequences of two representative GLP-1 receptor agonists: FIG. 1A, glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36)amide (GLP-1(7-36)amide) (SEQ ID NO:1), and FIG. 1B, synthetic exenatide peptide (SEQ ID NO:2).
  • FIG. 2 presents a partial cross-sectional view of one embodiment of an osmotic delivery device useful in the practice of the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • All patents, publications, and patent applications cited in this specification are herein incorporated by reference as if each individual patent, publication, or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference in its entirety for all purposes.
  • 1.0.0 DEFINITIONS
  • It is to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to be limiting. As used in this specification and the appended claims, the singular forms “a,” “an” and “the” include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to “a GLP-1 receptor agonist” includes a combination of two or more such molecules, reference to “a peptide” includes one or more peptides, mixtures of peptides, and the like.
  • Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which the invention pertains. Although other methods and materials similar, or equivalent, to those described herein can be used in the practice of the present invention, the preferred materials and methods are described herein.
  • In describing and claiming the present invention, the following terminology will be used in accordance with the definitions set out below.
  • The terms “peptide,” “polypeptide,” and “protein” are used interchangeably herein and typically refer to a molecule comprising a chain of two or more amino acids (e.g., most typically L-amino acids, but also including, e.g., D-amino acids, modified amino acids, amino acid analogs, and/or amino acid mimetic). Peptides may also comprise additional groups modifying the amino acid chain, for example, functional groups added via post-translational modification. Examples of post-translation modifications include, but are not limited to, acetylation, alkylation (including, methylation), biotinylation, glutamylation, glycylation, glycosylation, isoprenylation, lipoylation, phosphopantetheinylation, phosphorylation, selenation, and C-terminal amidation. The term peptide also includes peptides comprising modifications of the amino terminus and/or the carboxy terminus. Modifications of the terminal amino group include, but are not limited to, des-amino, N-lower alkyl, N-di-lower alkyl, and N-acyl modifications. Modifications of the terminal carboxy group include, but are not limited to, amide, lower alkyl amide, dialkyl amide, and lower alkyl ester modifications (e.g., wherein lower alkyl is C1-C4 alkyl).
  • The terminal amino acid at one end of the peptide chain typically has a free amino group (i.e., the amino terminus). The terminal amino acid at the other end of the chain typically has a free carboxyl group (i.e., the carboxy terminus). Typically, the amino acids making up a peptide are numbered in order, starting at the amino terminus and increasing in the direction of the carboxy terminus of the peptide.
  • The phrase “amino acid residue” as used herein refers to an amino acid that is incorporated into a peptide by an amide bond or an amide bond mimetic.
  • The term “GLP-1 receptor agonist” as used herein refers to an agent capable of binding and activating the GLP-1 receptor. The term includes GLP-1 hormones, as well as GLP-1 peptides, peptide analogs thereof, or peptide derivatives thereof. Also encompassed by the term GLP-1 receptor agonist are other molecules that are capable of binding and activating the GLP-1 receptor, such as without limitation, an exenatide peptide, a peptide analog thereof, or a peptide derivative thereof. Specific examples of preferred GLP-1 receptor agonists include exenatide having the amino acid sequence of exendin-4, GLP-1(7-36)amide, lixisenatide, liraglutide (VICTOZA®), albiglutide (SYNCRIA™), semaglutide, taspoglutide, BYETTA®, BYDUREON® and LY2189265. The term also includes small molecules capable of binding and activating the GLP-1 receptor. See, e.g., Sloop et al., Diabetes (2010) 59:3099-3107.
  • The term “anticancer agent” refers to any agent that exhibits anti-tumor activity as defined below. Such agents include, without limitation, chemotherapeutic agents (i.e., a chemical compound or combination of compounds useful in the treatment of cancer), anticancer antibodies, agents that disrupt nucleic acid transcription and/or translation, such as antisense oligonucleotides, small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the like.
  • By “anti-tumor activity” is intended a reduction in the rate of cell proliferation, and hence a decline in growth rate of an existing tumor or in a tumor that arises during therapy, and/or destruction of existing neoplastic (tumor) cells or newly formed neoplastic cells, and hence a stabilization or decrease in the overall size of a tumor during therapy.
  • By “antidiabetic agent” is meant any agent that when administered to a subject either directly or indirectly causes a reduction in glucose levels. Such agents include, without limitation, agents for treating types 1 and 2 diabetes, such as but not limited to, GLP-1 receptor agonists; small molecules such as metformin, tolbutamide, glibenclamide, glipizide, gliquidone, glibornuride, tolazamide, sulfonylureas, meglitinides (e.g., repaglinide, and nateglinide); thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as pioglitazone; SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitors; alpha glucosidase inhibitors; amylin (as well as synthetic analogs such as pramlintide); dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-1V) inhibitors (e.g., saxagliptin, sitagliptin, alogliptin and vildagliptin); long/short acting insulins; glucagon receptor antagonists; GRP agonists (e.g., GRP-119 and GRP-40), and the like. Use of oral dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV or DPP-4) inhibitors orally to prevent cleavage of GLP-1 may be particularly useful when the formulation comprises a GLP-1 that is cleavable by dipeptidyl peptidase-1V (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 7,205,409, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).
  • An “antibody” intends a molecule that binds to an epitope of interest present in an antigen. The term “antibody” as used herein includes antibodies obtained from both polyclonal and monoclonal preparations, as well as, the following: hybrid (chimeric) antibody molecules (see, for example, Winter et al., Nature (1991) 349:293-299; and U.S. Pat. No. 4,816,567); F(ab′)2 and F(ab) fragments; Fv molecules (non-covalent heterodimers, see, for example, Inbar et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (1972) 69:2659-2662; and Ehrlich et al., Biochem (1980) 19:4091-4096); single-chain Fv molecules (sFv) (see, for example, Huston et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (1988) 85:5879-5883); dimeric and trimeric antibody fragment constructs; diabodies; avamers; aptamers; affitins; affitins; anticalins; affibody molecules; designed ankyrin repeat proteins; domain antibodies; minibodies (see, e.g., Pack et al., Biochem (1992) 31:1579-1584; Cumber et al., J Immunology (1992) 149B:120-126); humanized antibody molecules (see, for example, Riechmann et al., Nature (1988) 332:323-327; Verhoeyan et al., Science (1988) 239:1534-1536; and U.K. Patent Publication No. GB 2,276,169, published 21 Sep. 1994); and, any functional fragments obtained from such molecules, or fusions thereof, wherein such fragments and fusions retain immunological binding properties of the parent antibody molecule. Chimeric antibodies composed of human and non-human amino acid sequences may be formed from monoclonal antibody molecules to reduce their immunogenicity in humans (Winter et al. (1991) Nature 349:293; Lobuglio et al. (1989) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 86:4220; Shaw et al. (1987) J Immunol. 138:4534; and Brown et al. (1987) Cancer Res. 47:3577; Rieclunann et al. (1988) Nature 332:323; Verhoeyen et al. (1988) Science 239:1534; and Jones et al. (1986) Nature 321:522; EP Publication No. 519,596, published 23 Dec. 1992; and U.K. Patent Publication No. GB 2,276,169, published 21 Sep. 1994).
  • As used herein, the term “monoclonal antibody” refers to an antibody composition having a homogeneous antibody population. The term is not limited regarding the species or source of the antibody, nor is it intended to be limited by the manner in which it is made. The term encompasses whole immunoglobulins as well as fragments such as Fab, F(ab′)2, Fv, and other fragments, as well as chimeric and humanized homogeneous antibody populations, that exhibit immunological binding properties of the parent monoclonal antibody molecule.
  • As used herein, the term “anti-cancer antibody” encompasses antibodies that have been designed to target cancer cells, particularly cell-surface antigens residing on cells of a particular cancer of interest.
  • The term “vehicle” as used herein refers to a medium used to carry a compound, e.g., a drug. Vehicles of the present invention typically comprise components such as polymers and solvents. The suspension vehicles of the present invention typically comprise solvents and polymers that are used to prepare suspension formulations further comprising drug particle formulations.
  • The phrase “phase separation” as used herein refers to the formation of multiple phases (e.g., liquid or gel phases) in the suspension vehicle, such as when the suspension vehicle contacts the aqueous environment. In some embodiments of the present invention, the suspension vehicle is formulated to exhibit phase separation upon contact with an aqueous environment having less than approximately 10% water.
  • The phrase “single-phase” as used herein refers to a solid, semisolid, or liquid homogeneous system that is physically and chemically uniform throughout.
  • The term “dispersed” as used herein refers to dissolving, dispersing, suspending, or otherwise distributing a compound, for example, a peptide, in a suspension vehicle.
  • A “homogeneous suspension” typically refers to a particle that is insoluble in a suspension vehicle and is distributed uniformly in a suspension vehicle.
  • The phrase “chemically stable” as used herein refers to formation in a formulation of an acceptable percentage of degradation products produced over a defined period of time by chemical pathways, such as deamidation, (usually by hydrolysis), aggregation, or oxidation.
  • The phrase “physically stable” as used herein refers to formation in a formulation of an acceptable percentage of aggregates (e.g., dimers and other higher molecular weight products). Further, a physically stable formulation does not change its physical state as, for example, from liquid to solid, or from amorphous to crystal form.
  • The term “viscosity” as used herein typically refers to a value determined from the ratio of shear stress to shear rate (see, e.g., Considine, D. M. & Considine, G. D., Encyclopedia of Chemistry, 4th Edition, Van Nostrand, Reinhold, N.Y., 1984) essentially as follows:

  • F/A=μ*V/L  (Equation 1)
  • where F/A=shear stress (force per unit area).
  • μ=a proportionality constant (viscosity), and
  • V/L=the velocity per layer thickness (shear rate).
  • From this relationship, the ratio of shear stress to shear rate defines viscosity. Measurements of shear stress and shear rate are typically determined using parallel plate rheometery performed under selected conditions (for example, a temperature of about 37° C.). Other methods for the determination of viscosity include, measurement of a kinematic viscosity using a viscometer, for example, a Cannon-Fenske viscometer, a Ubbelohde viscometer for the Cannon-Fenske opaque solution, or a Ostwald viscometer. Generally, suspension vehicles of the present invention have a viscosity sufficient to prevent particles suspended therein from settling during storage and use in a method of delivery, for example, in an implantable, drug delivery device.
  • The term “non-aqueous” as used herein refers to an overall moisture content, for example, of a suspension formulation, typically of less than or equal to about 10 wt %, preferably less than or equal to about 5 wt %, and more preferably less than about 4 wt %.
  • The term “subject” as used herein refers to any member of the subphylum chordata, including, without limitation, humans and other primates, including non-human primates such as rhesus macaque, chimpanzees and other apes and monkey species; farm animals such as cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses; domestic mammals such as dogs and cats; laboratory animals including rodents such as mice, rats and guinea pigs; birds, including domestic, wild and game birds such as chickens, turkeys and other gallinaceous birds, ducks, geese, and the like. The term does not denote a particular age. Thus, both adult and newborn individuals are intended to be covered.
  • The terms “drug,” “therapeutic agent”, and “beneficial agent” are used interchangeably to refer to any therapeutically active substance that is delivered to a subject to produce a desired beneficial effect. In one embodiment of the present invention, the drug is a GLP-1 receptor agonist, e.g., GLP-1 (7-36)amide, exenatide, and derivatives or analogs thereof. The devices and methods of the present invention are well suited for the delivery of polypeptides as well as small molecules and combinations thereof.
  • The term “osmotic delivery device” as used herein typically refers to a device used for delivery of one or more GLP-1 receptor agonists, or other beneficial agents to a subject, wherein the device comprises, for example, a reservoir (made, for example, from a titanium alloy) having a lumen that contains, in one chamber, a beneficial agent formulation (e.g., comprising one or more beneficial agent) and, in another chamber, an osmotic agent formulation. A piston assembly positioned in the lumen isolates the beneficial agent formulation from the osmotic agent formulation. A semi-permeable membrane (also termed a semi-permeable plug) is positioned at a first distal end of the reservoir adjacent the osmotic agent formulation. A diffusion moderator (which defines a delivery orifice through which the beneficial agent formulation exits the device) is positioned at a second distal end of the reservoir adjacent the suspension formulation. The piston assembly and the diffusion moderator define a chamber that contains the beneficial agent formulation and the piston assembly and the semipermeable membrane define a chamber that contains the osmotic agent formulation. The terms “flow modulator,” “diffusion modulator,” “flow moderator,” and “diffusion moderator” are used interchangeably herein. Typically, the osmotic delivery device is implanted within the subject, for example, subcutaneously (e.g., in the inside, outside, or back of the upper arm; or in the abdominal area). An exemplary osmotic delivery device is the DUROe delivery device.
  • 2.0.0 GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE INVENTION
  • Before describing the present invention in detail, it is to be understood that this invention is not limited to particular types of drug delivery, particular types of drug delivery devices, particular sources of peptides, particular solvents, particular polymers, and the like, as use of such particulars may be selected in view of the teachings of the present specification. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments of the invention only, and is not intended to be limiting.
  • In one aspect, the present invention relates to methods of treating cancer in a subject in need of treatment, including, but not limited to, treating hematological tumors and solid tumors. The method comprises providing delivery of a GLP-1 receptor agonist formulation to a subject in need thereof. In certain embodiments, the GLP-1 receptor agonist formulation is delivered using an osmotic delivery device at a substantially uniform rate. The length of delivery of the formulation is determined based on the cancer being treated. In some embodiments, for example, the administration period is for at least about one month, at least about one month to about one year, at least about three months to about one year, at least about four months to about one year, at least about five months to about one year, at least about six months to about one year, at least about eight months to about one year, at least about nine months to about one year, or at least about 10 months to about one year. The period of administration can also exceed one year if necessary, such as from one year to two years. The method may further include subcutaneously inserting an osmotic delivery device, loaded with the GLP-1 receptor agonist formulation, into the subject.
  • In other embodiments of the invention, the GLP-1 receptor agonist is delivered parenterally (including by subcutaneous, intravenous, intramedullary, intraarticular, intramuscular, or intraperitoneal injection) rectally, topically, transdermally, intranasally, by inhalation, or orally (for example, in capsules, suspensions, or tablets). Injectable formulations of GLP-1 agonists are known and include, without limitation, lixisenatide, liraglutide (VICTOZA®), albiglutide (SYNCRIA™), semaglutide, taspoglutide, BYETTA®, BYDLIREON® and LY2189265.
  • In one embodiment of the present invention the formulation comprises a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a derivative of GLP-1, or an analog of GLP-1.
  • In certain embodiments, the GLP-1 receptor agonist is GLP-1(7-36)amide shown in FIG. 1A (SEQ ID NO:1).
  • In another embodiment of the present invention the formulation comprises exenatide, a derivative of exenatide, or an analog of exenatide. In certain embodiments, the exenatide is the exenatide peptide shown in FIG. 1B (SEQ ID NO:2).
  • In certain embodiments, additional beneficial agents are provided with the GLP-1 receptor agonist formulations, such as anticancer agents, including without limitation, chemotherapeutic agents, anticancer antibodies, antisense nucleotides, siRNA, anticancer vaccines, and the like. Such additional beneficial agents are described in detail below. Administration of these agents is not limited to any particular delivery system and may include, without limitation, delivery using osmotic delivery devices as described herein if the agent is suitable for such delivery, or may be parenteral (including subcutaneous, intravenous, intramedullary, intraarticular, intramuscular, or intraperitoneal injection), rectal, topical, transdermal, intranasal, by inhalation, or oral (for example, in capsules, suspensions, or tablets). Administration of the additional agents to an individual may occur in a single dose or in repeat administrations, and in any of a variety of physiologically acceptable salt forms, and/or with an acceptable pharmaceutical carrier and/or additive as part of a pharmaceutical composition. Physiologically acceptable salt forms and standard pharmaceutical formulation techniques and excipients are well known to persons skilled in the art (see, e.g., Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR) 2009, 63th ed. (PDR.net), Medical Economics Company; and Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, eds. Gennado et al., 21th ed, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2005).
  • In certain embodiments, the GLP-1 receptor agonist and/or suitable additional beneficial agents, if present, are provided in a suspension formulation, comprising a particle formulation and a suspension vehicle. The particle formulation includes, but is not limited to, the GLP-1 receptor agonist or other agent of interest and one or more stabilizers. The one or more stabilizers are typically selected from the group consisting of carbohydrates, antioxidants, amino acids, and buffers. The suspension vehicle is typically a non-aqueous, single-phase suspension vehicle comprising one or more polymers and one or more solvents. The suspension vehicle exhibits viscous fluid characteristics. The particle formulation is uniformly dispersed in the vehicle.
  • The particle formulation of the present invention typically includes one or more of the following stabilizers: one or more carbohydrates (e.g., a disaccharide, such as, lactose, sucrose, trehalose, cellobiose, and mixtures thereof); one or more antioxidants (e.g., methionine, ascorbic acid, sodium thiosulfate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, butylated hydroxyltoluene, and mixtures thereof); and one or more buffers (e.g., citrate, histidine, succinate, and mixtures thereof). In a preferred embodiment, the particle formulation comprises a GLP-1 receptor agonist, sucrose, methionine, and citrate buffer. The ratio of the GLP-1 receptor agonist to sucrose+methionine is typically about 1/20, about 1/10, about 1/5, about 1/2, about 2/1, about 5/1, about 10/1, or about 20/1, preferably between about 1/5 to 5/1, more preferably between about 1/3 to 3/1. The particle formulation is preferably a particle formulation prepared by spray drying and has a low moisture content, preferably less than or equal to about 10 wt %, more preferably less or equal to about 5 wt %. Alternatively, the particle formulation can be lyophilized.
  • The suspension vehicle for use in the present formulations comprises one or more solvents and one or more polymers. Preferably the solvent is selected from the group consisting of lauryl lactate, lauryl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, and mixtures thereof. More preferably the solvent is lauryl lactate or benzyl benzoate. Preferably the polymer is a pyrrolidone polymer. In some embodiments the polymer is polyvinylpyrrolidone (e.g., polyvinylpyrrolidone K-17, which typically has an approximate average molecular weight range of 7,900-10,800). In one embodiment, the solvent consists essentially of benzyl benzoate and polyvinylpyrrolidone.
  • The suspension formulation typically has a low overall moisture content, for example, less than or equal to about 10 wt % and in a preferred embodiment less than or equal to about 5 wt %.
  • 2.1.0 Compositions and Formulations
  • 2.1.1 GLP-1 Receptor Agonists
  • GLP-1, including three forms of the peptide, GLP-1(1-37), GLP-1(7-37) and GLP-1(7-36)amide, as well as peptide analogs of GLP-1 have been shown to stimulate insulin secretion (i.e., they are insulinotropic), which results in decreases in serum glucose concentrations (see, e.g., Mojsov, S., Int. J. Peptide Protein Research (1992) 40:333-343). The sequence of GLP-1(7-36)amide is shown in FIG. 1A and SEQ ID NO:1.
  • Numerous GLP-1 peptide derivatives and peptide analogs demonstrating insulinotropic action are known in the art (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,118,666; 5,120,712; 5,512,549; 5,545,618; 5,574,008; 5,574,008; 5,614,492; 5,958,909; 6,191,102; 6,268,343; 6,329,336; 6,451,974; 6,458,924; 6,514,500; 6,593,295; 6,703,359; 6,706,689; 6,720,407; 6,821,949; 6,849,708; 6,849,714; 6,887,470; 6,887,849; 6,903,186; 7,022,674; 7,041,646; 7,084,243; 7,101,843; 7,138,486; 7,141,547; 7,144,863; and 7,199,217, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties), as well as in clinical trials (e.g., taspoglutide and albiglutide). One example of a GLP-1 peptide derivative useful in the practice of the present invention is VICTOZA® (liraglutide; U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,268,343, 6,458,924, 7,235,627, incorporated herein by reference in their entireties). Once-daily injectable VICTOZA® (liraglutide) is commercially available in the United States, Europe, and Japan. Other injectable GLP-1 peptides for use with the present invention are described above and include, without limitation taspoglutide, albiglutide (SYNCRIA™), LY2189265 and semaglutide. For ease of reference the family of GLP-1 peptides, GLP-1 peptide derivatives and GLP-1 peptide analogs having insulinotropic activity is referred to collectively as “GLP-1.”
  • The molecule exenatide has the amino acid sequence of exendin-4 (Kolterman O. G., et al., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) 88(7):3082-3089) and is produced by chemical synthesis or recombinant expression. Twice-daily injectable exenatide is commercially available in the United States and Europe, and sold under the tradename of BYETTA®. Another injectable exenatide under development is BYDUREON®. Exendin-3 and exendin-4 are known in the art and were originally isolated from Heloderma spp. (Eng, et al., J. Biol. Chem. (1990) 265:20259-62; Eng., et al., J. Biol. Chem. (1992) 267:7402-05). Numerous exenatide peptide derivatives and peptide analogs (including, e.g., exendin-4 agonists) are known in the art (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,424,286; 6,268,343; 6,329,336; 6,506,724; 6,514,500; 6,528,486; 6,593,295; 6,703,359; 6,706,689; 6,767,887; 6,821,949; 6,849,714; 6,858,576; 6,872,700; 6,887,470; 6,887,849; 6,924,264; 6,956,026; 6,989,366; 7,022,674; 7,041,646; 7,115,569; 7,138,375; 7,141,547; 7,153,825; and 7,157,555, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties). One example of an exenatide derivative useful in the practice of the present invention is lixisenatide (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 6,528,486, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). For ease of reference herein, the family of exenatide peptides (e.g., including exendin-3, exendin-4, and exendin-4-amide), exenatide peptide derivatives, and exenatide peptide analogs is referred to collectively as “exenatide.”
  • 2.1.2 Suspension Formulations
  • In one aspect, the present invention utilizes particle formulations of GLP-1 receptor agonists described above that can be used to prepare suspension formulations. The GLP-1 receptor agonists for use with the present invention shall not be limited by method of synthesis or manufacture and shall include those obtained from natural sources, or synthesized or manufactured by recombinant (whether produced from cDNA or genomic DNA), synthetic, transgenic, and gene-activated methods. In preferred embodiments of the present invention, the GLP-1 receptor agonist is a GLP-1 peptide or an exendin peptide (as described above), for example, GLP-1(7-36)amide or exenatide, such as the exenatide peptide shown in FIG. 1B and SEQ ID NO:2. The present invention also includes combinations of two or more such agents, for example, GLP-1(7-36)amide and GIP.
  • Particle formulations are preferably chemically and physically stable for at least one month, preferably at least three months, more preferably at least six months, more preferably at least 12 months at delivery temperature. The delivery temperature is typically normal human body temperature, for example, about 37° C., or slightly higher, for example, about 40° C. Further, particle formulations are preferably chemically and physically stable for at least three months, preferably at least six months, more preferably at least 12 months, at storage temperature. Examples of storage temperatures include refrigeration temperature, for example, about 5° C., or room temperature, for example, about 25° C.
  • A particle formulation may be considered chemically stable if less than about 25%, preferably less than about 20%, more preferably less than about 15%, more preferably less than about 10%, and more preferably less than about 5% breakdown products of the peptide particles are formed after about three months, preferably after about six months, preferably after about 12 months at delivery temperature and after about six months, after about 12 months, and preferably after about 24 months at storage temperature.
  • A particle formulation may be considered physically stable if less than about 10%, preferably less than about 5%, more preferably less than about 3%, more preferably less than 1% aggregates of the peptide particles are formed after about three months, preferably after about six months, at delivery temperature and about 6 months, preferably about 12 months, at storage temperature.
  • To preserve protein stability, a GLP-1 receptor agonist solution is generally kept in a frozen condition and lyophilized or spray dried to a solid state. Tg (glass transition temperature) may be one factor to consider in achieving stable compositions of peptide. While not intending to be bound by any particular theory, the theory of formation of a high Tg amorphous solid to stabilize peptides, polypeptides, or proteins has been utilized in pharmaceutical industry. Generally, if an amorphous solid has a higher Tg, such as 100° C., peptide products will not have mobility when stored at room temp or even at 40° C. because the storage temperature is below the Tg. Calculations using molecular information have shown that if a glass transition temperature is above a storage temperature of 50° C. that there is zero mobility for molecules. No mobility of molecules correlates with no instability issues. Tg is also dependent on the moisture level in the product formulation. Generally, the more moisture, the lower the Tg of the composition.
  • Accordingly, in some aspects of the present invention, excipients with higher Tg may be included in the protein formulation to improve stability, for example, sucrose (Tg=75° C.) and trehalose (Tg=110° C.). Preferably, particle formulations are formable into particles using processes such as spray drying, lyophilization, desiccation, milling, granulation, ultrasonic drop creation, crystallization, precipitation, or other techniques available in the art for forming particles from a mixture of components. The particles are preferably substantially uniform in shape and size.
  • A typical spray dry process may include, for example, loading a spray solution containing a peptide, for example, GLP-1(7-36)amide or exenatide, and stabilizing excipients into a sample chamber. The sample chamber is typically maintained at a desired temperature, for example, refrigeration to room temperature. Refrigeration generally promotes stability of the protein. A solution, emulsion, or suspension is introduced to the spray dryer where the fluid is atomized into droplets. Droplets can be formed by use of a rotary atomizer, pressure nozzle, pneumatic nozzle, or sonic nozzle. The mist of droplets is immediately brought into contact with a drying gas in a drying chamber. The drying gas removes solvent from the droplets and carries the particles into a collection chamber. In spray drying, factors that can affect yield include, but are not limited to, localized charges on particles (which may promote adhesion of the particles to the spray dryer) and aerodynamics of the particles (which may make it difficult to collect the particles). In general, yield of the spray dry process depends in part on the particle formulation.
  • In one embodiment, the particles are sized such that they can be delivered via an implantable drug delivery device. Uniform shape and size of the particles typically helps to provide a consistent and uniform rate of release from such a delivery device; however, a particle preparation having a non-normal particle size distribution profile may also be used. For example, in a typical implantable osmotic delivery device having a delivery orifice, the size of the particles is less than about 30%, preferably is less than about 20%, more preferably is less than about than 10%, of the diameter of the delivery orifice. In an embodiment of the particle formulation for use with an osmotic delivery device, wherein the delivery orifice diameter of the implant is in a range of, for example, about 0.1 to about 0.5 mm, particle sizes may be preferably less than about 50 microns, more preferably less than about 10 microns, more preferably in a range from about 3 to about 7 microns. In one embodiment, the orifice is about 0.25 mm (250 microns) and the particle size is approximately 3-5 microns.
  • In a preferred embodiment, when the particles are incorporated in a suspension vehicle they do not settle in less than about three months at delivery temperature. Generally speaking, smaller particles tend to have a lower settling rate in viscous suspension vehicles than larger particles. Accordingly, micron- to nano-sized particles are typically desirable. In an embodiment of the particle formulation for use in an implantable osmotic delivery device, wherein the delivery orifice diameter of the implant is in a range of, for example, about 0.1 to about 0.5 mm, particle sizes may be preferably less than about 50 microns, more preferably less than about 10 microns, more preferably in a range from about 3 to about 7 microns.
  • In one embodiment, a particle formulation for use with the present invention comprises one or more GLP-1 receptor agonists, as described above and one or more stabilizers. The stabilizers may be, for example, carbohydrate, antioxidant, amino acid, buffer, or inorganic compound. The amounts of stabilizers in the particle formulation can be determined experimentally based on the activities of the stabilizers and buffers and the desired characteristics of the formulation. Typically, the amount of carbohydrate in the formulation is determined by aggregation concerns. In general, the carbohydrate level should not be too high so as to avoid promoting crystal growth in the presence of water due to excess carbohydrate unbound to insulinotropic peptide. Typically, the amount of antioxidant in the formulation is determined by oxidation concerns, while the amount of amino acid in the formulation is determined by oxidation concerns and/or formability of particles during spray drying. Typically, the amount of buffer components in the formulation is determined by pre-processing concerns, stability concerns, and formability of particles during spray drying. Buffer may be required to stabilize the GLP-1 receptor agonist during processing, e.g., solution preparation and spray drying, when all excipients are solubilized.
  • Examples of carbohydrates that may be included in the particle formulation include, but are not limited to, monosaccharides (e.g., fructose, maltose, galactose, glucose, D-mannose, and sorbose), disaccharides (e.g., lactose, sucrose, trehalose, and cellobiose), polysaccharides (e.g., raffinose, melezitose, maltodextrins, dextrans, and starches), and alditols (acyclic polyols; e.g., mannitol, xylitol, maltitol, lactitol, xylitol sorbitol, pyranosyl sorbitol, and myoinsitol). Preferred carbohydrates include non-reducing sugars, such as sucrose, trehalose, and raffinose.
  • Examples of antioxidants that may be included in the particle formulation include, but are not limited to, methionine, ascorbic acid, sodium thiosulfate, catalase, platinum, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, cysteins, thioglycerol, thioglycolic acid, thiosorbitol, butylated hydroxanisol, butylated hydroxyltoluene, and propyl gallate.
  • Examples of amino acids that may be included in the particle formulation include, but are not limited to, arginine, methionine, glycine, histidine, alanine, L-leucine, glutamic acid, iso-leucine, L-threonine, 2-phenylamine, valine, norvaline, praline, phenylalanine, trytophan, serine, asparagines, cysteine, tyrosine, lysine, and norleucine. Preferred amino acids include those that readily oxidize, e.g., cysteine, methionine, and trytophan.
  • Examples of buffers that may be included in the particle formulation include, but are not limited to, citrate, histidine, succinate, phosphate, maleate, tris, acetate, carbohydrate, and gly-gly. Preferred buffers include citrate, histidine, succinate, and tris. It is to be understood that buffers can be added to the solution before formation of the particles, for example, by spray drying. However, after the dry particle formation is prepared, the buffer component no longer serves as a buffer in the dried particles. For ease of reference herein, when referring to buffer components, the term buffer is used.
  • Examples of inorganic compounds that may be included in the particle formulation include, but are not limited to, NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3, KCl, KH2PO4, CaCl2, and MgCl2.
  • In addition, the particle formulation may include other excipients, such as but not limited to surfactants and salts. Examples of surfactants include, but are not limited to, Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 80, PLURONIC®, F68, and sodium docecyl sulfate (SDS). Examples of other excipients include, but are not limited to, mannitol and glycine. Examples of salts include, but are not limited to, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride.
  • In one embodiment, the particle formulation comprises, for example, exenatide peptide, sucrose (carbohydrate), methionine (antioxidant), and sodium citrate/citric acid.
  • All components included in the particle formulation are typically acceptable for pharmaceutical use in mammals, in particular, in humans.
  • Particle size distribution of the dry particle powder can be well controlled (0.1 micron −20 micron), for example, by using the methods of spray drying or lyophilization to prepare the particle formulations. The process parameters for formation of the dry powder are optimal to produce particles with desired particle size distribution, density, and surface area.
  • The selected excipients and stabilizers in the particle formulation may provide, for example, the following functions: density modification of the dry powder; preservation of the peptide chemical stability; maintenance of the peptide's physical stability (e.g., high glass transition temperature, and avoiding phase to phase transition); producing homogenous dispersions in suspension; and modification of hydrophobicity and/or hydrophilicity to manipulate dry powder solubility in selected solvents.
  • See U.S. Patent Publication No. 2008/0260840, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, for detailed methods of producing particle formulations.
  • In summary, GLP-1 receptor agonists can be formulated into dried powders in solid state, which preserves maximum chemical and biological stability of proteins or peptides. The particle formulation offers long term storage stability at high temperature, and therefore, allows delivery to a subject of stable and biologically effective peptide for extended periods of time.
  • Although the particle formulations described above are with reference to GLP-1 receptor agonists, such particle formulations can also be formed with any other suitable agents, such as other suitable beneficial polypeptides, including suitable anticancer polypeptides, antibodies and the like, described in detail below.
  • Suspension formulations for use with the present invention can be produced using particle formulations as described above. See U.S. Patent Publication No. 2008/0260840, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, for detailed methods of producing such suspension formulations. In one aspect of the present invention, the suspension formulation includes a suspension vehicle to provide a stable environment in which the GLP-1 receptor agonist particle formulation (or other suitable particle formulation) is dispersed. The particle formulations are chemically and physically stable (as described above) in the suspension vehicle. The suspension vehicle typically comprises one or more polymers and one or more solvents that form a solution of sufficient viscosity to uniformly suspend the particles comprising the GLP-1 receptor agonist or other suitable agent. In addition to the GLP-1 receptor agonist, the suspension formulations can be used with any suitable agents, such as other suitable beneficial polypeptides, including suitable anticancer polypeptides, antibodies and the like, described in detail below.
  • The viscosity of the suspension vehicle is typically sufficient to prevent the particle formulation from settling during storage and use in a method of delivery, for example, in an implantable, drug delivery device. The suspension vehicle is biodegradable in that the suspension vehicle disintegrates or breaks down over a period of time in response to a biological environment. The disintegration of the suspension vehicle may occur by one or more physical or chemical degradative processes, such as by enzymatic action, oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis (e.g., proteolysis), displacement (e.g., ion exchange), or dissolution by solubilization, emulsion or micelle formation. After the suspension vehicle disintegrates, components of the suspension vehicle are absorbed or otherwise dissipated by the body and surrounding tissue of the patient.
  • The solvent in which the polymer is dissolved may affect characteristics of the suspension formulation, such as the behavior of the particle formulation during storage. A solvent may be selected in combination with a polymer so that the resulting suspension vehicle exhibits phase separation upon contact with the aqueous environment. In some embodiments, the solvent may be selected in combination with the polymer so that the resulting suspension vehicle exhibits phase separation upon contact with the aqueous environment having less than approximately about 10% water.
  • The solvent may be an acceptable solvent that is not miscible with water. The solvent may also be selected so that the polymer is soluble in the solvent at high concentrations, such as at a polymer concentration of greater than about 30%. However, typically particles comprising the GLP-1 receptor agonists are substantially insoluble in the solvent. Examples of solvents useful in the practice of the present invention include, but are not limited to, lauryl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, benzyl alcohol, lauryl lactate, decanol (also called decyl alcohol), ethyl hexyl lactate, and long chain (C8 to C24) aliphatic alcohols, esters, or mixtures thereof. The solvent used in the suspension vehicle may be “dry,” in that it has a low moisture content. Preferred solvents for use in formulation of the suspension vehicle include lauryl lactate, lauryl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, and combinations thereof.
  • Examples of polymers for formulation of the suspension vehicles include, but are not limited to, a polyester (e.g., polylactic acid or polylacticpolyglycolic acid), pyrrolidone polymer (e.g., polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) having a molecular weight ranging from approximately 2,000 to approximately 1,000,000), ester or ether of an unsaturated alcohol (e.g., vinyl acetate), polyoxyethylenepolyoxypropylene block copolymer, or mixtures thereof. In one embodiment, the polymer is PVP having a molecular weight of 2,000 to 1,000,000. In a preferred embodiment the polymer is polyvinylpyrrolidone K-17 (typically having an approximate average molecular weight range of 7,900-10,800). Polyvinylpyrrolidone can be characterized by its K-value (e.g., K-17), which is a viscosity index. The polymer used in the suspension vehicle may include one or more different polymers or may include different grades of a single polymer. The polymer used in the suspension vehicle may also be dry or have a low moisture content.
  • Generally speaking, a suspension vehicle according to the present invention may vary in composition based on the desired performance characteristics. In one embodiment, the suspension vehicle may comprise about 40% to about 80% (w/w) polymer(s) and about 20% to about 60% (w/w) solvent(s). Preferred embodiments of a suspension vehicle include vehicles formed of polymer(s) and solvent(s) combined at the following ratios: about 25% solvent and about 75% polymer; about 50% solvent and about 50% polymer; about 75% solvent and about 25% polymer.
  • The suspension vehicle may exhibit Newtonian behavior. The suspension vehicle is typically formulated to provide a viscosity that maintains a uniform dispersion of the particle formulation for a predetermined period of time. This helps facilitate making a suspension formulation tailored to provide controlled delivery of the insulinotropic peptide at a desired rate. The viscosity of the suspension vehicle may vary depending on the desired application, the size and type of the particle formulation, and the loading of the particle formulation in the suspension vehicle. The viscosity of the suspension vehicle may be varied by altering the type or relative amount of the solvent or polymer used.
  • The suspension vehicle may have a viscosity ranging from about 100 poise to about 1,000,000 poise, preferably from about 1,000 poise to about 100,000 poise. The viscosity may be measured at a selected temperature, for example, 33° C., at a shear rate of 10−4/sec, using a parallel plate rheometer. In some embodiments, the viscosity of the suspension vehicle ranges from approximately 5,000 poise to approximately 50,000 poise, such as about 7,000 poise to about 40,000 poise, about 8,000 poise to about 20,000 poise, about 9,000 poise to about 25,000 poise, about 10,000 poise to about 20,000 poise, and the like. In preferred embodiments, the viscosity range is between about 12,000 to about 18,000 poise at 33° C.
  • The suspension vehicle may exhibit phase separation when contacted with the aqueous environment; however, typically the suspension vehicle exhibits substantially no phase separation as a function of temperature. For example, at a temperature ranging from approximately 0° C. to approximately 70° C. and upon temperature cycling, such as cycling from 4° C. to 37° C. to 4° C., the suspension vehicle typically exhibits no phase separation.
  • The suspension vehicle may be prepared by combining the polymer and the solvent under dry conditions, such as in a dry box. The polymer and solvent may be combined at an elevated temperature, such as from approximately 40° C. to approximately 70° C., and allowed to liquefy and form the single phase. The ingredients may be blended under vacuum to remove air bubbles produced from the dry ingredients. The ingredients may be combined using a conventional mixer, such as a dual helix blade or similar mixer, set at a speed of approximately 40 rpm. However, higher speeds may also be used to mix the ingredients. Once a liquid solution of the ingredients is achieved, the suspension vehicle may be cooled to room temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) may be used to verify that the suspension vehicle is a single phase. Further, the components of the vehicle (e.g., the solvent and/or the polymer) may be treated to substantially reduce or substantially remove peroxides (e.g., by treatment with methionine; see, e.g., U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2007-0027105, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).
  • The particle formulation, comprising a GLP-1 receptor agonist, or other suitable agent, is added to the suspension vehicle to form a suspension formulation. The suspension formulation may be prepared by dispersing the particle formulation in the suspension vehicle. The suspension vehicle may be heated and the particle formulation added to the suspension vehicle under dry conditions. The ingredients may be mixed under vacuum at an elevated temperature, such as from about 40° C. to about 70° C. The ingredients may be mixed at a sufficient speed, such as from about 40 rpm to about 120 rpm, and for a sufficient amount of time, such as about 15 minutes, to achieve a uniform dispersion of the particle formulation in the suspension vehicle. The mixer may be a dual helix blade or other suitable mixer. The resulting mixture may be removed from the mixer, sealed in a dry container to prevent water from contaminating the suspension formulation, and allowed to cool to room temperature before further use, for example, loading into an implantable, drug delivery device, unit dose container, or multiple-dose container.
  • The suspension formulation typically has an overall moisture content of less than about 10 wt %, preferably less than about 5 wt %, and more preferably less than about 4 wt %.
  • The suspension formulations of the present invention are exemplified herein below with reference to exenatide and GLP-1(7-36)amide as representative GLP-1 receptor agonists (see, Example 3 and Example 4). These examples are not intended to be limiting.
  • In summary, the components of the suspension vehicle provide biocompatibility. Components of the suspension vehicle offer suitable chemico-physical properties to form stable suspensions of, for example, dry powder particle formulations. These properties include, but are not limited to, the following: viscosity of the suspension; purity of the vehicle; residual moisture of the vehicle; density of the vehicle; compatibility with the dry powders; compatibility with implantable devices; molecular weight of the polymer; stability of the vehicle; and hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of the vehicle. These properties can be manipulated and controlled, for example, by variation of the vehicle composition and manipulation of the ratio of components used in the suspension vehicle.
  • 3.0.0 DELIVERY OF SUSPENSION FORMULATIONS
  • The suspension formulations described herein may be used in an implantable, drug delivery device to provide sustained delivery of a compound over an extended period of time, such as over weeks, months, or up to about one year. Such an implantable drug delivery device is typically capable of delivering the compound at a desired flow rate over a desired period of time. The suspension formulation may be loaded into the implantable, drug delivery device by conventional techniques.
  • The suspension formulation may be delivered, for example, using an osmotically, mechanically, electromechanically, or chemically driven drug delivery device. The active agent in the suspension formulation is delivered at a flow rate that is therapeutically effective to the subject in need of treatment.
  • The active agent, such as GLP-1(7-36)amide, exenatide, or other suitable beneficial agent, may be delivered over a period ranging from more than about one week to about one year or more, preferably for about one month to about a year or more, more preferably for about three months to about a year or more. The implantable, drug delivery device may include a reservoir having at least one orifice through which the agent is delivered. The suspension formulation may be stored within the reservoir. In one embodiment, the implantable, drug delivery device is an osmotic delivery device, wherein delivery of the drug is osmotically driven. Some osmotic delivery devices and their component parts have been described, for example, the DUROS® delivery device or similar devices (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,609,885; 5,728,396; 5,985,305; 5,997,527; 6,113,938; 6,132,420; 6,156,331; 6,217,906; 6,261,584; 6,270.787; 6,287,295; 6,375,978; 6,395,292; 6,508,808; 6,544,252; 6,635,268; 6,682,522; 6,923,800; 6,939,556; 6,976,981; 6,997,922; 7,014,636; 7,207,982; 7,112,335; 7,163,688; U.S. Patent Publication Nos. 2005-0175701, 2007-0281024, and 2008-0091176, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties).
  • The DUROS® delivery device typically consists of a cylindrical reservoir which contains the osmotic engine, piston, and drug formulation. The reservoir is capped at one end by a controlled-rate water-permeable membrane and capped at the other end by a diffusion moderator through which drug formulation is released from the drug reservoir. The piston separates the drug formulation from the osmotic engine and utilizes a seal to prevent the water in the osmotic engine compartment from entering the drug reservoir. The diffusion moderator is designed, in conjunction with the drug formulation, to prevent body fluid from entering the drug reservoir through the orifice.
  • The DUROS® device releases a therapeutic agent at a predetermined rate based on the principle of osmosis. Extracellular fluid enters the DUROS® device through a semi-permeable membrane directly into a salt engine that expands to drive the piston at a slow and even delivery rate. Movement of the piston forces the drug formulation to be released through the orifice or exit port at a predetermined sheer rate. In one embodiment, the reservoir of the DUROS® device is loaded with a suspension formulation comprising, for example, GLP-1(7-36)amide or exenatide, wherein the device is capable of delivering the suspension formulation to a subject over an extended period of time (e.g., about one, about two, about three, about six, or about 12 months) at a predetermined, therapeutically effective delivery rate.
  • Other implantable, drug delivery devices may be used in the practice of the present invention and may include regulator-type implantable pumps that provide constant flow, adjustable flow, or programmable flow of the compound, such as those available from Codman & Shurtleff, Inc. (Raynham, Mass.), Medtronic, Inc. (Minneapolis, Minn.), and Tricumed Medinzintechnik GmbH (Germany).
  • Implantable devices, for example, the DUROS® device, provide the following advantages for administration of the formulations of the present invention: true zero-order release of the insulinotropic peptide pharmacokinetically; long-term release period time (e.g., up to about 12 months); and reliable delivery and dosing of the GLP-1 receptor agonist or other suitable beneficial agent.
  • FIG. 2 depicts a representative osmotic delivery device useful in the practice of the present invention. In FIG. 2, an osmotic delivery device 10 is shown comprising a reservoir 12. A piston assembly 14 is positioned in the lumen of the reservoir and divides the lumen into two chambers. In this example, the chamber 16 contains a beneficial agent formulation, such as a GLP-1 receptor agonist (e.g., GLP-1 (7-36)amide or exenatide) formulation, an anticancer agent, or the like and the chamber 20 contains an osmotic agent formulation. A semi-permeable membrane 18 is positioned at a distal end of the reservoir, adjacent the chamber 20 containing the osmotic agent formulation. A diffusion moderator 22 is positioned in mating relationship at a distal end of the reservoir 12, adjacent the chamber 16 containing the beneficial agent formulation. The diffusion moderator 22 includes a delivery orifice 24. The diffusion moderator 22 may be any suitable flow device having a delivery orifice. In this embodiment, the flow path 26 is formed between a threaded diffusion moderator 22 and threads 28 formed on the interior surface of the reservoir 12. In alternative embodiments, the diffusion moderator can, for example, (i) be press-fit (or friction fit) through an opening and contacting a smooth interior surface of the reservoir, or (ii) comprise two pieces with an outer shell constructed and arranged for positioning in an opening, an inner core inserted in the outer shell, and a fluid channel having a spiral shape defined between the outer shell and the inner core (e.g., U.S. Patent Publication No. 2007-0281024, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).
  • Fluid is imbibed into the chamber 20 through the semi-permeable membrane 18. The beneficial agent formulation is dispensed from the chamber 16 through the delivery orifice 24 in the diffusion moderator 22. The piston assembly 14 engages and seals against the interior wall of the reservoir 12, thereby isolating the osmotic agent formulation in chamber 20 and fluid imbibed through the semi-permeable membrane 18 from the beneficial agent formulation in chamber 16. At steady-state, the beneficial agent formulation is expelled through the delivery orifice 24 in the diffusion moderator 22 at a rate corresponding to the rate at which external fluid is imbibed into the chamber 20 through the semi-permeable membrane 18.
  • The semi-permeable membrane 18 may be in the form of a plug that is resiliently engaged in sealing relationship with the interior surface of the reservoir 12. In FIG. 2, it is shown to have ridges that serve to frictionally engage the semi-permeable membrane 18 with the interior surface of the reservoir 12.
  • The amount of beneficial agent employed in the delivery device of the invention is that amount necessary to deliver a therapeutically effective amount of the agent to achieve the desired therapeutic result. In practice, this will vary depending upon such variables, for example, as the particular agent, the site of delivery, the severity of the condition, and the desired therapeutic effect. Typically, for an osmotic delivery device, the volume of a beneficial agent chamber comprising the beneficial agent formulation is between about 100 μl to about 1000 μl, more preferably between about 120 μl and about 500 μl, more preferably between about 150 μl and about 200 μl.
  • Typically, the osmotic delivery device is implanted within the subject, for example, subcutaneously. The device(s) can be inserted in either or both arms (e.g., in the inside, outside, or back of the upper arm) or into the abdomen. Preferred locations in the abdomen are under the abdominal skin in the area extending below the ribs and above the belt line. To provide a number of locations for insertion of one or more osmotic delivery devices within the abdomen, the abdominal wall can be divided into 4 quadrants as follows: the upper right quadrant extending 5-8 centimeters below the right ribs and about 5-8 centimeters to the right of the midline, the lower right quadrant extending 5-8 centimeters above the belt line and 5-8 centimeters to the right of the midline, the upper left quadrant extending 5-8 centimeters below the left ribs and about 5-8 centimeters to the left of the midline, and the lower left quadrant extending 5-8 centimeters above the belt line and 5-8 centimeters to the left of the midline. This provides multiple available locations for implantation of one or more devices on one or more occasions.
  • The suspension formulation may also be delivered from a drug delivery device that is not implantable or implanted, for example, an external pump such as a peristaltic pump used for subcutaneous delivery in a hospital setting.
  • The suspension formulations of the present invention may also be used in infusion pumps, for example, the ALZET® osmotic pumps which are miniature, infusion pumps for the continuous dosing of laboratory animals (e.g., mice and rats).
  • The suspension formulations of the present invention may also be used in the form of injections to provide highly concentrated bolus doses of biologically active agents, such as the GLP-1 receptor agonists, anti-cancer agents, etc.
  • 4.0.0 ANTICANCER AGENTS
  • The GLP-1 receptor agonists, such as GLP-1(7-36)amide and exenatide, can be delivered to a patient as a single modality treatment or in combination with other beneficial agents, including anticancer agents as described below, chemotherapeutic drugs, anticancer antibodies, antisense molecules, siRNA, and the like.
  • For example, one useful combination is with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, such as SUTENT®, NEXAVAR®, BIBF 1120, ZD1839 (gefitinib), erlotinib, TYKERB™, and the like.
  • mTOR inhibitors, such as rapamycin (sirolimus), AZD8055, NVP-BEZ235, deforolimus, everolimus, temsirolimus, GSK1059615, WYE354, KU0063794, XL765 (all available from Selleck Chemicals) will also find use in a combination treatment.
  • Other drugs for use in combination with the GLP-1 receptor agonists (e.g., exenatide and GLP-1(7-36)amide), are those that cause hypoxia in tumor tissues, such as metformin, and drugs that inhibit the hypoxia inducible factor 1 such as CCAA/enhancer binding protein a, PX-478, resveratrol, and the various small molecule inhibitors described in Jones et al., Mol. Cancer. Ther. (2006) 5:2193-2202.
  • Also useful are drugs that inhibit IGF-1, such as octreonide acetate and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, that serve to block IGF-1 receptor signaling.
  • VEGF-inhibitors, such as anti-VEGF antibodies including bevacizumab) (AVASTIN®, as well as prolactin, sunitinib and sorafenib, may also be used in combination with the GLP-1 receptor agonists.
  • Another useful combination therapy is the use of a sugar analog, such as 2DG, subsequent to reducing glucose availability to the cancer cells using GLP-1 receptor agonists, such as exenatide and GLP-1(7-36)amide.
  • Cell cycle blockers will also find use herein, such as a cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)-inhibitor, e.g., olomoucin, butyrolactone-I, n-butyrate, upregulators of cdk activity, e.g., flavopiridol, Chalcones (1,3-diphenylpropen-1-ones) and derivatives thereof.
  • The histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzyme SIRT-1 and other related sirtuin proteins, analogs and derivatives thereof will also find use herein.
  • Also useful are peptides that induce cell apoptosis, such TRAIL, antagonists or antibodies against integrin αvβ3, anti-survivin antibodies and antagonists of survivin, and numerous pro-apoptotic peptides, well known in the art, such as described in Ellerby et al., Nat. Med. (1999) 5:1032-1038.
  • Examples of cytokines which can be administered in a combination treatment include G-CSF, GM-CSF, M-CSF, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, IL-21, IL-23, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IFN-λ, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TGF-β, TNFα, and TNF-β.
  • Examples of chemokines which can be administered include BCA-1/BLC, BRAK, Chemokine CC-2, CTACK, CXCL-16, ELC, ENA, ENA-70, ENA-74, ENA-78, Eotaxin, Exodus-2, Fractalkine, GCP-2, GRO, GRO alpha (MGSA), GRO-beta, GRO-gamma, HCC-1, HCC-4, 1-309, IP-10, 1-TAC, LAG-1, LD78-beta, LEC/NCC-4, LL-37, Lymphotactin, MCP, MCAF (MCP-1), MCP-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, MDC, MDC, MDC-2, MDC-4, MEC/CCL28, MIG, MIP, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, MIP-1 delta, MIP-3/MPIF-1, MIP-3 alpha, MIP-3 bet, MIP-4 (PARC), MIP-5, NAP-2, PARC PF-4, RANTES, RANTES-2, SDF-1 alpha, SDF-1 beta, TARC, and TECK.
  • Examples of growth factors which can be delivered include Human Amphiregulin, Human Angiogenesis Proteins, Human ACE, Human Angiogenin, Human Angiopoietin, Human Angiostatin, Human Endostatin, Human Betacellulin, Human BMP, Human BMP-13/CDMP-2, Human BMP-14/CDMP-1, Human BMP-2, Human BMP-3, Human BMP-4, Human BMP-5, Human BMP-6, Human BMP-7, Human BMP-8, Human BMP-9, Human Colony Stimulating Factors, Human flt3-Ligand, Human G-CSF, Human GM-CSF, Human M-CSF, Human Connective Tissue Growth Factor, Human Cripto-1, Human Cryptic, Human ECGF, Human EGF, Human EG-VEGF, Human Erythropoietin, Human Fetuin, Human FGF, Human FGF-1, Human FGF-10, Human FGF-16, Human FGF-17, Human FGF-18, Human FGF-19, Human FGF-2, Human FGF-20, Human FGF-3, Human FGF-4, Human FGF-5, Human FGF-6, Human FGF-7/KGF, Human FGF-8, Human FGF-9, Human FGF-acidic, Human FGF-basic, Human GDF-11, Human GDF-15, Human Growth Hormone Releasing Factor, Human HB-EGF, Human Heregulin, Human HGF, Human IGF, Human IGF-1, Human IGF-11, Human Inhibin, Human KGF, Human LCGF, Human LIF, Human Miscellaneous Growth Factors, Human MSP, Human Myostatin, Human Myostatin Propeptide, Human Nerve Growth Factor, Human Oncostatin M, Human PD-ECGF, Human PDGF, Human PDGF (AA Homodimer), Human PDGF (AB Heterodimer), Human PDGF (BB Homodimer), Human PDGF (CC Homodimer), Human PLGF, Human PLGF-1, Human PLGF-2, Human SCF, Human SMDF, Human Stem Cell Growth Factor, Human SCGF-alpha, Human SCGF-beta, Human Thrombopoietin, Human Transforming Growth Factor, Human TGF-alpha, and Human TGF-beta.
  • In some embodiments, chemotherapeutic agents used in the methods of the invention are selected from antimetabolites; enzyme inhibitors including topoisomerase I and II inhibitors, tyrosine and serine/threonine kinase inhibitors and COX2 inhibitors, tubulin binders, proteasome inhibitors, anticancer alkylating agents including bifunctional and monofunctional alkylating agents and methylating agents, anticancer antibiotics, anticancer antibodies and active fragments and fusions thereof and antibody-drug conjugates, bisphosphonates, antiestrogens and antiandrogens, anticancer cytokines, anticancer enzymes, immunomodulatory agents, anticancer peptides, anticancer retinoids, anticancer steroids and related agents, anticancer phototherapeutics, normal tissue protectors and antihormonal agents including aromatase inhibitors.
  • Antimetabolites may include folate analogs, which inhibit dihydrofolate reductase resulting in DNA breaks by blocking purine and thymidylate synthesis. Examples of folate analogs include methotrexate (FOLEX™), trimetrexate (NEUTREXIN®) and pemetrexed (ALIMTA®). Other anitmetabolites are nucleoside analogs that disrupt DNA or RNA synthesis, such as purine or pyrimidine analogs. Examples of purine analogs include allopurinol (ZYLOPRIM®), mercaptopurine (PURINETHOL®), fludarabine (FLUDARA™), thioguanine (6-TG), cladribine (LEUSTATIN®, 2-CdA), and pentostatin (NIPENT®). Examples of pyrimidine analogs include capecitabine (XELODA®), cytarabine (CYTOSAR™), liposomal cytarabine (DEPOCYT®), floxuridine (FUDR™), fluororouracil (ADRUCIL®), gemcitabine (GEMZAR®), and clofarabine (CLOLAR®), decitabine (DACOGEN®) and azacitadine (VIDAZA®).
  • Topoisomerase II inhibitors bind to topoisomerase II and DNA, preventing the resealing of DNA strands during replication, and leading to DNA strand breaks, such as epipodophyllotoxins. Examples of epipodophyllotoxins include etoposide (VEPESID®, ETOPOPHOS®) and teniposide (VUMON®, VM26™). Alternatively, topoisomerase II inhibitors, such as anthracycline antibiotics, intercalate between DNA base pairs leading to free radicals and also topoisomerase II inhibition. Examples of anthracyclines include daunorubicin (DANOIJXOME®, CERUBIDINE™), liposomal daunorubicin (DAUNOXOME®), doxorubicin (ADRIAMYCIN™, RUBEX™), liposomal doxorubicin (DOXIL™), epirubicin (ELLENCE™), valrubicin (VALSTAR®), and idarubicin (IDAMYCIN™). Mitoxantrone (NOVANTRONE®) also inhibits topoisomerase II and is an anticancer therapeutic.
  • Topoisomerase I inhibitors bind to topoisomerase I and DNA, preventing DNA strand breaks, such as, e.g., camptothecins, including irinotecan (CAMPTOSAR®) and topotecan (HYCAMTIN®).
  • Anticancer kinase inhibitors inhibit phosphorylation of a protein or small molecule messenger in a an intracellular signaling pathway in malignant cells or vascular or stromal cells, such as, e.g., imatinib mseylate (GLEEVEC®), gefitinib (IRESSA®) or erlotinib (TARCEVA®), sorafenib (NEXAVAR®), sunitinib (SUTENT®), nilotinib (TASIGN®), everolimus (AFINITOR®), lapatinib (TYKERB®), dasatinib (SPRYCEL®), BRAF inhibitors such as GSK218436 (GlaxoSmithKline, London UK) and vemurafenib (Plexxikon Inc., CA) and MEK inhibitors.
  • Tubulin binders include agents that bind to microtubules, shift the microtubules toward polymerization, and are active in the M phase, such as taxanes including docetaxel (TAXOTERE®) and paclitaxel (TAXOL®) and epothilones including ixabepilone (IXEMPRA®) and eribulin mesylate. Other tubulin binders act by inhibiting polymerization and mitotic spindle formation, and are active in the S phase, such as, e.g., vinca alkaloids, including vinblastine (VELBAN®), vincristine (ONCOVIN™), and vinorelbine (NAVELBINE®). Other tubulin binders include ILX-651 (TASIDOTIN™) and estramustine (EMCYT®), which inhibit microtubule assembly and disassembly.
  • Proteasome inhibitors block the trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like and/or peptidylglutamyl peptide hydrolyzing-like protease activities in nuclear and cytoplasmic proteasomes. Examples of proteasome inhibitors include bortezomib (VELCADE®).
  • Anticancer alkylating agents are reactive molecules that bind to DNA and interfere with DNA replication. These agents include, but are not limited to, alkyl sulfonates such as busulfan (MYLERAN®), platinum analogs such as carboplatin (PARAPLATIN®), cisplatin (PLATINOL®-AQ, and oxaliplatin (ELOXATIN®), nitrosoureas such as carmustine (BICNU®), lomustine (CCNU™, CEENU®), and streptozocin (ZANOSAle), nitrogen mustards including chlorambucil (LEUKERAN®), uracil mustard, cyclophosphamide (CYTOXAN®), ifosfamide (IFEX®), meclorethamine (MUSTARGEN®), and melphalan (ALKERAN®, L-PAM), bendamustine (TREANDA®), triazenes such as dacarbazine (DTIC-DOME®), procarbazine (MATULANE®), temozolomide (TEMODAR®), ethylenimines including hexamethylamine (HEXALEN®), and thiotepa (THIOPLEX®), hydroxyurea (HYDREA®, arsenic trioxide (TRISENOX®), mitomycin C (MUTAMYCIN®, MITOZYTREX™) and trabectedin (YONDELIS®).
  • Anticancer antibiotics act by a variety of mechanisms including inhibition of protein synthesis generation of oxygen free radicals in the vicinity of DNA and other mechanisms. Examples of anticancer antibiotics include actinomycin D (COSMEGEN®), bleomycin sulfate (BLENOXANE®) and plicamycin (MITHRACIN™).
  • Anticancer antibodies bind to specific molecular targets on cells or in the extracellular space. Anticancer antibodies act by neutralizing the activity of the target, attracting immune cells to the target cell or by being directly or indirectly cytotoxic toward the target cell. Anticancer antibodies include, but are not limited to, anti-CD52 antibodies such as alemtuzumab (CAMPATH®); anti-VEGF antibodies including bevacizumab (AVASTIN®); anti-CD33 antibodies, including gemtuzumab ozogamicin (MYLOTARG®); anti-CD20 antibodies including ibritumomab (ZEVALIN™), rituximab (RITUXAN™), tositumomab (BEXXAR®) and ofatumumab (ARZERRA®); anti-EGFR antibodies such as cetuximab (ERBITUX®) and panitumumab (VECTIBEX®); anti-Her2 antibodies, including trastuzumab (HERCEPTIN®); anti-CTLA4 antibodies including Ipilimumab (YERVOY™); adnectins; and domain antibodies. Active fragments and fusions of these antibodies will also find use herein.
  • Anticancer cytokines include, but are not limited to, aldesleukin (PROLEUKIN®), denileukin diftitox (ONTAK®), GM-CSF (sargramostim, PROKINE™, LEUKINE™), interferon alfa-2b (INTRON®-A), PEGinterferon alpha (PEGASYS® or PEGINTRON®) and consensus interferon (INFERGEN®).
  • Immunomodulatory agents are effective by increasing the response of the immune system of the host to the malignancy. Immunomodulatory agents include, but are not limited to, Bacillus Calmette-Gurerin (BCG Vaccine), levamisole (ERGAMISOL™), thalidomide (THALIDOMID®), sipuleucel-T (PROVENGE®), and lenalidomide (REVLIMID®).
  • Anticancer retinoids include, but are not limited to, aliretinoin (PANRETIN®), bexarotene (TARGRETIN®) and tretinoin (VESANOID®, ATRA™); other agents include octreotide acetate (SANDOSTATIN®).
  • Anticancer enzymes include asparaginase (ELSPAR®), pegademase (ADAGEN®), and pegaspargase (ONCASPAR®).
  • Anticancer steroids and related agents include dexamethasone (DECADRON™), predisone (DELTASONE®), prednisolone (DELTA-CORTEF™) and mitotane (LYSODREN®).
  • Normal tissue protectors include, but are not limited to, amifostine (ETHYOL®), darbepoetin alfa (ARANESP®), dexrazoxane (ZINECARD®), epoetin alfa (EPOGEN®, PROCRIT®), filgrastim (NEUPOGEN®), folinic acid (leucovorin), allopurinol (ALOPRIM®) mesna (MESNEX®), oprelvekin (NEUMEGA®), pegfilgrastim (NEULASTA®), GM-CSF (sargramostim, PROKINE™, LEUKINE®), raloxifene (EVISTA®) and eltrombopag (PROMACTA®).
  • Phototherapeutics are agents that sensitize cells so that exposure to a specific frequency of laser light induces abundant free radical formation and DNA alkylation. These agents include, but are not limited to, porfimer sodium (PHOTOFRIN®).
  • Antihormones include LHRH agonists, which compete with gonadotropin by binding to the hypothalamus causing an initial surge of LH and FSH followed by down regulation by negative feedback, including goserelin (ZOLADEX®), leuprolide (LUPRON® or ELIGARD®), and triptorelin (TRELSTAR®); and antiandrogens, which competitively bind and inhibit the binding of androgens to androgen receptors, such as hicalutamide (CASODEX®), flutamide (EULEXIN™), nilutamide (NILANDRON®), aminoglutethimide (CYTADREN®), and abarelix (PLENAXIS®); and antiestrogens, which competitively bind and inhibit the binding of estrogens to estrogen receptors such as tamoxifen (NOLVADEX®), fluoxymesterone (HALOTESTIN®) and megestrol (MEGACE®), bisphosphonates including pamidronate (AREDIA®) and zoledronate (ZOMETA®), and aromatase inhibitors including anastrozole (ARIMIDEX®), exemestane (AROMASIN®), fulvestrant (FASLODEX®), and letrozole (FEMARA®), androgen biosynthesis inhibitors such as abiraterone acetate (ZITIGA®), androgen signaling inhibitor such as MDV 3100.
  • ATP-competitive inhibitors of c-Met/HGF receptor and/or the nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) include crizotinib, CH5424802 (Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Japan), and AP26113 (ARIAD Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MA).
  • Exemplary agents including beneficial agents and anticancer agents that can be delivered with the GLP-1 receptor agonist compositions described herein include those described above and/or shown in Table 1.
  • TABLE 1
    Antimetabolites
    Folate Anatagonists
    Methotrexate (FOLEX ™)
    Trimetrexate (NEUTREXIN ®)
    Pemetrexed (ALIMTA ®)
    Purine Analogs
    Allopurinol (ZYLOPRIM ®)
    Mercaptopurine (PURINETHOL ®)
    Fludarabine (FLUDARA ™)
    Thioguanine (6-TG)
    Cladribine (LEUSTATIN ®)
    Pentostatin (NIPENT ®)
    Pyrimidine Analogs
    Capecitabine (XELODA ®)
    Cytarabine (CYTOSAR ™)
    Liposomal cytarabine (DEPOCYT ®)
    Floxuridine (FUDR ™)
    Fluorouracil (ADRUCIL ®)
    Gemcitabine (GEMZAR ®)
    Clofarabine (CLOLAR ®)
    Decitabine (DACOGEN ®)
    Azacitadine (VIDAZA ®)
    Enzyme Inhibitors
    COX-2 Inhibitors (CELEBREX ®)
    Topoisomerase II Inhibitors
    Epipodophyllotoxins
    Etoposide (VEPESID ®, ETOPOPHOS ®)
    Teniposide (VUMON ®, VM 26 ™)
    Anthracyclines
    Daunorubicin (CERUBIDINE ™)
    Liposomal Daunorubicin (DAUNOXOME ®)
    Doxorubicin (ADRIAMYCIN ™, RUBEX ™)
    Liposomal Doxorubicin (DOXIL ™)
    Epirubicin (ELLENCE ®)
    Valrubicin (VALSTAR ®)
    Idarubicin (IDAMYCIN ™)
    Mitoxantrone (NOVANTRONE ®)
    Topoisomerase I Inhibitors
    Camptothecins
    Irinotecan (CAMPTOSAR ®)
    Topotecan (HYCAMTIN ®)
    Anticancer Kinase Inhibitors
    Imatinib mesylate (GLEEVEC ®)
    Gefitinib (IRESSA ®)
    Erlotinib (TARCEVA ®)
    Sorafenib (NEXAVAR ®)
    Sunitinib (SUTENT ®)
    Nilotinib (TASIGNA ®)
    Everolimus (AFINITOR ®)
    Lapatinib (TYKERB ®)
    Dasatinib (SPRYCEL ®)
    Antitubulins
    Taxanes
    Docetaxel (TAXOTERE ®)
    Paclitaxel (TAXOL ®)
    Ixabepilone (IXEMPRA ®)
    Cabazitaxel (JEVTANA ®)
    Vinca Alkaloids
    Vinblastine (VELBAN ®)
    Vincristine (ONCOVIN ™)
    Vinorelbine (NAVELBINE ®)
    Vinflunine (JAVLOR ®)
    ILX-651 (TASIDOTIN ™)
    Tasidotin-C-carboxylate
    Estramustine (EMCYT ®)
    Anticancer Phototherapeutics
    Porfimer Sodium (PHOTOFRIN ®)
    Anticancer Antibodies
    Anti-CD52 Antibodies
    Alemtuzumab (CAMPATH ®)
    Anti-CD33 Antibodies
    Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (MYLOTARG ®)
    Anti-CD20 Antibodies
    Ibritumomab (ZEVALIN ®)
    Rituximab (RITUXAN ®)
    Tositumomab (BEXXAR ®)
    Ofatumumab (ARZERRA ®)
    Anti-Her2 Antibodies
    Trastuzumab (HERCEPTIN ®)
    Anti-VEGF
    Bevacizumab (AVASTIN ®)
    Anti-EGFR
    Cetuximab (ERBITUX ®)
    Anticancer Retinoids
    Alitretinoin (PANRETIN ®)
    Bexarotene (TARGRETIN ®)
    Tretinoin (VESANOID ®, ATRA ™)
    Octreotide acetate (SANDOSTATIN ®)
    Normal Tissue Protectors
    Amifostine (ETHYOL ®)
    Darbepoetin alfa (ARANESP ®)
    Dexrazoxane (ZINECARD ®)
    Epoetin alfa (EPOGEN ®, PROCRIT ®)
    Filgrastim (NEUPOGEN ®)
    Folinic Acid (leucovorin)
    Allopurinol (ALOPRIM ®)
    Mesna (MESNEX ®)
    Oprelvekin (rhIL-11) (NEUMEGA ®)
    Pegfilgrastim (NEULASTA ®)
    GM-CSF (sargramostim, PROKINE ™, LEUKINE ®)
    Eltrombopag (PROMACTA ®)
    AMD3100 (plerixafor, MOZOBIL ®)
    Alkylating Agents
    Alkyl Sulfonates
    Busulfan (MYLERAN ®)
    Platinum Analogs
    Carboplatin (PARAPLATIN ®)
    Cisplatin (PLATINOL ®-AQ)
    Oxaliplatin (ELOXATIN ®)
    Nitrosoureas
    Carmustine (BICNU ®)
    Lomustine (CCNU ™, CEENU ®)
    Streptozocin (ZANOSAR ®)
    Nitrogen Mustards
    Chlorambucil (LEUKERAN ®)
    Uracil mustard
    Cyclophosphamide (CYTOXAN ®)
    Ifosfamide (IFEX ®)
    Meclorethamine (MUSTARGEN ®)
    Melphalan (ALKERAN ®, L-PAM)
    Bendamustine (TREANDA ®)
    Triazenes
    Dacarbazine (DTIC-DOME ®)
    Procarbazine (MATULANE ®)
    Temozolomide (TEMODAR ®)
    Ethylenimines
    Hexamethylamine (HEXALEN ®, altretamine, HEXASTAT ™)
    Thiotepa (THIOPLEX ®, TESPA ™)
    Hydroxyurea (HYDREA ®)
    Arsenic trioxide (TRISENOX ®)
    Mitomycin C (MUTAMYCIN ®)
    Trabectedin (YONDELIS ®)
    Anticancer Antibiotics
    Actinomycin D (dactinomycin, COSMEGEN ®)
    Bleomycin sulfate (BLENOXANE ®)
    Plicamycin (MITHRACIN ™)
    Proteasome Inhibitors
    Bortezomib (VELCADE ®)
    Anticancer Anti-hormones
    LHRH Agonists
    Histrelin (VANTAS ®)
    Goserelin (ZOLADEX ®)
    Leuprolide (LUPRON ®, ELIGARD ®)
    Triptorelin (TRELSTAR ®)
    Anti-Androgens
    Bicalutamide (CASODEX ®)
    Flutamide (EULEXIN ™)
    Nilutamide (NILANDRON ®)
    Aminoglutethimide (CYTADREN ®)
    Abarelix (PLENAXIS ®)
    Anti-Estrogens and Aromatase Inhibitors
    Tamoxifen (NOLVADEX ®)
    Raloxifene (EVISTA ®)
    Anastrozole (ARIMIDEX ®)
    Exemestane (AROMASIN ®)
    Fulvestrant (FASLODEX ®)
    Letrozole (FEMARA ®)
    Fluoxymesterone (HALOTESTIN ®)
    Megestrol acetate (MEGACE ®)
    Bisphosphonates
    Pamidronate (AREDIA ®)
    Zoledronate (ZOMETA ®)
    Ibandronate (BONIVA ®)
    Anticancer Enzymes
    Asparaginase (ELSPAR ®)
    Pegademase (ADAGEN ®)
    Pegaspargase (ONCASPAR ®)
    Anticancer Cytokines
    Aldesleukin (rhIL-2) (PROLEUKIN ®)
    Denileukin Diftitox (ONTAK ®)
    Interferon alfa-2b (INTRON ® A)
    Peginterferon alfa-2a (PEGASYS ®)
  • Treatment will depend on the cancer in question. Tests can be performed prior to treatment to specifically tailor a treatment for a patient. Such tests may include genetic or protein marker testing of tumor markers to determine susceptibility or resistance to a particular drug or class of drugs. For example, recently a mutation in von Hippel-Landau (VHL) gene have been found to be associated with a more favorable drug response for drugs such as SUTENT®, NEXAVAR®, and AVASTIN®. Other genetic and protein tests can be performed to link a treatment to an appropriate patient population.
  • The agents described above can be provided in formulations obtained from the manufacturer. Such formulations typically include the active components mixed with a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle or excipient. The vehicle may contain minor amounts of auxiliary substances such as wetting or emulsifying agents. The formulations may also include ancillary substances, such as pharmacological agents, cytokines, or other biological response modifiers.
  • In other embodiments of the invention, the pharmaceutical composition comprising the agent is a sustained-release formulation, and/or a formulation that is administered using a sustained-release device. Such devices are well known in the art, and include, for example, transdermal patches, and miniature implantable pumps (such as described herein) that can provide for drug delivery over time in a continuous, steady-state fashion at a variety of doses to achieve a sustained-release effect with either a non-sustained-release or a sustained release pharmaceutical composition. For example, polypeptide agents and antibodies described herein are suitable agents for delivery using an osmotic delivery device such as the DUROS® implantable device described above. In this embodiment, two or more such implantable delivery devices can be used, one including the GLP-1 receptor agonist and one or more including one or more additional beneficial agents, such as anticancer polypeptide formulations, antibodies, and the like. See, e.g., U.S. Patent Publication 2009/0202608, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, for a description of the use of two or more implantable delivery devices.
  • The additional beneficial agents may also be formulated as particle and suspension formulations as described herein, if appropriate. Such particle and suspension formulations are useful with polypeptide agents and antibodies and can be delivered using implantable devices as described above. In addition to the suspension formulations, comprising a suspension vehicle and particle formulation, described above, some polypeptide agents (e.g., leuprolide acetate) can be directly dissolved or dispersed in a vehicle for delivery from implantable devices. For example, some polypeptides (e.g., leuprolide acetate) can be dissolved in non-aqueous polar aprotic solvents (e.g., dimethylsulfoxide) to provide peptide formulations (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,932,547; 6,235,712; 5,981,489, incorporated herein by reference in their entireties). The use of one such formulation in an implantable osmotic delivery device is described below in Example 5. Other examples of peptide formulations include, but are not limited to, non-aqueous protic peptide formulations (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 6,066,619, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety) and aqueous formulations of peptides (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 6,068,850, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).
  • Other suitable routes of administration for the beneficial agents include parenteral administration, such as subcutaneous (s.c.), intraperitoneal (i.p.), intramuscular (i.m.), intravenous (i.v.), or infusion, oral (p.o.) and pulmonary, nasal, topical, transdermal, and suppositories. Where the composition is administered via pulmonary delivery, the therapeutically effective dose is adjusted such that the soluble level of the agent in the bloodstream, is equivalent to that obtained with a therapeutically effective dose that is administered parenterally, for example s.c., i.p., i.m., or i.v. In some embodiments of the invention, the pharmaceutical composition comprising the beneficial agent is administered by i.m. or s.c. injection, particularly by i.m. or s.c. injection locally to the region where the GLP-1 receptor agonist is administered.
  • One or more therapeutically effective dose of the additional beneficial agent, such as an anticancer agent will be administered. By “therapeutically effective dose or amount” of each of these agents is intended an amount that when administered in combination with the other agents, brings about a positive therapeutic response with respect to treatment of an individual with cancer. Of particular interest is an amount of these agents that provides an anti-tumor effect, as defined herein. In certain embodiments, multiple therapeutically effective doses of the additional beneficial agent will be provided.
  • The additional beneficial agents can be administered prior to, concurrent with, or subsequent to administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist. For example, initial treatment with a chemotherapeutic agent can be performed, followed by implantation of a delivery device including the GLP-1 receptor agonist formulation or vice versa. Moreover, the additional beneficial agent may be administered over the time that the GLP-1 receptor agonist formulation is also being delivered. By “concurrent therapy” is intended administration to a subject such that the therapeutic effect of the combination of the substances is caused in the subject undergoing therapy.
  • 5.0.0 USES
  • The GLP-1 receptor agonists, e.g., exenatide and GLP-1(7-36)amide, optionally in combination with other beneficial agents, can be used to treat various cancers. In particular, as explained above, cancer cells are known to exhibit increased glycolysis as compared to normal cells. An advantage of the present invention is that inhibiting glucose availability to cancer cells by using a GLP-1 receptor agonist, such as exenatide and GLP-1(7-36)amide, effectively reduces the amount of energy metabolites such as ATP and NADH produced, thereby starving the cancer cell of energy.
  • Any number of cancers can benefit from the delivery of GLP-1 receptor agonists. For example, tumors or cancers such as hemangiomas, neufibromatosis, breast, colorectal, lung, brain and CNS, renal, gynecological (e.g. ovarian, fallopian, cervical, peritoneal), hematological (lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia), neuroendocrine, mesothelioma, melanoma, prostate, esophagus, liver, gastric, rectal, carcinoid tumors; head and neck, squamous cell carcinoma, sarcomas, pancreas, colon, thymoma, thyroid, small intestine, bladder, testicular, bile duct, gall bladder, kidney, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, endometrial cancers and choriocarcinoma. A list of cancers that may benefit from delivery of the GLP-1 receptor agonists is shown in Table 2.
  • TABLE 2
    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Adult
    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Childhood
    Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Adult
    Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Childhood
    Adrenocortical Carcinoma
    Adrenocortical Carcinoma, Childhood
    AIDS-Related Cancers
    AIDS-Related Lymphoma
    Anal Cancer
    Appendix Cancer
    Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor, Childhood, Central Nervous System
    Basal Cell Carcinoma, see Skin Cancer (Non-melanoma)
    Bladder Cancer
    Bladder Cancer, Childhood
    Bone Cancer, Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma
    Brain Stem Glioma, Childhood
    Brain Tumor, Adult
    Brain Tumor, Brain Stem Glioma, Childhood
    Brain Tumor, Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid
    Tumor, Childhood
    Brain Tumor, Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors, Childhood
    Brain Tumor, Cerebellar Astrocytoma, Childhood
    Brain Tumor, Cerebral Astrocytoma/Malignant Glioma, Childhood
    Brain Tumor, Craniopharyngioma, Childhood
    Brain Tumor, Ependymoblastoma, Childhood
    Brain Tumor, Ependymoma, Childhood
    Brain Tumor, Medulloblastoma, Childhood
    Brain Tumor, Medulloepithelioma, Childhood
    Brain Tumor, Pineal Parenchymal Tumors of Intermediate
    Differentiation, Childhood
    Brain Tumor, Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors and
    Pineoblastoma, Childhood
    Brain Tumor, Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma, Childhood
    Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors, Childhood (Other)
    Breast Cancer
    Breast Cancer and Pregnancy
    Breast Cancer, Childhood
    Breast Cancer, Male
    Bronchial Tumors, Childhood
    Burkitt Lymphoma
    Carcinoid Tumor, Childhood
    Carcinoid Tumor, Gastrointestinal
    Carcinoma of Unknown Primary
    Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors, Childhood
    Central Nervous System Lymphoma, Primary
    Cerebral Astrocytoma/Malignant Glioma, Childhood
    Cervical Cancer
    Cervical Cancer, Childhood
    Childhood Cancers
    Chordoma, Childhood
    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
    Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders
    Colon Cancer
    Colorectal Cancer, Childhood
    Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma, see Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary
    Syndrome
    Ependymoma, Childhood
    Esophageal Cancer
    Esophageal Cancer, Childhood
    Ewing Family of Tumors
    Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood
    Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor
    Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer
    Eye Cancer, Intraocular Melanoma
    Eye Cancer, Retinoblastoma
    Gallbladder Cancer
    Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor
    Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST)
    Gastrointestinal Stromal Cell Tumor, Childhood
    Germ Cell Tumor, Extracranial, Childhood
    Germ Cell Tumor, Extragonadal
    Germ Cell Tumor, Ovarian
    Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor
    Glioma, Adult
    Glioma, Childhood Brain Stem
    Glioma, Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma
    Hairy Cell Leukemia
    Head and Neck Cancer
    Hepatocellular (Liver) Cancer, Adult (Primary)
    Hepatocellular (Liver) Cancer, Childhood (Primary)
    Histiocytosis, Langerhans Cell
    Hodgkin Lymphoma, Adult
    Hodgkin Lymphoma, Childhood
    Hypopharyngeal Cancer
    Hypothalamic and Visual Pathway Glioma, Childhood
    Islet Cell Tumors (Endocrine Pancreas)
    Kaposi Sarcoma
    Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer
    Kidney Cancer, Childhood
    Laryngeal Cancer
    Laryngeal Cancer, Childhood
    Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer
    Liver Cancer, Adult (Primary)
    Liver Cancer, Childhood (Primary)
    Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone and Osteosarcoma
    Mesothelioma, Adult Malignant
    Mesothelioma, Childhood
    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary
    Mouth Cancer
    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome, Childhood
    Multiple Myeloma/Plasma Cell Neoplasm
    Mycosis Fungoides
    Myelodysplastic Syndromes
    Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases
    Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer
    Nasopharyngeal Cancer
    Nasopharyngeal Cancer, Childhood
    Neuroblastoma
    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Adult
    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Childhood
    Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
    Oral Cancer, Childhood
    Oral Cavity Cancer, Lip tongue and mouth
    Oropharyngeal Cancer
    Ovarian Cancer, Childhood
    Ovarian Epithelial Cancer
    Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor
    Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumor
    Pancreatic Cancer
    Pancreatic Cancer, Childhood
    Pancreatic Cancer, Islet Cell Tumors
    Papillomatosis, Childhood
    Parathyroid Cancer
    Penile Cancer
    Pharyngeal Cancer
    Pheochromocytoma
    Pineoblastoma and Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors,
    Childhood
    Pituitary Tumor
    Pleuropulmonary Blastoma
    Prostate Cancer
    Rectal Cancer
    Respiratory Tract Carcinoma Involving the NUT Gene
    on Chromosome 15
    Rhabdomyosarcoma, Childhood
    Salivary Gland Cancer
    Salivary Gland Cancer, Childhood
    Sarcoma, Ewing Family of Tumors
    Sézary Syndrome
    Skin Cancer (Non-melanoma)
    Skin Cancer, Childhood
    Skin Cancer (Melanoma)
    Skin Carcinoma, Merkel Cell
    Small Cell Lung Cancer
    Small Intestine Cancer
    Soft Tissue Sarcoma, Adult
    Soft Tissue Sarcoma, Childhood
    Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary, Metastatic
    Stomach (Gastric) Cancer
    Stomach (Gastric) Cancer, Childhood
    Testicular Cancer
    Throat Cancer
    Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma
    Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma, Childhood
    Thyroid Cancer
    Thyroid Cancer, Childhood
    Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter
    Trophoblastic Tumor, Gestational
    Unusual Cancers of Childhood
    Ureter and Renal Pelvis, Transitional Cell Cancer
    Urethral Cancer
    Uterine Cancer, Endometrial
    Uterine Sarcoma
    Vaginal Cancer
    Vaginal Cancer, Childhood
    Vulvar Cancer
    Waldenström Macroglobulinemia
    Wilms Tumor
  • In some embodiments, the GLP-1 receptor agonists, are used in the treatment of hematological tumors and/or solid tumors. In a preferred embodiment, the GLP-1 receptor agonists, for example, exenatide and GLP-1(7-36)amide, are used in the treatment of solid tumors.
  • The GLP-1 receptor agonists are delivered in order to provide a positive therapeutic response. By “positive therapeutic response” it is intended the individual undergoing the combination treatment of a GLP-1 receptor agonist, such as exenatide and GLP-1(7-36)amide, and an additional beneficial agent exhibits an improvement in one or more symptoms of the cancer for which the individual is undergoing therapy. Therefore, for example, a positive therapeutic response refers to one or more of the following improvements in the disease: (1) reduction in tumor size; (2) reduction in the number of cancer cells; (3) inhibition (i.e., slowing to some extent, preferably halting) of tumor growth; (4) inhibition (i.e., slowing to some extent, preferably halting) of cancer cell infiltration into peripheral organs; (5) inhibition (i.e., slowing to some extent, preferably halting) of tumor metastasis; and (6) some extent of relief from one or more symptoms associated with the cancer. Such therapeutic responses may be further characterized as to degree of improvement. Thus, for example, an improvement may be characterized as a complete response. By “complete response” is documentation of the disappearance of all symptoms and signs of all measurable or evaluable disease confirmed by physical examination, laboratory, nuclear and radiographic studies (i.e., CT (computer tomography) and/or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)), and other non-invasive procedures repeated for all initial abnormalities or sites positive at the time of entry into the study. Alternatively, an improvement in the disease may be categorized as stabilization of the disease or may be a partial response. By “partial response” is intended a reduction of greater than 50% in the sum of the products of the perpendicular diameters of one or more measurable lesions when compared with pretreatment measurements (for patients with evaluable response only, partial response does not apply).
  • In one embodiment, the GLP-1 receptor agonist is delivered in a suspension formulation, administered using an osmotic delivery device as described above. Examples of target rates of delivery for suspension formulations of the present invention, comprising GLP-1 receptor agonists, include, but are not limited to: suspension formulations comprising particle formulations comprising GLP-1 (e.g., GLP-1(7-36)amide), between about 20 μg/day and about 900 μg/day, preferably between about 100 μg/day and about 600 μg/day, for example, at about 480 μg/day; and suspension formulations comprising particle formulations comprising exenatide, between about 5 μg/day and about 320 μg/day, preferably between about 5 μg/day and about 160 μg/day, for example, at about 10 μg/day to about 20 μg/day, such as 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 μg/day, or any integers between the above ranges. An exit sheer rate of the suspension formulation from the osmotic delivery device is determined such that the target daily target delivery rate of the GLP-1 receptor agonist is reasonably achieved by substantially continuous, uniform delivery of the suspension formulation from the osmotic delivery device. Examples of exit sheer rates include, but are not limited to, about 1 to about 1×104 reciprocal second, preferably about 4×10−2 to about 6×104 reciprocal second, more preferably 5×10−3 to 1×10−3 reciprocal second.
  • As explained above, a subject being treated with the GLP-1 receptor agonist formulations of the present invention may also benefit from co-treatment with other beneficial agents, including anticancer agents described above, as well as antidiabetic agents.
  • Additional beneficial agents that can be delivered include, but are not limited to, pharmacologically beneficial peptides proteins, polypeptides, genes, gene products, other gene therapy agents, or other small molecules. The additional beneficial agents are useful for the treatment of a variety of conditions including but not limited to hemophilia and other blood disorders, growth disorders, diabetes, leukemia and lymphoma, hepatitis, renal failure, bacterial infection, viral infection (e.g., infection by HIV, HCV, etc.), hereditary diseases such as cerbrosidase deficiency and adenosine deaminase deficiency, hypertension, septic shock, autoimmune diseases (e.g., Graves disease, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis), shock and wasting disorders, cystic fibrosis, lactose intolerance, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic disorders (such as obesity), and cancers.
  • The polypeptides may include but are not limited to the following: glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), cholecystokinin (CCK), CCK octapeptide, growth hormone, somatostatin; somatropin, somatotropin, somatotropin analogs, somatomedin-C, somatotropin plus an amino acid, somatotropin plus a protein; follicle stimulating hormone; luteinizing hormone, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), LHRH analogs/agonists such as leuprolide, nafarelin and goserelin, LHRH antagonists; growth hormone releasing factor; calcitonin; colchicine; gonadotropins such as chorionic gonadotropin; antiandrogens such as flutamide, nilutamide and cytoprerone; aromatase inhibitors such as exemastane, letrozole and anastrazole; selective estrogen receptor modulators such as raloxifene, lasoxifene; oxytocin, octreotide; vasopressin; adrenocorticotrophic hormone; epidermal growth factor; fibroblast growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor; transforming growth factor; nerve growth factor; prolactin; cosyntropin; lypressin polypeptides such as thyrotropin releasing hormone; thyroid stimulation hormone; secretin; leptin; adiponectin; amylin, amylin analogs (e.g., pramlintide acetate); pancreozymin; enkephalin; glucagon; endocrine agents secreted internally and distributed by way of the bloodstream; carbohydrases, nucleases, lipase, proteases, amylase, or the like.
  • Further beneficial agents that may be delivered include but are not limited to the following: alpha antitrypsin; factor VII; factor IX, thrombin and other coagulation factors; insulin; peptide hormones; adrenal cortical stimulating hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone and other pituitary hormones; erythropoietin; growth factors such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, insulin-like growth factor 1; tissue plasminogen activator; CD4; 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin; interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; tumor necrosis factor, tumor necrosis factor receptor; tumor suppresser proteins; pancreatic enzymes; lactase; cytokines, including lymphokines, chemokines or interleukins such as interleukin-1, interleukin-2 and other members of the interleukin family (e.g., IL-1, 6, 12, 15, 17, 18, 32); cytotoxic proteins; superoxide dismutase; endocrine agents secreted internally and distributed in an animal by way of the bloodstream; recombinant antibodies, antibody fragments, humanized antibodies, single chain antibodies, monoclonal antibodies; avimers; or the like.
  • Further, the beneficial agents that may be administered include, but are not limited to, organic compounds including those compounds that transport across a vessel. Examples of beneficial agents that may be used in the practice of the present invention include, but are not limited to, the following: hypnotics and sedatives such as pentobarbital sodium, phenobarbital, secobarbital, thiopental, amides and ureas exemplified by diethylisovaleramide and alpha-bromo-isovaleryl urea, urethanes, or disulfanes; heterocyclic hypnotics such as dioxopiperidines, and glutarimides; antidepressants such as isocarboxazid, nialamide, phenelzine, imipramine, tranylcypromine, pargyline; tranquilizers such as chloropromazine, promazine, fluphenazine reserpine, deserpidine, meprobamate, benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide; tricyclic antidepressants; anticonvulsants such as primidone, diphenylhydantoin, ethltoin, pheneturide, ethosuximide; muscle relaxants and anti-parkinson agents such as mephenesin, methocarbomal, trihexylphenidyl, biperiden, levo-dopa, also known as L-dopa and L-beta-3-4-dihydroxyphenylalanine; analgesics such as morphine, codeine, meperidine, nalorphine; antipyretics and anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin, salicylamide, sodium salicylamide, naproxin, ibuprofen, acetaminophen; local anesthetics such as procaine, lidocaine, naepaine, piperocaine, tetracaine, dibucane; antispasmodics and antiulcer agents such as atropine, scopolamine, methscopolamine, oxyphenonium, papaverine, prostaglandins such as PGE1, PGE2, PGF1alpha, PGF2alpha, PGA; anti-microbials such as penicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, bacitracin, chlorotetracycline, levofloxacin, erythromycin; anti-fungals such as Amphotericin B; anti-malarials such as 4-aminoquinolines, 8-aminoquinolines and pyrimethamine; hormonal agents such as prednisolone, cortisone, cortisol and triamcinolone, androgenic steroids (for example, methyltestosterone, fluoxmesterone), estrogenic steroids (for example, 17-beta-estradiol and ethinyl estradiol), progestational steroids (for example, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone acetate, 19-nor-progesterone, norethindrone); sympathomimetic drugs such as epinephrine, amphetamine, ephedrine, norepinephrine; cardiovascular drugs such as procainamide, amyl nitrate, nitroglycerin, dipyridamole, sodium nitrate, mannitol nitrate; diuretics such as acetazolamide, chlorothiazide, flumethiazide; antiparasitic agents such as bephenium hydroxynaphthoate, dichlorophen, enitabas, dapsone; anti-neoplastic agents such as mechloroethamine, uracil mustard, 5-fluorouracil, 6-thioguanine, procarbazine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, carboplatin, gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, fludarabine, ara-C, camptothecin, bortezomib, methrotrexate, capecitabine, doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, etoposide; VEGF/EGF inhibitors (for example, small molecules and antibodies); VEGF/EGF receptor inhibitors; hypoglycemic drugs such as insulin related compounds (for example, isophane insulin suspension, protamine zinc insulin suspension, globin zinc insulin, extended insulin zinc suspension) tolbutamide, acetohexamide, tolazamide, chlorpropamide; nutritional agents such as vitamins, essential amino acids, and essential fats; eye drugs such as pilocarpine base, pilocarpine hydrochloride, pilocarpine nitrate; antiviral drugs such as disoproxil fumarate, aciclovir, cidofovir, docosanol, famciclovir, fomivirsen, foscarnet, ganciclovir, idoxuridine, penciclovir, trifluridine, tromantadine, valaciclovir, valganciclovir, vidarabine, amantadine, arbidol, oseltamivir, peramivir, rimantadine, zanamivir, abacavir, didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine, stavudine, zalcitabine, zidovudine, tenofovir, efavirenz, delavirdine, nevirapine, loviride, amprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, tipranavir, enfuvirtide, adefovir, fomivirsen, imiquimod, inosine, podophyllotoxin, ribavirin, viramidine, fusion inhibitors specifically targeting viral surface proteins or viral receptors (for example, gp-41 inhibitor (T-20), CCR-5 inhibitor, enfuvirtide (FUZEON®)); anti-nausea (such as scopolamine, dimenhydrinate, granisetron, dolasetron, palonesetron, metaclopramide, ondansetron); iodoxuridine, hydrocortisone, eserine, phospholine, iodide, as well as other beneficial agents.
  • Numerous peptides, proteins, or polypeptides that are useful in the practice of the present invention are described herein. In addition to the peptides, proteins, or polypeptides described, modifications of these peptides, proteins, or polypeptides are also known to one of skill in the art and can be used in the practice of the present invention following the guidance presented herein. Such modifications include, but are not limited to, amino acid analogs, amino acid mimetics, analog polypeptides, or derivative polypeptides. Further, the beneficial agents disclosed herein may be formulated singly or in combination (e.g., mixtures).
  • Peptide YY (PYY) inhibits gut motility and blood flow (Laburthe, M., Trends Endocrinol Metab. 1(3):168-74 (1990), mediates intestinal secretion (Cox, H. M., et al., Br J Pharmacol 101(2):247-52 (1990); Playford, R. J., et al., Lancet 335(8705):1555-7 (1990)), stimulate net absorption (MacFayden, R. J., et al., Neuropeptides 7(3):219-27 (1986)), and two major in vivo variants (PYY and PYY3-36) have been identified (e.g., Eberlein, G. A., et al., Peptides 10 (4), 797-803 (1989)). The sequence of PYY, as well as analogs and derivatives thereof, including PYY3-36, are known in the art (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,574,010 and 5,552,520). For ease of reference herein, the family of PYY polypeptides, PYY derivatives, variants and analogs are referred to collectively as PYY.
  • GIP is an insulinotropic peptide hormone (Efendic, S., Horm Metab Res. (2004) 36:742-746) and is secreted by the mucosa of the duodenum and jejunum in response to absorbed fat and carbohydrate that stimulate the pancreas to secrete insulin. GIP stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells in the presence of glucose (Tseng et al., PATAS (1993) 90:1992-1996). GIP circulates as a biologically active 42-amino acid peptide. GIP is also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic protein. The sequence of GIP, as well as peptide analogs and peptide derivatives thereof, are known in the art (see, e.g., Meier J. J., Diabetes Metab Res Rev. (2005) 21(2):91-117; Efendic S., Horm Metab Res. (2004) 36(11-12):742-746). For ease of reference herein, the family of GIP polypeptides, GIP derivatives, variants and analogs are referred to collectively as GIP.
  • Oxyntomodulin is a naturally occurring 37 amino acid peptide hormone found in the colon that has been found to suppress appetite and facilitate weight loss (Wynne K, et al., Int J Obes (Lond) 30(12):1729-36 (2006)). The sequence of oxyntomodulin, as well as analogs and derivatives thereof, are known in the art (e.g., U.S. Patent Publication Nos. 2005-0070469 and 2006-0094652). For ease of reference herein, the family of oxyntomodulin polypeptides, oxyntomodulin derivatives, variants and analogs are referred to collectively as oxyntomodulin.
  • Amylin, as well as analogs and derivatives thereof: are known in the art (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,686,411, 5,814,600, 5,998,367, 6,114,304, 6,410,511, 6,608,029, and 6,610,824). For ease of reference herein, the family of amylin polypeptides, amylin derivatives, variants and analogs are referred to collectively as amylin.
  • The cDNA sequence encoding the human leptin protein hormone is known (e.g., Masuzaki, H., et al. (Diabetes 44: 855-858, 1995)). Leptin, as well as analogs and derivatives thereof, are known in the art (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,521,283, 5,525,705, 5,532,336, 5,552,522, 5,552,523, 5,552,524, 5,554,727, 5,559,208, 5,563,243, 5,563,244, 5,563,245, 5,567,678, 5,567,803, 5,569,743, 5,569,744, 5,574,133, 5,580,954, 5,594,101, 5,594,104, 5,605,886, 5,691,309, and 5,719,266; P.C.T. International Patent Publication Nos. WO96/22308, WO96/31526, WO96/34885, 97/46585, WO97/16550, and WO 97/20933; European Patent Publication No. EP 0 741 187). For ease of reference herein, the family of leptin polypeptides, leptin derivatives, variants and analogs are referred to collectively as leptin.
  • Further, oligonucleotides (e.g., RNA, DNA, alternative backbones) may be used as beneficial agents in the practice of the present invention. In one embodiment therapeutic RNA molecules may include, but are not limited to, small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), and small interfering RNA strands (siRNA) for use in RNA interference (RNAi) inhibition of gene expression. RNAi inhibition typically occurs at the stage of translation or by hindering the transcription of specific genes. RNAi targets include, but are not limited to, RNA from viruses and genes with roles in regulating development and genome maintenance.
  • The beneficial agents can also be in various forms including, but not limited to, the following: uncharged molecules; components of molecular complexes; and pharmacologically acceptable salts such as hydrochloride, hydrobromide, sulfate, laurates, palmatates, phosphate, nitrate, borate, acetate, maleate, tartrate, oleates, or salicylates. For acidic drugs, salts of metals, amines or organic cations, for example, quaternary ammonium, can be employed. Furthermore, simple derivatives of the drug such as esters, ethers, amides and the like that have solubility characteristics suitable for the purpose of the invention can also be used herein. The formulation used can have been in various art known forms such as solution, dispersion, paste, cream, particle, granule, tablet, emulsions, suspensions, powders and the like. In addition to the one or more beneficial agents, the beneficial agent formulation may optionally include pharmaceutically acceptable carriers and/or additional ingredients such as antioxidants, stabilizing agents, buffers, and permeation enhancers.
  • The amount of beneficial agent used is that amount necessary to deliver a therapeutically effective amount of the agent to achieve the desired therapeutic result. In practice, this will vary depending upon such variables, for example, as the particular agent, the site of delivery, the severity of the condition, and the desired therapeutic effect. Beneficial agents and their dosage unit amounts are known to the prior art in Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 11th Ed., (2005), McGraw Hill; Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th Ed., (1995), Mack Publishing Co.; and Martin's Physical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1.00 edition (2005), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • The additional beneficial agent can be delivered using any of the various delivery techniques outlined above, including without limitation parenterally (including by subcutaneous, intravenous, intramedullary, intraarticular, intramuscular, or intraperitoneal injection) rectally, topically, transdermally, intranasally, by inhalation, or orally (for example, in capsules, suspensions, or tablets). In certain embodiments, the agent is in a sustained-release formulation, or administered using a sustained-release device. Such devices are well known in the art, and include, for example, transdermal patches, and miniature implantable pumps (such as the DUROS® delivery device described herein) that can provide for drug delivery over time in a continuous, steady-state fashion at a variety of doses to achieve a sustained-release effect with a non-sustained-release pharmaceutical composition. If an osmotic delivery device is used, the volume of a beneficial agent chamber comprising the beneficial agent formulation is between about 50 μl to about 1000 μl, more preferably between about 100 μl and about 500 μl, more preferably between about 150 μl and about 200 μl. Moreover, two or more such devices can be used, one including the GLP-1 receptor agonist and one or more including one or more additional beneficial agents, such as an antidiabetic compound. See, e.g., U.S. Patent Publication 2009/0202608, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, for a description of the use of two or more implantable delivery devices.
  • An example of a cancer treatment using delivery of an anticancer agent from a first osmotic delivery device and delivery of a GLP-1 receptor agonist from a second osmotic delivery device is presented below in Example 5. In the example, the cancer is prostate cancer, the anticancer agent is leuprolide acetate and the GLP-1 receptor agonist is exenatide.
  • Other objects may be apparent to one of ordinary skill upon reviewing the following specification and claims.
  • 6.0.0 EXPERIMENTAL
  • The following examples are put forth so as to provide those of ordinary skill in the art with a complete disclosure and description of how to make and use the devices, methods, and formulae of the present invention, and are not intended to limit the scope of what the inventor regards as the invention. Efforts have been made to ensure accuracy with respect to numbers used (e.g., amounts, temperature, etc.) but some experimental errors and deviations should be accounted for. Unless indicated otherwise, parts are parts by weight, molecular weight is weight average molecular weight, temperature is in degrees Centigrade, and pressure is at or near atmospheric.
  • The compositions produced according to the present invention meet the specifications for content and purity required of pharmaceutical products.
  • Example 1 Exenatide Particle Formulations
  • This example describes making exenatide particle formulations.
  • A. Formulation 1
  • Exenatide (0.25 g) was dissolved in 50 mM sodium citrate buffer at pH 6.04. The solution was dialyzed with a formulation solution containing sodium citrate buffer, sucrose, and methionine. The formulated solution was then spray dried using Buchi 290 with 0.7 mm nozzle, outlet temperature of 75° C., atomization pressure of 100 Psi, solid content of 2%, and flow rate of 2.8 mL/min. The dry powder contained 21.5% of exenatide with 4.7% residual moisture and 0.228 g/ml density.
  • B. Formulations 2 and 3
  • Two additional formulations of exenatide were prepared essentially by the method just described. Following here in Table 3 is a summary of the weight percentages (wt %) of the components of the Formulations 1, 2 and 3.
  • TABLE 3
    Particle Particle Particle
    Formulation 1 Formulation 2 Formulation 3
    Component (wt %) (wt %) (wt %)
    Exenatide 21.5 11.2 50.0
    Sodium Citrate* 63.6 74.7 28.4
    Citric Acid* 7.1 9.1 3.6
    Sucrose 3.9 2.5 9.0
    Methionine 3.9 2.5 9.0
    *Sodium Citrate/Citric Acid formed the citrate buffer in the pre-spray drying process for preparation of this particle formulation.
  • Example 2 GLP-1 (7-36)amide Dry Powder
  • This example describes making a GLP-1(7-36)amide particle formulation. GLP-1(7-36)amide (1.5 g) was dissolved in 5 mM sodium citrate buffer at pH 4. The solution was dialyzed with a formulation solution containing sodium citrate buffer and methionine. The formulated solution was then spray dried using Buchi 290 with 0.7 mm nozzle, outlet temperature of 70° C., atomization pressure of 100 Psi, solid content of 1.5%, and flow rate of 5 mL/min. The dry powder contained 90% of GLP-1(7-36)amide.
  • Example 3 Exenatide Suspension Formulation
  • This example describes making suspension formulations comprising a suspension vehicle and an exenatide particle formulation.
  • A. Suspension Formulation of 20 wt % Exenatide Particles
  • An exenatide particle formulation was generated by spray-drying, and contained 20 wt % exenatide, 32 wt % sucrose, 16 wt % methionine and 32 wt % citrate buffer.
  • A suspension vehicle was formed by dissolving the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone in the solvent benzyl benzoate at approximately a 50/50 ratio by weight. The vehicle viscosity was approximately 12,000 to 18,000 poise when measured at 33° C. Particles containing the peptide exenatide were dispersed throughout the vehicle at a concentration of 10% particles by weight.
  • B. Suspension Formulations of Particle Formulations 1, 2, and 3
  • A suspension vehicle was formed by dissolving the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone K-17 (typically having an approximate average molecular weight range of 7,900-10,800) in the solvent benzyl benzoate heated to approximately 65° C. under a dry atmosphere and reduced pressure at approximately a 50/50 ratio by weight. The vehicle viscosity was approximately 12,000 to 18,000 poise when measured at 33° C. Particle formulations 1-3, described in Example 1, were dispersed throughout the vehicle at the concentrations (by weight percent) shown in Table 4.
  • TABLE 4
    Suspension Suspension Suspension
    Formulation 1 Formulation 2 Formulation 3
    Component (wt %) (wt %) (wt %)
    Particle Formulation 1 21.40
    Particle Formulation 2 11.73
    Particle Formulation 3 10.05
    Polyvinylpyrrolidone 39.30 44.13 44.98
    Benzyl Benzoate 39.30 44.13 44.98
  • Example 4 GLP-1(7-36)amide Formulation
  • This example describes making a suspension formulation comprising a suspension vehicle and an GLP-1(7-36)amide particle formulation. A GLP-1(7-36)amide particle formulation was generated by spray-drying, and contained 90 wt % GLP-1, 5 wt % methionine and 5 wt % citrate buffer.
  • A suspension vehicle containing the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone was dissolved in the solvent benzyl benzoate at approximately a 50/50 ratio by weight. The vehicle viscosity was approximately 12,000 to 18,000 poise when measured at 33° C. Particles containing the peptide GLP-1(7-36)amide were dispersed throughout the vehicle at a concentration of 33% particles by weight.
  • Example 5 Co-Treatment of Prostate Cancer using Leuprolide Acetate and Exenatide
  • Leuprolide acetate, an LHRH agonist, acts as a potent inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion when given continuously and in therapeutic doses. Animal and human studies indicate that following an initial stimulation, chronic administration of leuprolide acetate results in suppression of testicular steroidogenesis. This effect is reversible upon discontinuation of drug therapy. Administration of leuprolide acetate has resulted in inhibition of the growth of certain hormone-dependent tumors (prostatic tumors in Noble and Dunning male rats and DMBA-induced mammary tumors in female rats) as well as atrophy of the reproductive organs. In humans, administration of leuprolide acetate results in an initial increase in circulating levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leading to a transient increase in levels of the gonadal steroids (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in males). However, continuous administration of leuprolide acetate results in decreased level of LH and FSH. In males, testosterone is reduced to castrate levels. These decreases occur within two to six weeks after initiation of treatment, and castrate levels of testosterone in prostatic cancer patients have been demonstrated for multiyear periods. Leuprolide acetate is not active when given orally.
  • An implantable device containing leuprolide acetate for the treatment of prostate cancer is assembled as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,728,396, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The device includes the following components:
  • Reservoir (Titanium, Ti6A 14V alloy) (4 mm outside diameter, 3 mm inside diameter)
  • Piston (C-Flex®)
  • Lubricant (silicone medical fluid)
    Compressed osmotic engine (76.4% NaCl, 15.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, 6% povidone, 0.5% Mg Stearate, 1.6% water)
    PEG 400 (8 mg added to osmotic engine to fill air spaces)
    Membrane plug (polyurethane polymer, injection molded to desired shape)
    Back diffusion Regulating Outlet (polyethylene)
    Drug formulation (1) 0.150 g of 60% water and 40% leuprolide acetate; or (2) leuprolide acetate dissolved in DMSO to a measured content of 65 mg leuprolide.
  • To assemble the device, the piston and inner diameter of the reservoir are lightly lubricated. The piston is inserted about 0.5 cm into the reservoir at the membrane end. PEG 400 is added into the reservoir. Two osmotic engine tablets (40 mg each) are then inserted into the reservoir from the membrane end. After insertion, the osmotic engine is flush with the end of the reservoir. The membrane plug is inserted by lining up the plug with the reservoir and pushing gently until the retaining features of the plug are fully engaged in the reservoir. Formulation is loaded into a syringe which is then used to fill the reservoir from the outlet end by injecting formulation into the open tube until the formulation is about 3 mm from the end. The filled reservoir is centrifuged (outlet end “up”) to remove any air bubbles that have been trapped in the formulation during filling. The outlet is screwed into the open end of the reservoir until completely engaged. As the outlet is screwed in, excess formulation exits out of the orifice ensuring a uniform fill.
  • These devices deliver about 0.35 μL/day leuprolide formulation containing on average 150 μg leuprolide in the amount delivered per day. They provide delivery of leuprolide at this rate for at least one year. The devices can achieve approximately 70% steady-state delivery by day 14.
  • Exenatide suspension formulations are produced as described in Example 1 and loaded into an implantable delivery device as above. Two implantable devices, one including an exenatide formulation and one including a leuprolide formulation are implanted under local anesthetic and by means of an incision in a patient suffering from advanced prostatic cancer. Implantation can be accomplished using, for example, an implanter device. See e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 6,190,350, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. After an appropriate period of time, the implantable delivery devices are removed under local anesthetic. New devices may be inserted at that time.
  • 7.0.0 FURTHER EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS OF THE PRESENT INVENTION
  • Embodiments of the present invention include, but are not limited to, the following:
  • 1. A method of treating cancer in a subject in need of such treatment, comprising: administering a GLP-1 receptor agonist to said subject.
  • 2. The method of embodiment 1, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is a small molecule.
  • 3. The method of embodiment 1, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is a peptide, polypeptide or protein.
  • 4. The method of embodiment 3, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a derivative of GLP-1, or an analog of GLP-1.
  • 5. The method of embodiment 4, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is GLP(7-36)amide comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:1.
  • 6. The method of embodiment 3, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is exenatide, a derivative of exenatide, or an analog of exenatide.
  • 7. The method of embodiment 6, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is synthetic exenatide peptide comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:2.
  • 8. The method of embodiment 4, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is selected from the group consisting of liraglutide, albiglutide, semaglutide and taspoglutide.
  • 9. The method of embodiment 6, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is lixisenatide.
  • 10. The method of any one of embodiments 1-9, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is provided in a suspension formulation comprising: (a) a particle formulation comprising said GLP-1 receptor agonist; and (b) a vehicle formulation, wherein the particle formulation is dispersed in the vehicle.
  • 11. The method of embodiment 10, wherein (a) the particle formulation additionally comprises a disaccharide, methionine and a buffer and (b) the vehicle formulation is a non-aqueous, single-phase suspension vehicle comprising one or more pyrrolidone polymers and one or more solvents selected from the group consisting of lauryl lactate, lauryl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, and mixtures thereof; wherein the suspension vehicle exhibits viscous fluid characteristics, and the particle formulation is dispersed in the vehicle.
  • 12. The method of embodiment 11, wherein the buffer is selected from the group consisting of citrate, histidine, succinate, and mixtures thereof.
  • 13. The method of embodiment 12, wherein the buffer is citrate.
  • 14. The method of embodiment 11, wherein the disaccharide is selected from the group consisting of lactose, sucrose, trehalose, cellobiose, and mixtures thereof.
  • 15. The method of embodiment 11, wherein the particle formulation is a spray dried preparation of particles.
  • 16. The method of embodiment 11, wherein the solvent is selected from the group consisting of lauryl lactate, benzyl benzoate, and mixtures thereof.
  • 17. The method of embodiment 16, wherein the solvent consists essentially of benzyl benzoate.
  • 18. The method of embodiment 11, wherein the pyrrolidone polymer consists essentially of polyvinylpyrrolidone.
  • 19. The method of embodiment 11, wherein the vehicle consists essentially of a pyrrolidone polymer and benzyl benzoate.
  • 20. The method of embodiment 19, wherein the vehicle is about 50% solvent and about 50% polymer.
  • 21. The method of embodiment 11, wherein the suspension formulation has an overall moisture content of less than or equal to about 10 wt %.
  • 22. The method of any one of embodiments 1-21, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is delivered using an implantable osmotic delivery device.
  • 23. The method of embodiment 22, wherein the osmotic delivery device provides continuous delivery of the GLP-1 receptor agonist for a period of at least one month.
  • 24. The method of any one of embodiments 1-9, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is provided in an injectable formulation.
  • 25. The method of any one of embodiments 1-24, wherein a beneficial agent in addition to the GLP-1 receptor agonist is delivered to said subject.
  • 26. The method of embodiment 25, wherein the additional beneficial agent is an anticancer agent.
  • 27. The method of embodiment 26, wherein the anticancer agent is a chemotherapeutic agent.
  • 28. The method of embodiment 26, wherein the anticancer agent is an anticancer antibody.
  • 29. The method of any one of embodiments 25-28, wherein the additional beneficial agent is an antidiabetic agent.
  • 30. The method of any one of embodiments 25-29, wherein the additional beneficial agent is delivered using an implantable osmotic delivery device.
  • 31. The method of embodiment 30, wherein the osmotic delivery device provides continuous delivery of the GLP-1 receptor agonist for a period of at least one month.
  • 32. The method of either one of embodiments 30 or 31, wherein the additional beneficial agent is a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist.
  • 33. The method of any one of embodiments 25-29, wherein the additional beneficial agent is provided in an injectable formulation.
  • 34. The method of any one of embodiments 25-29, wherein the additional beneficial agent is provided in an oral formulation.
  • 35. The method of embodiment 25, wherein the additional beneficial agent is GIP.
  • 36. The method of any one of embodiments 25-35, wherein the additional beneficial agent is delivered prior to the GLP-1 receptor agonist.
  • 37. The method of any one of embodiments 25-35, wherein the additional beneficial agent is delivered subsequent to the GLP-1 receptor agonist.
  • 38. The method of any one of embodiments 25-35, wherein the additional beneficial agent is delivered concurrent with the GLP-1 receptor agonist.
  • As is apparent to one of skill in the art, various modification and variations of the above embodiments can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of this invention. Such modifications and variations are within the scope of this invention.

Claims (20)

1. A method of treating cancer in a subject in need of such treatment, comprising administering a GLP-1 receptor agonist to the subject.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is a peptide, polypeptide or protein.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a derivative of GLP-1, or an analog of GLP-1.
4. The method of claim 3, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is GLP(7-36)amide comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:1.
5. The method of claim 3, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is selected from the group consisting of liraglutide, albiglutide, semaglutide and taspoglutide.
6. The method of claim 2, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is exenatide, a derivative of exenatide, or an analog of exenatide.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is synthetic exenatide peptide comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:2.
8. The method of claim 6, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is lixisenatide.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is provided in a suspension formulation comprising:
(a) a particle formulation comprising the GLP-1 receptor agonist; and
(b) a vehicle formulation,
wherein the particle formulation is dispersed in the vehicle.
10. The method of claim 9, wherein (a) the particle formulation additionally comprises a disaccharide, methionine and a buffer and (b) the vehicle formulation is a non-aqueous, single-phase suspension vehicle comprising one or more pyrrolidone polymers and one or more solvents selected from the group consisting of lauryl lactate, lauryl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, and mixtures thereof;
wherein the suspension vehicle exhibits viscous fluid characteristics, and the particle formulation is dispersed in the vehicle.
11. The method of claim 10, wherein the buffer is selected from the group consisting of citrate, histidine, succinate, and mixtures thereof.
12. The method of claim 10, wherein the disaccharide is selected from the group consisting of lactose, sucrose, trehalose, cellobiose, and mixtures thereof.
13. The method of claim 10, wherein the particle formulation is a spray dried preparation of particles.
14. The method of claim 10, wherein the vehicle consists essentially of polyvinylpyrrolidone and benzyl benzoate.
15. The method of claim 14, wherein the vehicle is about 50% solvent and about 50% polymer.
16. The method of claim 10, wherein the suspension formulation has an overall moisture content of less than or equal to about 10 wt %.
17. The method of claim 9, wherein the CLP-1 receptor agonist is delivered using an implantable osmotic delivery device.
18. The method of claim 1, wherein the GLP-1 receptor agonist is provided in an injectable formulation.
19. The method of claim 1, wherein one or more beneficial agent in addition to the GLP-1 receptor agonist is delivered to the subject, and the beneficial agent is an anticancer agent, a chemotherapeutic agent, or an antidiabetic agent.
20. The method of claim 19, wherein the additional beneficial agent is delivered using an implantable osmotic delivery device.
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