US20120146167A1 - Memory system having thermally stable perpendicular magneto tunnel junction (mtj) and a method of manufacturing same - Google Patents

Memory system having thermally stable perpendicular magneto tunnel junction (mtj) and a method of manufacturing same Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20120146167A1
US20120146167A1 US13/277,187 US201113277187A US2012146167A1 US 20120146167 A1 US20120146167 A1 US 20120146167A1 US 201113277187 A US201113277187 A US 201113277187A US 2012146167 A1 US2012146167 A1 US 2012146167A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
layer
top
formed
pel
recited
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US13/277,187
Inventor
Yiming Huai
Yuchen Zhou
Jing Zhang
Roger Klas Malmhall
Ioan Tudosa
Rajiv Yadav Ranjan
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Avalanche Technology Inc
Original Assignee
Avalanche Technology Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US12/965,733 priority Critical patent/US8623452B2/en
Priority to US201161483314P priority
Priority to US13/277,187 priority patent/US20120146167A1/en
Application filed by Avalanche Technology Inc filed Critical Avalanche Technology Inc
Publication of US20120146167A1 publication Critical patent/US20120146167A1/en
Assigned to AVALANCHE TECHNOLOGY, INC. reassignment AVALANCHE TECHNOLOGY, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: HUAI, YIMING, MALMHALL, ROGER KLAS, RANJAN, RAJIV YADAV, TUDOSA, IOAN, ZHANG, JING, Zhou, Yuchen
Priority claimed from US14/026,163 external-priority patent/US9024398B2/en
Priority claimed from US14/053,231 external-priority patent/US9070855B2/en
Priority claimed from US14/173,145 external-priority patent/US9396781B2/en
Priority claimed from US14/195,427 external-priority patent/US9337417B2/en
Priority claimed from US14/256,192 external-priority patent/US9647202B2/en
Priority claimed from US14/560,740 external-priority patent/US9082951B2/en
Priority claimed from US14/797,458 external-priority patent/US9831421B2/en
Priority claimed from US15/794,983 external-priority patent/US10079338B2/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L43/00Devices using galvano-magnetic or similar magnetic effects; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01L43/02Details
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C11/00Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor
    • G11C11/02Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using magnetic elements
    • G11C11/16Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using magnetic elements using elements in which the storage effect is based on magnetic spin effect
    • G11C11/161Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using magnetic elements using elements in which the storage effect is based on magnetic spin effect details concerning the memory cell structure, e.g. the layers of the ferromagnetic memory cell
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L43/00Devices using galvano-magnetic or similar magnetic effects; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01L43/08Magnetic-field-controlled resistors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L43/00Devices using galvano-magnetic or similar magnetic effects; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01L43/12Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of these devices or of parts thereof

Abstract

A spin-torque transfer magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element employed to store a state based on the magnetic orientation of a free layer, the STTMRAM element is made of a first perpendicular free layer (PFL) including a first perpendicular enhancement layer (PEL). The first PFL is formed on top of a seed layer. The STTMRAM element further includes a barrier layer formed on top of the first PFL and a second perpendicular reference layer (PRL) that has a second PEL, the second PRL is formed on top of the barrier layer. The STTMRAM element further includes a capping layer that is formed on top of the second PRL.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/483,314 and is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/965,733, which is a continuation-in-part of previously-filed U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/965,733 filed on Dec. 10, 2010, by Zhou et al., and entitled “Enhanced Magnetic Stiffness and Method of Making Same”.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates generally to a memory system having spin transfer torque (STT) switched magneto tunnel junctions (MTJs) and more particularly, a method to reduce the effective damping of magnetic layer and increase tunneling magneto-resistive ratio (TMR), and a method and apparatus for improving the perpendicular anisotropy and thermal stability of the low switching current perpendicular magneto tunnel junctions (pMTJs).
  • 2. Description of the Prior Art
  • Spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) is the next generation of non-volatile memory currently under development. Such a memory typically includes magneto (sometimes referred to as “magnetic”) tunnel junction (MTJ) based memory array with selection device, along with decoders, amplifier and other peripheral circuits. MTJ is considered as a building block for STT MRAM. A MTJ typically composed of two ferromagnetic layers separated by a thin insulating tunneling barrier. MTJ exhibits a low (high) resistance state when the magnetization orientation of the two ferromagnetic layers in substantially parallel (anti-parallel) direction. In STT-MRAM, these low and high resistance states (corresponding to “0” and “1” digital state) are realized by applying a bi-directional electric current across MTJ during programming, in contrast to conventional MRAM where these low and high resistance magnetic states (bits) are programmed by using a current-generated external magnetic field.
  • STTMRAM has significant advantages over magnetic-field-written MRAM, which has been recently commercialized. The main hurdles associated with field-switched-MRAM are its more complex cell architecture with high write current [currently in the order of milliamps (mA)] and poor scalability (limited to 65 nm process node) attributed to its inherent field write scheme used in these devices. The current generated fields needed to write the bits increase rapidly as the size of the MTJ elements shrink. STT writing technology, by direct passing a current through the MTJ, thereby overcomes the foregoing hurdles and results in much lower switching current [in the order of microamps (μA)], simpler cell architecture with a smaller cell size (for single-bit cells) and reduced manufacturing cost, and more importantly, improved scalability.
  • One of the challenges for implementing STT is a substantial reduction of the intrinsic current density to switch the magnetization of the free layer while maintaining high thermal stability, which is required for long-term data retention. Minimal switching (write) current is required mainly for reducing the size of access transistor of the memory cell, which is typically connected in series with MTJ, because the channel width of the transistor is proportional to the drive current of the transistor. It is understood that the smaller the STT current, the smaller the transistor size, leading to a smaller memory cell size. A smaller current also leads to smaller voltage across MTJ, which decreases the probability of tunneling barrier degradation and breakdown, ensuring a high write endurance of the MTJ cell. This is particularly important for STTMRAM, because current is driven through MTJ cells during both read and write operations.
  • One of the efficient ways to reduce the programming current in STTMRAM while maintaining high magnetic thermal stability is to use a MTJ with perpendicular anisotropy. Incorporation of conventional perpendicular anisotropy materials, such as FePt, into STTMRAM causes a high damping constant leading to undesirably high switching current density. Furthermore, during manufacturing, conventional higher ordering transformation temperature required for forming L10 order structure could degrade the tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) performance and make MTJ deposition process more demanding and complicated (such as elevated substrate temperatures during MTJ film deposition)
  • What is needed is a STTMRAM element having a MTJ with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy material(s) with a simple film manufacturing process, preferably, at room substrate temperature and an optimal combination of saturation magnetization (Ms) and anisotropy constant (Ku) to lower the damping constant of the MTJ yielding a lower STT switching current density while maintaining high thermal stability and high TMR performance.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • Briefly, a spin toque transfer magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element and a method of manufacturing the same is disclosed where the STTMRAM element is employed to store a state based on the magnetic orientation of a free layer, and made of a first perpendicular free layer (PFL) including a first perpendicular enhancement layer (PEL). The first PFL is formed on top of a seed layer. The STTMRAM element further includes a barrier layer formed on top of the first PFL and a second perpendicular reference layer (PRL) that has a second PEL, the second PRL is formed on top of the barrier layer. The STTMRAM element further includes a capping layer that is formed on top of the second PRL.
  • Additionally, this invention describes a method to reduce damping and increase stiffness in the magnetic layers of STTMRAM and simultaneously achieving higher TMR, which is applicable to both in-plane MTJs and pMTJs.
  • These and other objects and advantages of the present invention will no doubt become apparent to those skilled in the art after having read the following detailed description of the various embodiments illustrated in the several figures of the drawing.
  • IN THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 shows the process of enhancing the top magnetic layer of a STTMRAM 100, using a method of the present invention.
  • FIG. 2 shows a spin-torque transfer magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element 9, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIG. 3 shows the STTMRAM element 29, in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIG. 4 shows a STTMRAM element 119, in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIG. 5 shows a STTMRAM element 150, in accordance with yet another embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIG. 6 shows a STTMRAM element 200, in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7 shows a STTMRAM element 300, in accordance with yet another embodiment of the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • In the following description of the embodiments, reference is made to the accompanying drawings that form a part hereof, and in which is shown by way of illustration of the specific embodiments in which the invention may be practiced. It is to be understood that other embodiments may be utilized because structural changes may be made without departing from the scope of the present invention. It should be noted that the figures discussed herein are not drawn to scale and thicknesses of lines are not indicative of actual sizes.
  • FIG. 1 shows relevant layers of a STTMRAM element 100, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. The element 100 is also referred to herein as a STTMRAM MTJ film stack. The element 100 is shown to include a bottom magnetic layer (BML) 102 formed below the layer 26 and an interface magnetic layer (IML) 104 formed on top of the layer 26. The following process is performed when making the element 100. The layer 26 and the layer 104 collectively comprise at least part of the MTJ of the element 100.
  • Upon depositing the layer 104 on top of the layer 26, which includes deposition of a top surface layer 1041 which is part of layer 104, the temperature (also referred to herein as “first temperature”) being applied to the element 100 is increased followed by annealing at 110, preferably in-situ within the same deposition system without breaking the vacuum to avoid oxidization and contamination of the top surface layer of 104. Still at 110, in FIG. 1, the temperature being applied to the element 100 is reduced (the reduced temperature is also referred to herein as the “second temperature”) and the remaining layers, i.e. top layer 106, are deposited on top of the layer 104. After depositing the layer 106, optionally, a second annealing process is performed at a temperature that is higher than the second temperature.
  • Each of the layers 102 and 104 can have an in-plane or a perpendicular magnetization relative to the film plane. In some embodiments, the layer 106 is made of magnetic material, in other embodiments, it is made of non-magnetic material and in still other embodiments, it is interlaced with magnetic and non-magnetic materials. In some embodiments, the layer 104 is composed of a multilayer structure with magnetic layer and non-magnetic layer where at least one of these magnetic layers interfaces with the layer 26. In some embodiments, the layer 104 is composed of a multilayer structure with magnetic layer and non-magnetic layer where at least one of these non-magnetic layers forms the top surface of layer 106, which can be any combination of, but not limited to, Ta, Pd, Ru, Mg, O, Hf, Tb, Pt, Ti, Cu, or Hf. In some embodiments, the layer 104 is made of a multilayer structure including at least one magnetic layer and at least one non-magnetic layer where at least one of these magnetic layers forms the top surface of the layer 106, and made of any combination, but not limited to, the following materials: Co, Fe, B, Ni, Ta, Pd, Ru, Mg, O, Tb, Pt, Ti, Cu, Zr, Mn, Ir, or Hf.
  • The layer 102, in some embodiments, is made of underlying magnetic or non-magnetic layers that are not shown in FIG. 1. In some embodiment, the layer 104 and the layer 102 each have boron content, and either one or both are made of a single composition magnetic layer or have a multilayer structure with each layer of the multi-layer having a distinct boron content, ranging from 0˜90% of the composition of the layer 104. In some embodiments, the layers 102 and 104 are each composed of boron (B) with any combination of the following materials: Co, Fe, Ta, Ti, Ni, Cr, Pt, Pd, Tb, Zn, O, Cu or Zr.
  • FIG. 2 shows a spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element 9, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. The element 9 is shown to include a seed layer 15 shown formed on top of a substrate 13 and a perpendicular free layer (PFL) 17 formed on top of the seed layer 15 and a barrier layer 19 formed on top of the PFL 17 and a perpendicular reference layer (PRL) 21 formed on top of the barrier layer 19 and a capping layer 23 formed on top of the PRL 21. As will become evident shortly, the PFL 17 and the PRL 21 each include at least a perpendicular enhancement layer (PEL) for improving the perpendicular anisotropy of the PRL 21 and the PFL 17.
  • The PRL 21 is analogous to the layer 104 combined with layer 106 of FIG. 1, where PEL of layer PFL 17 is analogous to the top surface layer 1041 of FIG. 1
  • Exemplary material of which the seed layer 15 is made are: tantalum (Ta), titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), ruthenium (Ru), nickel chromium (NiCr), titanium chromium (TiCr), or MgO. In some of the embodiments where the layer 15 is made of ruthenium (Ru), layer 15 has a thickness of 1 nm to 10 nm. In some of the embodiments where the layer 15 is made of MgO, layer 15 has a thickness of 0.3 nm to 0.7 nm. Exemplary stack of the PFL 17 is composed of perpendicular ferromagnetic layers and PEL. Exemplary materials of which the PEL is made are tantalum (Ta), titanium (Ti), hafnium (Hf), niobium (Nb), vanadium (V), yttrium (Y), rhenium (Re), tungsten (W), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), and ruthenium (Ru). It is well known that the barrier layer 19 is typically made of magnesium oxide (MgO) or aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The PRL 21, in some embodiments, is a synthetic anti-ferromagnetic (SAF) pinned layer, composed of two antiferromagtically coupled perpendicular ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic exchange coupling layer. The capping layer 23 is made of Ta, Ru, Hf, Ti, or MgO in some embodiments of the present invention.
  • The element 9 has a top structure defined by the PRL 21 being above the PFL 17. That is, the PRL 21 is essentially the “reference layer” (also referred to as the “pinned layer” or “fixed layer”) with a fixed magnetic orientation perpendicular to the film plane and the PFL 17 is essentially the “free layer” (also referred to as the “switching layer”) with a switchable perpendicular magnetic orientation that switches relative to the magnetic orientation of the PRL 21. A bottom structure configuration of the element 9 would have the PFL 17 formed above the PRL 21 (as showed in FIG. 10).
  • As noted by the direction of the arrows in the PFL 17 and the PRL 21, the anisotropy of each of the PFL 17 and PRL 21 is perpendicular to the plane of the substrate 13.
  • Largely due to presence of the PFL 17 with PEL, the element 9 advantageously exhibits an improved perpendicular anisotropy.
  • FIG. 3 shows the STTMRAM element 29, in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention. The element 29 is shown to include a substrate 11 on top of which is shown formed a seed layer 25 on top of which is shown formed a free sub-layer 27 on top of which is shown formed a perpendicular enhancement layer (PEL) 7 on top of which is shown formed a free sub-layer 31 on top of which is shown formed a spin polarization enhanced (interface) layer (SPEL) 33 on top of which is shown formed a barrier layer 35 on top of which is shown formed SPEL 37 on top of which is shown formed a pinned sub-layer 39 on top of which is shown formed a PEL 41 on top of which is shown formed a synthetic anti-ferromagnetic (SAF) sub-layer 43 on top of which is shown formed an exchange coupling layer 45 on top of which is shown formed a SAF sub-layer 47 on top of which is shown formed a capping layer 49. The PEL layers 7 and 41 enhance magnetic coupling between perpendicular ferromagnetic layers in the PFL 51 and PRL 53, through direct magnetic coupling, or/and magneto static coupling or/and interlayer exchange coupling. The enhanced coupling can be also attributed in some embodiments to improved crystalline structures of the PFL 51 and PRL 53 due to the presence of PEL layers 7 and/or 41. In some embodiments, the PEL 7 and 41 have a thickness of 2 to 10 Angstroms.
  • The substrate 11 is analogous to the substrate 13 and the layer 49 is analogous to the layer 23 of the element 9. In some embodiments, the layer 25 is made of Ta, Ti, Pt, Pd, TiCr, NiCr, Ru, or MgO. In some of the embodiments where the layer 25 is made of ruthenium (Ru), layer 25 has a thickness of 1 nm to 10 nm. In some of the embodiments where the layer 25 is made of MgO and has a thickness of 0.3 nm to 0.7 nm. The free sub-layer 27 is made of the alloy cobolt-iron-boron (CoFeB) with the atomic percentage of the iron is greater than 20%. In some embodiments, the sub-layer 31 is made of the alloy cobolt iron boron (CoFeB) with the atomic percentage of Fe being greater than 40% and boron being within a range of 20 to 30 atomic percent. The layer 35 is analogous to the layer 19.
  • In some embodiments, the layer 25 is 10-100 Angstroms in thickness.
  • The free sub-layers 27 and 31 and the PFL layer 7 and the SPEL 33 collectively comprise the free layer PFL 51 and the SPEL 37, pinned sub-layer 39, PEL 41, SAF sub-layer 43, layer 45, and the SAF sub-layer 47 comprise the synthetic antiferromagnetic perpendicular reference layer (SAF PRL) 53, also commonly referred to as “synthetic reference layer” (SRL) 53, which remains fixed in its magnetic orientation after manufacturing of the element 29 whereas the free layer 51 switches its magnetic orientation relative to the magnetic orientation of the SPL 53 when the element 29 is used as a storage element.
  • It is noted that the layer 35 is commonly referred to as the “tunnel layer” or “tunneling layer” and the layer 49 is commonly referred to as the “cap layer”. The layer 51, the layer 35 and the SAF PRL 53 collectively comprise the MTJ of the element 29.
  • The function of each of the SPEL 33 and 37 is to enhance the tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) of the MTJ through proper crystal structure orientation [bcc (001)] matching during the magnetic annealing process and higher spin polarization.
  • The function of the layer 35 is to act as spin-filter layer for preserving the spin generated by neighboring layers for the spin tunneling of the MTJ which is important in achieving high TMR. More specifically, the layer 35 selectively filters the spin states of the polarized conduction electrons as they travel through the SPL 53 to the free layer 51 and vice versa. A detailed description of this can be found in the published paper, “Theory of Tunneling Magnetoresistance For Epitaxial Systems by W. H. Butler, X. G. Zhang, S. Vutukuri, M. Chchiev and T. C. Schulthess, IEEE Trans Mag., vol. 41, No. 10, October 2005”.
  • The function of each of the free layer 51 is to switch between magnetic orientations (states) when current is applied to the element 29 thereby storing a state. The design and the material of choice used for making the free layer determines, at least in part, the device reliability, more specifically the thermal stability. The presence of the PEL 41 improves the perpendicular anisotropy of the SPL 53 of the element 29. The PEL 41 help the perpendicular coupling between SAF sub layers 43 and pinned sub layer 39 by direct magnetic coupling, or/and magneto static coupling or/and interlayer exchange coupling. The enhanced coupling can be also attributed in some embodiments to improved crystalline structures of the PFL 51 and PRL 53 due to the presence of PEL layers 27 and 41.
  • It is noted that the SAF sub-layer 43 and the SAF sub-layer 47 are anti-ferromagnetically coupled.
  • The anisotropy of the free layer 51 and the SAF PRL 53 is generally and substantially perpendicular to the plane of the substrate 11. In operation, current is applied to the element 29, in a direction going either from the substrate 11 to the layer 49 or from the layer 49 to the substrate 11.
  • In some embodiments, the SPEL 37 is made of the alloy CoFe with the atomic percentage of Fe being greater than 80% and the pinned sub-layer 39 is made of CoFeB with Fe having an atomic percentage of greater than 40 and B having an atomic percentage between 20 and 30, including 20 and 30. In some embodiments, the sub-layer 43 is made of a cobolt (Co) and/or chrome (Cr) based alloy, such as CoCrPt, CoCrTa, CoCrPd, CoTi, CoNiSm, CoCrTi, CoCrZr, CoCrAl, CoCrSi, CoSm, CoCrPt:SiOx, CoCrPd:SiOx where SiOx can be replaced with any one of the following material: TiOx, ZrOx and CrOx. The sub-layer 47 is made of the same material as that of the sub-layer 43. In some embodiments, the layer 45 is made of ruthenium (Ru), iridium (Ir), or copper (Cu).
  • The sub-layer 43 with strong perpendicular anisotropy can be deposited on other layers in a vacuum system by physical sputtering technique at a room-temperature substrate.
  • As shown by the arrows of FIG. 3, the direction of magnetization of the free layer 51 switches to store a different state, when the element 29 is in operation, but the direction of magnetization of the SPL 53 must remain fixed although the arrows therein show two opposite directions, one direction shown in the SPEL 37, sub-layer 39, PEL 41 and sub-layer 43 and an opposite direction shown in the layer 47. This so called anti-ferromagnetic coupling configuration is realized by interlayer exchange coupling through the thin layer 45. Due to the opposite magnetization of these layers, the overall dipole magnetic fields from these two oppositely aligned magnetizations in the SPL 53 on the PFL 51 is substantially cancelled, enabling low power and symmetric current switching of PFL when the element 29 is in write operation.
  • In some embodiments of element 29, the free sub-layer 27 is formed on top of the seed layer 25 and underneath the PEL 7 and is made of a cobolt-chrome (CoCr)-based alloy, such as CoCrPt, CoCrTa, CoCrPd, CoTi, CoNiSm, CoCrTi, CoCrZr, CoCrAl, CoCrSi, CoSm, CoCrPt:SiOx, CoCrPd:SiOx where SiOx can be replaced with any one of the following material: TiOx, ZrOx and CrOx. The cobolt-chrome (CoCr)-based alloy of the free sub-layer 27 enhances the thermal reliability of the element 29.
  • The layers sub-layer 27, PEL 7, sub-layer 31 and SPEL 33 collectively form the free layer 51 of the element 29 and the SPEL 37, pinned sub-layer 39, PEL 41, sub-layer 43, layer 45 and sub-layer 47 collectively form the SAF PRL 53 of the element 29. Accordingly, the free layer 51, layer 35 and SAF PRL 53 form the MTJ of the element 29.
  • FIG. 4 shows a STTMRAM element 119, in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention. The element 119 is analogous to the element 29 except that the muti-layer 95, of the element 119, replaces the layer 27 of the element 29, otherwise, all other layers of the element 119 are analogous to corresponding layers of the element 29.
  • The multi-layer 95 is a part of the layers of the free layer 129 of the element 119 in addition to the PEL 97, the free sub-layer 99 and the SPEL 101. The SAF PRL 131 of the element 119 is comprised of the SPEL 105, the sub-layer 107, the PEL 109, the SAF sub-layer 111, the exchange coupling layer 113 and the SAF sub-layer 115.
  • In some embodiments, the multi-layer 95 is made of one or more bilayers, with each bilayer 126 comprised of a conducting ferromagnetic layer 122 and a non-magnetic conducting layer 124. In some embodiments, the layer 122 is formed on top of the layer 124, in some embodiments, and the layer 124 is formed on top of the layer 122. The multi-layer 95 finished by the conducting magnetic layer 122 adjacent to the PEL layer 98. The ‘n’ number of bilayers 126 comprises the layer 96 with ‘n’ being an integer value plus an additional 122 layer on the top. In some embodiments, ‘n’ is equal to a number within the range of two to twenty.
  • In some embodiments, the layer 122 has a thickness within the range of 2 to 8 angstroms and the layer 124 has a thickness within the range of 2 to 20 angstroms.
  • In some embodiments, the layer 122 is made of one or of the following materials: Co, Fe, Ni or their alloys, or CoFeXY with X and Y being made of boron (B), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), tantalum (Ta) or niobium (Nb).
  • In some embodiments, the layer 124 is made of palladium (Pd) or platinum (Pt). Co/Pt and Co/Pd based perpendicular multilayers have advantages; it is easy to control its saturation magnetization Ms and perpendicular anisotropy Hk by adjusting bilayer number “n” and individual 122 and 124 layer thicknesses. Multilayers also have high corrosion resistance in the MTJ integration process. In addition, multilayers are comparatively easy to realize high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at room temperature substrate in sputtering process, yet show high magnetic thermal stability.
  • FIG. 5 shows a STTMRAM element 150, in accordance with yet another embodiment of the present invention. The element 150 is analogous to the element 90 except that it has a multi-layer 174 replacing the layer 116 of the element 90. The multi-layer 174 is made of the same material and has the same structure as the layer 96. The layer 154 of the element 150 is also made of the same material as the layer 96 of the element 90 and is analogous to the layer 96. The layers 154 and 174 are each therefore made of ‘n’ number of bilayers 182 plus a Co layer on the top!, with each bilayer 182 being comprised of a conducting ferromagnetic layer 184, analogous to the layer 122, and a non-magnetic conducting layer 186, analogous to the layer 124.
  • The multi-layer 154, PEL 156, free sub-layer 158 and SPEL 160 collectively comprise the free layer 178 and the SPEL 164, the pinned sub-layer 168, the PEL 168, the SAF sub layer 170, the exchange coupling layer 172 and the multi-layer 174 collectively comprise the SAF PRL layer 180 with the layers 178, 162 and 180 forming the MTJ of the element 150.
  • FIG. 6 shows a STTMRAM element 200, in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention. The element 200 is analogous to the element 29 of FIG. 2 except that a thin insertion layer 222 is formed between the SAF sub-layer 220 and the exchange coupling layer 224 and another thin insertion layer 226 is formed between the exchange coupling layer 224 and the SAF sub-layer 228 and an anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) layer 230 is formed between the SAF sub-layer 228 and the capping layer 232. The SPEL 214, pinned sub-layer 216, layer 218, sub-layer 220, layer 222, layer 224, layer 226, SAF sub-layer 228 and layer 230 collectively form the synthetic pinned (or “reference”) layer of the element 200.
  • The insertion layers 222 and 226, in some embodiments, are each made of cobalt and serve to enhance the RKKY coupling of the exchange coupling layer 224. The AFM layer 230 serves to enhance the pinning strength of the SAF PRL layer 236. The free sub-layer 204, the PEL 206, the free sub-layer 208 and the SPEL 210 collectively comprise the free layer of the element 200 and the SPEL 214, the pinned sub-layer 216, the PEL 218, the sub-layer 220, the layer 222, the exchange coupling layer 224, the layer 226, the sub-layer 228 and the AFM layer 230 comprise the SAF PRL 236.
  • In some embodiments, the layer 230 is made of one of the following materials: PtMn, FeMn or IrMn and each of the layers 222 and 226 is made of Co or Co rich alloys, such as CoFe.
  • It is understood that the embodiments of FIGS. 6-9 are top structures but in other embodiments, bottom structures of the same embodiments are contemplated where the free layer is formed above the SAF PRL, such as that PRL 306 shown in FIG. 10.
  • FIG. 7 shows a STTMRAM element 300, in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention. The element 300 is shown to include a substrate 302, seed layer 304, PRL 316, barrier layer 308, PFL 310 and capping layer 312. The seed layer 304 is shown formed on top of the substrate 302, the PRL 306 is shown formed on top of the seed layer 304, the barrier layer 308 is shown formed on top of the PFL 310, the PRL 306 is shown formed on top of the barrier layer 308 and the capping layer 312 is shown formed on top of the PFL 310. The element 300 is analogous to the element 10 except that it is a bottom structure in that the PRL is shown formed below the PFL 310. The PFL 310 is analogous to the PFL 16 and the PRL 306 is analogous to the PRL 20. The arrow 316 shows the direction of magnetization of the PRL 306 and the arrow 314 shows the alterable direction of magnetization of the PFL 310.
  • Although the present invention has been described in terms of specific embodiment, it is anticipated that alterations and modifications thereof will no doubt become apparent to those more skilled in the art. It is therefore intended that the following claims be interpreted as covering all such alterations and modification as fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (23)

1. A spin-torque transfer magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element employed to store a state based on the magnetic orientation of a free layer thereof comprising:
a first perpendicular free layer (PFL) including a first perpendicular enhancement layer (PEL), the first PFL formed on top of a seed layer;
a barrier layer formed on top of the first PFL;
a second perpendicular reference layer (PRL) including a second PEL, the second PRL formed on top of the barrier layer; and
a capping layer formed on top of the second PRL.
2. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 1, wherein the first PFL is made of perpendicular ferromagnetic layers.
3. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 1, wherein the first PEL is made of tantalum (Ta), titanium (Ti), hafnium (Hf), niobium (Nb), vanadium (V), yttrium (Y), rhenium (Re), tungsten (W), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), or ruthenium (Ru).
4. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 1, wherein the second PEL is made of tantalum (Ta), titanium (Ti), hafnium (Hf), niobium (Nb), vanadium (V), yttrium (Y), rhenium (Re), tungsten (W), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), or ruthenium (Ru).
5. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 1, wherein the barrier layer is made of magnesium oxide (MgO) or aluminum oxide (Al2O3).
6. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 1, wherein the second PRL is a synthetic anti-ferromagnetic (SAF) pinned layer, composed of two antiferromagtically coupled perpendicular ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic exchange coupling layer.
7. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 1, wherein the capping layer is made of Ta, Ru, Hf, Ti, or MgO.
8. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 1, wherein the first PRL further includes a first free sub-layer formed on top of the seed layer and a second free sub-layer formed on top of the first PEL, the first PEL being formed on top of the first free sub-layer, the first PRL further including a first spin polarization enhanced (interface) layer (SPEL), formed on top of the second free sub-layer on top of which is formed the barrier layer.
9. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 8, wherein the second PRL further includes a second spin polarization enhanced (interface) layer (SPEL), formed on top of the barrier layer, a pinned sub-layer formed on top of the second SPEL and below the second PEL, a first synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) sub-layer formed on top of the second PEL, an exchange coupling layer formed on top of the second PEL, and a second SAF sub-layer formed on top of the exchange coupling layer and below the capping layer.
10. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 1, wherein the seed layer is made of Ta, Ti, Pt, Pd, TiCr, NiCr, Ru, or MgO.
11. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 10, further wherein where the seed layer is made of Ru, the seed layer has a thickness of 1 nm to 10 nm.
12. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 10, further wherein where the seed layer is made of MgO, the seed layer has a thickness of 0.3 nm to 0.7 nm.
13. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 9, the first free sub-layer is made of the alloy cobolt-iron-boron (CoFeB).
14. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 13, the atomic percentage of the iron in the CoFeB alloy of the first free sub-layer is greater than 20%.
15. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 9, wherein the second free sub-layer made of the alloy cobolt iron boron (CoFeB) with the atomic percentage of Fe being greater than 40% and boron being within a range of 20 to 30 atomic percent.
16. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 1, wherein the first PRL further includes a multilayer formed on top of the seed layer and a free sub-layer formed on top of the first PEL, the first PEL being formed on top of the multilayer, the first PRL further including a first spin polarization enhanced (interface) layer (SPEL), formed on top of the free sub-layer on top of which is formed the barrier layer.
17. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 16, wherein the second PRL further includes a second spin polarization enhanced (interface) layer (SPEL), formed on top of the barrier layer, a pinned sub-layer formed on top of the second SPEL and below the second PEL, a first synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) sub-layer formed on top of the second PEL, an exchange coupling layer formed on top of the second PEL, and a second SAF sub-layer formed on top of the exchange coupling layer and below the capping layer.
18. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 16, wherein the multilayer is made of at least one combination of a conducting ferromagnetic layer and a non-magnetic conducting layer.
19. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 1, wherein the first PRL further includes a first multilayer formed on top of the seed layer and a free sub-layer formed on top of the first PEL, the first PEL being formed on top of the multilayer, the first PRL further including a first spin polarization enhanced (interface) layer (SPEL), formed on top of the free sub-layer on top of which is formed the barrier layer and further wherein the second PRL further includes a second spin polarization enhanced (interface) layer (SPEL), formed on top of the barrier layer, a pinned sub-layer formed on top of the second SPEL and below the second PEL, a ferromagnetic (FM) layer formed on top of the second PEL, an exchange coupling layer formed on top of the FM layer, and a second multilayer formed on top of the exchange coupling layer and below the capping layer.
20. The STTMRAM element, as recited in claim 19, wherein each of the first and second multilayers is made of at least a combination of a first and second layer, the first layer being made of cobolt and the second layer being made of platinum or palladium.
21. A method of manufacturing a spin toque transfer magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) magnetic tunnel junction film stack comprising:
a) depositing a magnetic interface layer on top of a barrier layer to form a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), the magnetic interface layer being made partially of boron (B);
b) annealing the STTMRAM magnetic tunnel junction film stack at a first temperature after depositing the magnetic interface layer;
c) cooling down the STTMRAM MTJ film stack to a second temperature that is lower than the first temperature; and
d) continuing depositing a top layer on top of the magnetic interface layer, wherein the top layer is made of a single layer or has a multi-layer structure necessary to make the MTJ stack function in STTMRAM, wherein the top surface layer is made of magnetic material.
22. A method of manufacturing, as recited in claim 21, wherein the said interface layer has a top surface layer in direct contact with the said top layer
23. A method of manufacturing, as recited in claim 22, wherein the top surface layer is made of a material comprising any of: Co, Fe, B, Ni, Ta, Pd, Ru, Mg, O, Tb, Pt, Ti, Cu, Zr, Mn, Ir, or Hf.
US13/277,187 2010-12-10 2011-10-19 Memory system having thermally stable perpendicular magneto tunnel junction (mtj) and a method of manufacturing same Abandoned US20120146167A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12/965,733 US8623452B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2010-12-10 Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) with enhanced magnetic stiffness and method of making same
US201161483314P true 2011-05-06 2011-05-06
US13/277,187 US20120146167A1 (en) 2010-12-10 2011-10-19 Memory system having thermally stable perpendicular magneto tunnel junction (mtj) and a method of manufacturing same

Applications Claiming Priority (25)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US13/277,187 US20120146167A1 (en) 2010-12-10 2011-10-19 Memory system having thermally stable perpendicular magneto tunnel junction (mtj) and a method of manufacturing same
US13/737,897 US20190148622A9 (en) 2007-02-12 2013-01-09 Memory system having thermally stable perpendicular magneto tunnel junction (mtj) and a method of manufacturing same
US14/021,917 US20140008744A1 (en) 2010-12-10 2013-09-09 Memory system having thermally stable perpendicular magneto tunnel junction (mtj) and a method of manufacturing same
US14/026,163 US9024398B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2013-09-13 Perpendicular STTMRAM device with balanced reference layer
US14/053,231 US9070855B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2013-10-14 Magnetic random access memory having perpendicular enhancement layer
US14/173,145 US9396781B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2014-02-05 Magnetic random access memory having perpendicular composite reference layer
US14/195,427 US9337417B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2014-03-03 Magnetic random access memory with perpendicular interfacial anisotropy
US14/198,405 US9231027B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2014-03-05 Magnetic random access memory having perpendicular enhancement layer and interfacial anisotropic free layer
US14/255,884 US9548334B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2014-04-17 Magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular enhancement layer and thin reference layer
US14/256,192 US9647202B2 (en) 2011-02-16 2014-04-18 Magnetic random access memory with perpendicular enhancement layer
US14/560,740 US9082951B2 (en) 2011-02-16 2014-12-04 Magnetic random access memory with perpendicular enhancement layer
US14/661,253 US20150194598A1 (en) 2011-02-16 2015-03-18 Perpendicular sttmram device with balanced reference layer
US14/730,117 US9559144B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2015-06-03 Magnetic random access memory element having tantalum perpendicular enhancement layer
US14/745,785 US9306154B2 (en) 2011-02-16 2015-06-22 Magnetic random access memory with perpendicular enhancement layer
US14/797,458 US9831421B2 (en) 2010-09-14 2015-07-13 Magnetic memory element with composite fixed layer
US15/054,561 US9543506B2 (en) 2011-02-16 2016-02-26 Magnetic random access memory with tri-layer reference layer
US15/080,208 US9634244B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2016-03-24 Magnetic random access memory with perpendicular interfacial anisotropy
US15/174,754 US9608038B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2016-06-06 Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) memory element having tri-layer perpendicular reference layer
US15/365,371 US9780300B2 (en) 2011-02-16 2016-11-30 Magnetic memory element with composite perpendicular enhancement layer
US15/440,948 US9748471B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2017-02-23 Perpendicular magnetic memory element having magnesium oxide cap layer
US15/662,114 US10090456B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2017-07-27 Magnetic memory element including oxide/metal composite layers formed adjacent to fixed layer
US15/794,983 US10079338B2 (en) 2010-09-14 2017-10-26 Magnetic memory element with perpendicular enhancement layer
US15/816,160 US10032979B2 (en) 2010-09-14 2017-11-17 Magnetic memory element with iridium anti-ferromagnetic coupling layer
US16/112,323 US20190013461A1 (en) 2010-09-14 2018-08-24 Magnetic random access memory with perpendicular enhancement layer
US16/287,974 US10490737B2 (en) 2010-09-14 2019-02-27 Magnetic memory element including magnesium perpendicular enhancement layer

Related Parent Applications (4)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/965,733 Continuation-In-Part US8623452B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2010-12-10 Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) with enhanced magnetic stiffness and method of making same
US12/965,733 Continuation US8623452B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2010-12-10 Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) with enhanced magnetic stiffness and method of making same
US13/029,054 Continuation-In-Part US8598576B2 (en) 2011-02-16 2011-02-16 Magnetic random access memory with field compensating layer and multi-level cell
US14/797,458 Continuation-In-Part US9831421B2 (en) 2007-02-12 2015-07-13 Magnetic memory element with composite fixed layer

Related Child Applications (4)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13/029,054 Continuation-In-Part US8598576B2 (en) 2011-02-16 2011-02-16 Magnetic random access memory with field compensating layer and multi-level cell
US13/737,897 Division US20190148622A9 (en) 2006-10-20 2013-01-09 Memory system having thermally stable perpendicular magneto tunnel junction (mtj) and a method of manufacturing same
US14/021,917 Continuation US20140008744A1 (en) 2010-12-10 2013-09-09 Memory system having thermally stable perpendicular magneto tunnel junction (mtj) and a method of manufacturing same
US14/026,163 Continuation-In-Part US9024398B2 (en) 2007-02-12 2013-09-13 Perpendicular STTMRAM device with balanced reference layer

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20120146167A1 true US20120146167A1 (en) 2012-06-14

Family

ID=46199640

Family Applications (5)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/965,733 Active 2032-02-04 US8623452B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2010-12-10 Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) with enhanced magnetic stiffness and method of making same
US13/277,187 Abandoned US20120146167A1 (en) 2010-12-10 2011-10-19 Memory system having thermally stable perpendicular magneto tunnel junction (mtj) and a method of manufacturing same
US13/737,897 Pending US20190148622A9 (en) 2006-10-20 2013-01-09 Memory system having thermally stable perpendicular magneto tunnel junction (mtj) and a method of manufacturing same
US14/021,917 Abandoned US20140008744A1 (en) 2010-12-10 2013-09-09 Memory system having thermally stable perpendicular magneto tunnel junction (mtj) and a method of manufacturing same
US14/052,676 Active US8852676B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2013-10-11 Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) with enhanced magnetic stiffness and method of making same

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/965,733 Active 2032-02-04 US8623452B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2010-12-10 Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) with enhanced magnetic stiffness and method of making same

Family Applications After (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13/737,897 Pending US20190148622A9 (en) 2006-10-20 2013-01-09 Memory system having thermally stable perpendicular magneto tunnel junction (mtj) and a method of manufacturing same
US14/021,917 Abandoned US20140008744A1 (en) 2010-12-10 2013-09-09 Memory system having thermally stable perpendicular magneto tunnel junction (mtj) and a method of manufacturing same
US14/052,676 Active US8852676B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2013-10-11 Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) with enhanced magnetic stiffness and method of making same

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (5) US8623452B2 (en)

Cited By (39)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20120261777A1 (en) * 2011-04-18 2012-10-18 Alexander Mikhailovich Shukh Magnetoresistive Element and Method of Manufacturing the Same
US20130064971A1 (en) * 2011-09-13 2013-03-14 Matthew J. Carey Method for making a current-perpendicular-to-the-plane (cpp) magnetoresistive (mr) sensor with an antiparallel free (apf) structure formed of an alloy requiring post-deposition high temperature annealing
US8541855B2 (en) * 2011-05-10 2013-09-24 Magic Technologies, Inc. Co/Ni multilayers with improved out-of-plane anisotropy for magnetic device applications
WO2013191799A1 (en) * 2012-06-18 2013-12-27 Headway Technologies, Inc. Improved mtj element for stt mram
US20140001586A1 (en) * 2012-06-28 2014-01-02 Industrial Technology Research Institute Perpendicularly magnetized magnetic tunnel junction device
US8698261B2 (en) * 2011-05-10 2014-04-15 Headway Technologies, Inc. Co/Ni multilayers with improved out-of-plane anisotropy for magnetic device applications
WO2014098969A1 (en) * 2012-12-21 2014-06-26 Intel Corporation Perpendicular spin transfer torque memory (sttm) device with enhanced stability and method to form same
WO2014164482A1 (en) 2013-03-12 2014-10-09 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, methods of fabrication, semiconductor device structures, and memory systems
US20140319521A1 (en) * 2011-11-30 2014-10-30 Sony Corporation a corporation Memory element, memory apparatus
US20140339661A1 (en) * 2013-05-20 2014-11-20 T3Memory, Inc. Method to make mram using oxygen ion implantation
US20150137286A1 (en) * 2013-05-31 2015-05-21 T3Memory, Inc. Method to form mram by dual ion implantation
CN104700882A (en) * 2013-12-09 2015-06-10 三星电子株式会社 Memory devices and methods of manufacturing the same
US20150295167A1 (en) * 2014-04-10 2015-10-15 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method and system for providing magnetic junctions having a gradient in magnetic ordering temperature
US9177575B1 (en) * 2014-12-05 2015-11-03 HGST Netherlands B.V. Tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) read head with reduced gap thickness
US9203014B2 (en) 2013-07-03 2015-12-01 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Magnetic memory devices having junction magnetic layers and buffer layers and related methods
US9214624B2 (en) 2012-07-27 2015-12-15 Qualcomm Incorporated Amorphous spacerlattice spacer for perpendicular MTJs
US9218826B1 (en) * 2013-08-16 2015-12-22 Seagate Technology Llc Tuned horizontally symmetric magnetic stack
US9269888B2 (en) 2014-04-18 2016-02-23 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, methods of fabrication, and semiconductor devices
US9281466B2 (en) 2014-04-09 2016-03-08 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, semiconductor structures, semiconductor devices, and methods of fabrication
US9306155B2 (en) * 2013-11-11 2016-04-05 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method and system for providing a bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy free layer in a perpendicular magnetic junction usable in spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory applications
US9318179B2 (en) * 2010-09-14 2016-04-19 Avalanche Technology, Inc. Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy multilayers
US9349945B2 (en) 2014-10-16 2016-05-24 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, semiconductor devices, and methods of fabrication
US9356229B2 (en) 2012-06-19 2016-05-31 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells and methods of fabrication
US9368714B2 (en) 2013-07-01 2016-06-14 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, methods of operation and fabrication, semiconductor device structures, and memory systems
US20160181512A1 (en) * 2014-12-17 2016-06-23 Sungmin Ahn Magnetic memory devices including in-plane current layers and methods of fabricating the same
US9406874B2 (en) 2012-06-19 2016-08-02 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic memory cells and methods of formation
US9461242B2 (en) 2013-09-13 2016-10-04 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic memory cells, methods of fabrication, semiconductor devices, memory systems, and electronic systems
US9466787B2 (en) 2013-07-23 2016-10-11 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, methods of fabrication, semiconductor device structures, memory systems, and electronic systems
US9472754B2 (en) * 2014-12-30 2016-10-18 International Business Machines Corporation In-situ annealing to improve the tunneling magneto-resistance of magnetic tunnel junctions
US9537088B1 (en) * 2015-07-13 2017-01-03 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic tunnel junctions
US9548444B2 (en) 2012-03-22 2017-01-17 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic memory cells and methods of formation
US9608197B2 (en) 2013-09-18 2017-03-28 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, methods of fabrication, and semiconductor devices
CN106611605A (en) * 2015-10-22 2017-05-03 株式会社东芝 Magnetic recording medium and magnetic recording and reproduction device
US9768377B2 (en) 2014-12-02 2017-09-19 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic cell structures, and methods of fabrication
US9997699B2 (en) 2015-09-18 2018-06-12 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Semiconductor device having magnetic tunnel junction structure and method of fabricating the same
US20190189687A1 (en) * 2016-08-30 2019-06-20 Micron Technology, Inc Memory cells, magnetic memory cells, and semiconductor devices
US10439131B2 (en) 2015-01-15 2019-10-08 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming semiconductor devices including tunnel barrier materials
US10454024B2 (en) 2014-02-28 2019-10-22 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, methods of fabrication, and memory devices
US10559745B2 (en) * 2016-03-24 2020-02-11 Industry-University Cooperation Foundation Hanyang University Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) structure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) having an oxide-based PMA-inducing layer and magnetic element including the same

Families Citing this family (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
TWI643367B (en) * 2013-02-27 2018-12-01 南韓商三星電子股份有限公司 Material composition for foming free layer of magnetic device, free layer and magnetic element
US9082534B2 (en) * 2009-09-15 2015-07-14 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Magnetic element having perpendicular anisotropy with enhanced efficiency
JP2011123923A (en) * 2009-12-08 2011-06-23 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands Bv Magnetoresistive effect head, magnetic recording/reproducing device
US9070464B2 (en) * 2010-12-10 2015-06-30 Avalanche Technology, Inc. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) with enhanced magnetic stiffness and method of making same
US9028910B2 (en) * 2010-12-10 2015-05-12 Avalanche Technology, Inc. MTJ manufacturing method utilizing in-situ annealing and etch back
US9054298B2 (en) * 2010-12-10 2015-06-09 Avalanche Technology, Inc. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) with enhanced magnetic stiffness and method of making same
US9093639B2 (en) * 2012-02-21 2015-07-28 Western Digital (Fremont), Llc Methods for manufacturing a magnetoresistive structure utilizing heating and cooling
US8871365B2 (en) * 2012-02-28 2014-10-28 Headway Technologies, Inc. High thermal stability reference structure with out-of-plane aniotropy to magnetic device applications
US8946834B2 (en) * 2012-03-01 2015-02-03 Headway Technologies, Inc. High thermal stability free layer with high out-of-plane anisotropy for magnetic device applications
US8836061B2 (en) * 2012-06-06 2014-09-16 Avalanche Technology, Inc. Magnetic tunnel junction with non-metallic layer adjacent to free layer
US10522589B2 (en) * 2012-12-24 2019-12-31 Shanghai Ciyu Information Technologies Co., Ltd. Method of making a magnetoresistive element
US9240547B2 (en) 2013-09-10 2016-01-19 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic tunnel junctions and methods of forming magnetic tunnel junctions
US9379314B2 (en) 2013-12-17 2016-06-28 Qualcomm Incorporated Hybrid synthetic antiferromagnetic layer for perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)
US9490000B2 (en) 2014-04-10 2016-11-08 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method and system for providing thermally assisted magnetic junctions having a multi-phase operation
KR20160031614A (en) 2014-09-12 2016-03-23 삼성전자주식회사 Magnetic memory device and method for manufacturing the same
US9929339B2 (en) 2015-01-01 2018-03-27 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method and system for providing magnetic junctions including self-initializing reference layers
US9502642B2 (en) 2015-04-10 2016-11-22 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic tunnel junctions, methods used while forming magnetic tunnel junctions, and methods of forming magnetic tunnel junctions
US9520553B2 (en) 2015-04-15 2016-12-13 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming a magnetic electrode of a magnetic tunnel junction and methods of forming a magnetic tunnel junction
US9530959B2 (en) 2015-04-15 2016-12-27 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic tunnel junctions
US9257136B1 (en) 2015-05-05 2016-02-09 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic tunnel junctions
US9960346B2 (en) 2015-05-07 2018-05-01 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic tunnel junctions
US9858951B1 (en) * 2015-12-01 2018-01-02 Western Digital (Fremont), Llc Method for providing a multilayer AFM layer in a read sensor
US9680089B1 (en) 2016-05-13 2017-06-13 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic tunnel junctions

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20030200927A1 (en) * 2000-02-01 2003-10-30 Naoki Watanabe Apparatus for manufacturing magnetic recording disk, and in-line type substrate processing apparatus
US20060098354A1 (en) * 2004-11-10 2006-05-11 International Business Machines Corporation Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Using Amorphous Materials as Reference and Free Layers
US20110169111A1 (en) * 2010-01-08 2011-07-14 International Business Machines Corporation Optimized free layer for spin torque magnetic random access memory

Family Cites Families (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5871622A (en) * 1997-05-23 1999-02-16 International Business Machines Corporation Method for making a spin valve magnetoresistive sensor
KR20020013577A (en) * 1999-07-05 2002-02-20 아끼구사 나오유끼 Spin bulb magnetoresistance effect head and compound magnetic head and compound magnetic head using it and magnetic recording medium drive unit
US20030108721A1 (en) * 2001-12-11 2003-06-12 Fullerton Eric E. Thermally - assisted magnetic recording disk with recording layer exchange- coupled to antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic switching layer
US6967863B2 (en) * 2004-02-25 2005-11-22 Grandis, Inc. Perpendicular magnetization magnetic element utilizing spin transfer
US7564657B2 (en) * 2004-03-25 2009-07-21 Tdk Corporation Magnetoresistive device, thin film magnetic head, head gimbal assembly and magnetic disk unit exhibiting superior magnetoresistive effect
US7973349B2 (en) * 2005-09-20 2011-07-05 Grandis Inc. Magnetic device having multilayered free ferromagnetic layer
JP4444241B2 (en) * 2005-10-19 2010-03-31 株式会社東芝 Magnetoresistive element, magnetic random access memory, electronic card and electronic device
JP2008103662A (en) * 2006-09-21 2008-05-01 Alps Electric Co Ltd Tunnel type magnetic detection element, and its manufacturing method
US7751156B2 (en) * 2006-09-29 2010-07-06 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands, B.V. Dual-layer free layer in a tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) element
US7480173B2 (en) * 2007-03-13 2009-01-20 Magic Technologies, Inc. Spin transfer MRAM device with novel magnetic free layer
US9021685B2 (en) * 2008-03-12 2015-05-05 Headway Technologies, Inc. Two step annealing process for TMR device with amorphous free layer
WO2010080542A1 (en) * 2008-12-17 2010-07-15 Yadav Technology, Inc. Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory having magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy
US20110031569A1 (en) * 2009-08-10 2011-02-10 Grandis, Inc. Method and system for providing magnetic tunneling junction elements having improved performance through capping layer induced perpendicular anisotropy and memories using such magnetic elements
US8072800B2 (en) * 2009-09-15 2011-12-06 Grandis Inc. Magnetic element having perpendicular anisotropy with enhanced efficiency
US8184411B2 (en) * 2009-10-26 2012-05-22 Headway Technologies, Inc. MTJ incorporating CoFe/Ni multilayer film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for MRAM application
US8406040B2 (en) * 2010-01-08 2013-03-26 International Business Machines Corporation Spin-torque based memory device using a magnesium oxide tunnel barrier
US8546896B2 (en) * 2010-07-16 2013-10-01 Grandis, Inc. Magnetic tunneling junction elements having magnetic substructures(s) with a perpendicular anisotropy and memories using such magnetic elements
US9019758B2 (en) * 2010-09-14 2015-04-28 Avalanche Technology, Inc. Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy multilayers
US8592927B2 (en) * 2011-05-04 2013-11-26 Magic Technologies, Inc. Multilayers having reduced perpendicular demagnetizing field using moment dilution for spintronic applications

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20030200927A1 (en) * 2000-02-01 2003-10-30 Naoki Watanabe Apparatus for manufacturing magnetic recording disk, and in-line type substrate processing apparatus
US20060098354A1 (en) * 2004-11-10 2006-05-11 International Business Machines Corporation Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Using Amorphous Materials as Reference and Free Layers
US20110169111A1 (en) * 2010-01-08 2011-07-14 International Business Machines Corporation Optimized free layer for spin torque magnetic random access memory

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Cao et al, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 45, n. 10(2009), 3434-3440. *

Cited By (94)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9419210B2 (en) 2010-09-14 2016-08-16 Avalanche Technology, Inc. Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy multilayers
US9318179B2 (en) * 2010-09-14 2016-04-19 Avalanche Technology, Inc. Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy multilayers
US8790798B2 (en) * 2011-04-18 2014-07-29 Alexander Mikhailovich Shukh Magnetoresistive element and method of manufacturing the same
US20120261777A1 (en) * 2011-04-18 2012-10-18 Alexander Mikhailovich Shukh Magnetoresistive Element and Method of Manufacturing the Same
US9182460B2 (en) 2011-04-18 2015-11-10 Alexander Mikhailovich Shukh Method of fabricating a magnetoresistive element
US8698261B2 (en) * 2011-05-10 2014-04-15 Headway Technologies, Inc. Co/Ni multilayers with improved out-of-plane anisotropy for magnetic device applications
US8987849B2 (en) * 2011-05-10 2015-03-24 Headway Technologies, Inc. Co/Ni multilayers with improved out-of-plane anisotropy for magnetic device applications
US9373777B2 (en) * 2011-05-10 2016-06-21 Headway Technologies, Inc. Co/Ni multilayers with improved out-of-plane anisotropy for magnetic device applications
US20150061057A1 (en) * 2011-05-10 2015-03-05 Headway Technologies, Inc. Co/Ni Multilayers with Improved Out-of-Plane Anisotropy for Magnetic Device Applications
US20140217531A1 (en) * 2011-05-10 2014-08-07 Headway Technologies, Inc. Co/Ni Multilayers with Improved Out-of-Plane Anisotropy for Magnetic Device Applications
US20150061055A1 (en) * 2011-05-10 2015-03-05 Headway Technologies, Inc. Co/Ni Multilayers with Improved Out-of-Plane Anisotropy for Magnetic Device Applications
US8541855B2 (en) * 2011-05-10 2013-09-24 Magic Technologies, Inc. Co/Ni multilayers with improved out-of-plane anisotropy for magnetic device applications
US9373778B2 (en) * 2011-05-10 2016-06-21 Headway Technologies, Inc. Co/Ni multilayers with improved out-of-plane anisotropy for magnetic device applications
US20130064971A1 (en) * 2011-09-13 2013-03-14 Matthew J. Carey Method for making a current-perpendicular-to-the-plane (cpp) magnetoresistive (mr) sensor with an antiparallel free (apf) structure formed of an alloy requiring post-deposition high temperature annealing
US20140319521A1 (en) * 2011-11-30 2014-10-30 Sony Corporation a corporation Memory element, memory apparatus
US9553255B2 (en) * 2011-11-30 2017-01-24 Sony Corporation Memory element, memory apparatus
US9917248B2 (en) 2011-11-30 2018-03-13 Sony Corporation Memory element, memory apparatus
US9548444B2 (en) 2012-03-22 2017-01-17 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic memory cells and methods of formation
US8900884B2 (en) 2012-06-18 2014-12-02 Headway Technologies, Inc. MTJ element for STT MRAM
WO2013191799A1 (en) * 2012-06-18 2013-12-27 Headway Technologies, Inc. Improved mtj element for stt mram
US9406874B2 (en) 2012-06-19 2016-08-02 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic memory cells and methods of formation
US9356229B2 (en) 2012-06-19 2016-05-31 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells and methods of fabrication
US10121824B2 (en) 2012-06-19 2018-11-06 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic structures, semiconductor structures, and semiconductor devices
US9711565B2 (en) 2012-06-19 2017-07-18 Micron Technology, Inc. Semiconductor devices comprising magnetic memory cells
US20140001586A1 (en) * 2012-06-28 2014-01-02 Industrial Technology Research Institute Perpendicularly magnetized magnetic tunnel junction device
US9548445B2 (en) 2012-07-27 2017-01-17 Qualcomm Incorporated Amorphous alloy space for perpendicular MTJs
US9214624B2 (en) 2012-07-27 2015-12-15 Qualcomm Incorporated Amorphous spacerlattice spacer for perpendicular MTJs
GB2523934A (en) * 2012-12-21 2015-09-09 Intel Corp Perpendicular spin transfer torque memory (STTM) device with enhanced stability and method to form same
US8796797B2 (en) 2012-12-21 2014-08-05 Intel Corporation Perpendicular spin transfer torque memory (STTM) device with enhanced stability and method to form same
US9882123B2 (en) 2012-12-21 2018-01-30 Intel Corporation Perpendicular spin transfer torque memory (STTM) device with enhanced stability and method to form same
US9478734B2 (en) 2012-12-21 2016-10-25 Intel Corporation Perpendicular spin transfer torque memory (STTM) device with enhanced stability and method to form same
GB2523934B (en) * 2012-12-21 2019-10-09 Intel Corp Perpendicular spin transfer torque memory (STTM) device with enhanced stability and method to form same
WO2014098969A1 (en) * 2012-12-21 2014-06-26 Intel Corporation Perpendicular spin transfer torque memory (sttm) device with enhanced stability and method to form same
US9054302B2 (en) 2012-12-21 2015-06-09 Intel Corporation Perpendicular spin transfer torque memory (STTM) device with enhanced stability and method to form same
KR101831504B1 (en) * 2013-03-12 2018-02-26 마이크론 테크놀로지, 인크 Memory cells, methods of fabrication, semiconductor device structures, and memory systems
JP2016515304A (en) * 2013-03-12 2016-05-26 マイクロン テクノロジー, インク. Memory cell, manufacturing method, semiconductor device structure, and memory system
KR102039280B1 (en) * 2013-03-12 2019-10-31 마이크론 테크놀로지, 인크 Memory cells, methods of fabrication, semiconductor device structures, and memory systems
US9972770B2 (en) 2013-03-12 2018-05-15 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming memory cells, arrays of magnetic memory cells, and semiconductor devices
EP2973574A4 (en) * 2013-03-12 2016-11-23 Micron Technology Inc Memory cells, methods of fabrication, semiconductor device structures, and memory systems
TWI555173B (en) * 2013-03-12 2016-10-21 美光科技公司 Memory cells, methods of fabrication, semiconductor device structures, and memory systems
US10276781B2 (en) 2013-03-12 2019-04-30 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetoresistive structures, semiconductor devices, and related systems
US9379315B2 (en) 2013-03-12 2016-06-28 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, methods of fabrication, semiconductor device structures, and memory systems
KR20180018858A (en) * 2013-03-12 2018-02-21 마이크론 테크놀로지, 인크 Memory cells, methods of fabrication, semiconductor device structures, and memory systems
WO2014164482A1 (en) 2013-03-12 2014-10-09 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, methods of fabrication, semiconductor device structures, and memory systems
US20140339661A1 (en) * 2013-05-20 2014-11-20 T3Memory, Inc. Method to make mram using oxygen ion implantation
US20150137286A1 (en) * 2013-05-31 2015-05-21 T3Memory, Inc. Method to form mram by dual ion implantation
US9768376B2 (en) 2013-07-01 2017-09-19 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic memory cells, semiconductor devices, and methods of operation
US10510947B2 (en) 2013-07-01 2019-12-17 Micron Technology, Inc Semiconductor devices with magnetic regions and stressor structures
US9368714B2 (en) 2013-07-01 2016-06-14 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, methods of operation and fabrication, semiconductor device structures, and memory systems
US10090457B2 (en) 2013-07-01 2018-10-02 Micron Technology, Inc. Semiconductor devices with magnetic regions and stressor structures, and methods of operation
US9203014B2 (en) 2013-07-03 2015-12-01 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Magnetic memory devices having junction magnetic layers and buffer layers and related methods
US9876053B2 (en) 2013-07-23 2018-01-23 Micron Technology, Inc. Semiconductor devices comprising magnetic memory cells and methods of fabrication
US10515996B2 (en) 2013-07-23 2019-12-24 Micron Technology, Inc. Semiconductor devices with seed and magnetic regions and methods of fabrication
US9466787B2 (en) 2013-07-23 2016-10-11 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, methods of fabrication, semiconductor device structures, memory systems, and electronic systems
US9218826B1 (en) * 2013-08-16 2015-12-22 Seagate Technology Llc Tuned horizontally symmetric magnetic stack
US10020446B2 (en) 2013-09-13 2018-07-10 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming magnetic memory cells and semiconductor devices
US9461242B2 (en) 2013-09-13 2016-10-04 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic memory cells, methods of fabrication, semiconductor devices, memory systems, and electronic systems
US10290799B2 (en) 2013-09-13 2019-05-14 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic memory cells and semiconductor devices
US9608197B2 (en) 2013-09-18 2017-03-28 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, methods of fabrication, and semiconductor devices
US10014466B2 (en) 2013-09-18 2018-07-03 Micron Technology, Inc. Semiconductor devices with magnetic and attracter materials and methods of fabrication
US10396278B2 (en) 2013-09-18 2019-08-27 Micron Technology, Inc. Electronic devices with magnetic and attractor materials and methods of fabrication
US9786841B2 (en) 2013-09-18 2017-10-10 Micron Technology, Inc. Semiconductor devices with magnetic regions and attracter material and methods of fabrication
US9306155B2 (en) * 2013-11-11 2016-04-05 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method and system for providing a bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy free layer in a perpendicular magnetic junction usable in spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory applications
US9184376B2 (en) * 2013-12-09 2015-11-10 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Memory devices and methods of manufacturing the same
CN104700882A (en) * 2013-12-09 2015-06-10 三星电子株式会社 Memory devices and methods of manufacturing the same
US20150162525A1 (en) * 2013-12-09 2015-06-11 Sang Hwan Park Memory devices and methods of manufacturing the same
JP2015115610A (en) * 2013-12-09 2015-06-22 三星電子株式会社Samsung Electronics Co.,Ltd. Magnetic storage element and manufacturing method thereof
US10454024B2 (en) 2014-02-28 2019-10-22 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, methods of fabrication, and memory devices
US10505104B2 (en) 2014-04-09 2019-12-10 Micron Technology, Inc. Electronic devices including magnetic cell core structures
US10026889B2 (en) 2014-04-09 2018-07-17 Micron Technology, Inc. Semiconductor structures and devices and methods of forming semiconductor structures and magnetic memory cells
US9281466B2 (en) 2014-04-09 2016-03-08 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, semiconductor structures, semiconductor devices, and methods of fabrication
US9741927B2 (en) * 2014-04-10 2017-08-22 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method and system for providing magnetic junctions having a gradient in magnetic ordering temperature
US20150295167A1 (en) * 2014-04-10 2015-10-15 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method and system for providing magnetic junctions having a gradient in magnetic ordering temperature
US9269888B2 (en) 2014-04-18 2016-02-23 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, methods of fabrication, and semiconductor devices
US9543503B2 (en) 2014-04-18 2017-01-10 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic memory cells and methods of fabrication
US10347689B2 (en) * 2014-10-16 2019-07-09 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic devices with magnetic and getter regions and methods of formation
US20170323927A1 (en) * 2014-10-16 2017-11-09 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic devices with magnetic and getter regions and methods of formation
US9349945B2 (en) 2014-10-16 2016-05-24 Micron Technology, Inc. Memory cells, semiconductor devices, and methods of fabrication
US10355044B2 (en) 2014-10-16 2019-07-16 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic memory cells, semiconductor devices, and methods of formation
US20160268337A1 (en) * 2014-10-16 2016-09-15 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic memory cells, semiconductor devices, and methods of formation
CN107078211A (en) * 2014-10-16 2017-08-18 美光科技公司 Memory cell, semiconductor device and manufacture method
US10134978B2 (en) 2014-12-02 2018-11-20 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic cell structures, and methods of fabrication
US9768377B2 (en) 2014-12-02 2017-09-19 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic cell structures, and methods of fabrication
US9177575B1 (en) * 2014-12-05 2015-11-03 HGST Netherlands B.V. Tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) read head with reduced gap thickness
US20160181512A1 (en) * 2014-12-17 2016-06-23 Sungmin Ahn Magnetic memory devices including in-plane current layers and methods of fabricating the same
US9882120B2 (en) * 2014-12-17 2018-01-30 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Magnetic memory devices including in-plane current layers
US9472754B2 (en) * 2014-12-30 2016-10-18 International Business Machines Corporation In-situ annealing to improve the tunneling magneto-resistance of magnetic tunnel junctions
US10439131B2 (en) 2015-01-15 2019-10-08 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming semiconductor devices including tunnel barrier materials
US9537088B1 (en) * 2015-07-13 2017-01-03 Micron Technology, Inc. Magnetic tunnel junctions
US10211396B2 (en) 2015-09-18 2019-02-19 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Semiconductor device having magnetic tunnel junction structure and method of fabricating the same
US9997699B2 (en) 2015-09-18 2018-06-12 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Semiconductor device having magnetic tunnel junction structure and method of fabricating the same
CN106611605A (en) * 2015-10-22 2017-05-03 株式会社东芝 Magnetic recording medium and magnetic recording and reproduction device
US10559745B2 (en) * 2016-03-24 2020-02-11 Industry-University Cooperation Foundation Hanyang University Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) structure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) having an oxide-based PMA-inducing layer and magnetic element including the same
US20190189687A1 (en) * 2016-08-30 2019-06-20 Micron Technology, Inc Memory cells, magnetic memory cells, and semiconductor devices

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US20140008744A1 (en) 2014-01-09
US20190148622A9 (en) 2019-05-16
US8623452B2 (en) 2014-01-07
US20140038314A1 (en) 2014-02-06
US8852676B2 (en) 2014-10-07
US20130119498A1 (en) 2013-05-16
US20120148735A1 (en) 2012-06-14

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US10381553B2 (en) Memory cell having magnetic tunnel junction and thermal stability enhancement layer
US10079338B2 (en) Magnetic memory element with perpendicular enhancement layer
US9748471B2 (en) Perpendicular magnetic memory element having magnesium oxide cap layer
KR20170139072A (en) A perpendicular magnetic anisotropic structure with high annealing temperature for magnetic random access memory
US9130155B2 (en) Magnetic junctions having insertion layers and magnetic memories using the magnetic junctions
US9337415B1 (en) Perpendicular spin transfer torque (STT) memory cell with double MgO interface and CoFeB layer for enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy
US9666793B2 (en) Method of manufacturing magnetoresistive element(s)
US10147872B2 (en) Spin transfer torque structure for MRAM devices having a spin current injection capping layer
US9099641B2 (en) Systems and methods for implementing magnetoelectric junctions having improved read-write characteristics
US10516103B1 (en) Magnetoresistive stack and method of fabricating same
US20150194598A1 (en) Perpendicular sttmram device with balanced reference layer
US9412787B2 (en) Method and system for providing magnetic tunneling junction elements having improved performance through capping layer induced perpendicular anisotropy and memories using such magnetic elements
US8982616B1 (en) Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) with perpendicular laminated free layer
US9496489B2 (en) Magnetic random access memory with multilayered seed structure
US8592927B2 (en) Multilayers having reduced perpendicular demagnetizing field using moment dilution for spintronic applications
US8823118B2 (en) Spin torque transfer magnetic tunnel junction fabricated with a composite tunneling barrier layer
US9182460B2 (en) Method of fabricating a magnetoresistive element
US8456898B2 (en) Magnetic element having perpendicular anisotropy with enhanced efficiency
US9058885B2 (en) Magnetoresistive device and a writing method for a magnetoresistive device
US8917543B2 (en) Multi-state spin-torque transfer magnetic random access memory
DE112012000741B4 (en) Magnetic stacks with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for a magnetoresistive spin pulse transfer random access memory
US9042165B2 (en) Magnetoresistive effect element, magnetic memory cell using same, and random access memory
US8758909B2 (en) Scalable magnetoresistive element
US9679625B2 (en) Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (pMTJ) with in-plane magneto-static switching-enhancing layer
EP2673807B1 (en) Magnetic element with improved out-of-plane anisotropy for spintronic applications

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: AVALANCHE TECHNOLOGY, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:HUAI, YIMING;ZHOU, YUCHEN;ZHANG, JING;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20120105 TO 20120106;REEL/FRAME:031151/0434

STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION