US20120028264A1 - Method for using gene expression to determine prognosis of prostate cancer - Google Patents

Method for using gene expression to determine prognosis of prostate cancer Download PDF

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US20120028264A1
US20120028264A1 US13190391 US201113190391A US2012028264A1 US 20120028264 A1 US20120028264 A1 US 20120028264A1 US 13190391 US13190391 US 13190391 US 201113190391 A US201113190391 A US 201113190391A US 2012028264 A1 US2012028264 A1 US 2012028264A1
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Steven Shak
Frederick L. Baehner
Tara Maddala
Mark Lee
Robert J. Pelham
Wayne Cowens
Diana Cherbavaz
Michael C. Kiefer
Michael Crager
Audrey Goddard
Joffre B. Baker
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Genomic Health Inc
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    • C12QMEASURING OR TESTING PROCESSES INVOLVING ENZYMES, NUCLEIC ACIDS OR MICROORGANISMS; COMPOSITIONS OR TEST PAPERS THEREFOR; PROCESSES OF PREPARING SUCH COMPOSITIONS; CONDITION-RESPONSIVE CONTROL IN MICROBIOLOGICAL OR ENZYMOLOGICAL PROCESSES
    • C12Q1/00Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes, nucleic acids or microorganisms; Compositions therefor; Processes of preparing such compositions
    • C12Q1/68Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes, nucleic acids or microorganisms; Compositions therefor; Processes of preparing such compositions involving nucleic acids
    • C12Q1/6876Nucleic acid products used in the analysis of nucleic acids, e.g. primers or probes
    • C12Q1/6883Nucleic acid products used in the analysis of nucleic acids, e.g. primers or probes for diseases caused by alterations of genetic material
    • C12Q1/6886Nucleic acid products used in the analysis of nucleic acids, e.g. primers or probes for diseases caused by alterations of genetic material for cancer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
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    • C12QMEASURING OR TESTING PROCESSES INVOLVING ENZYMES, NUCLEIC ACIDS OR MICROORGANISMS; COMPOSITIONS OR TEST PAPERS THEREFOR; PROCESSES OF PREPARING SUCH COMPOSITIONS; CONDITION-RESPONSIVE CONTROL IN MICROBIOLOGICAL OR ENZYMOLOGICAL PROCESSES
    • C12Q2600/00Oligonucleotides characterized by their use
    • C12Q2600/118Prognosis of disease development
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    • C12Q2600/00Oligonucleotides characterized by their use
    • C12Q2600/158Expression markers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12QMEASURING OR TESTING PROCESSES INVOLVING ENZYMES, NUCLEIC ACIDS OR MICROORGANISMS; COMPOSITIONS OR TEST PAPERS THEREFOR; PROCESSES OF PREPARING SUCH COMPOSITIONS; CONDITION-RESPONSIVE CONTROL IN MICROBIOLOGICAL OR ENZYMOLOGICAL PROCESSES
    • C12Q2600/00Oligonucleotides characterized by their use
    • C12Q2600/178Oligonucleotides characterized by their use miRNA, siRNA or ncRNA

Abstract

Molecular assays that involve measurement of expression levels of prognostic biomarkers, or co-expressed biomarkers, from a biological sample obtained from a prostate cancer patient, and analysis of the measured expression levels to provide information concerning the likely prognosis for said patient, and likelihood that said patient will have a recurrence of prostate cancer, or to classify the tumor by likelihood of clinical outcome or TMPRSS2 fusion status, are provided herein.

Description

  • This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application Nos. 61/368,217, filed Jul. 27, 2010; 61/414,310, filed Nov. 16, 2010; and 61/485,536, filed May 12, 2011, all of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The present disclosure relates to molecular diagnostic assays that provide information concerning methods to use gene expression profiles to determine prognostic information for cancer patients. Specifically, the present disclosure provides genes and microRNAs, the expression levels of which may be used to determine the likelihood that a prostate cancer patient will experience a local or distant cancer recurrence.
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Prostate cancer is the most common solid malignancy in men and the second most common cause of cancer-related death in men in North America and the European Union (EU). In 2008, over 180,000 patients will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in the United States alone and nearly 30,000 will die of this disease. Age is the single most important risk factor for the development of prostate cancer, and applies across all racial groups that have been studied. With the aging of the U.S. population, it is projected that the annual incidence of prostate cancer will double by 2025 to nearly 400,000 cases per year.
  • Since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1990's, the proportion of patients presenting with clinically evident disease has fallen dramatically such that patients categorized as “low risk” now constitute half of new diagnoses today. PSA is used as a tumor marker to determine the presence of prostate cancer as high PSA levels are associated with prostate cancer. Despite a growing proportion of localized prostate cancer patients presenting with low-risk features such as low stage (T1) disease, greater than 90% of patients in the US still undergo definitive therapy, including prostatectomy or radiation. Only about 15% of these patients would develop metastatic disease and die from their prostate cancer, even in the absence of definitive therapy. A. Bill-Axelson, et al., J Nat'l Cancer Inst. 100(16):1144-1154 (2008). Therefore, the majority of prostate cancer patients are being over-treated.
  • Estimates of recurrence risk and treatment decisions in prostate cancer are currently based primarily on PSA levels and/or tumor stage. Although tumor stage has been demonstrated to have significant association with outcome sufficient to be included in pathology reports, the College of American Pathologists Consensus Statement noted that variations in approach to the acquisition, interpretation, reporting, and analysis of this information exist. C. Compton, et al., Arch Pathol Lab Med 124:979-992 (2000). As a consequence, existing pathologic staging methods have been criticized as lacking reproducibility and therefore may provide imprecise estimates of individual patient risk.
  • SUMMARY
  • This application discloses molecular assays that involve measurement of expression level(s) of one or more genes, gene subsets, microRNAs, or one or more microRNAs in combination with one or more genes or gene subsets, from a biological sample obtained from a prostate cancer patient, and analysis of the measured expression levels to provide information concerning the likelihood of cancer recurrence. For example, the likelihood of cancer recurrence could be described in terms of a score based on clinical or biochemical recurrence-free interval.
  • In addition, this application discloses molecular assays that involve measurement of expression level(s) of one or more genes, gene subsets, microRNAs, or one or more microRNAs in combination with one or more genes or gene subsets, from a biological sample obtained to identify a risk classification for a prostate cancer patient. For example, patients may be stratified using expression level(s) of one or more genes or microRNAs associated, positively or negatively, with cancer recurrence or death from cancer, or with a prognostic factor. In an exemplary embodiment, the prognostic factor is Gleason pattern.
  • The biological sample may be obtained from standard methods, including surgery, biopsy, or bodily fluids. It may comprise tumor tissue or cancer cells, and, in some cases, histologically normal tissue, e.g., histologically normal tissue adjacent the tumor tissue. In exemplary embodiments, the biological sample is positive or negative for a TMPRSS2 fusion.
  • In exemplary embodiments, expression level(s) of one or more genes and/or microRNAs that are associated, positively or negatively, with a particular clinical outcome in prostate cancer are used to determine prognosis and appropriate therapy. The genes disclosed herein may be used alone or arranged in functional gene subsets, such as cell adhesion/migration, immediate-early stress response, and extracellular matrix-associated. Each gene subset comprises the genes disclosed herein, as well as genes that are co-expressed with one or more of the disclosed genes. The calculation may be performed on a computer, programmed to execute the gene expression analysis. The microRNAs disclosed herein may also be used alone or in combination with any one or more of the microRNAs and/or genes disclosed.
  • In exemplary embodiments, the molecular assay may involve expression levels for at least two genes. The genes, or gene subsets, may be weighted according to strength of association with prognosis or tumor microenvironment. In another exemplary embodiment, the molecular assay may involve expression levels of at least one gene and at least one microRNA. The gene-microRNA combination may be selected based on the likelihood that the gene-microRNA combination functionally interact.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING
  • FIG. 1 shows the distribution of clinical and pathology assessments of biopsy Gleason score, baseline PSA level, and clinical T-stage.
  • DEFINITIONS
  • Unless defined otherwise, technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. Singleton et al., Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology 2nd ed., J. Wiley & Sons (New York, N.Y. 1994), and March, Advanced Organic Chemistry Reactions, Mechanisms and Structure 4th ed., John Wiley & Sons (New York, N.Y. 1992), provide one skilled in the art with a general guide to many of the terms used in the present application.
  • One skilled in the art will recognize many methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein, which could be used in the practice of the present invention. Indeed, the present invention is in no way limited to the methods and materials described herein. For purposes of the invention, the following terms are defined below.
  • The terms “tumor” and “lesion” as used herein, refer to all neoplastic cell growth and proliferation, whether malignant or benign, and all pre-cancerous and cancerous cells and tissues. Those skilled in the art will realize that a tumor tissue sample may comprise multiple biological elements, such as one or more cancer cells, partial or fragmented cells, tumors in various stages, surrounding histologically normal-appearing tissue, and/or macro or micro-dissected tissue.
  • The terms “cancer” and “cancerous” refer to or describe the physiological condition in mammals that is typically characterized by unregulated cell growth. Examples of cancer in the present disclosure include cancer of the urogenital tract, such as prostate cancer.
  • The “pathology” of cancer includes all phenomena that compromise the well-being of the patient. This includes, without limitation, abnormal or uncontrollable cell growth, metastasis, interference with the normal functioning of neighboring cells, release of cytokines or other secretory products at abnormal levels, suppression or aggravation of inflammatory or immunological response, neoplasia, premalignancy, malignancy, invasion of surrounding or distant tissues or organs, such as lymph nodes, etc.
  • As used herein, the term “prostate cancer” is used interchangeably and in the broadest sense refers to all stages and all forms of cancer arising from the tissue of the prostate gland.
  • According to the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), AJCC Cancer Staging Manual (7th Ed., 2010), the various stages of prostate cancer are defined as follows: Tumor: T1: clinically inapparent tumor not palpable or visible by imaging, T1a: tumor incidental histological finding in 5% or less of tissue resected, T1b: tumor incidental histological finding in more than 5% of tissue resected, T1c: tumor identified by needle biopsy; T2: tumor confined within prostate, T2a: tumor involves one half of one lobe or less, T2b: tumor involves more than half of one lobe, but not both lobes, T2c: tumor involves both lobes; T3: tumor extends through the prostatic capsule, T3a: extracapsular extension (unilateral or bilateral), T3b: tumor invades seminal vesicle(s); T4: tumor is fixed or invades adjacent structures other than seminal vesicles (bladder neck, external sphincter, rectum, levator muscles, or pelvic wall). Node: NO: no regional lymph node metastasis; N1: metastasis in regional lymph nodes. Metastasis: M0: no distant metastasis; M1: distant metastasis present.
  • The Gleason Grading system is used to help evaluate the prognosis of men with prostate cancer. Together with other parameters, it is incorporated into a strategy of prostate cancer staging, which predicts prognosis and helps guide therapy. A Gleason “score” or “grade” is given to prostate cancer based upon its microscopic appearance. Tumors with a low Gleason score typically grow slowly enough that they may not pose a significant threat to the patients in their lifetimes. These patients are monitored (“watchful waiting” or “active surveillance”) over time. Cancers with a higher Gleason score are more aggressive and have a worse prognosis, and these patients are generally treated with surgery (e.g., radical prostectomy) and, in some cases, therapy (e.g., radiation, hormone, ultrasound, chemotherapy). Gleason scores (or sums) comprise grades of the two most common tumor patterns. These patterns are referred to as Gleason patterns 1-5, with pattern 1 being the most well-differentiated. Most have a mixture of patterns. To obtain a Gleason score or grade, the dominant pattern is added to the second most prevalent pattern to obtain a number between 2 and 10. The Gleason Grades include: G1: well differentiated (slight anaplasia) (Gleason 2-4); G2: moderately differentiated (moderate anaplasia) (Gleason 5-6); G3-4: poorly differentiated/undifferentiated (marked anaplasia) (Gleason 7-10).
  • Stage groupings: Stage I: T1a N0 M0 G1; Stage II: (T1a N0M0G2-4) or (T1b, c, T1, T2, N0 M0 Any G); Stage III: T3 N0 M0 Any G; Stage 1V: (T4 N0 M0 Any G) or (Any T N1 M0 Any G) or (Any T Any N M1 Any G).
  • As used herein, the term “tumor tissue” refers to a biological sample containing one or more cancer cells, or a fraction of one or more cancer cells. Those skilled in the art will recognize that such biological sample may additionally comprise other biological components, such as histologically appearing normal cells (e.g., adjacent the tumor), depending upon the method used to obtain the tumor tissue, such as surgical resection, biopsy, or bodily fluids.
  • As used herein, the term “AUA risk group” refers to the 2007 updated American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines for management of clinically localized prostate cancer, which clinicians use to determine whether a patient is at low, intermediate, or high risk of biochemical (PSA) relapse after local therapy.
  • As used herein, the term “adjacent tissue (AT)” refers to histologically “normal” cells that are adjacent a tumor. For example, the AT expression profile may be associated with disease recurrence and survival.
  • As used herein “non-tumor prostate tissue” refers to histologically normal-appearing tissue adjacent a prostate tumor.
  • Prognostic factors are those variables related to the natural history of cancer, which influence the recurrence rates and outcome of patients once they have developed cancer. Clinical parameters that have been associated with a worse prognosis include, for example, increased tumor stage, PSA level at presentation, and Gleason grade or pattern. Prognostic factors are frequently used to categorize patients into subgroups with different baseline relapse risks.
  • The term “prognosis” is used herein to refer to the likelihood that a cancer patient will have a cancer-attributable death or progression, including recurrence, metastatic spread, and drug resistance, of a neoplastic disease, such as prostate cancer. For example, a “good prognosis” would include long term survival without recurrence and a “bad prognosis” would include cancer recurrence.
  • As used herein, the term “expression level” as applied to a gene refers to the normalized level of a gene product, e.g. the normalized value determined for the RNA expression level of a gene or for the polypeptide expression level of a gene.
  • The term “gene product” or “expression product” are used herein to refer to the RNA (ribonucleic acid) transcription products (transcripts) of the gene, including mRNA, and the polypeptide translation products of such RNA transcripts. A gene product can be, for example, an unspliced RNA, an mRNA, a splice variant mRNA, a microRNA, a fragmented RNA, a polypeptide, a post-translationally modified polypeptide, a splice variant polypeptide, etc.
  • The term “RNA transcript” as used herein refers to the RNA transcription products of a gene, including, for example, mRNA, an unspliced RNA, a splice variant mRNA, a microRNA, and a fragmented RNA.
  • The term “microRNA” is used herein to refer to a small, non-coding, single-stranded RNA of ˜18-25 nucleotides that may regulate gene expression. For example, when associated with the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), the complex binds to specific mRNA targets and causes translation repression or cleavage of these mRNA sequences.
  • Unless indicated otherwise, each gene name used herein corresponds to the Official Symbol assigned to the gene and provided by Entrez Gene (URL: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez) as of the filing date of this application.
  • The terms “correlated” and “associated” are used interchangeably herein to refer to the association between two measurements (or measured entities). The disclosure provides genes, gene subsets, microRNAs, or microRNAs in combination with genes or gene subsets, the expression levels of which are associated with tumor stage. For example, the increased expression level of a gene or microRNA may be positively correlated (positively associated) with a good or positive prognosis. Such a positive correlation may be demonstrated statistically in various ways, e.g. by a cancer recurrence hazard ratio less than one. In another example, the increased expression level of a gene or microRNA may be negatively correlated (negatively associated) with a good or positive prognosis. In that case, for example, the patient may experience a cancer recurrence.
  • The terms “good prognosis” or “positive prognosis” as used herein refer to a beneficial clinical outcome, such as long-term survival without recurrence. The terms “bad prognosis” or “negative prognosis” as used herein refer to a negative clinical outcome, such as cancer recurrence.
  • The term “risk classification” means a grouping of subjects by the level of risk (or likelihood) that the subject will experience a particular clinical outcome. A subject may be classified into a risk group or classified at a level of risk based on the methods of the present disclosure, e.g. high, medium, or low risk. A “risk group” is a group of subjects or individuals with a similar level of risk for a particular clinical outcome.
  • The term “long-term” survival is used herein to refer to survival for a particular time period, e.g., for at least 5 years, or for at least 10 years.
  • The term “recurrence” is used herein to refer to local or distant recurrence (i.e., metastasis) of cancer. For example, prostate cancer can recur locally in the tissue next to the prostate or in the seminal vesicles. The cancer may also affect the surrounding lymph nodes in the pelvis or lymph nodes outside this area. Prostate cancer can also spread to tissues next to the prostate, such as pelvic muscles, bones, or other organs. Recurrence can be determined by clinical recurrence detected by, for example, imaging study or biopsy, or biochemical recurrence detected by, for example, sustained follow-up prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ≧0.4 ng/mL or the initiation of salvage therapy as a result of a rising PSA level.
  • The term “clinical recurrence-free interval (cRFI)” is used herein as time (in months) from surgery to first clinical recurrence or death due to clinical recurrence of prostate cancer. Losses due to incomplete follow-up, other primary cancers or death prior to clinical recurrence are considered censoring events; when these occur, the only information known is that up through the censoring time, clinical recurrence has not occurred in this subject. Biochemical recurrences are ignored for the purposes of calculating cRFI.
  • The term “biochemical recurrence-free interval (bRFI)” is used herein to mean the time (in months) from surgery to first biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Clinical recurrences, losses due to incomplete follow-up, other primary cancers, or death prior to biochemical recurrence are considered censoring events.
  • The term “Overall Survival (OS)” is used herein to refer to the time (in months) from surgery to death from any cause. Losses due to incomplete follow-up are considered censoring events. Biochemical recurrence and clinical recurrence are ignored for the purposes of calculating OS.
  • The term “Prostate Cancer-Specific Survival (PCSS)” is used herein to describe the time (in years) from surgery to death from prostate cancer. Losses due to incomplete follow-up or deaths from other causes are considered censoring events. Clinical recurrence and biochemical recurrence are ignored for the purposes of calculating PCSS.
  • The term “upgrading” or “upstaging” as used herein refers to a change in Gleason grade from 3+3 at the time of biopsy to 3+4 or greater at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP), or Gleason grade 3+4 at the time of biopsy to 4+3 or greater at the time of RP, or seminal vessical involvement (SVI), or extracapsular involvement (ECE) at the time of RP.
  • In practice, the calculation of the measures listed above may vary from study to study depending on the definition of events to be considered censored.
  • The term “microarray” refers to an ordered arrangement of hybridizable array elements, e.g. oligonucleotide or polynucleotide probes, on a substrate.
  • The term “polynucleotide” generally refers to any polyribonucleotide or polydeoxribonucleotide, which may be unmodified RNA or DNA or modified RNA or DNA. Thus, for instance, polynucleotides as defined herein include, without limitation, single- and double-stranded DNA, DNA including single- and double-stranded regions, single- and double-stranded RNA, and RNA including single- and double-stranded regions, hybrid molecules comprising DNA and RNA that may be single-stranded or, more typically, double-stranded or include single- and double-stranded regions. In addition, the term “polynucleotide” as used herein refers to triple-stranded regions comprising RNA or DNA or both RNA and DNA. The strands in such regions may be from the same molecule or from different molecules. The regions may include all of one or more of the molecules, but more typically involve only a region of some of the molecules. One of the molecules of a triple-helical region often is an oligonucleotide. The term “polynucleotide” specifically includes cDNAs. The term includes DNAs (including cDNAs) and RNAs that contain one or more modified bases. Thus, DNAs or RNAs with backbones modified for stability or for other reasons, are “polynucleotides” as that term is intended herein. Moreover, DNAs or RNAs comprising unusual bases, such as inosine, or modified bases, such as tritiated bases, are included within the term “polynucleotides” as defined herein. In general, the term “polynucleotide” embraces all chemically, enzymatically and/or metabolically modified forms of unmodified polynucleotides, as well as the chemical forms of DNA and RNA characteristic of viruses and cells, including simple and complex cells.
  • The term “oligonucleotide” refers to a relatively short polynucleotide, including, without limitation, single-stranded deoxyribonucleotides, single- or double-stranded ribonucleotides, RNArDNA hybrids and double-stranded DNAs. Oligonucleotides, such as single-stranded DNA probe oligonucleotides, are often synthesized by chemical methods, for example using automated oligonucleotide synthesizers that are commercially available. However, oligonucleotides can be made by a variety of other methods, including in vitro recombinant DNA-mediated techniques and by expression of DNAs in cells and organisms.
  • The term “Ct” as used herein refers to threshold cycle, the cycle number in quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at which the fluorescence generated within a reaction well exceeds the defined threshold, i.e. the point during the reaction at which a sufficient number of amplicons have accumulated to meet the defined threshold.
  • The term “Cp” as used herein refers to “crossing point.” The Cp value is calculated by determining the second derivatives of entire qPCR amplification curves and their maximum value. The Cp value represents the cycle at which the increase of fluorescence is highest and where the logarithmic phase of a PCR begins.
  • The terms “threshold” or “thresholding” refer to a procedure used to account for non-linear relationships between gene expression measurements and clinical response as well as to further reduce variation in reported patient scores. When thresholding is applied, all measurements below or above a threshold are set to that threshold value. Non-linear relationship between gene expression and outcome could be examined using smoothers or cubic splines to model gene expression in Cox PH regression on recurrence free interval or logistic regression on recurrence status. D. Cox, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 34:187-220 (1972). Variation in reported patient scores could be examined as a function of variability in gene expression at the limit of quantitation and/or detection for a particular gene.
  • As used herein, the term “amplicon,” refers to pieces of DNA that have been synthesized using amplification techniques, such as polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and ligase chain reactions.
  • “Stringency” of hybridization reactions is readily determinable by one of ordinary skill in the art, and generally is an empirical calculation dependent upon probe length, washing temperature, and salt concentration. In general, longer probes require higher temperatures for proper annealing, while shorter probes need lower temperatures. Hybridization generally depends on the ability of denatured DNA to re-anneal when complementary strands are present in an environment below their melting temperature. The higher the degree of desired homology between the probe and hybridizable sequence, the higher the relative temperature which can be used. As a result, it follows that higher relative temperatures would tend to make the reaction conditions more stringent, while lower temperatures less so. For additional details and explanation of stringency of hybridization reactions, see Ausubel et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (Wiley Interscience Publishers, 1995).
  • “Stringent conditions” or “high stringency conditions”, as defined herein, typically: (1) employ low ionic strength and high temperature for washing, for example 0.015 M sodium chloride/0.0015 M sodium citrate/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate at 50° C.; (2) employ during hybridization a denaturing agent, such as formamide, for example, 50% (v/v) formamide with 0.1% bovine serum albumin/0.1% Ficoll/0.1% polyvinylpyrrolidone/50 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 6.5 with 750 mM sodium chloride, 75 mM sodium citrate at 42° C.; or (3) employ 50% formamide, 5×SSC (0.75 M NaCl, 0.075 M sodium citrate), 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 6.8), 0.1% sodium pyrophosphate, 5×Denhardt's solution, sonicated salmon sperm DNA (50 μg/ml), 0.1% SDS, and 10% dextran sulfate at 42° C., with washes at 42° C. in 0.2×SSC (sodium chloride/sodium citrate) and 50% formamide, followed by a high-stringency wash consisting of 0.1×SSC containing EDTA at 55° C.
  • “Moderately stringent conditions” may be identified as described by Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Press, 1989, and include the use of washing solution and hybridization conditions (e.g., temperature, ionic strength and % SDS) less stringent that those described above. An example of moderately stringent conditions is overnight incubation at 37° C. in a solution comprising: 20% formamide, 5×SSC (150 mM NaCl, 15 mM trisodium citrate), 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.6), 5×Denhardt's solution, 10% dextran sulfate, and 20 mg/ml denatured sheared salmon sperm DNA, followed by washing the filters in 1×SSC at about 37-500 C. The skilled artisan will recognize how to adjust the temperature, ionic strength, etc. as necessary to accommodate factors such as probe length and the like.
  • The terms “splicing” and “RNA splicing” are used interchangeably and refer to RNA processing that removes introns and joins exons to produce mature mRNA with continuous coding sequence that moves into the cytoplasm of an eukaryotic cell.
  • The terms “co-express” and “co-expressed”, as used herein, refer to a statistical correlation between the amounts of different transcript sequences across a population of different patients. Pairwise co-expression may be calculated by various methods known in the art, e.g., by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients or Spearman correlation coefficients. Co-expressed gene cliques may also be identified using graph theory. An analysis of co-expression may be calculated using normalized expression data. A gene is said to be co-expressed with a particular disclosed gene when the expression level of the gene exhibits a Pearson correlation coefficient greater than or equal to 0.6.
  • A “computer-based system” refers to a system of hardware, software, and data storage medium used to analyze information. The minimum hardware of a patient computer-based system comprises a central processing unit (CPU), and hardware for data input, data output (e.g., display), and data storage. An ordinarily skilled artisan can readily appreciate that any currently available computer-based systems and/or components thereof are suitable for use in connection with the methods of the present disclosure. The data storage medium may comprise any manufacture comprising a recording of the present information as described above, or a memory access device that can access such a manufacture.
  • To “record” data, programming or other information on a computer readable medium refers to a process for storing information, using any such methods as known in the art. Any convenient data storage structure may be chosen, based on the means used to access the stored information. A variety of data processor programs and formats can be used for storage, e.g. word processing text file, database format, etc.
  • A “processor” or “computing means” references any hardware and/or software combination that will perform the functions required of it. For example, a suitable processor may be a programmable digital microprocessor such as available in the form of an electronic controller, mainframe, server or personal computer (desktop or portable). Where the processor is programmable, suitable programming can be communicated from a remote location to the processor, or previously saved in a computer program product (such as a portable or fixed computer readable storage medium, whether magnetic, optical or solid state device based). For example, a magnetic medium or optical disk may carry the programming, and can be read by a suitable reader communicating with each processor at its corresponding station.
  • As used herein, the terms “active surveillance” and “watchful waiting” mean closely monitoring a patient's condition without giving any treatment until symptoms appear or change. For example, in prostate cancer, watchful waiting is usually used in older men with other medical problems and early-stage disease.
  • As used herein, the term “surgery” applies to surgical methods undertaken for removal of cancerous tissue, including pelvic lymphadenectomy, radical prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), excision, dissection, and tumor biopsy/removal. The tumor tissue or sections used for gene expression analysis may have been obtained from any of these methods.
  • As used herein, the term “therapy” includes radiation, hormonal therapy, cryosurgery, chemotherapy, biologic therapy, and high-intensity focused ultrasound.
  • As used herein, the term “TMPRSS fusion” and “TMPRSS2 fusion” are used interchangeably and refer to a fusion of the androgen-driven TMPRSS2 gene with the ERG oncogene, which has been demonstrated to have a significant association with prostate cancer. S. Perner, et al., Urologe A. 46(7):754-760 (2007); S. A. Narod, et al., Br J Cancer 99(6):847-851 (2008). As used herein, positive TMPRSS fusion status indicates that the TMPRSS fusion is present in a tissue sample, whereas negative TMPRSS fusion status indicates that the TMPRSS fusion is not present in a tissue sample. Experts skilled in the art will recognize that there are numerous ways to determine TMPRSS fusion status, such as real-time, quantitative PCR or high-throughput sequencing. See, e.g., K. Mertz, et al., Neoplasis 9(3):200-206 (2007); C. Maher, Nature 458(7234):97-101 (2009).
  • Gene Expression Methods Using Genes, Gene Subsets, and microRNAs
  • The present disclosure provides molecular assays that involve measurement of expression level(s) of one or more genes, gene subsets, microRNAs, or one or more microRNAs in combination with one or more genes or gene subsets, from a biological sample obtained from a prostate cancer patient, and analysis of the measured expression levels to provide information concerning the likelihood of cancer recurrence.
  • The present disclosure further provides methods to classify a prostate tumor based on expression level(s) of one or more genes and/or microRNAs. The disclosure further provides genes and/or microRNAs that are associated, positively or negatively, with a particular prognostic outcome. In exemplary embodiments, the clinical outcomes include cRFI and bRFI. In another embodiment, patients may be classified in risk groups based on the expression level(s) of one or more genes and/or microRNAs that are associated, positively or negatively, with a prognostic factor. In an exemplary embodiment, that prognostic factor is Gleason pattern.
  • Various technological approaches for determination of expression levels of the disclosed genes and microRNAs are set forth in this specification, including, without limitation, RT-PCR, microarrays, high-throughput sequencing, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and Digital Gene Expression (DGE), which will be discussed in detail below. In particular aspects, the expression level of each gene or microRNA may be determined in relation to various features of the expression products of the gene including exons, introns, protein epitopes and protein activity.
  • The expression level(s) of one or more genes and/or microRNAs may be measured in tumor tissue. For example, the tumor tissue may obtained upon surgical removal or resection of the tumor, or by tumor biopsy. The tumor tissue may be or include histologically “normal” tissue, for example histologically “normal” tissue adjacent to a tumor. The expression level of genes and/or microRNAs may also be measured in tumor cells recovered from sites distant from the tumor, for example circulating tumor cells, body fluid (e.g., urine, blood, blood fraction, etc.).
  • The expression product that is assayed can be, for example, RNA or a polypeptide. The expression product may be fragmented. For example, the assay may use primers that are complementary to target sequences of an expression product and could thus measure full transcripts as well as those fragmented expression products containing the target sequence. Further information is provided in Table A (inserted in specification prior to claims).
  • The RNA expression product may be assayed directly or by detection of a cDNA product resulting from a PCR-based amplification method, e.g., quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). (See e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 7,587,279). Polypeptide expression product may be assayed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Further, both RNA and polypeptide expression products may also be is assayed using microarrays.
  • Clinical Utility
  • Prostate cancer is currently diagnosed using a digital rectal exam (DRE) and Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. If PSA results are high, patients will generally undergo a prostate tissue biopsy. The pathologist will review the biopsy samples to check for cancer cells and determine a Gleason score. Based on the Gleason score, PSA, clinical stage, and other factors, the physician must make a decision whether to monitor the patient, or treat the patient with surgery and therapy.
  • At present, clinical decision-making in early stage prostate cancer is governed by certain histopathologic and clinical factors. These include: (1) tumor factors, such as clinical stage (e.g. T1, T2), PSA level at presentation, and Gleason grade, that are very strong prognostic factors in determining outcome; and (2) host factors, such as age at diagnosis and co-morbidity. Because of these factors, the most clinically useful means of stratifying patients with localized disease according to prognosis has been through multifactorial staging, using the clinical stage, the serum PSA level, and tumor grade (Gleason grade) together. In the 2007 updated American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines for management of clinically localized prostate cancer, these parameters have been grouped to determine whether a patient is at low, intermediate, or high risk of biochemical (PSA) relapse after local therapy. I. Thompson, et al., Guideline for the management of clinically localized prostate cancer, J Urol. 177(6):2106-31 (2007).
  • Although such classifications have proven to be helpful in distinguishing patients with localized disease who may need adjuvant therapy after surgery/radiation, they have less ability to discriminate between indolent cancers, which do not need to be treated with local therapy, and aggressive tumors, which require local therapy. In fact, these algorithms are of increasingly limited use for deciding between conservative management and definitive therapy because the bulk of prostate cancers diagnosed in the PSA screening era now present with clinical stage T1c and PSA ≦10 ng/mL.
  • Patients with T1 prostate cancer have disease that is not clinically apparent but is discovered either at transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP, T1a, T1b) or at biopsy performed because of an elevated PSA (>4 ng/mL, T1c). Approximately 80% of the cases presenting in 2007 are clinical T1 at diagnosis. In a Scandinavian trial, OS at 10 years was 85% for patients with early stage prostate cancer (T1/T2) and Gleason score ≦7, after radical prostatectomy.
  • Patients with T2 prostate cancer have disease that is clinically evident and is organ confined; patients with T3 tumors have disease that has penetrated the prostatic capsule and/or has invaded the seminal vesicles. It is known from surgical series that clinical staging underestimates pathological stage, so that about 20% of patients who are clinically T2 will be pT3 after prostatectomy. Most of patients with T2 or T3 prostate cancer are treated with local therapy, either prostatectomy or radiation. The data from the Scandinavian trial suggest that for T2 patients with Gleason grade ≦7, the effect of prostatectomy on survival is at most 5% at 10 years; the majority of patients do not benefit from surgical treatment at the time of diagnosis. For T2 patients with Gleason >7 or for T3 patients, the treatment effect of prostatectomy is assumed to be significant but has not been determined in randomized trials. It is known that these patients have a significant risk (10-30%) of recurrence at 10 years after local treatment, however, there are no prospective randomized trials that define the optimal local treatment (radical prostatectomy, radiation) at diagnosis, which patients are likely to benefit from neo-adjuvant/adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy, and whether treatment (androgen deprivation, chemotherapy) at the time of biochemical failure (elevated PSA) has any clinical benefit.
  • Accurately determining Gleason scores from needle biopsies presents several technical challenges. First, interpreting histology that is “borderline” between Gleason pattern is highly subjective, even for urologic pathologists. Second, incomplete biopsy sampling is yet another reason why the “predicted” Gleason score on biopsy does not always correlate with the actual “observed” Gleason score of the prostate cancer in the gland itself. Hence, the accuracy of Gleason scoring is dependent upon not only the expertise of the pathologist reading the slides, but also on the completeness and adequacy of the prostate biopsy sampling strategy. T. Stamey, Urology 45:2-12 (1995). The gene/microRNA expression assay and associated information provided by the practice of the methods disclosed herein provide a molecular assay method to facilitate optimal treatment decision-making in early stage prostate cancer. An exemplary embodiment provides genes and microRNAs, the expression levels of which are associated (positively or negatively) with prostate cancer recurrence. For example, such a clinical tool would enable physicians to identify T2/T3 patients who are likely to recur following definitive therapy and need adjuvant treatment.
  • In addition, the methods disclosed herein may allow physicians to classify tumors, at a molecular level, based on expression level(s) of one or more genes and/or microRNAs that are significantly associated with prognostic factors, such as Gleason pattern and TMPRSS fusion status. These methods would not be impacted by the technical difficulties of intra-patient variability, histologically determining Gleason pattern in biopsy samples, or inclusion of histologically normal appearing tissue adjacent to tumor tissue. Multi-analyte gene/microRNA expression tests can be used to measure the expression level of one or more genes and/or microRNAs involved in each of several relevant physiologic processes or component cellular characteristics. The methods disclosed herein may group the genes and/or microRNAs. The grouping of genes and microRNAs may be performed at least in part based on knowledge of the contribution of those genes and/or microRNAs according to physiologic functions or component cellular characteristics, such as in the groups discussed above. Furthermore, one or more microRNAs may be combined with one or moregenes. The gene-microRNA combination may be selected based on the likelihood that the gene-microRNA combination functionally interact. The formation of groups (or gene subsets), in addition, can facilitate the mathematical weighting of the contribution of various expression levels to cancer recurrence. The weighting of a gene/microRNA group representing a physiological process or component cellular characteristic can reflect the contribution of that process or characteristic to the pathology of the cancer and clinical outcome.
  • Optionally, the methods disclosed may be used to classify patients by risk, for example risk of recurrence. Patients can be partitioned into subgroups (e.g., tertiles or quartiles) and the values chosen will define subgroups of patients with respectively greater or lesser risk.
  • The utility of a disclosed gene marker in predicting prognosis may not be unique to that marker. An alternative marker having an expression pattern that is parallel to that of a disclosed gene may be substituted for, or used in addition to, that co-expressed gene or microRNA. Due to the co-expression of such genes or microRNAs, substitution of expression level values should have little impact on the overall utility of the test. The closely similar expression patterns of two genes or microRNAs may result from involvement of both genes or microRNAs in the same process and/or being under common regulatory control in prostate tumor cells. The present disclosure thus contemplates the use of such co-expressed genes, gene subsets, or microRNAs as substitutes for, or in addition to, genes of the present disclosure.
  • Methods of Assaying Expression Levels of a Gene Product
  • The methods and compositions of the present disclosure will employ, unless otherwise indicated, conventional techniques of molecular biology (including recombinant techniques), microbiology, cell biology, and biochemistry, which are within the skill of the art. Exemplary techniques are explained fully in the literature, such as, “Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual”, 2nd edition (Sambrook et al., 1989); “Oligonucleotide Synthesis” (M. J. Gait, ed., 1984); “Animal Cell Culture” (R. I. Freshney, ed., 1987); “Methods in Enzymology” (Academic Press, Inc.); “Handbook of Experimental Immunology”, 4th edition (D. M. Weir & C. C. Blackwell, eds., Blackwell Science Inc., 1987); “Gene Transfer Vectors for Mammalian Cells” (J. M. Miller & M. P. Calos, eds., 1987); “Current Protocols in Molecular Biology” (F. M. Ausubel et al., eds., 1987); and “PCR: The Polymerase Chain Reaction”, (Mullis et al., eds., 1994).
  • Methods of gene expression profiling include methods based on hybridization analysis of polynucleotides, methods based on sequencing of polynucleotides, and proteomics-based methods. Exemplary methods known in the art for the quantification of RNA expression in a sample include northern blotting and in situ hybridization (Parker & Barnes, Methods in Molecular Biology 106:247-283 (1999)); RNAse protection assays (Hod, Biotechniques 13:852-854 (1992)); and PCR-based methods, such as reverse transcription PCT (RT-PCR) (Weis et al., Trends in Genetics 8:263-264 (1992)). Antibodies may be employed that can recognize sequence-specific duplexes, including DNA duplexes, RNA duplexes, and DNA-RNA hybrid duplexes or DNA-protein duplexes. Representative methods for sequencing-based gene expression analysis include Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), and gene expression analysis by massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS).
  • Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)
  • Typically, mRNA or microRNA is isolated from a test sample. The starting material is typically total RNA isolated from a human tumor, usually from a primary tumor. Optionally, normal tissues from the same patient can be used as an internal control. Such normal tissue can be histologically-appearing normal tissue adjacent a tumor. mRNA or microRNA can be extracted from a tissue sample, e.g., from a sample that is fresh, frozen (e.g. fresh frozen), or paraffin-embedded and fixed (e.g. formalin-fixed).
  • General methods for mRNA and microRNA extraction are well known in the art and are disclosed in standard textbooks of molecular biology, including Ausubel et al., Current Protocols of Molecular Biology, John Wiley and Sons (1997). Methods for RNA extraction from paraffin embedded tissues are disclosed, for example, in Rupp and Locker, Lab Invest. 56:A67 (1987), and De Andrés et al., BioTechniques 18:42044 (1995). In particular, RNA isolation can be performed using a purification kit, buffer set and protease from commercial manufacturers, such as Qiagen, according to the manufacturer's instructions. For example, total RNA from cells in culture can be isolated using Qiagen RNeasy mini-columns. Other commercially available RNA isolation kits include MasterPure™ Complete DNA and RNA Purification Kit (EPICENTRE®, Madison, Wis.), and Paraffin Block RNA Isolation Kit (Ambion, Inc.). Total RNA from tissue samples can be isolated using RNA Stat-60 (Tel-Test). RNA prepared from tumor can be isolated, for example, by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation.
  • The sample containing the RNA is then subjected to reverse transcription to produce cDNA from the RNA template, followed by exponential amplification in a PCR reaction. The two most commonly used reverse transcriptases are avilo myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase (AMV-RT) and Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (MMLV-RT). The reverse transcription step is typically primed using specific primers, random hexamers, or oligo-dT primers, depending on the circumstances and the goal of expression profiling. For example, extracted RNA can be reverse-transcribed using a GeneAmp RNA PCR kit (Perkin Elmer, Calif., USA), following the manufacturer's instructions. The derived cDNA can then be used as a template in the subsequent PCR reaction.
  • PCR-based methods use a thermostable DNA-dependent DNA polymerase, such as a Taq DNA polymerase. For example, TaqMan® PCR typically utilizes the 5′-nuclease activity of Taq or Tth polymerase to hydrolyze a hybridization probe bound to its target amplicon, but any enzyme with equivalent 5′ nuclease activity can be used. Two oligonucleotide primers are used to generate an amplicon typical of a PCR reaction product. A third oligonucleotide, or probe, can be designed to facilitate detection of a nucleotide sequence of the amplicon located between the hybridization sites the two PCR primers. The probe can be detectably labeled, e.g., with a reporter dye, and can further be provided with both a fluorescent dye, and a quencher fluorescent dye, as in a Taqman® probe configuration. Where a Taqman® probe is used, during the amplification reaction, the Taq DNA polymerase enzyme cleaves the probe in a template-dependent manner. The resultant probe fragments disassociate in solution, and signal from the released reporter dye is free from the quenching effect of the second fluorophore. One molecule of reporter dye is liberated for each new molecule synthesized, and detection of the unquenched reporter dye provides the basis for quantitative interpretation of the data.
  • TaqMan® RT-PCR can be performed using commercially available equipment, such as, for example, high-throughput platforms such as the ABI PRISM 7700 Sequence Detection System® (Perkin-Elmer-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif., USA), or Lightcycler (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Mannheim, Germany). In a preferred embodiment, the procedure is run on a LightCycler® 480 (Roche Diagnostics) real-time PCR system, which is a microwell plate-based cycler platform.
  • 5′-Nuclease assay data are commonly initially expressed as a threshold cycle (“CT”). Fluorescence values are recorded during every cycle and represent the amount of product amplified to that point in the amplification reaction. The threshold cycle (CT) is generally described as the point when the fluorescent signal is first recorded as statistically significant. Alternatively, data may be expressed as a crossing point (“Cp”). The Cp value is calculated by determining the second derivatives of entire qPCR amplification curves and their maximum value. The Cp value represents the cycle at which the increase of fluorescence is highest and where the logarithmic phase of a PCR begins.
  • To minimize errors and the effect of sample-to-sample variation, RT-PCR is usually performed using an internal standard. The ideal internal standard gene (also referred to as a reference gene) is expressed at a quite constant level among cancerous and non-cancerous tissue of the same origin (i.e., a level that is not significantly different among normal and cancerous tissues), and is not significantly affected by the experimental treatment (i.e., does not exhibit a significant difference in expression level in the relevant tissue as a result of exposure to chemotherapy), and expressed at a quite constant level among the same tissue taken from different patients. For example, reference genes useful in the methods disclosed herein should not exhibit significantly different expression levels in cancerous prostate as compared to normal prostate tissue. RNAs frequently used to normalize patterns of gene expression are mRNAs for the housekeeping genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and (3-actin. Exemplary reference genes used for normalization comprise one or more of the following genes: AAMP, ARF1, ATP5E, CLTC, GPS1, and PGK1. Gene expression measurements can be normalized relative to the mean of one or more (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, or more) reference genes. Reference-normalized expression measurements can range from 2 to 15, where a one unit increase generally reflects a 2-fold increase in RNA quantity.
  • Real time PCR is compatible both with quantitative competitive PCR, where internal competitor for each target sequence is used for normalization, and with quantitative comparative PCR using a normalization gene contained within the sample, or a housekeeping gene for RT-PCR. For further details see, e.g. Held et al., Genome Research 6:986-994 (1996).
  • The steps of a representative protocol for use in the methods of the present disclosure use fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues as the RNA source. For example, mRNA isolation, purification, primer extension and amplification can be performed according to methods available in the art. (see, e.g., Godfrey et al. J. Molec. Diagnostics 2: 84-91 (2000); Specht et al., Am. J. Pathol. 158: 419-29 (2001)). Briefly, a representative process starts with cutting about 10 μm thick sections of paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples. The RNA is then extracted, and protein and DNA depleted from the RNA-containing sample. After analysis of the RNA concentration, RNA is reverse transcribed using gene specific primers followed by RT-PCR to provide for cDNA amplification products.
  • Design of Intron-Based PCR Primers and Probes
  • PCR primers and probes can be designed based upon exon or intron sequences present in the mRNA transcript of the gene of interest. Primer/probe design can be performed using publicly available software, such as the DNA BLAT software developed by Kent, W. J., Genome Res. 12(4):656-64 (2002), or by the BLAST software including its variations.
  • Where necessary or desired, repetitive sequences of the target sequence can be masked to mitigate non-specific signals. Exemplary tools to accomplish this include the Repeat Masker program available on-line through the Baylor College of Medicine, which screens DNA sequences against a library of repetitive elements and returns a query sequence in which the repetitive elements are masked. The masked intron sequences can then be used to design primer and probe sequences using any commercially or otherwise publicly available primer/probe design packages, such as Primer Express (Applied Biosystems); MGB assay-by-design (Applied Biosystems); Primer3 (Steve Rozen and Helen J. Skaletsky (2000) Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. See S. Rrawetz, S. Misener, Bioinformatics Methods and Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology, pp. 365-386 (Humana Press).
  • Other factors that can influence PCR primer design include primer length, melting temperature (Tm), and G/C content, specificity, complementary primer sequences, and 3′-end sequence. In general, optimal PCR primers are generally 17-30 bases in length, and contain about 20-80%, such as, for example, about 50-60% G+C bases, and exhibit Tm's between 50 and 80° C., e.g. about 50 to 70° C.
  • For further guidelines for PCR primer and probe design see, e.g. Dieffenbach, CW. et al, “General Concepts for PCR Primer Design” in: PCR Primer, A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press,. New York, 1995, pp. 133-155; Innis and Gelfand, “Optimization of PCRs” in: PCR Protocols, A Guide to Methods and Applications, CRC Press, London, 1994, pp. 5-11; and Plasterer, T. N. Primerselect: Primer and probe design. Methods Mol. Biol. 70:520-527 (1997), the entire disclosures of which are hereby expressly incorporated by reference.
  • Table A provides further information concerning the primer, probe, and amplicon sequences associated with the Examples disclosed herein.
  • MassARRAY® System
  • In MassARRAY-based methods, such as the exemplary method developed by Sequenom, Inc. (San Diego, Calif.) following the isolation of RNA and reverse transcription, the obtained cDNA is spiked with a synthetic DNA molecule (competitor), which matches the targeted cDNA region in all positions, except a single base, and serves as an internal standard. The cDNA/competitor mixture is PCR amplified and is subjected to a post-PCR shrimp alkaline phosphatase (SAP) enzyme treatment, which results in the dephosphorylation of the remaining nucleotides. After inactivarion of the alkaline phosphatase, the PCR products from the competitor and cDNA are subjected to primer extension, which generates distinct mass signals for the competitor- and cDNA-derives PCR products. After purification, these products are dispensed on a chip array, which is pre-loaded with components needed for analysis with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. The cDNA present in the reaction is then quantified by analyzing the ratios of the peak areas in the mass spectrum generated. For further details see, e.g. Ding and Cantor, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:3059-3064 (2003).
  • Other PCR-Based Methods
  • Further PCR-based techniques that can find use in the methods disclosed herein include, for example, BeadArray® technology (Illumina, San Diego, Calif.; Oliphant et al., Discovery of Markers for Disease (Supplement to Biotechniques), June 2002; Ferguson et al., Analytical Chemistry 72:5618 (2000)); BeadsArray for Detection of Gene Expression® (BADGE), using the commercially available LuminexlOO LabMAP® system and multiple color-coded microspheres (Luminex Corp., Austin, Tex.) in a rapid assay for gene expression (Yang et al., Genome Res. 11:1888-1898 (2001)); and high coverage expression profiling (HiCEP) analysis (Fukumura et al., Nucl. Acids. Res. 31(16) e94 (2003).
  • Microarrays
  • Expression levels of a gene or microArray of interest can also be assessed using the microarray technique. In this method, polynucleotide sequences of interest (including cDNAs and oligonucleotides) are arrayed on a substrate. The arrayed sequences are then contacted under conditions suitable for specific hybridization with detectably labeled cDNA generated from RNA of a test sample. As in the RT-PCR method, the source of RNA typically is total RNA isolated from a tumor sample, and optionally from normal tissue of the same patient as an internal control or cell lines. RNA can be extracted, for example, from frozen or archived paraffin-embedded and fixed (e.g. formalin-fixed) tissue samples.
  • For example, PCR amplified inserts of cDNA clones of a gene to be assayed are applied to a substrate in a dense array. Usually at least 10,000 nucleotide sequences are applied to the substrate. For example, the microarrayed genes, immobilized on the microchip at 10,000 elements each, are suitable for hybridization under stringent conditions. Fluorescently labeled cDNA probes may be generated through incorporation of fluorescent nucleotides by reverse transcription of RNA extracted from tissues of interest. Labeled cDNA probes applied to the chip hybridize with specificity to each spot of DNA on the array. After washing under stringent conditions to remove non-specifically bound probes, the chip is scanned by confocal laser microscopy or by another detection method, such as a CCD camera. Quantitation of hybridization of each arrayed element allows for assessment of corresponding RNA abundance.
  • With dual color fluorescence, separately labeled cDNA probes generated from two sources of RNA are hybridized pair wise to the array. The relative abundance of the transcripts from the two sources corresponding to each specified gene is thus determined simultaneously. The miniaturized scale of the hybridization affords a convenient and rapid evaluation of the expression pattern for large numbers of genes. Such methods have been shown to have the sensitivity required to detect rare transcripts, which are expressed at a few copies per cell, and to reproducibly detect at least approximately two-fold differences in the expression levels (Schena et at, Proc. Natl. Acad. ScL USA 93(2):106-149 (1996)). Microarray analysis can be performed by commercially available equipment, following manufacturer's protocols, such as by using the Affymetrix GenChip® technology, or Incyte's microarray technology.
  • Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE)
  • Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a method that allows the simultaneous and quantitative analysis of a large number of gene transcripts, without the need of providing an individual hybridization probe for each transcript. First, a short sequence tag (about 10-14 bp) is generated that contains sufficient information to uniquely identify a transcript, provided that the tag is obtained from a unique position within each transcript. Then, many transcripts are linked together to form long serial molecules, that can be sequenced, revealing the identity of the multiple tags simultaneously. The expression pattern of any population of transcripts can be quantitatively evaluated by determining the abundance of individual tags, and identifying the gene corresponding to each tag. For more details see, e.g. Velculescu et al., Science 270:484-487 (1995); and Velculescu et al., Cell 88:243-51 (1997).
  • Gene Expression Analysis by Nucleic Acid Sequencing
  • Nucleic acid sequencing technologies are suitable methods for analysis of gene expression. The principle underlying these methods is that the number of times a cDNA sequence is detected in a sample is directly related to the relative expression of the RNA corresponding to that sequence. These methods are sometimes referred to by the term Digital Gene Expression (DGE) to reflect the discrete numeric property of the resulting data. Early methods applying this principle were Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) and Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS). See, e.g., S. Brenner, et al., Nature Biotechnology 18(6):630-634 (2000). More recently, the advent of “next-generation” sequencing technologies has made DGE simpler, higher throughput, and more affordable. As a result, more laboratories are able to utilize DGE to screen the expression of more genes in more individual patient samples than previously possible. See, e.g., J. Marioni, Genome Research 18(9):1509-1517 (2008); R. Morin, Genome Research 18(4):610-621 (2008); A. Mortazavi, Nature Methods 5(7):621-628 (2008); N. Cloonan, Nature Methods 5(7):613-619 (2008).
  • Isolating RNA from Body Fluids
  • Methods of isolating RNA for expression analysis from blood, plasma and serum (see, e.g., K. Enders, et al., Clin Chem 48, 1647-53 (2002) (and references cited therein) and from urine (see, e.g., R. Boom, et al., J Clin Microbiol. 28, 495-503 (1990) and references cited therein) have been described.
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Immunohistochemistry methods are also suitable for detecting the expression levels of genes and applied to the method disclosed herein. Antibodies (e.g., monoclonal antibodies) that specifically bind a gene product of a gene of interest can be used in such methods. The antibodies can be detected by direct labeling of the antibodies themselves, for example, with radioactive labels, fluorescent labels, hapten’ labels such as, biotin, or an enzyme such as horse radish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase. Alternatively, unlabeled primary antibody can be used in conjunction with a labeled secondary antibody specific for the primary antibody. Immunohistochemistry protocols and kits are well known in the art and are commercially available.
  • Proteomics
  • The term “proteome” is defined as the totality of the proteins present in a sample (e.g. tissue, organism, or cell culture) at a certain point of time. Proteomics includes, among other things, study of the global changes of protein expression in a sample (also referred to as “expression proteomics”). Proteomics typically includes the following steps: (1) separation of individual proteins in a sample by 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE); (2) identification of the individual proteins recovered from the gel, e.g. my mass spectrometry or N-terminal sequencing, and (3) analysis of the data using bioinformatics.
  • General Description of the mRNA/microRNA Isolation, Purification and Amplification
  • The steps of a representative protocol for profiling gene expression using fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues as the RNA source, including mRNA or microRNA isolation, purification, primer extension and amplification are provided in various published journal articles. (See, e.g., T. E. Godfrey, et al., J. Molec. Diagnostics 2: 84-91 (2000); K. Specht et al., Am. J. Pathol. 158: 419-29 (2001), M. Cronin, et al., Am J Pathol 164:35-42 (2004)). Briefly, a representative process starts with cutting a tissue sample section (e.g. about 10 μm thick sections of a paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sample). The RNA is then extracted, and protein and DNA are removed. After analysis of the RNA concentration, RNA repair is performed if desired. The sample can then be subjected to analysis, e.g., by reverse transcribed using gene specific promoters followed by RT-PCR.
  • Statistical Analysis of Expression Levels in Identification of Genes and microRNAs
  • One skilled in the art will recognize that there are many statistical methods that may be used to determine whether there is a significant relationship between a parameter of interest (e.g., recurrence) and expression levels of a marker gene/microRNA as described here. In an exemplary embodiment, the present invention provides a stratified cohort sampling design (a form of case-control sampling) using tissue and data from prostate cancer patients. Selection of specimens was stratified by T stage (T1, T2), year cohort (<1993, ≧1993), and prostatectomy Gleason Score (low/intermediate, high). All patients with clinical recurrence were selected and a sample of patients who did not experience a clinical recurrence was selected. For each patient, up to two enriched tumor specimens and one normal-appearing tissue sample was assayed.
  • All hypothesis tests were reported using two-sided p-values. To investigate if there is a significant relationship of outcomes (clinical recurrence-free interval (cRFI), biochemical recurrence-free interval (bRFI), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), and overall survival (OS)) with individual genes and/or microRNAs, demographic or clinical covariates Cox Proportional Hazards (PH) models using maximum weighted pseudo partial-likelihood estimators were used and p-values from Wald tests of the null hypothesis that the hazard ratio (HR) is one are reported. To investigate if there is a significant relationship between individual genes and/or microRNAs and Gleason pattern of a particular sample, ordinal logistic regression models using maximum weighted likelihood methods were used and p-values from Wald tests of the null hypothesis that the odds ratio (OR) is one are reported.
  • Coexpression Analysis
  • The present disclosure provides a method to determine tumor stage based on the expression of staging genes, or genes that co-express with particular staging genes. To perform particular biological processes, genes often work together in a concerted way, i.e. they are co-expressed. Co-expressed gene groups identified for a disease process like cancer can serve as biomarkers for tumor status and disease progression. Such co-expressed genes can be assayed in lieu of, or in addition to, assaying of the staging gene with which they are co-expressed.
  • In an exemplary embodiment, the joint correlation of gene expression levels among prostate cancer specimens under study may be assessed. For this purpose, the correlation structures among genes and specimens may be examined through hierarchical cluster methods. This information may be used to confirm that genes that are known to be highly correlated in prostate cancer specimens cluster together as expected. Only genes exhibiting a nominally significant (unadjusted p<0.05) relationship with cRFI in the univariate Cox PH regression analysis will be included in these analyses.
  • One skilled in the art will recognize that many co-expression analysis methods now known or later developed will fall within the scope and spirit of the present invention. These methods may incorporate, for example, correlation coefficients, co-expression network analysis, clique analysis, etc., and may be based on expression data from RT-PCR, microarrays, sequencing, and other similar technologies. For example, gene expression clusters can be identified using pair-wise analysis of correlation based on Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficients. (See, e.g., Pearson K. and Lee A., Biometrika 2, 357 (1902); C. Spearman, Amer. J. Psychol 15:72-101 (1904); J. Myers, A. Well, Research Design and Statistical Analysis, p. 508 (2nd Ed., 2003).)
  • Normalization of Expression Levels
  • The expression data used in the methods disclosed herein can be normalized. Normalization refers to a process to correct for (normalize away), for example, differences in the amount of RNA assayed and variability in the quality of the RNA used, to remove unwanted sources of systematic variation in Ct or Cp measurements, and the like. With respect to RT-PCR experiments involving archived fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples, sources of systematic variation are known to include the degree of RNA degradation relative to the age of the patient sample and the type of fixative used to store the sample. Other sources of systematic variation are attributable to laboratory processing conditions.
  • Assays can provide for normalization by incorporating the expression of certain normalizing genes, which do not significantly differ in expression levels under the relevant conditions. Exemplary normalization genes disclosed herein include housekeeping genes. (See, e.g., E. Eisenberg, et al., Trends in Genetics 19(7):362-365 (2003).) Normalization can be based on the mean or median signal (Ct or Cp) of all of the assayed genes or a large subset thereof (global normalization approach). In general, the normalizing genes, also referred to as reference genes should be genes that are known not to exhibit significantly different expression in prostate cancer as compared to non-cancerous prostate tissue, and are not significantly affected by various sample and process conditions, thus provide for normalizing away extraneous effects.
  • In exemplary embodiments, one or more of the following genes are used as references by which the mRNA or microRNA expression data is normalized: AAMP, ARF1, ATP5E, CLTC, GPS1, and PGK1. In another exemplary embodiment, one or more of the following microRNAs are used as references by which the expression data of microRNAs are normalized: hsa-miR-106a; hsa-miR-146b-5p; hsa-miR-191; hsa-miR-19b; and hsa-miR-92a. The calibrated weighted average CT or Cp measurements for each of the prognostic and predictive genes or microRNAs may be normalized relative to the mean of five or more reference genes or microRNAs.
  • Those skilled in the art will recognize that normalization may be achieved in numerous ways, and the techniques described above are intended only to be exemplary, not exhaustive.
  • Standardization of Expression Levels
  • The expression data used in the methods disclosed herein can be standardized. Standardization refers to a process to effectively put all the genes or microRNAs on a comparable scale. This is performed because some genes or microRNAs will exhibit more variation (a broader range of expression) than others. Standardization is performed by dividing each expression value by its standard deviation across all samples for that gene or microRNA. Hazard ratios are then interpreted as the relative risk of recurrence per 1 standard deviation increase in expression.
  • Kits of the Invention
  • The materials for use in the methods of the present invention are suited for preparation of kits produced in accordance with well-known procedures. The present disclosure thus provides kits comprising agents, which may include gene (or microRNA)-specific or gene (or microRNA)-selective probes and/or primers, for quantifying the expression of the disclosed genes or microRNAs for predicting prognostic outcome or response to treatment. Such kits may optionally contain reagents for the extraction of RNA from tumor samples, in particular fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples and/or reagents for RNA amplification. In addition, the kits may optionally comprise the reagent(s) with an identifying description or label or instructions relating to their use in the methods of the present invention. The kits may comprise containers (including microliter plates suitable for use in an automated implementation of the method), each with one or more of the various materials or reagents (typically in concentrated form) utilized in the methods, including, for example, chromatographic columns, pre-fabricated microarrays, buffers, the appropriate nucleotide triphosphates (e.g., dATP, dCTP, dGTP and dTTP; or rATP, rCTP, rGTP and UTP), reverse transcriptase, DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, and one or more probes and primers of the present invention (e.g., appropriate length poly(T) or random primers linked to a promoter reactive with the RNA polymerase). Mathematical algorithms used to estimate or quantify prognostic or predictive information are also properly potential components of kits.
  • Reports
  • The methods of this invention, when practiced for commercial diagnostic purposes, generally produce a report or summary of information obtained from the herein-described methods. For example, a report may include information concerning expression levels of one or more genes and/or microRNAs, classification of the tumor or the patient's risk of recurrence, the patient's likely prognosis or risk classification, clinical and pathologic factors, and/or other information. The methods and reports of this invention can further include storing the report in a database. The method can create a record in a database for the subject and populate the record with data. The report may be a paper report, an auditory report, or an electronic record. The report may be displayed and/or stored on a computing device (e.g., handheld device, desktop computer, smart device, website, etc.). It is contemplated that the report is provided to a physician and/or the patient. The receiving of the report can further include establishing a network connection to a server computer that includes the data and report and requesting the data and report from the server computer.
  • Computer Program
  • The values from the assays described above, such as expression data, can be calculated and stored manually. Alternatively, the above-described steps can be completely or partially performed by a computer program product. The present invention thus provides a computer program product including a computer readable storage medium having a computer program stored on it. The program can, when read by a computer, execute relevant calculations based on values obtained from analysis of one or more biological sample from an individual (e.g., gene expression levels, normalization, standardization, thresholding, and conversion of values from assays to a score and/or text or graphical depiction of tumor stage and related information). The computer program product has stored therein a computer program for performing the calculation.
  • The present disclosure provides systems for executing the program described above, which system generally includes: a) a central computing environment; b) an input device, operatively connected to the computing environment, to receive patient data, wherein the patient data can include, for example, expression level or other value obtained from an assay using a biological sample from the patient, or microarray data, as described in detail above; c) an output device, connected to the computing environment, to provide information to a user (e.g., medical personnel); and d) an algorithm executed by the central computing environment (e.g., a processor), where the algorithm is executed based on the data received by the input device, and wherein the algorithm calculates an expression score, thresholding, or other functions described herein. The methods provided by the present invention may also be automated in whole or in part.
  • All aspects of the present invention may also be practiced such that a limited number of additional genes and/or microRNAs that are co-expressed or functionally related with the disclosed genes, for example as evidenced by statistically meaningful Pearson and/or Spearman correlation coefficients, are included in a test in addition to and/or in place of disclosed genes.
  • Having described the invention, the same will be more readily understood through reference to the following Examples, which are provided by way of illustration, and are not intended to limit the invention in any way.
  • EXAMPLES Example 1 RNA Yield and Gene Expression Profiles in Prostate Cancer Biopsy Cores
  • Clinical tools based on prostate needle core biopsies are needed to guide treatment planning at diagnosis for men with localized prostate cancer. Limiting tissue in needle core biopsy specimens poses significant challenges to the development of molecular diagnostic tests. This study examined RNA extraction yields and gene expression profiles using an RT-PCR assay to characterize RNA from manually micro-dissected fixed paraffin embedded (FPE) prostate cancer needle biopsy cores. It also investigated the association of RNA yields and gene expression profiles with Gleason score in these specimens.
  • Patients and Samples
  • This study determined the feasibility of gene expression profile analysis in prostate cancer needle core biopsies by evaluating the quantity and quality of RNA extracted from fixed paraffin-embedded (FPE) prostate cancer needle core biopsy specimens. Forty-eight (48) formalin-fixed blocks from prostate needle core biopsy specimens were used for this study. Classification of specimens was based on interpretation of the Gleason score (2005 Int'l Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference) and percentage tumor (<33%, 33-66%, >66%) involvement as assessed by pathologists.
  • TABLE 1
    Distribution of cases
    Gleason score ~<33% ~33-66% ~>66%
    Category Tumor Tumor Tumor
    Low (≦6) 5 5 6
    Intermediate (7) 5 5 6
    High (8, 9, 10) 5 5 6
    Total 15 15 18
  • Assay Methods
  • Fourteen (14) serial 5 μm unstained sections from each FPE tissue block were included in the study. The first and last sections for each case were H&E stained and histologically reviewed to confirm the presence of tumor and for tumor enrichment by manual micro-dissection.
  • RNA from enriched tumor samples was extracted using a manual RNA extraction process. RNA was quantitated using the RiboGreen® assay and tested for the presence of genomic DNA contamination. Samples with sufficient RNA yield and free of genomic DNA tested for gene expression levels of a 24-gene panel of reference and cancer-related genes using quantitative RT-PCR. The expression was normalized to the average of 6 reference genes (AAMP, ARF1, ATP5E, CLTC, EEF1A1, and GPX1).
  • Statistical Methods
  • Descriptive statistics and graphical displays were used to summarize standard pathology metrics and gene expression, with stratification for Gleason Score category and percentage tumor involvement category. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between gene expression and Gleason Score category.
  • Results
  • The RNA yield per unit surface area ranged from 16 to 2406 ng/mm2. Higher RNA yield was observed in samples with higher percent tumor involvement (p=0.02) and higher Gleason score (p=0.01). RNA yield was sufficient (>200 ng) in 71% of cases to permit 96-well RT-PCR, with 87% of cases having >100 ng RNA yield. The study confirmed that gene expression from prostate biopsies, as measured by qRT-PCR, was comparable to FPET samples used in commercial molecular assays for breast cancer. In addition, it was observed that greater biopsy RNA yields are found with higher Gleason score and higher percent tumor involvement. Nine genes were identified as significantly associated with Gleason score (p<0.05) and there was a large dynamic range observed for many test genes.
  • Example 2 Gene Expression Analysis for Genes Associated with Prognosis in Prostate Cancer
  • Patients and Samples
  • Approximately 2600 patients with clinical stage T1/T2 prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) at the Cleveland Clinic between 1987 and 2004 were identified. Patients were excluded from the study design if they received neo-adjuvant and/or adjuvant therapy, if pre-surgical PSA levels were missing, or if no tumor block was available from initial diagnosis. 127 patients with clinical recurrence and 374 patients without clinical recurrence after radical prostatectomy were randomly selected using a cohort sampling design. The specimens were stratified by T stage (T1, T2), year cohort (<1993, ≧1993), and prostatectomy Gleason score (low/intermediate, high). Of the 501 sampled patients, 51 were excluded for insufficient tumor; 7 were excluded due to clinical ineligibility; 2 were excluded due to poor quality of gene expression data; and 10 were excluded because primary Gleason pattern was unavailable. Thus, this gene expression study included tissue and data from 111 patients with clinical recurrence and 330 patients without clinical recurrence after radical prostatectomies performed between 1987 and 2004 for treatment of early stage (T1, T2) prostate cancer.
  • Two fixed paraffin embedded (FPE) tissue specimens were obtained from prostate tumor specimens in each patient. The sampling method (sampling method A or B) depended on whether the highest Gleason pattern is also the primary Gleason pattern. For each specimen selected, the invasive cancer cells were at least 5.0 mm in dimension, except in the instances of pattern 5, where 2.2 mm was accepted. Specimens were spatially distinct where possible.
  • TABLE 2
    Sampling Methods
    Sampling Method A Sampling Method B
    For patients whose prostatectomy For patients whose prostatectomy
    primary Gleason pattern is also primary Gleason pattern is not
    the highest Gleason pattern the highest Gleason pattern
    Specimen 1 (A1) = primary Specimen 1 (B1) = highest
    Gleason pattern Gleason pattern
    Select and mark largest focus Select highest Gleason pattern tissue
    (greatest cross-sectional area) of from spatially distinct area from
    primary Gleason pattern tissue. specimen B2, if possible. Invasive
    Invasive cancer area ≧5.0 mm. cancer area at least 5.0 mm if
    selecting secondary pattern, at
    least 2.2 mm if selecting Gleason
    pattern 5.
    Specimen 2 (A2) = secondary Specimen 2 (B2) = primary
    Gleason pattern Gleason pattern
    Select and mark secondary Gleason Select largest focus (greatest
    pattern tissue from spatially cross-sectional area) of primary
    distinct area from specimen A1. Gleason pattern tissue. Invasive
    Invasive cancer area ≧5.0 mm. cancer area ≧5.0 mm.
  • Histologically normal appearing tissue (NAT) adjacent to the tumor specimen (also referred to in these Examples as “non-tumor tissue”) was also evaluated. Adjacent tissue was collected 3 mm from the tumor to 3 mm from the edge of the FPET block. NAT was preferentially sampled adjacent to the primary Gleason pattern. In cases where there was insufficient NAT adjacent to the primary Gleason pattern, then NAT was sampled adjacent to the secondary or highest Gleason pattern (A2 or B1) per the method set forth in Table 2. Six (6) 10 μm sections with beginning H&E at 5 μm and ending unstained slide at 5 μm were prepared from each fixed paraffin-embedded tumor (FPET) block included in the study. All cases were histologically reviewed and manually micro-dissected to yield two enriched tumor samples and, where possible, one normal tissue sample adjacent to the tumor specimen.
  • Assay Method
  • In this study, RT-PCR analysis was used to determine RNA expression levels for 738 genes and chromosomal rearrangements (e.g., TMPRSS2-ERG fusion or other ETS family genes) in prostate cancer tissue and surrounding NAT in patients with early-stage prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy.
  • The samples were quantified using the RiboGreen assay and a subset tested for presence of genomic DNA contamination. Samples were taken into reverse transcription (RT) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). All analyses were conducted on reference-normalized gene expression levels using the average of the of replicate well crossing point (CP) values for the 6 reference genes (AAMP, ARF1, ATP5E, CLTC, GPS1, PGK1).
  • Statistical Analysis and Results
  • Primary statistical analyses involved 111 patients with clinical recurrence and 330 patients without clinical recurrence after radical prostatectomy for early-stage prostate cancer stratified by T-stage (T1, T2), year cohort (<1993, ≧1993), and prostatectomy Gleason score (low/intermediate, high). Gleason score categories are defined as follows: low (Gleason score ≦6), intermediate (Gleason score=7), and high (Gleason score ≧8). A patient was included in a specified analysis if at least one sample for that patient was evaluable. Unless otherwise stated, all hypothesis tests were reported using two-sided p-values. The method of Storey was applied to the resulting set of p-values to control the false discovery rate (FDR) at 20%. J. Storey, R. Tibshirani, Estimating the Positive False Discovery Rate Under Dependence, with Applications to DNA Microarrays, Dept. of Statistics, Stanford Univ. (2001).
  • Analysis of gene expression and recurrence-free interval was based on univariate Cox Proportional Hazards (PH) models using maximum weighted pseudo-partial-likelihood estimators for each evaluable gene in the gene list (727 test genes and 5 reference genes). P-values were generated using Wald tests of the null hypothesis that the hazard ratio (HR) is one. Both unadjusted p-values and the q-value (smallest FDR at which the hypothesis test in question is rejected) were reported. Un-adjusted p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Since two tumor specimens were selected for each patient, this analysis was performed using the 2 specimens from each patient as follows: (1) analysis using the primary Gleason pattern specimen from each patient (Specimens A1 and B2 as described in Table 2); (2) analysis using the highest Gleason pattern specimen from each patient (Specimens A1 and B1 as described in Table 2).
  • Analysis of gene expression and Gleason pattern (3, 4, 5) was based on univariate ordinal logistic regression models using weighted maximum likelihood estimators for each gene in the gene list (727 test genes and 5 reference genes). P-values were generated using a Wald test of the null hypothesis that the odds ratio (OR) is one. Both unadjusted p-values and the q-value (smallest FDR at which the hypothesis test in question is rejected) were reported. Un-adjusted p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Since two tumor specimens were selected for each patient, this analysis was performed using the 2 specimens from each patient as follows: (1) analysis using the primary Gleason pattern specimen from each patient (Specimens A1 and B2 as described in Table 2); (2) analysis using the highest Gleason pattern specimen from each patient (Specimens A1 and B1 as described in Table 2).
  • It was determined whether there is a significant relationship between cRFI and selected demographic, clinical, and pathology variables, including age, race, clinical tumor stage, pathologic tumor stage, location of selected tumor specimens within the prostate (peripheral versus transitional zone), PSA at the time of surgery, overall Gleason score from the radical prostatectomy, year of surgery, and specimen Gleason pattern. Separately for each demographic or clinical variable, the relationship between the clinical covariate and cRFI was modeled using univariate Cox PH regression using weighted pseudo partial-likelihood estimators and a p-value was generated using Wald's test of the null hypothesis that the hazard ratio (HR) is one. Covariates with unadjusted p-values <0.2 may have been included in the covariate-adjusted analyses.
  • It was determined whether there was a significant relationship between each of the individual cancer-related genes and cRFI after controlling for important demographic and clinical covariates. Separately for each gene, the relationship between gene expression and cRFI was modeled using multivariate Cox PH regression using weighted pseudo partial-likelihood estimators including important demographic and clinical variables as covariates. The independent contribution of gene expression to the prediction of cRFI was tested by generating a p-value from a Wald test using a model that included clinical covariates for each nodule (specimens as defined in Table 2). Un-adjusted p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.
  • Tables 3A and 3B provide genes significantly associated (p<0.05), positively or negatively, with Gleason pattern in the primary and/or highest Gleason pattern. Increased expression of genes in Table 3A is positively associated with higher Gleason score, while increased expression of genes in Table 3B are negatively associated with higher Gleason score.
  • TABLE 3A
    Table 3A Gene significantly (p < 0.05) associated with
    Gleason pattern for all specimens in the primary Gleason pattern
    or highest Gleason pattern odds ratio (OR) > 1.0 (Increased
    expression is positively associated with higher Gleason Score)
    Primary Pattern Highest Pattern
    Official Symbol OR p-value OR p-value
    ALCAM 1.73 <.001 1.36 0.009
    ANLN 1.35 0.027
    APOC1 1.47 0.005 1.61 <.001
    APOE 1.87 <.001 2.15 <.001
    ASAP2 1.53 0.005
    ASPN 2.62 <.001 2.13 <.001
    ATP5E 1.35 0.035
    AURKA 1.44 0.010
    AURKB 1.59 <.001 1.56 <.001
    BAX 1.43 0.006
    BGN 2.58 <.001 2.82 <.001
    BIRC5 1.45 0.003 1.79 <.001
    BMP6 2.37 <.001 1.68 <.001
    BMPR1B 1.58 0.002
    BRCA2 1.45 0.013
    BUB1 1.73 <.001 1.57 <.001
    CACNA1D 1.31 0.045 1.31 0.033
    CADPS 1.30 0.023
    CCNB1 1.43 0.023
    CCNE2 1.52 0.003 1.32 0.035
    CD276 2.20 <.001 1.83 <.001
    CD68 1.36 0.022
    CDC20 1.69 <.001 1.95 <.001
    CDC6 1.38 0.024 1.46 <.001
    CDH11 1.30 0.029
    CDKN2B 1.55 0.001 1.33 0.023
    CDKN2C 1.62 <.001 1.52 <.001
    CDKN3 1.39 0.010 1.50 0.002
    CENPF 1.96 <.001 1.71 <.001
    CHRAC1 1.34 0.022
    CLDN3 1.37 0.029
    COL1A1 2.23 <.001 2.22 <.001
    COL1A2 1.42 0.005
    COL3A1 1.90 <.001 2.13 <.001
    COL8A1 1.88 <.001 2.35 <.001
    CRISP3 1.33 0.040 1.26 0.050
    CTHRC1 2.01 <.001 1.61 <.001
    CTNND2 1.48 0.007 1.37 0.011
    DAPK1 1.44 0.014
    DIAPH1 1.34 0.032 1.79 <.001
    DIO2 1.56 0.001
    DLL4 1.38 0.026 1.53 <.001
    ECE1 1.54 0.012 1.40 0.012
    ENY2 1.35 0.046 1.35 0.012
    EZH2 1.39 0.040
    F2R 2.37 <.001 2.60 <.001
    FAM49B 1.57 0.002 1.33 0.025
    FAP 2.36 <.001 1.89 <.001
    FCGR3A 2.10 <.001 1.83 <.001
    GNPTAB 1.78 <.001 1.54 <.001
    GSK3B 1.39 0.018
    HRAS 1.62 0.003
    HSD17B4 2.91 <.001 1.57 <.001
    HSPA8 1.48 0.012 1.34 0.023
    IFI30 1.64 <.001 1.45 0.013
    IGFBP3 1.29 0.037
    IL11 1.52 0.001 1.31 0.036
    INHBA 2.55 <.001 2.30 <.001
    ITGA4 1.35 0.028
    JAG1 1.68 <.001 1.40 0.005
    KCNN2 1.50 0.004
    KCTD12 1.38 0.012
    KHDRBS3 1.85 <.001 1.72 <.001
    KIF4A 1.50 0.010 1.50 <.001
    KLK14 1.49 0.001 1.35 <.001
    KPNA2 1.68 0.004 1.65 0.001
    KRT2 1.33 0.022
    KRT75 1.27 0.028
    LAMC1 1.44 0.029
    LAPTM5 1.36 0.025 1.31 0.042
    LTBP2 1.42 0.023 1.66 <.001
    MANF 1.34 0.019
    MAOA 1.55 0.003 1.50 <.001
    MAP3K5 1.55 0.006 1.44 0.001
    MDK 1.47 0.013 1.29 0.041
    MDM2 1.31 0.026
    MELK 1.64 <.001 1.64 <.001
    MMP11 2.33 <.001 1.66 <.001
    MYBL2 1.41 0.007 1.54 <.001
    MYO6 1.32 0.017
    NETO2 1.36 0.018
    NOX4 1.84 <.001 1.73 <.001
    NPM1 1.68 0.001
    NRIP3 1.36 0.009
    NRP1 1.80 0.001 1.36 0.019
    OSM 1.33 0.046
    PATE1 1.38 0.032
    PECAM1 1.38 0.021 1.31 0.035
    PGD 1.56 0.010
    PLK1 1.51 0.004 1.49 0.002
    PLOD2 1.29 0.027
    POSTN 1.70 0.047 1.55 0.006
    PPP3CA 1.38 0.037 1.37 0.006
    PTK6 1.45 0.007 1.53 <.001
    PTTG1 1.51 <.001
    RAB31 1.31 0.030
    RAD21 2.05 <.001 1.38 0.020
    RAD51 1.46 0.002 1.26 0.035
    RAF1 1.46 0.017
    RALBP1 1.37 0.043
    RHOC 1.33 0.021
    ROBO2 1.52 0.003 1.41 0.006
    RRM2 1.77 <.001 1.50 <.001
    SAT1 1.67 0.002 1.61 <.001
    SDC1 1.66 0.001 1.46 0.014
    SEC14L1 1.53 0.003 1.62 <.001
    SESN3 1.76 <.001 1.45 <.001
    SFRP4 2.69 <.001 2.03 <.001
    SHMT2 1.69 0.007 1.45 0.003
    SKIL 1.46 0.005
    SOX4 1.42 0.016 1.27 0.031
    SPARC 1.40 0.024 1.55 <.001
    SPINK1 1.29 0.002
    SPP1 1.51 0.002 1.80 <.001
    TFDP1 1.48 0.014
    THBS2 1.87 <.001 1.65 <.001
    THY1 1.58 0.003 1.64 <.001
    TK1 1.79 <.001 1.42 0.001
    TOP2A 2.30 <.001 2.01 <.001
    TPD52 1.95 <.001 1.30 0.037
    TPX2 2.12 <.001 1.86 <.001
    TYMP 1.36 0.020
    TYMS 1.39 0.012 1.31 0.036
    UBE2C 1.66 <.001 1.65 <.001
    UBE2T 1.59 <.001 1.33 0.017
    UGDH 1.28 0.049
    UGT2B15 1.46 0.001 1.25 0.045
    UHRF1 1.95 <.001 1.62 <.001
    VDR 1.43 0.010 1.39 0.018
    WNT5A 1.54 0.001 1.44 0.013
  • TABLE 3B
    Table 3B. Gene significantly (p < 0.05) associated with
    Gleason pattern for all specimens in the primary Gleason pattern
    or highest Gleason pattern odds ratio (OR) < 1.0 (Increased
    expression is negatively associated with higher Gleason score)
    Primary Highest
    Pattern Pattern
    Official Symbol OR p-value OR p-value
    ABCA5 0.78 0.041
    ABCG2 0.65 0.001 0.72 0.012
    ACOX2 0.44 <.001 0.53 <.001
    ADH5 0.45 <.001 0.42 <.001
    AFAP1 0.79 0.038
    AIG1 0.77 0.024
    AKAP1 0.63 0.002
    AKR1C1 0.66 0.003 0.63 <.001
    AKT3 0.68 0.006 0.77 0.010
    ALDH1A2 0.28 <.001 0.33 <.001
    ALKBH3 0.77 0.040 0.77 0.029
    AMPD3 0.67 0.007
    ANPEP 0.68 0.008 0.59 <.001
    ANXA2 0.72 0.018
    APC 0.69 0.002
    AXIN2 0.46 <.001 0.54 <.001
    AZGP1 0.52 <.001 0.53 <.001
    BIK 0.69 0.006 0.73 0.003
    BIN1 0.43 <.001 0.61 <.001
    BTG3 0.79 0.030
    BTRC 0.48 <.001 0.62 <.001
    C7 0.37 <.001 0.55 <.001
    CADM1 0.56 <.001 0.69 0.001
    CAV1 0.58 0.002 0.70 0.009
    CAV2 0.65 0.029
    CCNH 0.67 0.006 0.77 0.048
    CD164 0.59 0.003 0.57 <.001
    CDC25B 0.77 0.035
    CDH1 0.66 <.001
    CDK2 0.71 0.003
    CDKN1C 0.58 <.001 0.57 <.001
    CDS2 0.69 0.002
    CHN1 0.66 0.002
    COL6A1 0.44 <.001 0.66 <.001
    COL6A3 0.66 0.006
    CSRP1 0.42 0.006
    CTGF 0.74 0.043
    CTNNA1 0.70 <.001 0.83 0.018
    CTNNB1 0.70 0.019
    CTNND1 0.75 0.028
    CUL1 0.74 0.011
    CXCL12 0.54 <.001 0.74 0.006
    CYP3A5 0.52 <.001 0.66 0.003
    CYR61 0.64 0.004 0.68 0.005
    DDR2 0.57 0.002 0.73 0.004
    DES 0.34 <.001 0.58 <.001
    DLGAP1 0.54 <.001 0.62 <.001
    DNM3 0.67 0.004
    DPP4 0.41 <.001 0.53 <.001
    DPT 0.28 <.001 0.48 <.001
    DUSP1 0.59 <.001 0.63 <.001
    EDNRA 0.64 0.004 0.74 0.008
    EGF 0.71 0.012
    EGR1 0.59 <.001 0.67 0.009
    EGR3 0.72 0.026 0.71 0.025
    EIF5 0.76 0.025
    ELK4 0.58 0.001 0.70 0.008
    ENPP2 0.66 0.002 0.70 0.005
    EPHA3 0.65 0.006
    EPHB2 0.60 <.001 0.78 0.023
    EPHB4 0.75 0.046 0.73 0.006
    ERBB3 0.76 0.040 0.75 0.013
    ERBB4 0.74 0.023
    ERCC1 0.63 <.001 0.77 0.016
    FAAH 0.67 0.003 0.71 0.010
    FAM107A 0.35 <.001 0.59 <.001
    FAM13C 0.37 <.001 0.48 <.001
    FAS 0.73 0.019 0.72 0.008
    FGF10 0.53 <.001 0.58 <.001
    FGF7 0.52 <.001 0.59 <.001
    FGFR2 0.60 <.001 0.59 <.001
    FKBP5 0.70 0.039 0.68 0.003
    FLNA 0.39 <.001 0.56 <.001
    FLNC 0.33 <.001 0.52 <.001
    FOS 0.58 <.001 0.66 0.005
    FOXO1 0.57 <.001 0.67 <.001
    FOXQ1 0.74 0.023
    GADD45B 0.62 0.002 0.71 0.010
    GHR 0.62 0.002 0.72 0.009
    GNRH1 0.74 0.049 0.75 0.026
    GPM6B 0.48 <.001 0.68 <.001
    GPS1 0.68 0.003
    GSN 0.46 <.001 0.77 0.027
    GSTM1 0.44 <.001 0.62 <.001
    GSTM2 0.29 <.001 0.49 <.001
    HGD 0.77 0.020
    HIRIP3 0.75 0.034
    HK1 0.48 <.001 0.66 0.001
    HLF 0.42 <.001 0.55 <.001
    HNF1B 0.67 0.006 0.74 0.010
    HPS1 0.66 0.001 0.65 <.001
    HSP90AB1 0.75 0.042
    HSPA5 0.70 0.011
    HSPB2 0.52 <.001 0.70 0.004
    IGF1 0.35 <.001 0.59 <.001
    IGF2 0.48 <.001 0.70 0.005
    IGFBP2 0.61 <.001 0.77 0.044
    IGFBP5 0.63 <.001
    IGFBP6 0.45 <.001 0.64 <.001
    IL6ST 0.55 0.004 0.63 <.001
    ILK 0.40 <.001 0.57 <.001
    ING5 0.56 <.001 0.78 0.033
    ITGA1 0.56 0.004 0.61 <.001
    ITGA3 0.78 0.035
    ITGA5 0.71 0.019 0.75 0.017
    ITGA7 0.37 <.001 0.52 <.001
    ITGB3 0.63 0.003 0.70 0.005
    ITPR1 0.46 <.001 0.64 <.001
    ITPR3 0.70 0.013
    ITSN1 0.62 0.001
    JUN 0.48 <.001 0.60 <.001
    JUNB 0.72 0.025
    KIT 0.51 <.001 0.68 0.007
    KLC1 0.58 <.001
    KLK1 0.69 0.028 0.66 0.003
    KLK2 0.60 <.001
    KLK3 0.63 <.001 0.69 0.012
    KRT15 0.56 <.001 0.60 <.001
    KRT18 0.74 0.034
    KRT5 0.64 <.001 0.62 <.001
    LAMA4 0.47 <.001 0.73 0.010
    LAMB3 0.73 0.018 0.69 0.003
    LGALS3 0.59 0.003 0.54 <.001
    LIG3 0.75 0.044
    MAP3K7 0.66 0.003 0.79 0.031
    MCM3 0.73 0.013 0.80 0.034
    MGMT 0.61 0.001 0.71 0.007
    MGST1 0.75 0.017
    MLXIP 0.70 0.013
    MMP2 0.57 <.001 0.72 0.010
    MMP7 0.69 0.009
    MPPED2 0.70 0.009 0.59 <.001
    MSH6 0.78 0.046
    MTA1 0.69 0.007
    MTSS1 0.55 <.001 0.54 <.001
    MYBPC1 0.45 <.001 0.45 <.001
    NCAM1 0.51 <.001 0.65 <.001
    NCAPD3 0.42 <.001 0.53 <.001
    NCOR2 0.68 0.002
    NDUFS5 0.66 0.001 0.70 0.013
    NEXN 0.48 <.001 0.62 <.001
    NFAT5 0.55 <.001 0.67 0.001
    NFKBIA 0.79 0.048
    NRG1 0.58 0.001 0.62 0.001
    OLFML3 0.42 <.001 0.58 <.001
    OMD 0.67 0.004 0.71 0.004
    OR51E2 0.65 <.001 0.76 0.007
    PAGE4 0.27 <.001 0.46 <.001
    PCA3 0.68 0.004
    PCDHGB7 0.70 0.025 0.65 <.001
    PGF 0.62 0.001
    PGR 0.63 0.028
    PHTF2 0.69 0.033
    PLP2 0.54 <.001 0.71 0.003
    PPAP2B 0.41 <.001 0.54 <.001
    PPP1R12A 0.48 <.001 0.60 <.001
    PRIMA1 0.62 0.003 0.65 <.001
    PRKAR1B 0.70 0.009
    PRKAR2B 0.79 0.038
    PRKCA 0.37 <.001 0.55 <.001
    PRKCB 0.47 <.001 0.56 <.001
    PTCH1 0.70 0.021
    PTEN 0.66 0.010 0.64 <.001
    PTGER3 0.76 0.015
    PTGS2 0.70 0.013 0.68 0.005
    PTH1R 0.48 <.001
    PTK2B 0.67 0.014 0.69 0.002
    PYCARD 0.72 0.023
    RAB27A 0.76 0.017
    RAGE 0.77 0.040 0.57 <.001
    RARB 0.66 0.002 0.69 0.002
    RECK 0.65 <.001
    RHOA 0.73 0.043
    RHOB 0.61 0.005 0.62 <.001
    RND3 0.63 0.006 0.66 <.001
    SDHC 0.69 0.002
    SEC23A 0.61 <.001 0.74 0.010
    SEMA3A 0.49 <.001 0.55 <.001
    SERPINA3 0.70 0.034 0.75 0.020
    SH3RF2 0.33 <.001 0.42 <.001
    SLC22A3 0.23 <.001 0.37 <.001
    SMAD4 0.33 <.001 0.39 <.001
    SMARCC2 0.62 0.003 0.74 0.008
    SMO 0.53 <.001 0.73 0.009
    SORBS1 0.40 <.001 0.55 <.001
    SPARCL1 0.42 <.001 0.63 <.001
    SRD5A2 0.28 <.001 0.37 <.001
    ST5 0.52 <.001 0.63 <.001
    STAT5A 0.60 <.001 0.75 0.020
    STAT5B 0.54 <.001 0.65 <.001
    STS 0.78 0.035
    SUMO1 0.75 0.017 0.71 0.002
    SVIL 0.45 <.001 0.62 <.001
    TARP 0.72 0.017
    TGFB1I1 0.37 <.001 0.53 <.001
    TGFB2 0.61 0.025 0.59 <.001
    TGFB3 0.46 <.001 0.60 <.001
    TIMP2 0.62 0.001
    TIMP3 0.55 <.001 0.76 0.019
    TMPRSS2 0.71 0.014
    TNF 0.65 0.010
    TNFRSF10A 0.71 0.014 0.74 0.010
    TNFRSF10B 0.74 0.030 0.73 0.016
    TNFSF10 0.69 0.004
    TP53 0.73 0.011
    TP63 0.62 <.001 0.68 0.003
    TPM1 0.43 <.001 0.47 <.001
    TPM2 0.30 <.001 0.47 <.001
    TPP2 0.58 <.001 0.69 0.001
    TRA2A 0.71 0.006
    TRAF3IP2 0.50 <.001 0.63 <.001
    TRO 0.40 <.001 0.59 <.001
    TRPC6 0.73 0.030
    TRPV6 0.80 0.047
    VCL 0.44 <.001 0.55 <.001
    VEGFB 0.73 0.029
    VIM 0.72 0.013
    VTI1B 0.78 0.046
    WDR19 0.65 <.001
    WFDC1 0.50 <.001 0.72 0.010
    YY1 0.75 0.045
    ZFHX3 0.52 <.001 0.54 <.001
    ZFP36 0.65 0.004 0.69 0.012
    ZNF827 0.59 <.001 0.69 0.004
  • To identify genes associated with recurrence (cRFI, bRFI) in the primary and the highest Gleason pattern, each of 727 genes were analyzed in univariate models using specimens A1 and B2 (see Table 2, above). Tables 4A and 4B provide genes that were associated, positively or negatively, with cRFI and/or bRFI in the primary and/or highest Gleason pattern. Increased expression of genes in Table 4A is negatively associated with good prognosis, while increased expression of genes in Table 4B is positively associated with good prognosis.
  • TABLE 4A
    Table 4A.
    Genes significantly (p < 0.05) associated with cRFI or bRFI in the primary
    Gleason pattern or highest Gleason pattern with hazard ratio (HR) > 1.0
    (increased expression is negatively associated with good prognosis)
    cRFI cRFI bRFI bRFI
    Primary Highest Primary Highest
    Pattern Pattern Pattern Pattern
    Official p- p- p- p-
    Symbol HR value HR value HR value HR value
    AKR1C3 1.304 0.022 1.312 0.013
    ANLN 1.379 0.002 1.579 <.001 1.465 <.001 1.623 <.001
    AQP2 1.184 0.027 1.276 <.001
    ASAP2 1.442 0.006
    ASPN 2.272 <.001 2.106 <.001 1.861 <.001 1.895 <.001
    ATP5E 1.414 0.013 1.538 <.001
    BAG5 1.263 0.044
    BAX 1.332 0.026 1.327 0.012 1.438 0.002
    BGN 1.947 <.001 2.061 <.001 1.339 0.017
    BIRC5 1.497 <.001 1.567 <.001 1.478 <.001 1.575 <.001
    BMP6 1.705 <.001 2.016 <.001 1.418 0.004 1.541 <.001
    BMPR1B 1.401 0.013 1.325 0.016
    BRCA2 1.259 0.007
    BUB1 1.411 <.001 1.435 <.001 1.352 <.001 1.242 0.002
    CADPS 1.387 0.009 1.294 0.027
    CCNB1 1.296 0.016 1.376 0.002
    CCNE2 1.468 <.001 1.649 <.001 1.729 <.001 1.563 <.001
    CD276 1.678 <.001 1.832 <.001 1.581 <.001 1.385 0.002
    CDC20 1.547 <.001 1.671 <.001 1.446 <.001 1.540 <.001
    CDC6 1.400 0.003 1.290 0.030 1.403 0.002 1.276 0.019
    CDH7 1.403 0.003 1.413 0.002
    CDKN2B 1.569 <.001 1.752 <.001 1.333 0.017 1.347 0.006
    CDKN2C 1.612 <.001 1.780 <.001 1.323 0.005 1.335 0.004
    CDKN3 1.384 <.001 1.255 0.024 1.285 0.003 1.216 0.028
    CENPF 1.578 <.001 1.692 <.001 1.740 <.001 1.705 <.001
    CKS2 1.390 0.007 1.418 0.005 1.291 0.018
    CLTC 1.368 0.045
    COL1A1 1.873 <.001 2.103 <.001 1.491 <.001 1.472 <.001
    COL1A2 1.462 0.001
    COL3A1 1.827 <.001 2.005 <.001 1.302 0.012 1.298 0.018
    COL4A1 1.490 0.002 1.613 <.001
    COL8A1 1.692 <.001 1.926 <.001 1.307 0.013 1.317 0.010
    CRISP3 1.425 0.001 1.467 <.001 1.242 0.045
    CTHRC1 1.505 0.002 2.025 <.001 1.425 0.003 1.369 0.005
    CTNND2 1.412 0.003
    CXCR4 1.312 0.023 1.355 0.008
    DDIT4 1.543 <.001 1.763 <.001
    DYNLL1 1.290 0.039 1.201 0.004
    EIF3H 1.428 0.012
    ENY2 1.361 0.014 1.392 0.008 1.371 0.001
    EZH2 1.311 0.010
    F2R 1.773 <.001 1.695 <.001 1.495 <.001 1.277 0.018
    FADD 1.292 0.018
    FAM171B 1.285 0.036
    FAP 1.455 0.004 1.560 0.001 1.298 0.022 1.274 0.038
    FASN 1.263 0.035
    FCGR3A 1.654 <.001 1.253 0.033 1.350 0.007
    FGF5 1.219 0.030
    GNPTAB 1.388 0.007 1.503 0.003 1.355 0.005 1.434 0.002
    GPR68 1.361 0.008
    GREM1 1.470 0.003 1.716 <.001 1.421 0.003 1.316 0.017
    HDAC1 1.290 0.025
    HDAC9 1.395 0.012
    HRAS 1.424 0.006 1.447 0.020
    HSD17B4 1.342 0.019 1.282 0.026 1.569 <.001 1.390 0.002
    HSPA8 1.290 0.034
    IGFBP3 1.333 0.022 1.442 0.003 1.253 0.040 1.323 0.005
    INHBA 2.368 <.001 2.765 <.001 1.466 0.002 1.671 <.001
    JAG1 1.359 0.006 1.367 0.005 1.259 0.024
    KCNN2 1.361 0.011 1.413 0.005 1.312 0.017 1.281 0.030
    KHDRBS3 1.387 0.006 1.601 <.001 1.573 <.001 1.353 0.006
    KIAA0196 1.249 0.037
    KIF4A 1.212 0.016 1.149 0.040 1.278 0.003
    KLK14 1.167 0.023 1.180 0.007
    KPNA2 1.425 0.009 1.353 0.005 1.305 0.019
    KRT75 1.164 0.028
    LAMA3 1.327 0.011
    LAMB1 1.347 0.019
    LAMC1 1.555 0.001 1.310 0.030 1.349 0.014
    LIMS1 1.275 0.022
    LOX 1.358 0.003 1.410 <.001
    LTBP2 1.396 0.009 1.656 <.001 1.278 0.022
    LUM 1.315 0.021
    MANF 1.660 <.001 1.323 0.011
    MCM2 1.345 0.011 1.387 0.014
    MCM6 1.307 0.023 1.352 0.008 1.244 0.039
    MELK 1.293 0.014 1.401 <.001 1.501 <.001 1.256 0.012
    MMP11 1.680 <.001 1.474 <.001 1.489 <.001 1.257 0.030
    MRPL13 1.260 0.025
    MSH2 1.295 0.027
    MYBL2 1.664 <.001 1.670 <.001 1.399 <.001 1.431 <.001
    MYO6 1.301 0.033
    NETO2 1.412 0.004 1.302 0.027 1.298 0.009
    NFKB1 1.236 0.050
    NOX4 1.492 <.001 1.507 0.001 1.555 <.001 1.262 0.019
    NPM1 1.287 0.036
    NRIP3 1.219 0.031 1.218 0.018
    NRP1 1.482 0.002 1.245 0.041
    OLFML2B 1.362 0.015
    OR51E1 1.531 <.001 1.488 0.003
    PAK6 1.269 0.033
    PATE1 1.308 <.001 1.332 <.001 1.164 0.044
    PCNA 1.278 0.020
    PEX10 1.436 0.005 1.393 0.009
    PGD 1.298 0.048 1.579 <.001
    PGK1 1.274 0.023 1.262 0.009
    PLA2G7 1.315 0.011 1.346 0.005
    PLAU 1.319 0.010
    PLK1 1.309 0.021 1.563 <.001 1.410 0.002 1.372 0.003
    PLOD2 1.284 0.019 1.272 0.014 1.332 0.005
    POSTN 1.599 <.001 1.514 0.002 1.391 0.005
    PPP3CA 1.402 0.007 1.316 0.018
    PSMD13 1.278 0.040 1.297 0.033 1.279 0.017 1.373 0.004
    PTK6 1.640 <.001 1.932 <.001 1.369 0.001 1.406 <.001
    PTTG1 1.409 <.001 1.510 <.001 1.347 0.001 1.558 <.001
    RAD21 1.315 0.035 1.402 0.004 1.589 <.001 1.439 <.001
    RAF1 1.503 0.002
    RALA 1.521 0.004 1.403 0.007 1.563 <.001 1.229 0.040
    RALBP1 1.277 0.033
    RGS7 1.154 0.015 1.266 0.010
    RRM1 1.570 0.001 1.602 <.001
    RRM2 1.368 <.001 1.289 0.004 1.396 <.001 1.230 0.015
    SAT1 1.482 0.016 1.403 0.030
    SDC1 1.340 0.018 1.396 0.018
    SEC14L1 1.260 0.048 1.360 0.002
    SESN3 1.485 <.001 1.631 <.001 1.232 0.047 1.292 0.014
    SFRP4 1.800 <.001 1.814 <.001 1.496 <.001 1.289 0.027
    SHMT2 1.807 <.001 1.658 <.001 1.673 <.001 1.548 <.001
    SKIL 1.327 0.008
    SLC25A21 1.398 0.001 1.285 0.018
    SOX4 1.286 0.020 1.280 0.030
    SPARC 1.539 <.001 1.842 <.001 1.269 0.026
    SPP1 1.322 0.022
    SQLE 1.359 0.020 1.270 0.036
    STMN1 1.402 0.007 1.446 0.005 1.279 0.031
    SULF1 1.587 <.001
    TAF2 1.273 0.027
    TFDP1 1.328 0.021 1.400 0.005 1.416 0.001
    THBS2 1.812 <.001 1.960 <.001 1.320 0.012 1.256 0.038
    THY1 1.362 0.020 1.662 <.001
    TK1 1.251 0.011 1.377 <.001 1.401 <.001
    TOP2A 1.670 <.001 1.920 <.001 1.869 <.001 1.927 <.001
    TPD52 1.324 0.011 1.366 0.002 1.351 0.005
    TPX2 1.884 <.001 2.154 <.001 1.874 <.001 1.794 <.001
    UAP1 1.244 0.044
    UBE2C 1.403 <.001 1.541 <.001 1.306 0.002 1.323 <.001
    UBE2T 1.667 <.001 1.282 0.023 1.502 <.001 1.298 0.005
    UGT2B15 1.295 0.001 1.275 0.002
    UGT2B17 1.294 0.025
    UHRF1 1.454 <.001 1.531 <.001 1.257 0.029
    VCPIP1 1.390 0.009 1.414 0.004 1.294 0.021 1.283 0.021
    WNT5A 1.274 0.038 1.298 0.020
    XIAP 1.464 0.006
    ZMYND8 1.277 0.048
    ZWINT 1.259 0.047
  • TABLE 4B
    Table 4B.
    Genes significantly (p < 0.05) associated with cRFI or bRFI in the primary
    Gleason pattern or highest Gleason pattern with hazard ratio (HR) < 1.0
    (increased expression is positively associated with good prognosis)
    cRFI cRFI bRFI bRFI
    Primary Highest Primary Highest
    Pattern Pattern Pattern Pattern
    Official p- p- p- p-
    Symbol HR value HR value HR value HR value
    AAMP 0.564 <.001 0.571 <.001 0.764 0.037 0.786 0.034
    ABCA5 0.755 <.001 0.695 <.001 0.800 0.006
    ABCB1 0.777 0.026
    ABCG2 0.788 0.033 0.784 0.040 0.803 0.018 0.750 0.004
    ABHD2 0.734 0.011
    ACE 0.782 0.048
    ACOX2 0.639 <.001 0.631 <.001 0.713 <.001 0.716 0.002
    ADH5 0.625 <.001 0.637 <.001 0.753 0.026
    AKAP1 0.764 0.006 0.800 0.005 0.837 0.046
    AKR1C1 0.773 0.033 0.802 0.032
    AKT1 0.714 0.005
    AKT3 0.811 0.015 0.809 0.021
    ALDH1A2 0.606 <.001 0.498 <.001 0.613 <.001 0.624 <.001
    AMPD3 0.793 0.024
    ANPEP 0.584 <.001 0.493 <.001
    ANXA2 0.753 0.013 0.781 0.036 0.762 0.008 0.795 0.032
    APRT 0.758 0.026 0.780 0.044 0.746 0.008
    ATXN1 0.673 0.001 0.776 0.029 0.809 0.031 0.812 0.043
    AXIN2 0.674 <.001 0.571 <.001 0.776 0.005 0.757 0.005
    AZGP1 0.585 <.001 0.652 <.001 0.664 <.001 0.746 <.001
    BAD 0.765 0.023
    BCL2 0.788 0.033 0.778 0.036
    BDKRB1 0.728 0.039
    BIK 0.712 0.005
    BIN1 0.607 <.001 0.724 0.002 0.726 <.001 0.834 0.034
    BTG3 0.847 0.034
    BTRC 0.688 0.001 0.713 0.003
    C7 0.589 <.001 0.639 <.001 0.629 <.001 0.691 <.001
    CADM1 0.546 <.001 0.529 <.001 0.743 0.008 0.769 0.015
    CASP1 0.769 0.014 0.799 0.028 0.799 0.010 0.815 0.018
    CAV1 0.736 0.011 0.711 0.005 0.675 <.001 0.743 0.006
    CAV2 0.636 0.010 0.648 0.012 0.685 0.012
    CCL2 0.759 0.029 0.764 0.024
    CCNH 0.689 <.001 0.700 <.001
    CD164 0.664 <.001 0.651 <.001
    CD1A 0.687 0.004
    CD44 0.545 <.001 0.600 <.001 0.788 0.018 0.799 0.023
    CD82 0.771 0.009 0.748 0.004
    CDC25B 0.755 0.006 0.817 0.025
    CDK14 0.845 0.043
    CDK2 0.819 0.032
    CDK3 0.733 0.005 0.772 0.006 0.838 0.017
    CDKN1A 0.766 0.041
    CDKN1C 0.662 <.001 0.712 0.002 0.693 <.001 0.761 0.009
    CHN1 0.788 0.036
    COL6A1 0.608 <.001 0.767 0.013 0.706 <.001 0.775 0.007
    CSF1 0.626 <.001 0.709 0.003
    CSK 0.837 0.029
    CSRP1 0.793 0.024 0.782 0.019
    CTNNB1 0.898 0.042 0.885 <.001
    CTSB 0.701 0.004 0.713 0.007 0.715 0.002 0.803 0.038
    CTSK 0.815 0.042
    CXCL12 0.652 <.001 0.802 0.044 0.711 0.001
    CYP3A5 0.463 <.001 0.436 <.001 0.727 0.003
    CYR61 0.652 0.002 0.676 0.002
    DAP 0.761 0.026 0.775 0.025 0.802 0.048
    DARC 0.725 0.005 0.792 0.032
    DDR2 0.719 0.001 0.763 0.008
    DES 0.619 <.001 0.737 0.005 0.638 <.001 0.793 0.017
    DHRS9 0.642 0.003
    DHX9 0.888 <.001
    DLC1 0.710 0.007 0.715 0.009
    DLGAP1 0.613 <.001 0.551 <.001 0.779 0.049
    DNM3 0.679 <.001 0.812 0.037
    DPP4 0.591 <.001 0.613 <.001 0.761 0.003
    DPT 0.613 <.001 0.576 <.001 0.647 <.001 0.677 <.001
    DUSP1 0.662 0.001 0.665 0.001 0.785 0.024
    DUSP6 0.713 0.005 0.668 0.002
    EDNRA 0.702 0.002 0.779 0.036
    EGF 0.738 0.028
    EGR1 0.569 <.001 0.577 <.001 0.782 0.022
    EGR3 0.601 <.001 0.619 <.001 0.800 0.038
    EIF2S3 0.756 0.015
    EIF5 0.776 0.023 0.787 0.028
    ELK4 0.628 <.001 0.658 <.001
    EPHA2 0.720 0.011 0.663 0.004
    EPHA3 0.727 0.003 0.772 0.005
    ERBB2 0.786 0.019 0.738 0.003 0.815 0.041
    ERBB3 0.728 0.002 0.711 0.002 0.828 0.043 0.813 0.023
    ERCC1 0.771 0.023 0.725 0.007 0.806 0.049 0.704 0.002
    EREG 0.754 0.016 0.777 0.034
    ESR2 0.731 0.026
    FAAH 0.708 0.004 0.758 0.012 0.784 0.031 0.774 0.007
    FAM107A 0.517 <.001 0.576 <.001 0.642 <.001 0.656 <.001
    FAM13C 0.568 <.001 0.526 <.001 0.739 0.002 0.639 <.001
    FAS 0.755 0.014
    FASLG 0.706 0.021
    FGF10 0.653 <.001 0.685 <.001 0.766 0.022
    FGF17 0.746 0.023 0.781 0.015 0.805 0.028
    FGF7 0.794 0.030 0.820 0.037 0.811 0.040
    FGFR2 0.683 <.001 0.686 <.001 0.674 <.001 0.703 <.001
    FKBP5 0.676 0.001
    FLNA 0.653 <.001 0.741 0.010 0.682 <.001 0.771 0.016
    FLNC 0.751 0.029 0.779 0.047 0.663 <.001 0.725 <.001
    FLT1 0.799 0.044
    FOS 0.566 <.001 0.543 <.001 0.757 0.006
    FOXO1 0.816 0.039 0.798 0.023
    FOXQ1 0.753 0.017 0.757 0.024 0.804 0.018
    FYN 0.779 0.031
    GADD45B 0.590 <.001 0.619 <.001
    GDF15 0.759 0.019 0.794 0.048
    GHR 0.702 0.005 0.630 <.001 0.673 <.001 0.590 <.001
    GNRH1 0.742 0.014
    GPM6B 0.653 <.001 0.633 <.001 0.696 <.001 0.768 0.007
    GSN 0.570 <.001 0.697 0.001 0.697 <.001 0.758 0.005
    GSTM1 0.612 <.001 0.588 <.001 0.718 <.001 0.801 0.020
    GSTM2 0.540 <.001 0.630 <.001 0.602 <.001 0.706 <.001
    HGD 0.796 0.020 0.736 0.002
    HIRIP3 0.753 0.011 0.824 0.050
    HK1 0.684 <.001 0.683 <.001 0.799 0.011 0.804 0.014
    HLA-G 0.726 0.022
    HLF 0.555 <.001 0.582 <.001 0.703 <.001 0.702 <.001
    HNF1B 0.690 <.001 0.585 <.001
    HPS1 0.744 0.003 0.784 0.020 0.836 0.047
    HSD3B2 0.733 0.016
    HSP90AB1 0.801 0.036
    HSPA5 0.776 0.034
    HSPB1 0.813 0.020
    HSPB2 0.762 0.037 0.699 0.002 0.783 0.034
    HSPG2 0.794 0.044
    ICAM1 0.743 0.024 0.768 0.040
    IER3 0.686 0.002 0.663 <.001
    IFIT1 0.649 <.001 0.761 0.026
    IGF1 0.634 <.001 0.537 <.001 0.696 <.001 0.688 <.001
    IGF2 0.732 0.004
    IGFBP2 0.548 <.001 0.620 <.001
    IGFBP5 0.681 <.001
    IGFBP6 0.577 <.001 0.675 <.001
    IL1B 0.712 0.005 0.742 0.009
    IL6 0.763 0.028
    IL6R 0.791 0.039
    IL6ST 0.585 <.001 0.639 <.001 0.730 0.002 0.768 0.006
    IL8 0.624 <.001 0.662 0.001
    ILK 0.712 0.009 0.728 0.012 0.790 0.047 0.790 0.042
    ING5 0.625 <.001 0.658 <.001 0.728 0.002
    ITGA5 0.728 0.006 0.803 0.039
    ITGA6 0.779 0.007 0.775 0.006
    ITGA7 0.584 <.001 0.700 0.001 0.656 <.001 0.786 0.014
    ITGAD 0.657 0.020
    ITGB4 0.718 0.007 0.689 <.001 0.818 0.041
    ITGB5 0.801 0.050
    ITPR1 0.707 0.001
    JUN 0.556 <.001 0.574 <.001 0.754 0.008
    JUNB 0.730 0.017 0.715 0.010
    KIT 0.644 0.004 0.705 0.019 0.605 <.001 0.659 0.001
    KLC1 0.692 0.003 0.774 0.024 0.747 0.008
    KLF6 0.770 0.032 0.776 0.039
    KLK1 0.646 <.001 0.652 0.001 0.784 0.037
    KLK10 0.716 0.006
    KLK2 0.647 <.001 0.628 <.001 0.786 0.009
    KLK3 0.706 <.001 0.748 <.001 0.845 0.018
    KRT1 0.734 0.024
    KRT15 0.627 <.001 0.526 <.001 0.704 <.001 0.782 0.029
    KRT18 0.624 <.001 0.617 <.001 0.738 0.005 0.760 0.005
    KRT5 0.640 <.001 0.550 <.001 0.740 <.001 0.798 0.023
    KRT8 0.716 0.006 0.744 0.008
    L1CAM 0.738 0.021 0.692 0.009 0.761 0.036
    LAG3 0.741 0.013 0.729 0.011
    LAMA4 0.686 0.011 0.592 0.003
    LAMA5 0.786 0.025
    LAMB3 0.661 <.001 0.617 <.001 0.734 <.001
    LGALS3 0.618 <.001 0.702 0.001 0.734 0.001 0.793 0.012
    LIG3 0.705 0.008 0.615 <.001
    LRP1 0.786 0.050 0.795 0.023 0.770 0.009
    MAP3K7 0.789 0.003
    MGMT 0.632 <.001 0.693 <.001
    MICA 0.781 0.014 0.653 <.001 0.833 0.043
    MPPED2 0.655 <.001 0.597 <.001 0.719 <.001 0.759 0.006
    MSH6 0.793 0.015
    MTSS1 0.613 <.001 0.746 0.008
    MVP 0.792 0.028 0.795 0.045 0.819 0.023
    MYBPC1 0.648 <.001 0.496 <.001 0.701 <.001 0.629 <.001
    NCAM1 0.773 0.015
    NCAPD3 0.574 <.001 0.463 <.001 0.679 <.001 0.640 <.001
    NEXN 0.701 0.002 0.791 0.035 0.725 0.002 0.781 0.016
    NFAT5 0.515 <.001 0.586 <.001 0.785 0.017
    NFATC2 0.753 0.023
    NFKBIA 0.778 0.037
    NRG1 0.644 0.004 0.696 0.017 0.698 0.012
    OAZ1 0.777 0.034 0.775 0.022
    OLFML3 0.621 <.001 0.720 0.001 0.600 <.001 0.626 <.001
    OMD 0.706 0.003
    OR51E2 0.820 0.037 0.798 0.027
    PAGE4 0.549 <.001 0.613 <.001 0.542 <.001 0.628 <.001
    PCA3 0.684 <.001 0.635 <.001
    PCDHGB7 0.790 0.045 0.725 0.002 0.664 <.001
    PGF 0.753 0.017
    PGR 0.740 0.021 0.728 0.018
    PIK3CG 0.803 0.024
    PLAUR 0.778 0.035
    PLG 0.728 0.028
    PPAP2B 0.575 <.001 0.629 <.001 0.643 <.001 0.699 <.001
    PPP1R12A 0.647 <.001 0.683 0.002 0.782 0.023 0.784 0.030
    PRIMA1 0.626 <.001 0.658 <.001 0.703 0.002 0.724 0.003
    PRKCA 0.642 <.001 0.799 0.029 0.677 0.001 0.776 0.006
    PRKCB 0.675 0.001 0.648 <.001 0.747 0.006
    PROM1 0.603 0.018 0.659 0.014 0.493 0.008
    PTCH1 0.680 0.001 0.753 0.010 0.789 0.018
    PTEN 0.732 0.002 0.747 0.005 0.744 <.001 0.765 0.002
    PTGS2 0.596 <.001 0.610 <.001
    PTH1R 0.767 0.042 0.775 0.028 0.788 0.047
    PTHLH 0.617 0.002 0.726 0.025 0.668 0.002 0.718 0.007
    PTK2B 0.744 0.003 0.679 <.001 0.766 0.002 0.726 <.001
    PTPN1 0.760 0.020 0.780 0.042
    PYCARD 0.748 0.012
    RAB27A 0.708 0.004
    RAB30 0.755 0.008
    RAGE 0.817 0.048
    RAP1B 0.818 0.050
    RARB 0.757 0.007 0.677 <.001 0.789 0.007 0.746 0.003
    RASSF1 0.816 0.035
    RHOB 0.725 0.009 0.676 0.001 0.793 0.039
    RLN1 0.742 0.033 0.762 0.040
    RND3 0.636 <.001 0.647 <.001
    RNF114 0.749 0.011
    SDC2 0.721 0.004
    SDHC 0.725 0.003 0.727 0.006
    SEMA3A 0.757 0.024 0.721 0.010
    SERPINA3 0.716 0.008 0.660 0.001
    SERPINB5 0.747 0.031 0.616 0.002
    SH3RF2 0.577 <.001 0.458 <.001 0.702 <.001 0.640 <.001
    SLC22A3 0.565 <.001 0.540 <.001 0.747 0.004 0.756 0.007
    SMAD4 0.546 <.001 0.573 <.001 0.636 <.001 0.627 <.001
    SMARCD1 0.718 <.001 0.775 0.017
    SMO 0.793 0.029 0.754 0.021 0.718 0.003
    SOD1 0.757 0.049 0.707 0.006
    SORBS1 0.645 <.001 0.716 0.003 0.693 <.001 0.784 0.025
    SPARCL1 0.821 0.028 0.829 0.014 0.781 0.030
    SPDEF 0.778 <.001
    SPINT1 0.732 0.009 0.842 0.026
    SRC 0.647 <.001 0.632 <.001
    SRD5A1 0.813 0.040
    SRD5A2 0.489 <.001 0.533 <.001 0.544 <.001 0.611 <.001
    ST5 0.713 0.002 0.783 0.011 0.725 <.001 0.827 0.025
    STAT3 0.773 0.037 0.759 0.035
    STAT5A 0.695 <.001 0.719 0.002 0.806 0.020 0.783 0.008
    STAT5B 0.633 <.001 0.655 <.001 0.814 0.028
    SUMO1 0.790 0.015
    SVIL 0.659 <.001 0.713 0.002 0.711 0.002 0.779 0.010
    TARP 0.800 0.040
    TBP 0.761 0.010
    TFF3 0.734 0.010 0.659 <.001
    TGFB1I1 0.618 <.001 0.693 0.002 0.637 <.001 0.719 0.004
    TGFB2 0.679 <.001 0.747 0.005 0.805 0.030
    TGFB3 0.791 0.037
    TGFBR2 0.778 0.035
    TIMP3 0.751 0.011
    TMPRSS2 0.745 0.003 0.708 <.001
    TNF 0.670 0.013 0.697 0.015
    TNFRSF10A 0.780 0.018 0.752 0.006 0.817 0.032
    TNFRSF10B 0.576 <.001 0.655 <.001 0.766 0.004 0.778 0.002
    TNFRSF18 0.648 0.016 0.759 0.034
    TNFSF10 0.653 <.001 0.667 0.004
    TP53 0.729 0.003
    TP63 0.759 0.016 0.636 <.001 0.698 <.001 0.712 0.001
    TPM1 0.778 0.048 0.743 0.012 0.783 0.032 0.811 0.046
    TPM2 0.578 <.001 0.634 <.001 0.611 <.001 0.710 0.001
    TPP2 0.775 0.037
    TRAF3IP2 0.722 0.002 0.690 <.001 0.792 0.021 0.823 0.049
    TRO 0.744 0.003 0.725 0.003 0.765 0.002 0.821 0.041
    TUBB2A 0.639 <.001 0.625 <.001
    TYMP 0.786 0.039
    VCL 0.594 <.001 0.657 0.001 0.682 <.001
    VEGFA 0.762 0.024
    VEGFB 0.795 0.037
    VIM 0.739 0.009 0.791 0.021
    WDR19 0.776 0.015
    WFDC1 0.746 <.001
    YY1 0.683 0.001 0.728 0.002
    ZFHX3 0.684 <.001 0.661 <.001 0.801 0.010 0.762 0.001
    ZFP36 0.605 <.001 0.579 <.001 0.815 0.043
    ZNF827 0.624 <.001 0.730 0.007 0.738 0.004
  • Tables 5A and 5B provide genes that were significantly associated (p<0.05), positively or negatively, with recurrence (cRFI, bRFI) after adjusting for AUA risk group in the primary and/or highest Gleason pattern. Increased expression of genes in Table 5A is negatively associated with good prognosis, while increased expression of genes in Table 5B is positively associated with good prognosis.
  • TABLE 5A
    Table 5A.
    Gene significantly (p < 0.05) associated with cRFI or bRFI after
    adjustment for AUA risk group in the primary Gleason pattern or highest
    Gleason pattern with hazard ratio (HR) > 1.0 (increased expression
    negatively associated with good prognosis)
    cRFI cRFI bRFI bRFI
    Primary Highest Primary Highest
    Pattern Pattern Pattern Pattern
    Official p- p- p- p-
    Symbol HR value HR value HR value HR value
    AKR1C3 1.315 0.018 1.283 0.024
    ALOX12 1.198 0.024
    ANLN 1.406 <.001 1.519 <.001 1.485 <.001 1.632 <.001
    AQP2 1.209 <.001 1.302 <.001
    ASAP2 1.582 <.001 1.333 0.011 1.307 0.019
    ASPN 1.872 <.001 1.741 <.001 1.638 <.001 1.691 <.001
    ATP5E 1.309 0.042 1.369 0.012
    BAG5 1.291 0.044
    BAX 1.298 0.025 1.420 0.004
    BGN 1.746 <.001 1.755 <.001
    BIRC5 1.480 <.001 1.470 <.001 1.419 <.001 1.503 <.001
    BMP6 1.536 <.001 1.815 <.001 1.294 0.033 1.429 0.001
    BRCA2 1.184 0.037
    BUB1 1.288 0.001 1.391 <.001 1.254 <.001 1.189 0.018
    CACNA1D 1.313 0.029
    CADPS 1.358 0.007 1.267 0.022
    CASP3 1.251 0.037
    CCNB1 1.261 0.033 1.318 0.005
    CCNE2 1.345 0.005 1.438 <.001 1.606 <.001 1.426 <.001
    CD276 1.482 0.002 1.668 <.001 1.451 <.001 1.302 0.011
    CDC20 1.417 <.001 1.547 <.001 1.355 <.001 1.446 <.001
    CDC6 1.340 0.011 1.265 0.046 1.367 0.002 1.272 0.025
    CDH7 1.402 0.003 1.409 0.002
    CDKN2B 1.553 <.001 1.746 <.001 1.340 0.014 1.369 0.006
    CDKN2C 1.411 <.001 1.604 <.001 1.220 0.033
    CDKN3 1.296 0.004 1.226 0.015
    CENPF 1.434 0.002 1.570 <.001 1.633 <.001 1.610 <.001
    CKS2 1.419 0.008 1.374 0.022 1.380 0.004
    COL1A1 1.677 <.001 1.809 <.001 1.401 <.001 1.352 0.003
    COL1A2 1.373 0.010
    COL3A1 1.669 <.001 1.781 <.001 1.249 0.024 1.234 0.047
    COL4A1 1.475 0.002 1.513 0.002
    COL8A1 1.506 0.001 1.691 <.001
    CRISP3 1.406 0.004 1.471 <.001
    CTHRC1 1.426 0.009 1.793 <.001 1.311 0.019
    CTNND2 1.462 <.001
    DDIT4 1.478 0.003 1.783 <.001 1.236 0.039
    DYNLL1 1.431 0.002 1.193 0.004
    EIF3H 1.372 0.027
    ENY2 1.325 0.023 1.270 0.017
    ERG 1.303 0.041
    EZH2 1.254 0.049
    F2R 1.540 0.002 1.448 0.006 1.286 0.023
    FADD 1.235 0.041 1.404 <.001
    FAP 1.386 0.015 1.440 0.008 1.253 0.048
    FASN 1.303 0.028
    FCGR3A 1.439 0.011 1.262 0.045
    FGF5 1.289 0.006
    GNPTAB 1.290 0.033 1.369 0.022 1.285 0.018 1.355 0.008
    GPR68 1.396 0.005
    GREM1 1.341 0.022 1.502 0.003 1.366 0.006
    HDAC1 1.329 0.016
    HDAC9 1.378 0.012
    HRAS 1.465 0.006
    HSD17B4 1.442 <.001 1.245 0.028
    IGFBP3 1.366 0.019 1.302 0.011
    INHBA 2.000 <.001 2.336 <.001 1.486 0.002
    JAG1 1.251 0.039
    KCNN2 1.347 0.020 1.524 <.001 1.312 0.023 1.346 0.011
    KHDRBS3 1.500 0.001 1.426 0.001 1.267 0.032
    KIAA0196 1.272 0.028
    KIF4A 1.199 0.022 1.262 0.004
    KPNA2 1.252 0.016
    LAMA3 1.332 0.004 1.356 0.010
    LAMB1 1.317 0.028
    LAMC1 1.516 0.003 1.302 0.040 1.397 0.007
    LIMS1 1.261 0.027
    LOX 1.265 0.016 1.372 0.001
    LTBP2 1.477 0.002
    LUM 1.321 0.020
    MANF 1.647 <.001 1.284 0.027
    MCM2 1.372 0.003 1.302 0.032
    MCM3 1.269 0.047
    MCM6 1.276 0.033 1.245 0.037
    MELK 1.294 0.005 1.394 <.001
    MKI67 1.253 0.028 1.246 0.029
    MMP11 1.557 <.001 1.290 0.035 1.357 0.005
    MRPL13 1.275 0.003
    MSH2 1.355 0.009
    MYBL2 1.497 <.001 1.509 <.001 1.304 0.003 1.292 0.007
    MYO6 1.367 0.010
    NDRG1 1.270 0.042 1.314 0.025
    NEK2 1.338 0.020 1.269 0.026
    NETO2 1.434 0.004 1.303 0.033 1.283 0.012
    NOX4 1.413 0.006 1.308 0.037 1.444 <.001
    NRIP3 1.171 0.026
    NRP1 1.372 0.020
    ODC1 1.450 <.001
    OR51E1 1.559 <.001 1.413 0.008
    PAK6 1.233 0.047
    PATE1 1.262 <.001 1.375 <.001 1.143 0.034 1.191 0.036
    PCNA 1.227 0.033 1.318 0.003
    PEX10 1.517 <.001 1.500 0.001
    PGD 1.363 0.028 1.316 0.039 1.652 <.001
    PGK1 1.224 0.034 1.206 0.024
    PIM1 1.205 0.042
    PLA2G7 1.298 0.018 1.358 0.005
    PLAU 1.242 0.032
    PLK1 1.464 0.001 1.299 0.018 1.275 0.031
    PLOD2 1.206 0.039 1.261 0.025
    POSTN 1.558 0.001 1.356 0.022 1.363 0.009
    PPP3CA 1.445 0.002
    PSMD13 1.301 0.017 1.411 0.003
    PTK2 1.318 0.031
    PTK6 1.582 <.001 1.894 <.001 1.290 0.011 1.354 0.003
    PTTG1 1.319 0.004 1.430 <.001 1.271 0.006 1.492 <.001
    RAD21 1.278 0.028 1.435 0.004 1.326 0.008
    RAF1 1.504 <.001
    RALA 1.374 0.028 1.459 0.001
    RGS7 1.203 0.031
    RRM1 1.535 0.001 1.525 <.001
    RRM2 1.302 0.003 1.197 0.047 1.342 <.001
    SAT1 1.374 0.043
    SDC1 1.344 0.011 1.473 0.008
    SEC14L1 1.297 0.006
    SESN3 1.337 0.002 1.495 <.001 1.223 0.038
    SFRP4 1.610 <.001 1.542 0.002 1.370 0.009
    SHMT2 1.567 0.001 1.522 <.001 1.485 0.001 1.370 <.001
    SKIL 1.303 0.008
    SLC25A21 1.287 0.020 1.306 0.017
    SLC44A1 1.308 0.045
    SNRPB2 1.304 0.018
    SOX4 1.252 0.031
    SPARC 1.445 0.004 1.706 <.001 1.269 0.026
    SPP1 1.376 0.016
    SQLE 1.417 0.007 1.262 0.035
    STAT1 1.209 0.029
    STMN1 1.315 0.029
    SULF1 1.504 0.001
    TAF2 1.252 0.048 1.301 0.019
    TFDP1 1.395 0.010 1.424 0.002
    THBS2 1.716 <.001 1.719 <.001
    THY1 1.343 0.035 1.575 0.001
    TK1 1.320 <.001 1.304 <.001
    TOP2A 1.464 0.001 1.688 <.001 1.715 <.001 1.761 <.001
    TPD52 1.286 0.006 1.258 0.023
    TPX2 1.644 <.001 1.964 <.001 1.699 <.001 1.754 <.001
    TYMS 1.315 0.014
    UBE2C 1.270 0.019 1.558 <.001 1.205 0.027 1.333 <.001
    UBE2G1 1.302 0.041
    UBE2T 1.451 <.001 1.309 0.003
    UGT2B15 1.222 0.025
    UHRF1 1.370 0.003 1.520 <.001 1.247 0.020
    VCPIP1 1.332 0.015
    VTI1B 1.237 0.036
    XIAP 1.486 0.008
    ZMYND8 1.408 0.007
    ZNF3 1.284 0.018
    ZWINT 1.289 0.028
  • TABLE 5B
    Table 5B.
    Genes significantly (p < 0.05) associated with cRFI or bRFI after adjustment for
    AUA risk group in the primary Gleason pattern or highest Gleason pattern with
    hazard ratio (HR) < 1.0 (increased expression is positively associated with
    good prognosis)
    cRFI cRFI bRFI bRFI
    Official Primary Pattern Highest Pattern Primary Pattern Highest Pattern
    Symbol HR p-value HR p-value HR p-value HR p-value
    AAMP 0.535 <.001 0.581 <.001 0.700 0.002 0.759 0.006
    ABCA5 0.798 0.007 0.745 0.002 0.841 0.037
    ABCC1 0.800 0.044
    ABCC4 0.787 0.022
    ABHD2 0.768 0.023
    ACOX2 0.678 0.002 0.749 0.027 0.759 0.004
    ADH5 0.645 <.001 0.672 0.001
    AGTR1 0.780 0.030
    AKAP1 0.815 0.045 0.758 <.001
    AKT1 0.732 0.010
    ALDH1A2 0.646 <.001 0.548 <.001 0.671 <.001 0.713 0.001
    ANPEP 0.641 <.001 0.535 <.001
    ANXA2 0.772 0.035 0.804 0.046
    ATXN1 0.654 <.001 0.754 0.020 0.797 0.017
    AURKA 0.788 0.030
    AXIN2 0.744 0.005 0.655 <.001
    AZGP1 0.656 <.001 0.676 <.001 0.754 0.001 0.791 0.004
    BAD 0.700 0.004
    BIN1 0.650 <.001 0.764 0.013 0.803 0.015
    BTG3 0.836 0.025
    BTRC 0.730 0.005
    C7 0.617 <.001 0.680 <.001 0.667 <.001 0.755 0.005
    CADM1 0.559 <.001 0.566 <.001 0.772 0.020 0.802 0.046
    CASP1 0.781 0.030 0.779 0.021 0.818 0.027 0.828 0.036
    CAV1 0.775 0.034
    CAV2 0.677 0.019
    CCL2 0.752 0.023
    CCNH 0.679 <.001 0.682 <.001
    CD164 0.721 0.002 0.724 0.005
    CD1A 0.710 0.014
    CD44 0.591 <.001 0.642 <.001
    CD82 0.779 0.021 0.771 0.024
    CDC25B 0.778 0.035 0.818 0.023
    CDK14 0.788 0.011
    CDK3 0.752 0.012 0.779 0.005 0.841 0.020
    CDKN1A 0.770 0.049 0.712 0.014
    CDKN1C 0.684 <.001 0.697 <.001
    CHN1 0.772 0.031
    COL6A1 0.648 <.001 0.807 0.046 0.768 0.004
    CSF1 0.621 <.001 0.671 0.001
    CTNNB1 0.905 0.008
    CTSB 0.754 0.030 0.716 0.011 0.756 0.014
    CXCL12 0.641 <.001 0.796 0.038 0.708 <.001
    CYP3A5 0.503 <.001 0.528 <.001 0.791 0.028
    CYR61 0.639 0.001 0.659 0.001 0.797 0.048
    DARC 0.707 0.004
    DDR2 0.750 0.011
    DES 0.657 <.001 0.758 0.022 0.699 <.001
    DHRS9 0.625 0.002
    DHX9 0.846 <.001
    DIAPH1 0.682 0.007 0.723 0.008 0.780 0.026
    DLC1 0.703 0.005 0.702 0.008
    DLGAP1 0.703 0.008 0.636 <.001
    DNM3 0.701 0.001 0.817 0.042
    DPP4 0.686 <.001 0.716 0.001
    DPT 0.636 <.001 0.633 <.001 0.709 0.006 0.773 0.024
    DUSP1 0.683 0.006 0.679 0.003
    DUSP6 0.694 0.003 0.605 <.001
    EDN1 0.773 0.031
    EDNRA 0.716 0.007
    EGR1 0.575 <.001 0.575 <.001 0.771 0.014
    EGR3 0.633 0.002 0.643 <.001 0.792 0.025
    EIF4E 0.722 0.002
    ELK4 0.710 0.009 0.759 0.027
    ENPP2 0.786 0.039
    EPHA2 0.593 0.001
    EPHA3 0.739 0.006 0.802 0.020
    ERBB2 0.753 0.007
    ERBB3 0.753 0.009 0.753 0.015
    ERCC1 0.727 0.001
    EREG 0.722 0.012 0.769 0.040
    ESR1 0.742 0.015
    FABP5 0.756 0.032
    FAM107A 0.524 <.001 0.579 <.001 0.688 <.001 0.699 0.001
    FAM13C 0.639 <.001 0.601 <.001 0.810 0.019 0.709 <.001
    FAS 0.770 0.033
    FASLG 0.716 0.028 0.683 0.017
    FGF10 0.798 0.045
    FGF17 0.718 0.018 0.793 0.024 0.790 0.024
    FGFR2 0.739 0.007 0.783 0.038 0.740 0.004
    FGFR4 0.746 0.050
    FKBP5 0.689 0.003
    FLNA 0.701 0.006 0.766 0.029 0.768 0.037
    FLNC 0.755 <.001 0.820 0.022
    FLT1 0.729 0.008
    FOS 0.572 <.001 0.536 <.001 0.750 0.005
    FOXQ1 0.778 0.033 0.820 0.018
    FYN 0.708 0.006
    GADD45B 0.577 <.001 0.589 <.001
    GDF15 0.757 0.013 0.743 0.006
    GHR 0.712 0.004 0.679 0.001
    GNRH1 0.791 0.048
    GPM6B 0.675 <.001 0.660 <.001 0.735 <.001 0.823 0.049
    GSK3B 0.783 0.042
    GSN 0.587 <.001 0.705 0.002 0.745 0.004 0.796 0.021
    GSTM1 0.686 0.001 0.631 <.001 0.807 0.018
    GSTM2 0.607 <.001 0.683 <.001 0.679 <.001 0.800 0.027
    HIRIP3 0.692 <.001 0.782 0.007
    HK1 0.724 0.002 0.718 0.002
    HLF 0.580 <.001 0.571 <.001 0.759 0.008 0.750 0.004
    HNF1B 0.669 <.001
    HPS1 0.764 0.008
    HSD17B10 0.802 0.045
    HSD17B2 0.723 0.048
    HSD3B2 0.709 0.010
    HSP90AB1 0.780 0.034 0.809 0.041
    HSPA5 0.738 0.017
    HSPB1 0.770 0.006 0.801 0.032
    HSPB2 0.788 0.035
    ICAM1 0.728 0.015 0.716 0.010
    IER3 0.735 0.016 0.637 <.001 0.802 0.035
    IFIT1 0.647 <.001 0.755 0.029
    IGF1 0.675 <.001 0.603 <.001 0.762 0.006 0.770 0.030
    IGF2 0.761 0.011
    IGFBP2 0.601 <.001 0.605 <.001
    IGFBP5 0.702 <.001
    IGFBP6 0.628 <.001 0.726 0.003
    IL1B 0.676 0.002 0.716 0.004
    IL6 0.688 0.005 0.766 0.044
    IL6R 0.786 0.036
    IL6ST 0.618 <.001 0.639 <.001 0.785 0.027 0.813 0.042
    IL8 0.635 <.001 0.628 <.001
    ILK 0.734 0.018 0.753 0.026
    ING5 0.684 <.001 0.681 <.001 0.756 0.006
    ITGA4 0.778 0.040
    ITGA5 0.762 0.026
    ITGA6 0.811 0.038
    ITGA7 0.592 <.001 0.715 0.006 0.710 0.002
    ITGAD 0.576 0.006
    ITGB4 0.693 0.003
    ITPR1 0.789 0.029
    JUN 0.572 <.001 0.581 <.001 0.777 0.019
    JUNB 0.732 0.030 0.707 0.016
    KCTD12 0.758 0.036
    KIT 0.691 0.009 0.738 0.028
    KLC1 0.741 0.024 0.781 0.024
    KLF6 0.733 0.018 0.727 0.014
    KLK1 0.744 0.028
    KLK2 0.697 0.002 0.679 <.001
    KLK3 0.725 <.001 0.715 <.001 0.841 0.023
    KRT15 0.660 <.001 0.577 <.001 0.750 0.002
    KRT18 0.623 <.001 0.642 <.001 0.702 <.001 0.760 0.006
    KRT2 0.740 0.044
    KRT5 0.674 <.001 0.588 <.001 0.769 0.005
    KRT8 0.768 0.034
    L1CAM 0.737 0.036
    LAG3 0.711 0.013 0.748 0.029
    LAMA4 0.649 0.009
    LAMB3 0.709 0.002 0.684 0.006 0.768 0.006
    LGALS3 0.652 <.001 0.752 0.015 0.805 0.028
    LIG3 0.728 0.016 0.667 <.001
    LRP1 0.811 0.043
    MDM2 0.788 0.033
    MGMT 0.645 <.001 0.766 0.015
    MICA 0.796 0.043 0.676 <.001
    MPPED2 0.675 <.001 0.616 <.001 0.750 0.006
    MRC1 0.788 0.028
    MTSS1 0.654 <.001 0.793 0.036
    MYBPC1 0.706 <.001 0.534 <.001 0.773 0.004 0.692 <.001
    NCAPD3 0.658 <.001 0.566 <.001 0.753 0.011 0.733 0.009
    NCOR1 0.838 0.045
    NEXN 0.748 0.025 0.785 0.020
    NFAT5 0.531 <.001 0.626 <.001
    NFATC2 0.759 0.024
    OAZ1 0.766 0.024
    OLFML3 0.648 <.001 0.748 0.005 0.639 <.001 0.675 <.001
    OR51E2 0.823 0.034
    PAGE4 0.599 <.001 0.698 0.002 0.606 <.001 0.726 <.001
    PCA3 0.705 <.001 0.647 <.001
    PCDHGB7 0.712 <.001
    PGF 0.790 0.039
    PLG 0.764 0.048
    PLP2 0.766 0.037
    PPAP2B 0.589 <.001 0.647 <.001 0.691 <.001 0.765 0.013
    PPP1R12A 0.673 0.001 0.677 0.001 0.807 0.045
    PRIMA1 0.622 <.001 0.712 0.008 0.740 0.013
    PRKCA 0.637 <.001 0.694 <.001
    PRKCB 0.741 0.020 0.664 <.001
    PROM1 0.599 0.017 0.527 0.042 0.610 0.006 0.420 0.002
    PTCH1 0.752 0.027 0.762 0.011
    PTEN 0.779 0.011 0.802 0.030 0.788 0.009
    PTGS2 0.639 <.001 0.606 <.001
    PTHLH 0.632 0.007 0.739 0.043 0.654 0.002 0.740 0.015
    PTK2B 0.775 0.019 0.831 0.028 0.810 0.017
    PTPN1 0.721 0.012 0.737 0.024
    PYCARD 0.702 0.005
    RAB27A 0.736 0.008
    RAB30 0.761 0.011
    RARB 0.746 0.010
    RASSF1 0.805 0.043
    RHOB 0.755 0.029 0.672 0.001
    RLN1 0.742 0.036 0.740 0.036
    RND3 0.607 <.001 0.633 <.001
    RNF114 0.782 0.041 0.747 0.013
    SDC2 0.714 0.002
    SDHC 0.698 <.001 0.762 0.029
    SERPINA3 0.752 0.030
    SERPINB5 0.669 0.014
    SH3RF2 0.705 0.012 0.568 <.001 0.755 0.016
    SLC22A3 0.650 <.001 0.582 <.001
    SMAD4 0.636 <.001 0.684 0.002 0.741 0.007 0.738 0.007
    SMARCD1 0.757 0.001
    SMO 0.790 0.049 0.766 0.013
    SOD1 0.741 0.037 0.713 0.007
    SORBS1 0.684 0.003 0.732 0.008 0.788 0.049
    SPDEF 0.840 0.012
    SPINT1 0.837 0.048
    SRC 0.674 <.001 0.671 <.001
    SRD5A2 0.553 <.001 0.588 <.001 0.618 <.001 0.701 <.001
    ST5 0.747 0.012 0.761 0.010 0.780 0.016 0.832 0.041
    STAT3 0.735 0.020
    STAT5A 0.731 0.005 0.743 0.009 0.817 0.027
    STAT5B 0.708 <.001 0.696 0.001
    SUMO1 0.815 0.037
    SVIL 0.689 0.003 0.739 0.008 0.761 0.011
    TBP 0.792 0.037
    TFF3 0.719 0.007 0.664 0.001
    TGFB1I1 0.676 0.003 0.707 0.007 0.709 0.005 0.777 0.035
    TGFB2 0.741 0.010 0.785 0.017
    TGFBR2 0.759 0.022
    TIMP3 0.785 0.037
    TMPRSS2 0.780 0.012 0.742 <.001
    TNF 0.654 0.007 0.682 0.006
    TNFRSF10B 0.623 <.001 0.681 <.001 0.801 0.018 0.815 0.019
    TNFSF10 0.721 0.004
    TP53 0.759 0.011
    TP63 0.737 0.020 0.754 0.007
    TPM2 0.609 <.001 0.671 <.001 0.673 <.001 0.789 0.031
    TRAF3IP2 0.795 0.041 0.727 0.005
    TRO 0.793 0.033 0.768 0.027 0.814 0.023
    TUBB2A 0.626 <.001 0.590 <.001
    VCL 0.613 <.001 0.701 0.011
    VIM 0.716 0.005 0.792 0.025
    WFDC1 0.824 0.029
    YY1 0.668 <.001 0.787 0.014 0.716 0.001 0.819 0.011
    ZFHX3 0.732 <.001 0.709 <.001
    ZFP36 0.656 0.001 0.609 <.001 0.818 0.045
    ZNF827 0.750 0.022
  • Tables 6A and 6B provide genes that were significantly associated (p<0.05), positively or negatively, with recurrence (cRFI, bRFI) after adjusting for Gleason pattern in the primary and/or highest Gleason pattern. Increased expression of genes in Table 6A is negatively associated with good prognosis, while increased expression of gene in Table 6B is positively associated with good prognosis.
  • TABLE 6A
    Table 6A.
    Genes significantly (p < 0.05) associated with cRFI or bRFI after adjustment for
    Gleason pattern in the primary Gleason pattern or highest Gleason pattern with
    a hazard ratio (HR) > 1.0 (increased expression is negatively associated with
    good prognosis)
    cRFI cRFI bRFI bRFI
    Official Primary Pattern Highest Pattern Primary Pattern Highest Pattern
    Symbol HR p-value HR p-value HR p-value HR p-value
    AKR1C3 1.258 0.039
    ANLN 1.292 0.023 1.449 <.001 1.420 0.001
    AQP2 1.178 0.008 1.287 <.001
    ASAP2 1.396 0.015
    ASPN 1.809 <.001 1.508 0.009 1.506 0.002 1.438 0.002
    BAG5 1.367 0.012
    BAX 1.234 0.044
    BGN 1.465 0.009 1.342 0.046
    BIRC5 1.338 0.008 1.364 0.004 1.279 0.006
    BMP6 1.369 0.015 1.518 0.002
    BUB1 1.239 0.024 1.227 0.001 1.236 0.004
    CACNA1D 1.337 0.025
    CADPS 1.280 0.029
    CCNE2 1.256 0.043 1.577 <.001 1.324 0.001
    CD276 1.320 0.029 1.396 0.007 1.279 0.033
    CDC20 1.298 0.016 1.334 0.002 1.257 0.032 1.279 0.003
    CDH7 1.258 0.047 1.338 0.013
    CDKN2B 1.342 0.032 1.488 0.009
    CDKN2C 1.344 0.010 1.450 <.001
    CDKN3 1.284 0.012
    CENPF 1.289 0.048 1.498 0.001 1.344 0.010
    COL1A1 1.481 0.003 1.506 0.002
    COL3A1 1.459 0.004 1.430 0.013
    COL4A1 1.396 0.015
    COL8A1 1.413 0.008
    CRISP3 1.346 0.012 1.310 0.025
    CTHRC1 1.588 0.002
    DDIT4 1.363 0.020 1.379 0.028
    DICER1 1.294 0.008
    ENY2 1.269 0.024
    FADD 1.307 0.010
    FAS 1.243 0.025
    FGF5 1.328 0.002
    GNPTAB 1.246 0.037
    GREM1 1.332 0.024 1.377 0.013 1.373 0.011
    HDAC1 1.301 0.018 1.237 0.021
    HSD17B4 1.277 0.011
    IFN-γ 1.219 0.048
    IMMT 1.230 0.049
    INHBA 1.866 <.001 1.944 <.001
    JAG1 1.298 0.030
    KCNN2 1.378 0.020 1.282 0.017
    KHDRBS3 1.353 0.029 1.305 0.014
    LAMA3 1.344 <.001 1.232 0.048
    LAMC1 1.396 0.015
    LIMS1 1.337 0.004
    LOX 1.355 0.001 1.341 0.002
    LTBP2 1.304 0.045
    MAGEA4 1.215 0.024
    MANF 1.460 <.001
    MCM6 1.287 0.042 1.214 0.046
    MELK 1.329 0.002
    MMP11 1.281 0.050
    MRPL13 1.266 0.021
    MYBL2 1.453 <.001 1.274 0.019
    MYC 1.265 0.037
    MYO6 1.278 0.047
    NETO2 1.322 0.022
    NFKB1 1.255 0.032
    NOX4 1.266 0.041
    OR51E1 1.566 <.001 1.428 0.003
    PATE1 1.242 <.001 1.347 <.001 1.177 0.011
    PCNA 1.251 0.025
    PEX10 1.302 0.028
    PGD 1.335 0.045 1.379 0.014 1.274 0.025
    PIM1 1.254 0.019
    PLA2G7 1.289 0.025 1.250 0.031
    PLAU 1.267 0.031
    PSMD13 1.333 0.005
    PTK6 1.432 <.001 1.577 <.001 1.223 0.040
    PTTG1 1.279 0.013 1.308 0.006
    RAGE 1.329 0.011
    RALA 1.363 0.044 1.471 0.003
    RGS7 1.120 0.040 1.173 0.031
    RRM1 1.490 0.004 1.527 <.001
    SESN3 1.353 0.017
    SFRP4 1.370 0.025
    SHMT2 1.460 0.008 1.410 0.006 1.407 0.008 1.345 <.001
    SKIL 1.307 0.025
    SLC25A21 1.414 0.002 1.330 0.004
    SMARCC2 1.219 0.049
    SPARC 1.431 0.005
    TFDP1 1.283 0.046 1.345 0.003
    THBS2 1.456 0.005 1.431 0.012
    TK1 1.214 0.015 1.222 0.006
    TOP2A 1.367 0.018 1.518 0.001 1.480 <.001
    TPX2 1.513 0.001 1.607 <.001 1.588 <.001 1.481 <.001
    UBE2T 1.409 0.002 1.285 0.018
    UGT2B15 1.216 0.009 1.182 0.021
    XIAP 1.336 0.037 1.194 0.043
  • TABLE 6B
    Table 6B.
    Genes significantly (p < 0.05) associated with cRFI or bRFI after adjustment for
    Gleason pattern in the primary Gleason pattern or highest Gleason pattern with
    hazard ration (HR) < 1.0 (increased expression is positively associated with
    good prognosis)
    cRFI cRFI bRFI bRFI
    Official Primary Pattern Highest Pattern Primary Pattern Highest Pattern
    Symbol HR p-value HR p-value HR p-value HR p-value
    AAMP 0.660 0.001 0.675 <.001 0.836 0.045
    ABCA5 0.807 0.014 0.737 <.001 0.845 0.030
    ABCC1 0.780 0.038 0.794 0.015
    ABCG2 0.807 0.035
    ABHD2 0.720 0.002
    ADH5 0.750 0.034
    AKAP1 0.721 <.001
    ALDH1A2 0.735 0.009 0.592 <.001 0.756 0.007 0.781 0.021
    ANGPT2 0.741 0.036
    ANPEP 0.637 <.001 0.536 <.001
    ANXA2 0.762 0.044
    APOE 0.707 0.013
    APRT 0.727 0.004 0.771 0.006
    ATXN1 0.725 0.013
    AURKA 0.784 0.037 0.735 0.003
    AXIN2 0.744 0.004 0.630 <.001
    AZGP1 0.672 <.001 0.720 <.001 0.764 0.001
    BAD 0.687 <.001
    BAK1 0.783 0.014
    BCL2 0.777 0.033 0.772 0.036
    BIK 0.768 0.040
    BIN1 0.691 <.001
    BTRC 0.776 0.029
    C7 0.707 0.004 0.791 0.024
    CADM1 0.587 <.001 0.593 <.001
    CASP1 0.773 0.023 0.820 0.025
    CAV1 0.753 0.014
    CAV2 0.627 0.009 0.682 0.003
    CCL2 0.740 0.019
    CCNH 0.736 0.003
    CCR1 0.755 0.022
    CD1A 0.740 0.025
    CD44 0.590 <.001 0.637 <.001
    CD68 0.757 0.026
    CD82 0.778 0.012 0.759 0.016
    CDC25B 0.760 0.021
    CDK3 0.762 0.024 0.774 0.007
    CDKN1A 0.714 0.015
    CDKN1C 0.738 0.014 0.768 0.021
    COL6A1 0.690 <.001 0.805 0.048
    CSF1 0.675 0.002 0.779 0.036
    CSK 0.825 0.004
    CTNNB1 0.884 0.045 0.888 0.027
    CTSB 0.740 0.017 0.676 0.003 0.755 0.010
    CTSD 0.673 0.031 0.722 0.009
    CTSK 0.804 0.034
    CTSL2 0.748 0.019
    CXCL12 0.731 0.017
    CYP3A5 0.523 <.001 0.518 <.001
    CYR61 0.744 0.041
    DAP 0.755 0.011
    DARC 0.763 0.029
    DDR2 0.813 0.041
    DES 0.743 0.020
    DHRS9 0.606 0.001
    DHX9 0.916 0.021
    DIAPH1 0.749 0.036 0.688 0.003
    DLGAP1 0.758 0.042 0.676 0.002
    DLL4 0.779 0.010
    DNM3 0.732 0.007
    DPP4 0.732 0.004 0.750 0.014
    DPT 0.704 0.014
    DUSP6 0.662 <.001 0.665 0.001
    EBNA1BP2 0.828 0.019
    EDNRA 0.782 0.048
    EGF 0.712 0.023
    EGR1 0.678 0.004 0.725 0.028
    EGR3 0.680 0.006 0.738 0.027
    EIF2C2 0.789 0.032
    EIF2S3 0.759 0.012
    ELK4 0.745 0.024
    EPHA2 0.661 0.007
    EPHA3 0.781 0.026 0.828 0.037
    ERBB2 0.791 0.022 0.760 0.014 0.789 0.006
    ERBB3 0.757 0.009
    ERCC1 0.760 0.008
    ESR1 0.742 0.014
    ESR2 0.711 0.038
    ETV4 0.714 0.035
    FAM107A 0.619 <.001 0.710 0.011 0.781 0.019
    FAM13C 0.664 <.001 0.686 <.001 0.813 0.014
    FAM49B 0.670 <.001 0.793 0.014 0.815 0.044 0.843 0.047
    FASLG 0.616 0.004 0.813 0.038
    FGF10 0.751 0.028 0.766 0.019
    FGF17 0.718 0.031 0.765 0.019
    FGFR2 0.740 0.009 0.738 0.002
    FKBP5 0.749 0.031
    FLNC 0.826 0.029
    FLT1 0.779 0.045 0.729 0.006
    FLT4 0.815 0.024
    FOS 0.657 0.003 0.656 0.004
    FSD1 0.763 0.017
    FYN 0.716 0.004 0.792 0.024
    GADD45B 0.692 0.009 0.697 0.010
    GDF15 0.767 0.016
    GHR 0.701 0.002 0.704 0.002 0.640 <.001
    GNRH1 0.778 0.039
    GPM6B 0.749 0.010 0.750 0.010 0.827 0.037
    GRB7 0.696 0.005
    GSK3B 0.726 0.005
    GSN 0.660 <.001 0.752 0.019
    GSTM1 0.710 0.004 0.676 <.001
    GSTM2 0.643 <.001 0.767 0.015
    HK1 0.798 0.035
    HLA-G 0.660 0.013
    HLF 0.644 <.001 0.727 0.011
    HNF1B 0.755 0.013
    HPS1 0.756 0.006 0.791 0.043
    HSD17B10 0.737 0.006
    HSD3B2 0.674 0.003
    HSP90AB1 0.763 0.015
    HSPB1 0.787 0.020 0.778 0.015
    HSPE1 0.794 0.039
    ICAM1 0.664 0.003
    IER3 0.699 0.003 0.693 0.010
    IFIT1 0.621 <.001 0.733 0.027
    IGF1 0.751 0.017 0.655 <.001
    IGFBP2 0.599 <.001 0.605 <.001
    IGFBP5 0.745 0.007 0.775 0.035
    IGFBP6 0.671 0.005
    IL1B 0.732 0.016 0.717 0.005
    IL6 0.763 0.040
    IL6R 0.764 0.022
    IL6ST 0.647 <.001 0.739 0.012
    IL8 0.711 0.015 0.694 0.006
    ING5 0.729 0.007 0.727 0.003
    ITGA4 0.755 0.009
    ITGA5 0.743 0.018 0.770 0.034
    ITGA6 0.816 0.044 0.772 0.006
    ITGA7 0.680 0.004
    ITGAD 0.590 0.009
    ITGB4 0.663 <.001 0.658 <.001 0.759 0.004
    JUN 0.656 0.004 0.639 0.003
    KIAA0196 0.737 0.011
    KIT 0.730 0.021 0.724 0.008
    KLC1 0.755 0.035
    KLK1 0.706 0.008
    KLK2 0.740 0.016 0.723 0.001
    KLK3 0.765 0.006 0.740 0.002
    KRT1 0.774 0.042
    KRT15 0.658 <.001 0.632 <.001 0.764 0.008
    KRT18 0.703 0.004 0.672 <.001 0.779 0.015 0.811 0.032
    KRT5 0.686 <.001 0.629 <.001 0.802 0.023
    KRT8 0.763 0.034 0.771 0.022
    L1CAM 0.748 0.041
    LAG3 0.693 0.008 0.724 0.020
    LAMA4 0.689 0.039
    LAMB3 0.667 <.001 0.645 <.001 0.773 0.006
    LGALS3 0.666 <.001 0.822 0.047
    LIG3 0.723 0.008
    LRP1 0.777 0.041 0.769 0.007
    MDM2 0.688 <.001
    MET 0.709 0.010 0.736 0.028 0.715 0.003
    MGMT 0.751 0.031
    MICA 0.705 0.002
    MPPED2 0.690 0.001 0.657 <.001 0.708 <.001
    MRC1 0.812 0.049
    MSH6 0.860 0.049
    MTSS1 0.686 0.001
    MVP 0.798 0.034 0.761 0.033
    MYBPC1 0.754 0.009 0.615 <.001
    NCAPD3 0.739 0.021 0.664 0.005
    NEXN 0.798 0.037
    NFAT5 0.596 <.001 0.732 0.005
    NFATC2 0.743 0.016 0.792 0.047
    NOS3 0.730 0.012 0.757 0.032
    OAZ1 0.732 0.020 0.705 0.002
    OCLN 0.746 0.043 0.784 0.025
    OLFML3 0.711 0.002 0.709 <.001 0.720 0.001
    OMD 0.729 0.011 0.762 0.033
    OSM 0.813 0.028
    PAGE4 0.668 0.003 0.725 0.004 0.688 <.001 0.766 0.005
    PCA3 0.736 0.001 0.691 <.001
    PCDHGB7 0.769 0.019 0.789 0.022
    PIK3CA 0.768 0.010
    PIK3CG 0.792 0.019 0.758 0.009
    PLG 0.682 0.009
    PPAP2B 0.688 0.005 0.815 0.046
    PPP1R12A 0.731 0.026 0.775 0.042
    PRIMA1 0.697 0.004 0.757 0.032
    PRKCA 0.743 0.019
    PRKCB 0.756 0.036 0.767 0.029
    PROM1 0.640 0.027 0.699 0.034 0.503 0.013
    PTCH1 0.730 0.018
    PTEN 0.779 0.015 0.789 0.007
    PTGS2 0.644 <.001 0.703 0.007
    PTHLH 0.655 0.012 0.706 0.038 0.634 0.001 0.665 0.003
    PTK2B 0.779 0.023 0.702 0.002 0.806 0.015 0.806 0.024
    PYCARD 0.659 0.001
    RAB30 0.779 0.033 0.754 0.014
    RARB 0.787 0.043 0.742 0.009
    RASSF1 0.754 0.005
    RHOA 0.796 0.041 0.819 0.048
    RND3 0.721 0.011 0.743 0.028
    SDC1 0.707 0.011
    SDC2 0.745 0.002
    SDHC 0.750 0.013
    SERPINA3 0.730 0.016
    SERPINB5 0.715 0.041
    SH3RF2 0.698 0.025
    SIPA1L1 0.796 0.014 0.820 0.004
    SLC22A3 0.724 0.014 0.700 0.008
    SMAD4 0.668 0.002 0.771 0.016
    SMARCD1 0.726 <.001 0.700 0.001 0.812 0.028
    SMO 0.785 0.027
    SOD1 0.735 0.012
    SORBS1 0.785 0.039
    SPDEF 0.818 0.002
    SPINT1 0.761 0.024 0.773 0.006
    SRC 0.709 <.001 0.690 <.001
    SRD5A1 0.746 0.010 0.767 0.024 0.745 0.003
    SRD5A2 0.575 <.001 0.669 0.001 0.674 <.001 0.781 0.018
    ST5 0.774 0.027
    STAT1 0.694 0.004
    STAT5A 0.719 0.004 0.765 0.006 0.834 0.049
    STAT5B 0.704 0.001 0.744 0.012
    SUMO1 0.777 0.014
    SVIL 0.771 0.026
    TBP 0.774 0.031
    TFF3 0.742 0.015 0.719 0.024
    TGFB1I1 0.763 0.048
    TGFB2 0.729 0.011 0.758 0.002
    TMPRSS2 0.810 0.034 0.692 <.001
    TNF 0.727 0.022
    TNFRSF10A 0.805 0.025
    TNFRSF10B 0.581 <.001 0.738 0.014 0.809 0.034
    TNFSF10 0.751 0.015 0.700 <.001
    TP63 0.723 0.018 0.736 0.003
    TPM2 0.708 0.010 0.734 0.014
    TRAF3IP2 0.718 0.004
    TRO 0.742 0.012
    TSTA3 0.774 0.028
    TUBB2A 0.659 <.001 0.650 <.001
    TYMP 0.695 0.002
    VCL 0.683 0.008
    VIM 0.778 0.040
    WDR19 0.775 0.014
    XRCC5 0.793 0.042
    YY1 0.751 0.025 0.810 0.008
    ZFHX3 0.760 0.005 0.726 0.001
    ZFP36 0.707 0.008 0.672 0.003
    ZNF827 0.667 0.002 0.792 0.039
  • Tables 7A and 7B provide genes significantly associated (p<0.05), positively or negatively, with clinical recurrence (cRFI) in negative TMPRSS fusion specimens in the primary or highest Gleason pattern specimen. Increased expression of genes in Table 7A is negatively associated with good prognosis, while increased expression of genes in Table 7B is positively associated with good prognosis.
  • TABLE 7A
    Table 7A. Genes significantly (p < 0.05) associated with
    cRFI for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion negative in the primary Gleason
    pattern or highest Gleason pattern with hazard ratio (HR) > 1.0
    (increased expression is negatively associated with good prognosis)
    Primary Highest
    Pattern Pattern
    Official Symbol HR p-value HR p-value
    ANLN 1.42 0.012 1.36 0.004
    AQP2 1.25 0.033
    ASPN 2.48 <.001 1.65 <.001
    BGN 2.04 <.001 1.45 0.007
    BIRC5 1.59 <.001 1.37 0.005
    BMP6 1.95 <.001 1.43 0.012
    BMPR1B 1.93 0.002
    BUB1 1.51 <.001 1.35 <.001
    CCNE2 1.48 0.007
    CD276 1.93 <.001 1.79 <.001
    CDC20 1.49 0.004 1.47 <.001
    CDC6 1.52 0.009 1.34 0.022
    CDKN2B 1.54 0.008 1.55 0.003
    CDKN2C 1.55 0.003 1.57 <.001
    CDKN3 1.34 0.026
    CENPF 1.63 0.002 1.33 0.018
    CKS2 1.50 0.026 1.43 0.009
    CLTC 1.46 0.014
    COL1A1 1.98 <.001 1.50 0.002
    COL3A1 2.03 <.001 1.42 0.007
    COL4A1 1.81 0.002
    COL8A1 1.63 0.004 1.60 0.001
    CRISP3 1.31 0.016
    CTHRC1 1.67 0.006 1.48 0.005
    DDIT4 1.49 0.037
    ENY2 1.29 0.039
    EZH2 1.35 0.016
    F2R 1.46 0.034 1.46 0.007
    FAP 1.66 0.006 1.38 0.012
    FGF5 1.46 0.001
    GNPTAB 1.49 0.013
    HSD17B4 1.34 0.039 1.44 0.002
    INHBA 2.92 <.001 2.19 <.001
    JAG1 1.38 0.042
    KCNN2 1.71 0.002 1.73 <.001
    KHDRBS3 1.46 0.015
    KLK14 1.28 0.034
    KPNA2 1.63 0.016
    LAMC1 1.41 0.044
    LOX 1.29 0.036
    LTBP2 1.57 0.017
    MELK 1.38 0.029
    MMP11 1.69 0.002 1.42 0.004
    MYBL2 1.78 <.001 1.49 <.001
    NETO2 2.01 <.001 1.43 0.007
    NME1 1.38 0.017
    PATE1 1.43 <.001 1.24 0.005
    PEX10 1.46 0.030
    PGD 1.77 0.002
    POSTN 1.49 0.037 1.34 0.026
    PPFIA3 1.51 0.012
    PPP3CA 1.46 0.033 1.34 0.020
    PTK6 1.69 <.001 1.56 <.001
    PTTG1 1.35 0.028
    RAD51 1.32 0.048
    RALBP1 1.29 0.042
    RGS7 1.18 0.012 1.32 0.009
    RRM1 1.57 0.016 1.32 0.041
    RRM2 1.30 0.039
    SAT1 1.61 0.007
    SESN3 1.76 <.001 1.36 0.020
    SFRP4 1.55 0.016 1.48 0.002
    SHMT2 2.23 <.001 1.59 <.001
    SPARC 1.54 0.014
    SQLE 1.86 0.003
    STMN1 2.14 <.001
    THBS2 1.79 <.001 1.43 0.009
    TK1 1.30 0.026
    TOP2A 2.03 <.001 1.47 0.003
    TPD52 1.63 0.003
    TPX2 2.11 <.001 1.63 <.001
    TRAP1 1.46 0.023
    UBE2C 1.57 <.001 1.58 <.001
    UBE2G1 1.56 0.008
    UBE2T 1.75 <.001
    UGT2B15 1.31 0.036 1.33 0.004
    UHRF1 1.46 0.007
    UTP23 1.52 0.017
  • TABLE 7B
    Table 7B. Genes significantly (p < 0.05) associated with cRFI
    for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion negative in the primary Gleason pattern
    or highest Gleason pattern with hazard ratio (HR) < 1.0
    (increased expression is positively associated with good prognosis)
    Primary Highest
    Pattern Pattern
    Official Symbol HR p-value HR p-value
    AAMP 0.56 <.001 0.65 0.001
    ABCA5 0.64 <.001 0.71 <.001
    ABCB1 0.62 0.004
    ABCC3 0.74 0.031
    ABCG2 0.78 0.050
    ABHD2 0.71 0.035
    ACOX2 0.54 <.001 0.71 0.007
    ADH5 0.49 <.001 0.61 <.001
    AKAP1 0.77 0.031 0.76 0.013
    AKR1C1 0.65 0.006 0.78 0.044
    AKT1 0.72 0.020
    AKT3 0.75 <.001
    ALDH1A2 0.53 <.001 0.60 <.001
    AMPD3 0.62 <.001 0.78 0.028
    ANPEP 0.54 <.001 0.61 <.001
    ANXA2 0.63 0.008 0.74 0.016
    ARHGAP29 0.67 0.005 0.77 0.016
    ARHGDIB 0.64 0.013
    ATP5J 0.57 0.050
    ATXN1 0.61 0.004 0.77 0.043
    AXIN2 0.51 <.001 0.62 <.001
    AZGP1 0.61 <.001 0.64 <.001
    BCL2 0.64 0.004 0.75 0.029
    BIN1 0.52 <.001 0.74 0.010
    BTG3 0.75 0.032 0.75 0.010
    BTRC 0.69 0.011
    C7 0.51 <.001 0.67 <.001
    CADM1 0.49 <.001 0.76 0.034
    CASP1 0.71 0.010 0.74 0.007
    CAV1 0.73 0.015
    CCL5 0.67 0.018 0.67 0.003
    CCNH 0.63 <.001 0.75 0.004
    CCR1 0.77 0.032
    CD164 0.52 <.001 0.63 <.001
    CD44 0.53 <.001 0.74 0.014
    CDH10 0.69 0.040
    CDH18 0.40 0.011
    CDK14 0.75 0.013
    CDK2 0.81 0.031
    CDK3 0.73 0.022
    CDKN1A 0.68 0.038
    CDKN1C 0.62 0.003 0.72 0.005
    COL6A1 0.54 <.001 0.70 0.004
    COL6A3 0.64 0.004
    CSF1 0.56 <.001 0.78 0.047
    CSRP1 0.40 <.001 0.66 0.002
    CTGF 0.66 0.015 0.74 0.027
    CTNNB1 0.69 0.043
    CTSB 0.60 0.002 0.71 0.011
    CTSS 0.67 0.013
    CXCL12 0.56 <.001 0.77 0.026
    CYP3A5 0.43 <.001 0.63 <.001
    CYR61 0.43 <.001 0.58 <.001
    DAG1 0.72 0.012
    DARC 0.66 0.016
    DDR2 0.65 0.007
    DES 0.52 <.001 0.74 0.018
    DHRS9 0.54 0.007
    DICER1 0.70 0.044
    DLC1 0.75 0.021
    DLGAP1 0.55 <.001 0.72 0.005
    DNM3 0.61 0.001
    DPP4 0.55 <.001 0.77 0.024
    DPT 0.48 <.001 0.61 <.001
    DUSP1 0.47 <.001 0.59 <.001
    DUSP6 0.65 0.009 0.65 0.002
    DYNLL1 0.74 0.045
    EDNRA 0.61 0.002 0.75 0.038
    EFNB2 0.71 0.043
    EGR1 0.43 <.001 0.58 <.001
    EGR3 0.47 <.001 0.66 <.001
    EIF5 0.77 0.028
    ELK4 0.49 <.001 0.72 0.012
    EPHA2 0.70 0.007
    EPHA3 0.62 <.001 0.72 0.009
    EPHB2 0.68 0.009
    ERBB2 0.64 <.001 0.63 <.001
    ERBB3 0.69 0.018
    ERCC1 0.69 0.019 0.77 0.021
    ESR2 0.61 0.020
    FAAH 0.57 <.001 0.77 0.035
    FABP5 0.67 0.035
    FAM107A 0.42 <.001 0.59 <.001
    FAM13C 0.53 <.001 0.59 <.001
    FAS 0.71 0.035
    FASLG 0.56 0.017 0.67 0.014
    FGF10 0.57 0.002
    FGF17 0.70 0.039 0.70 0.010
    FGF7 0.63 0.005 0.70 0.004
    FGFR2 0.63 0.003 0.71 0.003
    FKBP5 0.72 0.020
    FLNA 0.48 <.001 0.74 0.022
    FOS 0.45 <.001 0.56 <.001
    FOXO1 0.59 <.001
    FOXQ1 0.57 <.001 0.69 0.008
    FYN 0.62 0.001 0.74 0.013
    G6PD 0.77 0.014
    GADD45A 0.73 0.045
    GADD45B 0.45 <.001 0.64 0.001
    GDF15 0.58 <.001
    GHR 0.62 0.008 0.68 0.002
    GPM6B 0.60 <.001 0.70 0.003
    GSK3B 0.71 0.016 0.71 0.006
    GSN 0.46 <.001 0.66 <.001
    GSTM1 0.56 <.001 0.62 <.001
    GSTM2 0.47 <.001 0.67 <.001
    HGD 0.72 0.002
    HIRIP3 0.69 0.021 0.69 0.002
    HK1 0.68 0.005 0.73 0.005
    HLA-G 0.54 0.024 0.65 0.013
    HLF 0.41 <.001 0.68 0.001
    HNF1B 0.55 <.001 0.59 <.001
    HPS1 0.74 0.015 0.76 0.025
    HSD17B3 0.65 0.031
    HSPB2 0.62 0.004 0.76 0.027
    ICAM1 0.61 0.010
    IER3 0.55 <.001 0.67 0.003
    IFIT1 0.57 <.001 0.70 0.008
    IFNG 0.69 0.040
    IGF1 0.63 <.001 0.59 <.001
    IGF2 0.67 0.019 0.70 0.005
    IGFBP2 0.53 <.001 0.63 <.001
    IGFBP5 0.57 <.001 0.71 0.006
    IGFBP6 0.41 <.001 0.71 0.012
    IL10 0.59 0.020
    IL1B 0.53 <.001 0.70 0.005
    IL6 0.55 0.001
    IL6ST 0.45 <.001 0.68 <.001
    IL8 0.60 0.005 0.70 0.008
    ILK 0.68 0.029 0.76 0.036
    ING5 0.54 <.001 0.82 0.033
    ITGA1 0.66 0.017
    ITGA3 0.70 0.020
    ITGA5 0.64 0.011
    ITGA6 0.66 0.003 0.74 0.006
    ITGA7 0.50 <.001 0.71 0.010
    ITGB4 0.63 0.014 0.73 0.010
    ITPR1 0.55 <.001
    ITPR3 0.76 0.007
    JUN 0.37 <.001 0.54 <.001
    JUNB 0.58 0.002 0.71 0.016
    KCTD12 0.68 0.017
    KIT 0.49 0.002 0.76 0.043
    KLC1 0.61 0.005 0.77 0.045
    KLF6 0.65 0.009
    KLK1 0.68 0.036
    KLK10 0.76 0.037
    KLK2 0.64 <.001 0.73 0.006
    KLK3 0.65 <.001 0.76 0.021
    KLRK1 0.63 0.005
    KRT15 0.52 <.001 0.58 <.001
    KRT18 0.46 <.001
    KRT5 0.51 <.001 0.58 <.001
    KRT8 0.53 <.001
    L1CAM 0.65 0.031
    LAG3 0.58 0.002 0.76 0.033
    LAMA4 0.52 0.018
    LAMB3 0.60 0.002 0.65 0.003
    LGALS3 0.52 <.001 0.71 0.002
    LIG3 0.65 0.011
    LRP1 0.61 0.001 0.75 0.040
    MGMT 0.66 0.003
    MICA 0.59 0.001 0.68 0.001
    MLXIP 0.70 0.020
    MMP2 0.68 0.022
    MMP9 0.67 0.036
    MPPED2 0.57 <.001 0.66 <.001
    MRC1 0.69 0.028
    MTSS1 0.63 0.005 0.79 0.037
    MVP 0.62 <.001
    MYBPC1 0.53 <.001 0.70 0.011
    NCAM1 0.70 0.039 0.77 0.042
    NCAPD3 0.52 <.001 0.59 <.001
    NDRG1 0.69 0.008
    NEXN 0.62 0.002
    NFAT5 0.45 <.001 0.59 <.001
    NFATC2 0.68 0.035 0.75 0.036
    NFKBIA 0.70 0.030
    NRG1 0.59 0.022 0.71 0.018
    OAZ1 0.69 0.018 0.62 <.001
    OLFML3 0.59 <.001 0.72 0.003
    OR51E2 0.73 0.013
    PAGE4 0.42 <.001 0.62 <.001
    PCA3 0.53 <.001
    PCDHGB7 0.70 0.032
    PGF 0.68 0.027 0.71 0.013
    PGR 0.76 0.041
    PIK3C2A 0.80 <.001
    PIK3CA 0.61 <.001 0.80 0.036
    PIK3CG 0.67 0.001 0.76 0.018
    PLP2 0.65 0.015 0.72 0.010
    PPAP2B 0.45 <.001 0.69 0.003
    PPP1R12A 0.61 0.007 0.73 0.017
    PRIMA1 0.51 <.001 0.68 0.004
    PRKCA 0.55 <.001 0.74 0.009
    PRKCB 0.55 <.001
    PROM1 0.67 0.042
    PROS1 0.73 0.036
    PTCH1 0.69 0.024 0.72 0.010
    PTEN 0.54 <.001 0.64 <.001
    PTGS2 0.48 <.001 0.55 <.001
    PTH1R 0.57 0.003 0.77 0.050
    PTHLH 0.55 0.010
    PTK2B 0.56 <.001 0.70 0.001
    PYCARD 0.73 0.009
    RAB27A 0.65 0.009 0.71 0.014
    RAB30 0.59 0.003 0.72 0.010
    RAGE 0.76 0.011
    RARB 0.59 <.001 0.63 <.001
    RASSF1 0.67 0.003
    RB1 0.67 0.006
    RFX1 0.71 0.040 0.70 0.003
    RHOA 0.71 0.038 0.65 <.001
    RHOB 0.58 0.001 0.71 0.006
    RND3 0.54 <.001 0.69 0.003
    RNF114 0.59 0.004 0.68 0.003
    SCUBE2 0.77 0.046
    SDHC 0.72 0.028 0.76 0.025
    SEC23A 0.75 0.029
    SEMA3A 0.61 0.004 0.72 0.011
    SEPT9 0.66 0.013 0.76 0.036
    SERPINB5 0.75 0.039
    SH3RF2 0.44 <.001 0.48 <.001
    SHH 0.74 0.049
    SLC22A3 0.42 <.001 0.61 <.001
    SMAD4 0.45 <.001 0.66 <.001
    SMARCD1 0.69 0.016
    SOD1 0.68 0.042
    SORBS1 0.51 <.001 0.73 0.012
    SPARCL1 0.58 <.001 0.77 0.040
    SPDEF 0.77 <.001
    SPINT1 0.65 0.004 0.79 0.038
    SRC 0.61 <.001 0.69 0.001
    SRD5A2 0.39 <.001 0.55 <.001
    ST5 0.61 <.001 0.73 0.012
    STAT1 0.64 0.006
    STAT3 0.63 0.010
    STAT5A 0.62 0.001 0.70 0.003
    STAT5B 0.58 <.001 0.73 0.009
    SUMO1 0.66 <.001
    SVIL 0.57 0.001 0.74 0.022
    TBP 0.65 0.002
    TFF1 0.65 0.021
    TFF3 0.58 <.001
    TGFB1I1 0.51 <.001 0.75 0.026
    TGFB2 0.48 <.001 0.62 <.001
    TGFBR2 0.61 0.003
    TIAM1 0.68 0.019
    TIMP2 0.69 0.020
    TIMP3 0.58 0.002
    TNFRSF10A 0.73 0.047
    TNFRSF10B 0.47 <.001 0.70 0.003
    TNFSF10 0.56 0.001
    TP63 0.67 0.001
    TPM1 0.58 0.004 0.73 0.017
    TPM2 0.46 <.001 0.70 0.005
    TRA2A 0.68 0.013
    TRAF3IP2 0.73 0.041 0.71 0.004
    TRO 0.72 0.016 0.71 0.004
    TUBB2A 0.53 <.001 0.73 0.021
    TYMP 0.70 0.011
    VCAM1 0.69 0.041
    VCL 0.46 <.001
    VEGFA 0.77 0.039
    VEGFB 0.71 0.035
    VIM 0.60 0.001
    XRCC5 0.75 0.026
    YY1 0.62 0.008 0.77 0.039
    ZFHX3 0.53 <.001 0.58 <.001
    ZFP36 0.43 <.001 0.54 <.001
    ZNF827 0.55 0.001
  • Tables 8A and 8B provide genes that were significantly associated (p<0.05), positively or negatively, with clinical recurrence (cRFI) in positive TMPRSS fusion specimens in the primary or highest Gleason pattern specimen. Increased expression of genes in Table 8A is negatively associated with good prognosis, while increased expression of genes in Table 8B is positively associated with good prognosis.
  • TABLE 8A
    Table 8A. Genes significantly (p < 0.05) associated with cRFI
    for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive in the primary Gleason pattern
    or highest Gleason pattern with hazard ratio (HR) > 1.0
    (increased expression is negatively associated with good prognosis)
    Primary Highest
    Pattern Pattern
    Official Symbol HR p-value HR p-value
    ACTR2 1.78 0.017
    AKR1C3 1.44 0.013
    ALCAM 1.44 0.022
    ANLN 1.37 0.046 1.81 <.001
    APOE 1.49 0.023 1.66 0.005
    AQP2 1.30 0.013
    ARHGDIB 1.55 0.021
    ASPN 2.13 <.001 2.43 <.001
    ATP5E 1.69 0.013 1.58 0.014
    BGN 1.92 <.001 2.55 <.001
    BIRC5 1.48 0.006 1.89 <.001
    BMP6 1.51 0.010 1.96 <.001
    BRCA2 1.41 0.007
    BUB1 1.36 0.007 1.52 <.001
    CCNE2 1.55 0.004 1.59 <.001
    CD276 1.65 <.001
    CDC20 1.68 <.001 1.74 <.001
    CDH11 1.50 0.017
    CDH18 1.36 <.001
    CDH7 1.54 0.009 1.46 0.026
    CDKN2B 1.68 0.008 1.93 0.001
    CDKN2C 2.01 <.001 1.77 <.001
    CDKN3 1.51 0.002 1.33 0.049
    CENPF 1.51 0.007 2.04 <.001
    CKS2 1.43 0.034 1.56 0.007
    COL1A1 2.23 <.001 3.04 <.001
    COL1A2 1.79 0.001 2.22 <.001
    COL3A1 1.96 <.001 2.81 <.001
    COL4A1 1.52 0.020
    COL5A1 1.50 0.020
    COL5A2 1.64 0.017 1.55 0.010
    COL8A1 1.96 <.001 2.38 <.001
    CRISP3 1.68 0.002 1.67 0.002
    CTHRC1 2.06 <.001
    CTNND2 1.42 0.046 1.50 0.025
    CTSK 1.43 0.049
    CXCR4 1.82 0.001 1.64 0.007
    DDIT4 1.54 0.016 1.58 0.009
    DLL4 1.51 0.007
    DYNLL1 1.50 0.021 1.22 0.002
    F2R 2.27 <.001 2.02 <.001
    FAP 2.12 <.001
    FCGR3A 1.94 0.002
    FGF5 1.23 0.047
    FOXP3 1.52 0.006 1.48 0.018
    GNPTAB 1.44 0.042
    GPR68 1.51 0.011
    GREM1 1.91 <.001 2.38 <.001
    HDAC1 1.43 0.048
    HDAC9 1.65 <.001 1.67 0.004
    HRAS 1.65 0.005 1.58 0.021
    IGFBP3 1.94 <.001 1.85 <.001
    INHBA 2.03 <.001 2.64 <.001
    JAG1 1.41 0.027 1.50 0.008
    KCTD12 1.51 0.017
    KHDRBS3 1.48 0.029 1.54 0.014
    KPNA2 1.46 0.050
    LAMA3 1.35 0.040
    LAMC1 1.77 0.012
    LTBP2 1.82 <.001
    LUM 1.51 0.021 1.53 0.009
    MELK 1.38 0.020 1.49 0.001
    MKI67 1.37 0.014
    MMP11 1.73 <.001 1.69 <.001
    MRPL13 1.30 0.046
    MYBL2 1.56 <.001 1.72 <.001
    MYLK3 1.17 0.007
    NOX4 1.58 0.005 1.96 <.001
    NRIP3 1.30 0.040
    NRP1 1.53 0.021
    OLFML2B 1.54 0.024
    OSM 1.43 0.018
    PATE1 1.20 <.001 1.33 <.001
    PCNA 1.64 0.003
    PEX10 1.41 0.041 1.64 0.003
    PIK3CA 1.38 0.037
    PLK1 1.52 0.009 1.67 0.002
    PLOD2 1.65 0.002
    POSTN 1.79 <.001 2.06 <.001
    PTK6 1.67 0.002 2.38 <.001
    PTTG1 1.56 0.002 1.54 0.003
    RAD21 1.61 0.036 1.53 0.005
    RAD51 1.33 0.009
    RALA 1.95 0.004 1.60 0.007
    REG4 1.43 0.042
    ROBO2 1.46 0.024
    RRM1 1.44 0.033
    RRM2 1.50 0.003 1.48 <.001
    SAT1 1.42 0.009 1.43 0.012
    SEC14L1 1.64 0.002
    SFRP4 2.07 <.001 2.40 <.001
    SHMT2 1.52 0.030 1.60 0.001
    SLC44A1 1.42 0.039
    SPARC 1.93 <.001 2.21 <.001
    SULF1 1.63 0.006 2.04 <.001
    THBS2 1.95 <.001 2.26 <.001
    THY1 1.69 0.016 1.95 0.002
    TK1 1.43 0.003
    TOP2A 1.57 0.002 2.11 <.001
    TPX2 1.84 <.001 2.27 <.001
    UBE2C 1.41 0.011 1.44 0.006
    UBE2T 1.63 0.001
    UHRF1 1.51 0.007 1.69 <.001
    WISP1 1.47 0.045
    WNT5A 1.35 0.027 1.63 0.001
    ZWINT 1.36 0.045
  • TABLE 8B
    Table 8B. Genes significantly (p < 0.05) associated with cRFI
    for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive in the primary Gleason pattern
    or highest Gleason pattern with hazard ratio (HR) < 1.0
    (increased expression is positively associated with good prognosis)
    Primary Highest
    Pattern Pattern
    Official Symbol HR p-value HR p-value
    AAMP 0.57 0.007 0.58 <.001
    ABCA5 0.80 0.044
    ACE 0.65 0.023 0.55 <.001
    ACOX2 0.55 <.001
    ADH5 0.68 0.022
    AKAP1 0.81 0.043
    ALDH1A2 0.72 0.036 0.43 <.001
    ANPEP 0.66 0.022 0.46 <.001
    APRT 0.73 0.040
    AXIN2 0.60 <.001
    AZGP1 0.57 <.001 0.65 <.001
    BCL2 0.69 0.035
    BIK 0.71 0.045
    BIN1 0.71 0.004 0.71 0.009
    BTRC 0.66 0.003 0.58 <.001
    C7 0.64 0.006
    CADM1 0.61 <.001 0.47 <.001
    CCL2 0.73 0.042
    CCNH 0.69 0.022
    CD44 0.56 <.001 0.58 <.001
    CD82 0.72 0.033
    CDC25B 0.74 0.028
    CDH1 0.75 0.030 0.72 0.010
    CDH19 0.56 0.015
    CDK3 0.78 0.045
    CDKN1C 0.74 0.045 0.70 0.014
    CSF1 0.72 0.037
    CTSB 0.69 0.048
    CTSL2 0.58 0.005
    CYP3A5 0.51 <.001 0.30 <.001
    DHX9 0.89 0.006 0.87 0.012
    DLC1 0.64 0.023
    DLGAP1 0.69 0.010 0.49 <.001
    DPP4 0.64 <.001 0.56 <.001
    DPT 0.63 0.003
    EGR1 0.69 0.035
    EGR3 0.68 0.025
    EIF2S3 0.70 0.021
    EIF5 0.71 0.030
    ELK4 0.71 0.041 0.60 0.003
    EPHA2 0.72 0.036 0.66 0.011
    EPHB4 0.65 0.007
    ERCC1 0.68 0.023
    ESR2 0.64 0.027
    FAM107A 0.64 0.003 0.61 0.003
    FAM13C 0.68 0.006 0.55 <.001
    FGFR2 0.73 0.033 0.59 <.001
    FKBP5 0.60 0.006
    FLNC 0.68 0.024 0.65 0.012
    FLT1 0.71 0.027
    FOS 0.62 0.006
    FOXO1 0.75 0.010
    GADD45B 0.68 0.020
    GHR 0.62 0.006
    GPM6B 0.57 <.001
    GSTM1 0.68 0.015 0.58 <.001
    GSTM2 0.65 0.005 0.47 <.001
    HGD 0.63 0.001 0.71 0.020
    HK1 0.67 0.003 0.62 0.002
    HLF 0.59 <.001
    HNF1B 0.66 0.004 0.61 0.001
    IER3 0.70 0.026
    IGF1 0.63 0.005 0.55 <.001
    IGF1R 0.76 0.049
    IGFBP2 0.59 0.007 0.64 0.003
    IL6ST 0.65 0.005
    IL8 0.61 0.005 0.66 0.019
    ILK 0.64 0.015
    ING5 0.73 0.033 0.70 0.009
    ITGA7 0.72 0.045 0.69 0.019
    ITGB4 0.63 0.002
    KLC1 0.74 0.045
    KLK1 0.56 0.002 0.49 <.001
    KLK10 0.68 0.013
    KLK11 0.66 0.003
    KLK2 0.66 0.045 0.65 0.011
    KLK3 0.75 0.048 0.77 0.014
    KRT15 0.71 0.017 0.50 <.001
    KRT5 0.73 0.031 0.54 <.001
    LAMA5 0.70 0.044
    LAMB3 0.70 0.005 0.58 <.001
    LGALS3 0.69 0.025
    LIG3 0.68 0.022
    MDK 0.69 0.035
    MGMT 0.59 0.017 0.60 <.001
    MGST1 0.73 0.042
    MICA 0.70 0.009
    MPPED2 0.72 0.031 0.54 <.001
    MTSS1 0.62 0.003
    MYBPC1 0.50 <.001
    NCAPD3 0.62 0.007 0.38 <.001
    NCOR1 0.82 0.048
    NFAT5 0.60 0.001 0.62 <.001
    NRG1 0.66 0.040 0.61 0.029
    NUP62 0.75 0.037
    OMD 0.54 <.001
    PAGE4 0.64 0.005
    PCA3 0.66 0.012
    PCDHGB7 0.68 0.018
    PGR 0.60 0.012
    PPAP2B 0.62 0.010
    PPP1R12A 0.73 0.031 0.58 0.003
    PRIMA1 0.65 0.013
    PROM1 0.41 0.013
    PTCH1 0.64 0.006
    PTEN 0.75 0.047
    PTGS2 0.67 0.011
    PTK2B 0.66 0.005
    PTPN1 0.71 0.026
    RAGE 0.70 0.012
    RARB 0.68 0.016
    RGS10 0.84 0.034
    RHOB 0.66 0.016
    RND3 0.63 0.004
    SDHC 0.73 0.044 0.69 0.016
    SERPINA3 0.67 0.011 0.51 <.001
    SERPINB5 0.42 <.001
    SH3RF2 0.66 0.012 0.51 <.001
    SLC22A3 0.59 0.003 0.48 <.001
    SMAD4 0.64 0.004 0.49 <.001
    SMARCC2 0.73 0.042
    SMARCD1 0.73 <.001 0.76 0.035
    SMO 0.64 0.006
    SNAI1 0.53 0.008
    SOD1 0.60 0.003
    SRC 0.64 <.001 0.61 <.001
    SRD5A2 0.63 0.004 0.59 <.001
    STAT3 0.64 0.014
    STAT5A 0.70 0.032
    STAT5B 0.74 0.034 0.63 0.003
    SVIL 0.71 0.028
    TGFB1I1 0.68 0.036
    TMPRSS2 0.72 0.015 0.67 <.001
    TNFRSF10A 0.69 0.010
    TNFRSF10B 0.67 0.007 0.64 0.001
    TNFRSF18 0.38 0.003
    TNFSF10 0.71 0.025
    TP53 0.68 0.004 0.57 <.001
    TP63 0.75 0.049 0.52 <.001
    TPM2 0.62 0.007
    TRAF3IP2 0.71 0.017 0.68 0.005
    TRO 0.72 0.033
    TUBB2A 0.69 0.038
    VCL 0.62 <.001
    VEGFA 0.71 0.037
    WWOX 0.65 0.004
    ZFHX3 0.77 0.011 0.73 0.012
    ZFP36 0.69 0.018
    ZNF827 0.68 0.013 0.49 <.001
  • Tables 9A and 9B provide genes significantly associated (p<0.05), positively or negatively, with TMPRSS fusion status in the primary Gleason pattern. Increased expression of genes in Table 9A are positively associated with TMPRSS fusion positivity, while increased expression of genes in Table 10A are negatively associated with TMPRSS fusion positivity.
  • TABLE 9A
    Table 9A. Genes significantly (p < 0.05) associated with
    TMPRSS fusion status in the primary Gleason pattern with odds
    ratio (OR) > 1.0 (increased expression is positively associated
    with TMPRSS fusion positivity
    Official Symbol p-value Odds Ratio
    ABCC8 <.001 1.86
    ALDH18A1 0.005 1.49
    ALKBH3 0.043 1.30
    ALOX5 <.001 1.66
    AMPD3 <.001 3.92
    APEX1 <.001 2.00
    ARHGDIB <.001 1.87
    ASAP2 0.019 1.48
    ATXN1 0.013 1.41
    BMPR1B <.001 2.37
    CACNA1D <.001 9.01
    CADPS 0.015 1.39
    CD276 0.003 2.25
    CDH1 0.016 1.37
    CDH7 <.001 2.22
    CDK7 0.025 1.43
    COL9A2 <.001 2.58
    CRISP3 <.001 2.60
    CTNND1 0.033 1.48
    ECE1 <.001 2.22
    EIF5 0.023 1.34
    EPHB4 0.005 1.51
    ERG <.001 14.5
    FAM171B 0.047 1.32
    FAM73A 0.008 1.45
    FASN 0.004 1.50
    GNPTAB <.001 1.60
    GPS1 0.006 1.45
    GRB7 0.023 1.38
    HDAC1 <.001 4.95
    HGD <.001 1.64
    HIP1 <.001 1.90
    HNF1B <.001 3.55
    HSPA8 0.041 1.32
    IGF1R 0.001 1.73
    ILF3 <.001 1.91
    IMMT 0.025 1.36
    ITPR1 <.001 2.72
    ITPR3 <.001 5.91
    JAG1 0.007 1.42
    KCNN2 <.001 2.80
    KHDRBS3 <.001 2.63
    KIAA0247 0.019 1.38
    KLK11 <.001 1.98
    LAMC1 0.008 1.56
    LAMC2 <.001 3.30
    LOX 0.009 1.41
    LRP1 0.044 1.30
    MAP3K5 <.001 2.06
    MAP7 <.001 2.74
    MSH2 0.005 1.59
    MSH3 0.006 1.45
    MUC1 0.012 1.42
    MYO6 <.001 3.79
    NCOR2 0.001 1.62
    NDRG1 <.001 6.77
    NETO2 <.001 2.63
    ODC1 <.001 1.98
    OR51E1 <.001 2.24
    PDE9A <.001 2.21
    PEX10 <.001 3.41
    PGK1 0.022 1.33
    PLA2G7 <.001 5.51
    PPP3CA 0.047 1.38
    PSCA 0.013 1.43
    PSMD13 0.004 1.51
    PTCH1 0.022 1.38
    PTK2 0.014 1.38
    PTK6 <.001 2.29
    PTK7 <.001 2.45
    PTPRK <.001 1.80
    RAB30 0.001 1.60
    REG4 0.018 1.58
    RELA 0.001 1.62
    RFX1 0.020 1.43
    RGS10 <.001 1.71
    SCUBE2 0.009 1.48
    SEPT9 <.001 3.91
    SH3RF2 0.004 1.48
    SH3YL1 <.001 1.87
    SHH <.001 2.45
    SIM2 <.001 1.74
    SIPA1L1 0.021 1.35
    SLC22A3 <.001 1.63
    SLC44A1 <.001 1.65
    SPINT1 0.017 1.39
    TFDP1 0.005 1.75
    TMPRSS2ERGA 0.002 14E5
    TMPRSS2ERGB <.001 1.97
    TRIM14 <.001 1.65
    TSTA3 0.018 1.38
    UAP1 0.046 1.39
    UBE2G1 0.001 1.66
    UGDH <.001 2.22
    XRCC5 <.001 1.66
    ZMYND8 <.001 2.19
  • TABLE 9B
    Table 9B. Genes significantly (p < 0.05) associated with TMPRSS
    fusion status in the primary Gleason pattern with odds ratio (OR) < 1.0
    (increased expression is negatively associated with TMPRSS fusion
    positivity)
    Official Symbol p-value Odds Ratio