US20080308845A1 - Heterogeneous Group IV Semiconductor Substrates - Google Patents

Heterogeneous Group IV Semiconductor Substrates Download PDF

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Publication number
US20080308845A1
US20080308845A1 US12/195,790 US19579008A US2008308845A1 US 20080308845 A1 US20080308845 A1 US 20080308845A1 US 19579008 A US19579008 A US 19579008A US 2008308845 A1 US2008308845 A1 US 2008308845A1
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Prior art keywords
group iv
silicon
semiconductor layer
pattern
iv semiconductor
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Abandoned
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US12/195,790
Inventor
Sung-min Kim
Kyoung-hwan Yeo
In-Soo Jung
Si-Young Choi
Dong-won Kim
Yong-Hoon Son
Young-Eun Lee
Byeong-Chan Lee
Jong-wook Lee
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Samsung Electronics Co Ltd
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Samsung Electronics Co Ltd
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Priority to KR20040017665A priority Critical patent/KR100560815B1/en
Priority to KR2004-17665 priority
Priority to US11/080,737 priority patent/US7429504B2/en
Application filed by Samsung Electronics Co Ltd filed Critical Samsung Electronics Co Ltd
Priority to US12/195,790 priority patent/US20080308845A1/en
Publication of US20080308845A1 publication Critical patent/US20080308845A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/02Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/06Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape; characterised by the shapes, relative sizes, or dispositions of the semiconductor regions ; characterised by the concentration or distribution of impurities within semiconductor regions
    • H01L29/0603Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape; characterised by the shapes, relative sizes, or dispositions of the semiconductor regions ; characterised by the concentration or distribution of impurities within semiconductor regions characterised by particular constructional design considerations, e.g. for preventing surface leakage, for controlling electric field concentration or for internal isolations regions
    • H01L29/0642Isolation within the component, i.e. internal isolation
    • H01L29/0649Dielectric regions, e.g. SiO2 regions, air gaps
    • H01L29/0653Dielectric regions, e.g. SiO2 regions, air gaps adjoining the input or output region of a field-effect device, e.g. the source or drain region
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/68Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor controllable by only the electric current supplied, or only the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched
    • H01L29/76Unipolar devices, e.g. field effect transistors
    • H01L29/772Field effect transistors
    • H01L29/78Field effect transistors with field effect produced by an insulated gate

Abstract

Embodiments of the present invention include heterogeneous substrates, integrated circuits formed on such heterogeneous substrates. The heterogeneous substrates according to certain embodiments of the present invention include a first Group IV semiconductor layer (e.g., silicon), a second Group IV pattern (e.g., a silicon-germanium pattern) that includes a plurality of individual elements on the first Group IV semiconductor layer, and a third Group IV semiconductor layer (e.g., a silicon epitaxial layer) on the second Group IV pattern and on a plurality of exposed portions of the first Group IV semiconductor layer. The second Group IV pattern may be removed in embodiments of the present invention. In these and other embodiments of the present invention, the third Group IV semiconductor layer may be planarized.

Description

    CLAIM OF PRIORITY
  • This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. § 120 as a divisional application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/080,737, filed Mar. 15, 2005, which in turn claims priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119 from Korean Patent Application No. 2004-17665, filed on Mar. 16, 2004. The disclosure of each of the above applications is incorporated herein by reference as if set forth in its entirety.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention generally relates to semiconductor substrates and semiconductor devices and, more specifically, to heterogeneous semiconductor substrates and integrated circuits that are formed on such substrates, alone with related methods of forming, such substrates and integrated circuits.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Since the transistor was invented in 1948, tremendous advancements have been achieved in the progress of solid state device technology. These advancements have been made both through the development of more and more advanced device concepts, as well as through advancements in the materials which are used to fabricate the devices. By way of example, the performance achieved by integrated circuits today is the result of, among many other things, a considerable breakthrough in the 1950's relating to methods of growing pure and single-crystal silicon.
  • Conventionally, single crystalline silicon substrates have been widely used in semiconductor device manufacturing processes. After the formation of the single-crystal ingot by liquid-encapsulated Czochralski growth, the ingot is mechanically processed to manufacture silicon wafers.
  • Today, many semiconductor devices are highly integrated. Devices having high levels of integration may achieve high speed and performance levels, and may be more economically efficient to manufacture. However, various problems can also occur as the level of integration increases and the size of individual devices decreases. For example, as the channel length of a conventional planar field effect transistor (“FET”) is reduced, several potentially undesirable effects may occur including (1) a short channel effect such as a punch-through, (2) an increase in the parasitic junction capacitance between the junction region and the substrate, and (3) an increase in the leakage current of the transistor.
  • In efforts to reduce and/or to eliminate one or more of the above-mentioned problems, studies have been performed in which the semiconductor devices are fabricated on various different types of substrates. By way of example, many solid state devices have been formed using silicon-on-insulator or “SOI” substrates in which a silicon layer is formed on an insulating layer. The use of SOI substrates can improve the characteristics of a semiconductor device in several ways, including reduced junction leakage current, reduced short channel effect, a lower operation voltage, and increased isolation. However, the use of SOI substrates can also give rise to several disadvantages. For example, a “floating body” effect can occur in devices with SOI substrates as a result of heat generated during operation of the device or via an accumulation of hot carriers having high energy. SOI devices also may tend to have reduced reliability if the threshold voltage is changed, because a back bias is not applied in SOI devices. In addition, since SOI field effect transistor technology requires connecting two substrates, the process for fabricating SOI devices tends to be more complicated and costly as compared to device fabrication processes using conventional bulk silicon substrates.
  • One specialized category of semiconductor devices are micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). MEMS technology may be used to create electric devices and machine parts which can be less than a millimeter in size. Typically, MEMS devices involve the fabrication of both electrical structures and mechanical structures on a micro scale using conventional semiconductor manufacturing techniques. A MEMS device might include, for example, various mechanical elements, actuators and electronics on a single silicon wafer.
  • Typically, the electronic components of a MEMS device are formed using conventional integrated circuit fabrication technology (e.g., CMOS, bipolar, BICOM processes), while the mechanical components are formed through a micromachining process that, for example is used to selectively etch part of the silicon wafer and/or to form mechanical or electromechanical elements on the substrate. With MEMS technology, all of the electrical and mechanical structures may be formed on a single silicon wafer.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • Embodiments of the present invention provide a heterogeneous semiconductor substrate. The heterogeneous semiconductor substrate according to certain embodiments comprise stacked semiconductor layers. Such heterogeneous semiconductor substrates may comprise a first semiconductor layer, a second semiconductor pattern that includes a plurality of individual elements on the first semiconductor layer, and a third semiconductor layer on the second semiconductor pattern and on a plurality of exposed portions of the first semiconductor layer. The first semiconductor layer, the second semiconductor pattern, and the third semiconductor layer may be formed of elements of Group IV of the periodic table (e.g., silicon or germanium) or a crystalline compound thereof (e.g., silicon-germanium). The first and third semiconductor layers may be formed of the same material. The second semiconductor pattern may be formed of a material having one or more different electrical and/or chemical properties as compared to the first and third semiconductor layers. The uppermost surface of the stacked semiconductor layers may be flat. The third semiconductor layer may be directly on the first semiconductor layer in exposed areas between the individual elements of the second semiconductor pattern.
  • Pursuant to further embodiments of the present invention, integrated circuits are provided which comprise a heterogeneous substrate that includes a first Group IV semiconductor layer, a second insulating pattern that includes a plurality of individual insulating regions on the first Group IV semiconductor layer and a third Group IV semiconductor layer on the second insulating pattern and on a plurality of exposed portions of the first Group IV semiconductor layer. One or more semiconductor devices are then provided on the heterogeneous substrate to complete the integrated circuit. In certain embodiments, the first Group IV semiconductor layer comprises a single crystalline silicon substrate and the third Group IV semiconductor layer comprises a silicon epitaxial layer. The second insulating pattern may take on a variety of different shapes, such as, for example, a plurality of parallel lines or a grid of individual islands.
  • In certain embodiments of these integrated circuits, the upper surfaces of the first Group IV semiconductor layer, the second insulating pattern and the third Group IV semiconductor layer may comprise planarized upper surfaces. The third Group IV semiconductor layer may be directly on the first Group IV semiconductor layer in exposed areas between the individual insulating regions of the second insulating pattern. The at least one semiconductor device may comprise a field effect transistor, and the source region and the drain region of this transistor may each overlap respective ones of the individual insulating regions of the second insulating pattern. The second insulating pattern may comprise a plurality of voids or a pattern of an insulating material
  • Pursuant to still further embodiments of the present invention, methods of forming a heterogeneous semiconductor substrate are provided. Pursuant to these methods, a second Group IV semiconductor pattern having a planar upper surface may be formed on a planar upper surface of a first Group IV semiconductor layer. A third Group IV semiconductor layer having a planar upper surface may then be formed on the planar upper surface of the second Group IV semiconductor pattern and on the planar upper surfaces of a plurality of exposed portions of the first Group IV semiconductor layer to provide the heterogeneous semiconductor substrate.
  • In certain embodiments of these methods, the third Group IV semiconductor layer may be formed by growing a primary Group IV epitaxial layer on the planar upper surface of the second Group IV semiconductor pattern and on the planar upper surfaces of the plurality of exposed portions of the first Group IV semiconductor layer at a first temperature such that a surface movement of the second Group IV semiconductor pattern does not occur. Then, a secondary Group IV epitaxial layer having a planar upper surface is formed at a second temperature such that a surface movement of the primary Group IV epitaxial layer occurs. In these methods, the first temperature may be between about 300° C. and about 800° C., and the second temperature may be between about 800° C. and about 1200° C.
  • In other embodiments, the third Group IV semiconductor layer may be formed by growing a Group IV epitaxial layer on the planar upper surface of the second Group IV semiconductor pattern and on the planar upper surfaces of the plurality of exposed portions of the first Group IV semiconductor layer at a first temperature such that a surface movement of the second Group IV semiconductor pattern does not occur. Then the upper surface of the Group IV epitaxial layer is planarized by performing a thermal process at a second temperature such that a surface movement of the Group IV epitaxial layer occurs. In these methods, the first temperature may be is between about 300° C. and about 800° C. The second temperature may be between about 600° C. and about 1200° C. when the thermal process is performed in a hydrogen gas ambient, and between about 900° C. and 1200° C. when the thermal process is performed in an argon gas ambient. In these methods, the first Group IV semiconductor layer may be a single crystalline silicon substrate, the second Group IV semiconductor pattern may be a silicon-germanium epitaxial pattern and the third Group IV semiconductor layer may be a silicon epitaxial layer.
  • Pursuant to still further embodiments of the present invention, methods of forming an integrated circuit are provided. Pursuant to these methods, a second Group IV semiconductor pattern is formed on a first Group IV semiconductor layer and a third Group IV semiconductor layer is formed on the second Group IV semiconductor pattern and on a plurality of exposed portions of the first Group IV semiconductor layer to provide a heterogeneous substrate. Then, at least one semiconductor device is formed on the heterogeneous substrate. Prior to forming the at least one semiconductor device, at least portions of the second Group IV semiconductor pattern may be selectively removed to provide a plurality of voids within the heterogeneous substrate. In certain embodiments of these methods, some of the plurality of voids may be at least partially filled with an insulating material.
  • In the above-described methods, the third Group IV semiconductor layer may be formed by growing a primary Group IV epitaxial layer on the second Group IV semiconductor pattern and on the plurality of exposed portions of the first Group IV semiconductor layer at a first temperature such that a surface movement of the second Group IV semiconductor pattern does not occur and then forming a secondary Group IV epitaxial layer having a planar upper surface at a second temperature that is higher then the first temperature such that a surface movement of the primary Group IV epitaxial layer occurs. In other embodiments, instead of forming a secondary Group IV epitaxial layer the upper surface of the Group IV epitaxial layer may be planarized by performing a thermal process at a second temperature that is higher then the first temperature such that a surface movement of the Group IV epitaxial layer occurs. The at least one semiconductor device may comprise a field effect transistor, and the source region of this transistor may overlap a first of the plurality of voids with an insulating material and the drain region of this transistor may overlap a second of the plurality of voids with an insulating material. In embodiments of the present invention, the first and second of the plurality of voids with an insulating material may be used to control the depth of the source region and the depth of the drain region, respectively.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The accompanying drawings, which are included to provide a further understanding of the invention and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this application, illustrate certain embodiment(s) of the invention. In the drawings:
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective view of a heterogeneous semiconductor substrate according to one embodiment of the present invention, wherein a part of the heterogeneous semiconductor substrate is removed to show its inner part.
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic perspective view of a heterogeneous semiconductor substrate according to another embodiment of the present invention, wherein a part of the heterogeneous semiconductor substrate is removed to show its inner part.
  • FIGS. 3-5 are cross-sectional views illustrating a method for forming the heterogeneous semiconductor substrate according to one embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a method for forming the heterogeneous semiconductor substrate according to another embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIGS. 7-11 are cross-sectional views illustrating a method for fabricating a semiconductor device according to embodiments of the present invention using the heterogeneous semiconductor substrate of FIG. 2.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • Embodiments of the present invention now will be described more fully hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which certain embodiments of the invention are shown. This invention may, however, be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein. Rather, these embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete, and will fully convey the scope of the invention to those skilled in the art. Like numbers refer to like elements throughout.
  • It will be understood that, although the terms first, second, etc. may be used herein to describe various elements, these elements should not be limited by these terms. These ten-s are only used to distinguish one element from another. For example, a first element could be termed a second element, and, similarly, a second element could be termed a first element, without departing from the scope of the present invention. As used herein, the term “and/or” includes any and all combinations of one or more of the associated listed items.
  • It will be understood that when an element such as a layer, region or substrate is referred to as being “on” or extending “onto” another element, it can be directly on or extend directly onto the other element or intervening elements may also be present. In contrast, when an element is referred to as being “directly on” or extending “directly onto” another element, there are no intervening elements present. It will also be understood that when an element is referred to as being “connected” or “coupled” to another element, it can be directly connected or coupled to the other element or intervening elements may be present. In contrast, when an element is referred to as being “directly connected” or “directly coupled” to another element, there are no intervening elements present. Other words used to describe the relationship between elements should be interpreted in a like fashion (i.e., “between” versus “directly between”, “adjacent” versus “directly adjacent”, etc.).
  • Relative terms such as “below” or “above” or “upper” or “lower” or “horizontal” or “vertical” may be used herein to describe a relationship of one element, layer or region to another element, layer or region as illustrated in the figures. It will be understood that these terms are intended to encompass different orientations of the device in addition to the orientation depicted in the figures.
  • Embodiments of the invention are described herein with reference to cross-section illustrations that are schematic illustrations of idealized embodiments (and intermediate structures) of the invention. The thickness of layers and regions in the drawings may be exaggerated for clarity. Additionally, variations from the shapes of the illustrations as a result, for example, of manufacturing techniques and/or tolerances, are to be expected. Thus, embodiments of the invention should not be construed as limited to the particular shapes of regions illustrated herein but are to include deviations in shapes that result, for example, from manufacturing. Thus, the regions illustrated in the figures are schematic in nature and their shapes are not intended to illustrate the actual shape of a region of a device and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.
  • The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the invention. As used herein, the singular forms “a”, “an” and “the” are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It will be further understood that the terms “comprises” “comprising,” “includes” and/or “including” when used herein, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof.
  • Unless otherwise defined, all terms (including technical and scientific terms) used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. It will be further understood that terms, such as those defined in commonly used dictionaries, should be interpreted as having a meaning that is consistent with their meaning in the context of the relevant art and will not be interpreted in an idealized or overly formal sense unless expressly so defined herein.
  • Pursuant to embodiments of the present invention, heterogeneous semiconductor substrates are provided which have a multi-layered semiconductor layer structure. The multiple layers in these heterogeneous semiconductor substrates may have different electrical and chemical properties. Various active or passive devices may then be formed on the heterogeneous semiconductor substrates.
  • FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary heterogeneous semiconductor substrate according to a first embodiment of the present invention. The heterogeneous semiconductor substrates according to this first embodiment have three stacked semiconductor layers. The second of these semiconductor layers is sandwiched between the first and third semiconductor layers and comprise a semiconductor pattern that is arranged in a suitable way. The second semiconductor pattern is formed to have electrical and/or chemical properties that are different than the electrical and chemical properties of both the first and third semiconductor layers. Herein, different electrical and chemical properties include, for example, different carrier mobilities, different etch rates with respect to a specific etchant (e.g., only one layer is etched at a high etch rate, and the other layer is etched at a low rate or not at all), etc. The top surface of the heterogeneous semiconductor substrate (i.e., a top surface of the third semiconductor layer) may be formed to have a flat profile.
  • As shown in FIG. 1, a heterogeneous semiconductor substrate 100 according to the first embodiment of the present invention comprises a first semiconductor layer 101, a second semiconductor pattern 103 that comprises a plurality of individual elements 103′, and a third semiconductor layer 105. The second semiconductor pattern 103 is formed on the first semiconductor layer 101. The third semiconductor layer 105 is formed on the first semiconductor layer so as to cover the second semiconductor pattern 103. That is, the third semiconductor layer 105 is in contact with the first semiconductor layer 101 except in the regions occupied by the individual elements 103′. In the particular embodiment of the present invention depicted in FIG. 1, the upper surface of the third semiconductor layer 105 is flat.
  • Although not depicted in FIG. 1, a plurality of semiconductor devices may be formed on the upper surface of the third semiconductor layer 105. For instance, a plurality of field effect transistors may be formed on the third semiconductor layer 105. In this case, the channel regions and the source/drain regions of the transistors are formed in the third semiconductor layer 105. Additionally, in other regions of the substrate 100, the second semiconductor pattern 103 may be exposed and selectively removed using, for example, conventional semiconductor device manufacturing processes. An insulating layer may then be formed in the region where the second semiconductor pattern 103 was selectively removed. In this way, the floating body effect that may occur when conventional SOI substrates are used may be reduced and/or eliminated alto-ether since the third semiconductor layer 105 is connected to the first semiconductor layer 101.
  • The first and third semiconductor layers 101, 105 and the second semiconductor pattern 103 may be formed of elements designated as Group IV in the Mendeleev periodic table, or of a crystalline compound of such elements. By way of example, the first semiconductor layer 101 may comprise a conventional bulk silicon substrate. The second semiconductor pattern 103 may, for example, comprise a silicon-germanium epitaxial pattern formed on the silicon substrate by an epitaxial growth technique. The third semiconductor layer 105 may comprise a silicon epitaxial layer, which is formed on the silicon substrate and the silicon germanium epitaxial pattern by an epitaxial growth technique. If the silicon-germanium pattern is a relaxed silicon-germanium pattern, the silicon epitaxial layer may be a strained silicon. Such a configuration may make it possible to increase carrier mobility.
  • Herein, references to “Group IV semiconductor layer”, “Group IV semiconductor pattern” and the like refer to a semiconductor layer or pattern (or the like) that include one or more Group IV semiconductor materials. Accordingly, a silicon layer or substrate, a germanium layer or substrate, a silicon-geranium layer or substrate are all examples of “Group IV semiconductor layers” as that term is used herein.
  • Other heterogeneous semiconductor substrates 100 according to the first embodiment of the present invention include (1) a silicon substrate 101, a germanium pattern 103 and a silicon layer 105, (2) a silicon-germanium substrate 101, a silicon pattern 103 and a silicon-germanium layer 105, and (3) a germanium substrate 101, a silicon pattern 103 and a germanium layer 105. However, these are merely examples, and it will be appreciated that numerous additional configurations for substrate 100 fall within the embodiments of the present invention shown in FIG. 1.
  • The individual elements 103′ of the second semiconductor pattern 103 may have various shapes that may, for example, be selected based on the desired electrical and/or mechanical properties of the device that is to be fabricated. Thus, for example, in FIG. 1, the second semiconductor pattern 103 includes rectangular shaped individual elements 103′. FIG. 2 depicts another exemplary embodiment of the present invention in which the individual elements 103′ are line-shaped. It will be appreciated that numerous different shapes may be used, and that not all of the individual elements need have the same shape.
  • Hereinafter, an exemplary method of forming heterogeneous semiconductor substrates according to the first embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. 3-7. As shown in FIG. 3, a silicon-germanium epitaxial layer 103 a is formed on a bulk silicon substrate 101 using an epitaxial growth technique. The epitaxial growth technique may be any conventional and/or non-conventional epitaxial growth technique such as, for example, vapor-phase epitaxy, molecular-beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), sputtering, etc. The epitaxial growth technique may, for example, use SiH4 as a source gas. In the exemplary case of FIG. 3 where a silicon-germanium epitaxial layer 103 a is formed using a CVD method, the reaction temperature may be between about 400° C. and 1000° C. The silicon-germanium epitaxial layer 103 a may be grown uniformly across the entire surface of the bulk silicon substrate 101.
  • Herein, references are made to growing various semiconductor layers “at” a certain temperature (e.g., “growing a first Group IV semiconductor layer at a first temperature” or “growing a first Group IV semiconductor layer at a temperature between about 300° C. and 800° C.”). It will be understood that this language covers growing the semiconductor layer at a single temperature or at multiple temperatures, so long as the growth temperatures fall within any recited range. It will further be understood that the recited temperatures refer to the temperature of the environment (e.g., the inside of a reactor) in which the semiconductor layer is grown. It will also be understood that some amount of growth may also occur at temperatures that are below the lower limit of any recited range, as might occur when a reactor in which the growth occurs is being heated up to the growth temperature(s).
  • As shown in FIG. 4, a photolithography process may be performed on the silicon-germanium epitaxial layer 103 a to form a silicon-germanium epitaxial pattern 103 that has a predetermined shape. As a result of this photolithography process, portions 104 of the bulk silicon substrate 101 are exposed. The silicon-germanium pattern 103 includes a lateral surface, an upper surface and a bottom surface that is in contact with the bulk silicon substrate 101. It will be appreciated that various other processes may be used to form the silicon-germanium epitaxial pattern 103.
  • As shown in FIG. 5, a primary silicon epitaxial layer 105 a may then be grown on the exposed portions of the bulk silicon substrate 101, and on the lateral surface and upper surfaces of the silicon-germanium epitaxial pattern 103. This primary silicon epitaxial later 105 may be grown, for example, using a conventional epitaxial growth technique. The growth of the primary silicon epitaxial later 105 may be performed at a temperature (typically a low temperature) which does not allow movement of the silicon or germanium that comprises the silicon-germanium epitaxial pattern 103, thereby maintaining the shape of the silicon-germanium pattern 103. The primary silicon epitaxial layer 105 may comprise a single crystalline epitaxial layer. As is also shown in FIG. 5, the upper surface of the primary silicon epitaxial layer 105 a may follow the surface shape of the lower semiconductor layers 101, 103. In other words, the primary silicon epitaxial layer 105 may grow conformally on the topology of the bulk silicon substrate and the silicon-germanium pattern. The primary silicon epitaxial layer 105 may be grown, for example, at temperatures between about 300° C. and about 800° C. so that significant distortion to the silicon-germanium epitaxial pattern does not occur.
  • Next, as shown in FIG. 6, a thermal process may be performed in, for example, a hydrogen gas or an argon gas ambient, and a surface of the primary curved silicon epitaxial layer 105 a is planarized. As a result, a silicon epitaxial layer 105 that has a flat upper surface may be formed. This thermal process may be performed at a high temperature (i.e., higher than the temperature used to grow the primary silicon epitaxial layer 105 a) which can enable the silicon of the primary silicon epitaxial layer 105 a to move, thereby allowing the formation of the silicon epitaxial layer 105 that has a flat upper surface. The movement of the silicon during a thermal process in a hydrogen ambient may result from continuous formation of silane from silicon and hydrogen (Si+2H2→SiH4) and dissolution of silane to silicon and hydrogen (SiH4→Si+2H2). Additionally, the silicon epitaxial layer typically will tend to flatten (i.e., form to a more stable state) at higher temperatures rather than remain in a curved (less stable) state. Since the silicon-germanium pattern 103 is protected by the primary silicon epitaxial layer 105 a, significant surface movement of the silicon-germanium does not occur during this subsequent thermal process. Therefore, the shape of the silicon-germanium pattern 103 may be maintained.
  • The temperature of the above-described thermal process that is performed in a hydrogen gas ambient may, for example, be between about 600° C. and about 1200° C. The temperature of thermal process when an argon gas ambient is used instead may, for example, be between about 900° C. and about 1200° C. Since not only thermal energy, but also the hydrogen gas itself, can act to planarize the upper surface of the primary epitaxial layer 105 when the thermal process is conducted in a hydrogen gas ambient, it may be possible to perform the planarization process at lower temperatures when a hydrogen gas ambient is used (as compared to, for example, an argon gas ambient).
  • Thus, in accordance with the first embodiment of the present invention, an epitaxial layer having a flat upper portion may be formed on a curved lower surface through a two step process comprising an epitaxial growth at a low temperature and a thermal process at a higher temperature.
  • According to further embodiments of the present invention, an epitaxial layer having a flat upper portion can be formed on a curved lower surface through two epitaxial growth steps as described hereinafter. In particular, after growing the primary silicon epitaxial layer 105 a of FIG. 5 using a low temperature growth step, an additional secondary epitaxial growth is performed at a higher temperature. As a result, as shown in FIG. 7, a secondary epitaxial layer 105 having a flat surface may be formed. Since the secondary epitaxial growth is performed at a (high) temperature where surface movement can occur, the curve-shaped profile of the primary epitaxial layer 105 a may gradually be flattened. Therefore, an upper surface of the secondary silicon epitaxial layer 105 is planarized. Moreover, since the silicon-germanium pattern 103 is already protected by the primary silicon epitaxial layer 105 a, the shape of the silicon-germanium pattern 103 may avoid significant distortion during the secondary epitaxial growth process. The temperature of the secondary epitaxial growth may, for example, be between about 600° C. and about 1200° C.
  • An exemplary embodiment of the present invention for forming a semiconductor device and/or an integrated circuit on a heterogeneous semiconductor substrate according to the above-mentioned method will now be described with reference to FIGS. 8-11. FIG. 8 shows the heterogeneous semiconductor substrate 100 formed by the above-mentioned method. As shown in FIG. 8, the heterogeneous semiconductor substrate 100 includes a bulk silicon substrate 101, a silicon-germanium pattern 103, and a silicon epitaxial layer 105. In this exemplary case, the individual elements 103′ of the silicon-germanium pattern 103 are line-shaped.
  • After preparing the heterogeneous semiconductor substrate 100, a device isolation process is performed. In particular, as shown in FIG. 9, a part of the heterogeneous semiconductor substrate 100 may be etched to form a trench 107 for isolating a device. In this case, the silicon epitaxial layer 105, the silicon-germanium epitaxial pattern 103, and the bulk silicon substrate are all etched as part of this isolation process.
  • Next, as shown in FIG. 10, the exposed silicon-germanium epitaxial pattern 103 is selectively removed, leaving empty spaces 109. The empty spaces 109 may be filled with insulating material for use in the formation of a device isolation region.
  • Next, as shown in FIG. 11, the trench 107 is filled with insulating materials to form a device isolation region 111. In specific embodiments of the present invention, this step may also be used to fill the empty spaces 109 with insulating materials. A thermal process can be performed before filling the trench 107 with insulating materials in order to form a silicon nitride layer which may act as an oxide barrier layer.
  • Next, as is also shown in FIG. 11, a gate oxide layer 113 may be formed, and a gate electrode 115 may be formed on the gate oxide layer 113. The gate electrode 115 may be formed on a portion of silicon epitaxial layer 105 that is between the empty spaces 109. The silicon epitaxial layer 105 under the gate electrode 115 functions as a channel region. Moreover, as shown in FIG. 11, the silicon epitaxial layer 105 under the gate electrode 115 is connected to the bulk silicon substrate 101, thereby avoiding the floating-body effect that may occur when a conventional SOI substrate is used.
  • After forming the gate electrode 115, source/drain regions 117 may be formed on the silicon epitaxial layer at both sides of the gate electrode 115 using, for example, an ion implantation process. Additionally, spacers 119 may be formed on the sidewalls of the gate electrode 115. As shown in FIG. 11, there is an empty space 109 (which, as discussed above, may be filled with an insulating material) under the silicon epitaxial layer on both sides of the gate electrode 115. As a result, punch-through is suppressed, and the junction parasitic capacitance may be reduced.
  • As is also shown in FIG. 11, each source/drain region 117 overlaps one of the empty spaces 109 (or any insulating material which is used to fill such empty spaces). By “overlap” it is meant that an axis exists which is perpendicular to the primary plane of the heterogeneous substrate 100 that bisects both the empty space 109 (or any insulating material which is used to fill such empty spaces) and the source/drain region 117.
  • In the meanwhile, the gate electrode 115 may be formed over the empty space 109. In this case, the source/drain regions are connected to the bulk silicon substrate with each other.
  • When the heterogeneous semiconductor substrates according to embodiments of the present invention are used in a conventional semiconductor manufacturing process, it may be possible to avoid problems such as the floating body effect that may arise when SOI techniques are used. By way of example, in integrated circuits in which the channel and source/drain regions for transistors are formed in the epitaxial silicon layer, the floating body effect and/or the accumulation of hot electrons can be reduced or minimized since the epitaxial silicon layer (i.e., the third semiconductor layer) is connected to the silicon substrate (i.e., the first semiconductor layer). Additionally, a back-bias voltage can be applied to the first semiconductor layer, so that the electric potential of source (drain) regions can be maintained at the same value throughout the wafer. This may facilitate providing transistors having a relatively constant threshold voltage. Furthermore, if the silicon-germanium epitaxial layer pattern (second semiconductor layer) is located under the source/drain regions and removed during the manufacturing process, it is possible to reduce and/or minimize junction leakage current between the source/drain regions and the substrate, and it may also facilitate controlling the depth of the source/drain regions.
  • In the drawings and specification, there have been disclosed typical embodiments of the invention and, although specific terms are employed, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation, the scope of the invention being set forth in the following claims.

Claims (4)

1. A heterogeneous semiconductor substrate, comprising:
a first Group IV semiconductor layer;
a second Group IV semiconductor pattern that includes a plurality of individual elements on the first Group IV semiconductor layer; and
a third Group IV semiconductor layer having a planarized upper surface on the second Group IV semiconductor pattern and on a plurality of exposed portions of the first Group IV semiconductor layer;
wherein the planarized upper surface of the third Group IV semiconductor layer comprises the upper surface of the heterogeneous semiconductor substrate.
2. The heterogeneous semiconductor substrate of claim 1, wherein the first Group IV semiconductor layer comprises a single crystalline silicon substrate, the second Group IV semiconductor pattern comprises a silicon-germanium epitaxial pattern, and the third Group IV semiconductor layer comprises a silicon epitaxial layer.
3. The heterogeneous semiconductor substrate of claim 1, wherein the first and third Group IV semiconductor layers comprise a first material and the second Group IV semiconductor pattern comprises a second material that has different electrical and chemical properties than the first material.
4. The heterogeneous semiconductor substrate of claim 1, wherein the third Group IV semiconductor layer is directly on the first Group IV semiconductor layer in exposed areas between the individual elements of the second Group IV semiconductor pattern.
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