US20080216445A1 - Monolithic Buildings and Construction Technology - Google Patents

Monolithic Buildings and Construction Technology Download PDF

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Publication number
US20080216445A1
US20080216445A1 US12/042,833 US4283308A US2008216445A1 US 20080216445 A1 US20080216445 A1 US 20080216445A1 US 4283308 A US4283308 A US 4283308A US 2008216445 A1 US2008216445 A1 US 2008216445A1
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permanent
assembly
concrete
studs
building
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US12/042,833
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Felix Langer
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Felix Langer
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Priority to US12/042,833 priority patent/US20080216445A1/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/86Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2/8647Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with ties going through the forms
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/16Structures made from masses, e.g. of concrete, cast or similarly formed in situ with or without making use of additional elements, such as permanent forms, substructures to be coated with load-bearing material
    • E04B1/165Structures made from masses, e.g. of concrete, cast or similarly formed in situ with or without making use of additional elements, such as permanent forms, substructures to be coated with load-bearing material with elongated load-supporting parts, cast in situ

Abstract

The present invention relates to new useful improvements in monolithic building construction that will reduce significantly the cost of it and will simplify the entire process and provide an outstanding quality. The innovation of the present invention is the idea to use a conventional material (drywall, backboard, brick, precast decorative stone, ceramic tile, etc), which usually is being applied to already build monolithic concrete structure, to assemble a form in which the concrete will be poured to raise the structure itself.

Description

  • This application claims priority of the provisional application No. 60/893,949 and filing date Mar. 09, 2007
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates to a monolithic reinforced concrete structure using a system of permanent forms.
  • 2. Description of the Prior Art
  • All reinforced monolithic building construction requires forms to mold the concrete into the different structural shapes required to carry the building loads. The forms create the voids where steel reinforcing rods are placed followed by filling with concrete in its fluid state, which is poured creating the structural components such as columns, walls, beams, floors, and roof slabs.
  • There are several ways to build monolithic reinforced concrete.
  • First is conventional. Forms assembled at the job site and then removed after reinforced concrete is cured. In such construction, concrete forms are erected at the site, steel reinforcement rods placed in the forms, and concrete poured into the forms creates walls, load bearing columns, and floors of reinforced concrete.
  • A second way to build reinforced concrete structures is to prefabricate the components in a factory. Fabrication of construction components can be carried out at lower cost in a factory setting. This type of construction method is known as precast concrete structural components. This is accomplished by the manufacture of all or part of a structure at an off-site factory and then transporting the components to the site for assembly.
  • There is a third way of constructing monolithic strictures. The method requires forms that will stay in place after poured concrete is cured. This method provides relatively lightweight, prefabricated building components that are erected on site and reinforced with poured concrete.
  • The system could employ a variety of precast glass-fiber reinforced concrete (GRC) components or other forms comprising from polystyrene or other synthetic materials.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 3,300,943 (1967, Owens) discloses a tilt-up building system for producing a monolithic construction. Prefabricated reinforced wall panels are tilted-up or raised to vertical positions of support upon vertical spacer members positioned upon a continuous footing at longitudinally spaced intervals. There are gaps between the panels and footings where reinforcing rods are positioned and secured. The gaps are then formed in to define voids and concrete is poured in to fill the void forming a reinforced concrete belt between the panels and footings. The forms are then removed from the panels and footings.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 2,043,697 (1936, Deichmann) discloses the method of constructing buildings using precast walls, which reduces the labor and equipment required at the point of erection.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 3,712,008 (1973, Georgiev et al.) discloses a modular building construction system in which prefabricated modules are supported on a separate framework, the individual members of the framework also being modular and prefabricated. The prefabricated modules are generally constructed off the site and assembled together on the job during erection of the building.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 6,119,432 (2000, Niemann) discloses an insulated concrete form wall building system which includes a pair of spaced apart elongated expanded polystyrene sidewalls, each having opposed inner surfaces that are formed with longitudinally spaced apart vertically oriented ribs that terminate in substantially flat surfaces to abut against one another to serve as a concrete wall form. The ribs define channels for receiving concrete poured therein to form a composite polystyrene and concrete wall structure.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 7,185,467 (2007, Marty) discloses a permanent form building assembly includes one or more GRC forms having a one or more open cavities and a reinforcement structure. The GRC forms are designed and configured for a predetermined application. The reinforcement structure is inserted within the open cavities of the GRC forms prior to filling with concrete. After concrete is cured all the form will stay in place creating a permanent structure.
  • A disadvantage of the prior art regarding conventional method is that the method still requires extensive amounts of on-site labor, which can be quite expensive. It also requires permanent storage for the forms plus the forms itself need quite expensive maintenance. The construction has limited dimensional accuracy and wasteful in material consumption. Also, once the forms are stripped, the unfinished reinforced concrete surfaces require plastering or the use of other finishes like brick, tiles, stone, etc.
  • Disadvantages of the prior art regarding precast concrete structural components are significant capital cost, increased weight and size of the structural components that requires costly transportation and expensive hoisting equipment. In addition precast concrete structural components depends on field point connections (e.g., welded steel plates, anchor bolts, post-tensioned cables, etc.).
  • A disadvantage of the prior art regarding permanent lightweight, prefabricated building forms that are erected on site is that the method still incurs a significant capital cost (a specific plant should be built in order to produce lightweight, prefabricated building forms). The method still requires hoisting equipment, when forms comprise from glass-fiber reinforced concrete (GRC) components and outer and inner shells of the building still would need a significant amount of plastering or use of other finisfes like brik, tiles, stone, etc.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • One of the major innovations of the present invention is the idea to use a conventional material (drywall, backboard, brick, precast decorative stone, ceramic tile, etc), which usually is being applied to already erect monolithic concrete structure to assemble a form in which the concrete will be poured to raise the structure itself. Another words instead of raising concrete foundation, walls, beams, pillars, etc. using removable forms and then cover with decorative material (drywall, backboard, brick, precast decorative stone, etc) this invention offers to use decorative materials to assemble the permanent forms that will be used to raise monolithic concrete structure.
  • The walls could be constructed as a load bearing or non-load bearing, depending of the requirements. For load bearing walls the entire forms must be filled with conventional reinforced concrete. For non-load bearing walls the load bearing portion of the forms, columns and beams should be filled with high-density reinforced concrete. When the concrete is cured this part of the monolithic wall would bear the load. The rest of the form should be filled with some kind of lightweight concrete (cellular, foamed, aired concrete) providing a good isolation for the entire structure. If a greater insulations are required the additional insulation material (polystyrene sheets) for instance could be placed prior poured concrete introduce to the form assembly.
  • The advantages of this new method are quite obvious:
    • 1. Two steps in the process of constructing monolithic walls could be skipped. First the forms do not have to be disassembled after concrete is cured due to the fact that the form is part of monolithic wall. Second there is no need to cover cured concrete since the forms are the permanent exterior and interior of the constructed building.
    • 2. The forms could be assembled at the construction site, or somewhere else and then delivered to the site. In any case there are absolutely no need to use a crane. No more then two workers are refigured to lift any parts of the form assembly. The fact that no crane or other hoisting equipments need to be used during construction is extremely important. Elimination of the expensive hoisting equipment from construction site will reduce the cost of any construction project significantly.
    • 3. Most of the procedures do not require the use of skilled labor that is also economical for the whole process.
    • 4. It is important to notice that in most cases the construction materials could be obtained through wholesales. There are no needs to manufacture any specific components. Almost any unique project could be started immediately and all the material is ready and available.
    • 5. The entire process is extremely safe for the workers. During construction of high-rise buildings if the outer exterior of a permanent form assembly will be constructed from decorative stone or brick the workers do not have to be outside of the building walls as all the work could be done from inside and therefore no need to provide unsafe device for the workers to hang outside buildings walls during construction of high-rise buildings.
  • In addition, there is no need to provide any kind of protection fence during construction of the high floors. The protection will be accomplished by raising the exterior surface of the forms which will be assembled from inside. The exterior surface of the forms may be raised at least four feet above the selling before the selling itself (next floor) will be constructed. When the workers start working on the next floor, the exterior part of the forms (brick, drywall, precast decorative stone, etc.) will be raised like a fence all around the floor. That fence/exterior surface of the forms would be the best protection for the workers.
  • It needs to be noted that the ordinary drywall must be covered with waterproof substance for instance, painted by gloss or semi gloss or covered with other water-resistant material) on the inner surface, which will be introduce to concrete. Presently there are manufactures who producing variety of drywalls with unique properties. Gypsum Corporation offering drywalls covered with fiberglass mesh, which provides excellent waterproofing characteristics. The drywalls covered with fiberglass on both sides or on one side. The side covered with fiberglass is ready to be introduced to concrete and other side covered by paper ready to by painted. The company has different sizes of drywalls ( 4/8′, 4/9′, 4/10′, 4/11′, 4/12′). The thickness could be 1/2″ or ⅝″. Use of ⅝″ is preferable. It is stronger and requires fewer reinforcements during assembling into the forms.
  • In order to provide supportive structure to assemble the forms metal nonstructural or light gauge metal studs could be used. It is also possible to assemble the forms using wooden studs, expanded polystyrene studs and extruded polystyrene studs (2×3, 2×4, 2×6). Other permanent components that will maintain the space between two or more parallel surfaces could be used before poured and then cured concrete stabilize the entire structure. The size of the studs could be different depending on required thickness of the walls. In any case in order to get a strong monolithic wall is strongly recommended to use rebar and provide an openings for poured concrete to travel within the form and to the next form assembly. The size and shape of the openings may vary.
  • The studs themselves in this invention are not load bearing elements for a finished wall but would provide enough support for the forms until poured reinforced concrete is cured. To attach polystyrene studs to the forms shells different material could be used. For instance, glue or metal brackets (especially when it needs to be attached to brick or precast decorative stone form's shells).
  • If desired and when precast decorative stones are used to assemble forms, which will be then introduced and bounded by a poured concrete, a “Lego construction technology” could be used. The stones could be assembled into the form's shell without or with very limited amount of tile glue or thin set. This technology requires manufacture of a specific precast decorative stone, which should have knobs and holes or different shapes that will feet to each other. The precast decorative stones will perfectly come together during assemble by non-skilled workers. After pored concrete is cured the assembled forms will become a monolithic structure. The size of the precast decorative stone could vary but the criteria is to manufacture it within the size and weight that will be easy to assembly by one or two workers without using any hoist equipment. The wall will be constructed much faster and without loosing the quality.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 Illustrates a portion of an assembled form comprise from brick metal studs and drywall with the opening for a window.
  • FIG. 2 is a corner fragment of monolithic wall with a sectional view, which shows construction details of the form. The components are expended polystyrene or wooden studs and drywall.
  • FIG. 3 is a corner fragment of monolithic wall with a sectional view, which shows construction details of the form. The components are metal studs; decorative stone and drywall.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
  • The construction elements of the present invention are discussed further with particular reference to the drawings in which:
  • FIG. 1 illustrates a portion of an assembled form with the opening for a window. The forms constructed from bricks 11 that in this case serve, as external shells, do not bear the load of the building structure. Precast decorative stone, backboard or a special double-sided waterproofed drywall by fiberglass or other waterproof material, could replace the brick. Metal studs 6 are attached to the brick wall with screws 14. Window opening 9 is also constructed from the metal studs using metal brackets 13 and 5 and fastened with ½-in. screws 10. Wooden studs instead of metal studs could be used. Reinforcing bars connection 12 could be accomplished by welding or a metal ring over crossing bars or any other rebar connectors could be used. Reinforcing bars 7 will provide a strong connection within monolithic wall through the openings 8.The openings 8 illustrated as a very small circle. In fact it could be any shape and significantly bigger in size. Extremely robust structure could by achieved overall by increasing the size of the openings 8. The only concern is that the regular metal studs may not be available with significant openings and a special order may be required to obtain those metal studs. Finally the internal side 1 of the form assembly should be constructed using regular drywalls ⅝ with waterproofed surface from inside. Gloss or semi gloss paint or other waterproofing material could be used to provide waterproofing from inside where concrete will be dispensed. It also recommended using a gypsum board, product of Gypsum Corporation (⅝″ DensGard abuse and mold resistance for interior walls). Regular self-tapping drywall screws 1¼ inches 2 could be used to attach them to the studs. The space under the metal stud 4 should be filled with concrete prior installation of the stud itself. To secure stud 4 brackets 5 should be used.
  • FIG. 2 is a corner fragment of monolithic wall with a sectional view, which shows construction details of the form. The components are expended polystyrene or wooden studs 15 that hold external shell (⅝″ DensGlass Gold Exterior sheathing) 16 and internal shell, 17 regular gypsum board covered from inside with waterproof material (for instance waterproof paint) or special gypsum board (⅝″ DensGard abuse and mold resistance for interior walls). Both shells, external and internal could be attached to the wooden studs by 1¼ inches screws 19. To attach expended polystyrene studs, fast drying glue could be used instead. Openings 20 and 26 are used to extend reinforcing bars surrounded by the concrete to provide reliable connections within monolithic wall and the structure overall. The reinforcing bars are positioned not only horizontally but vertically as well. The reinforced metal bars 18 will provide strong connections in vertical directions. The size and shape of the openings 20 and 26 may vary as openings 8 in FIG. 1. Connection 23 serves the same purpose as the connection 12 FIG. 1, and it could be accomplished by welding or a metal ring over crossing bars or any other rebar connectors could be used.
  • It needs to be noted that Monolithic wall could be constructed as a self load-bearing unit, where consequently the entire form will be introduced to same high density poured concrete. As an option and for the best performance the monolithic wall and consequently monolithic structure could be build as a combination of load-bearing and non load-bearing parts. Components 21 and 28, FIG. 2 are non-bearing parts of the wall poured with lightweight concrete and part 22 poured with a high-density concrete, which in this case functioning as a load-bearing unit of the monolithic wall. The use of different types of concrete to built monolithic wall provides an opportunity to construct lightweight high-rise buildings with greater insulation values. FIG. 2 illustrates a combination of two types of concrete the lightweight (foam, cellular) 21, 28 and high-density concrete 22 with significant amount of reinforcing bars inside 27. Brackets 24 and 29 are used to fasten corners of exterior gypsum boars and corners studs with screws 25.
  • FIG. 3 is a corner fragment of monolithic wall with a sectional view similar to FIG. 2. However, there are few differences. The frames of the forms are constructed using metal studs 33,45,46. Precast decorative stones blocks 30,48 represent an exterior shell form assembly, and gypsum board 31 with waterproofing finishes on the internal side, acts as interior. Raising exterior's shell from precast stones or bricks is the first step of the form assembly construction. After the exterior shell from stone or brick is installed, the metal studs should be attached to it using regular 1½ inches screws 44. Then the gypsum boards with waterproofing finishes could be fastened to the metal studs by self-tapping drywall screws 32. Bracket 42 is used to fasten the corners of the metal studs. The openings 49 are used to provide strong connection between the sections of monolithic wall by reinforced metal bar 35 and the concrete 36,39. As mentioned above those openings could vary in size and shape. Vertical reinforced metal bars 34 provides connection with the next floor up and down and is connected with parallel reinforced bar by welding or by any other rebar connectors 38. The monolithic wall could be load-bearing when the entire form is filled with regular concrete or it could be non-load bearing as it shows on FIG. 3 when 36,37 is lightweight (foam, cellular) concrete and 39, 40 is high-density concrete with significant amount of reinforced metal bars 41. In order to protect the workers during construction of the high floors, the exterior shells of the forms 43 could be raised at least four feet above the next ceiling level before the ceiling itself (next floor) will be constructed. FIG. 3 shows precast stones, but it could be bricks or drywalls. When the workers start working on the next floor, the exterior shells of the forms (brick, decorative stone, etc.) will be raised all around the floor.
  • External shell of the forms could be assembled with precast decorative stone 48 using holes 47,50. The stones could slide into each other using “Lego technology”. The decorative stones for “Lego technology” should be molded from lightweight concrete (white or colored) prior to assembling. In this case the assembling of the external shell from precast decorative stones would not require the use of skilled labor.

Claims (14)

1. A method of constructing a building where the outer shell and inner shell of the building is constructed before the bearing structural components: foundation, columns, walls, beams, of the building is erected, where outer and inner shells of the building is a permanent form assembly comprising of two or more parallel surfaces connected to each other by a components which has a purpose to maintain an open channel with a defined size between them, where the concrete is being poured
2. A permanent form assembly of claim 1 could be assembled at the construction site, or somewhere else and then delivered to the site where in any case is no need to use a crane or hoisting equipments.
3. A plurality of a permanent form assembly comprising of two or more parallel surfaces of claim 1 forming a supporting foundation, defining a perimeter of a building.
4. A plurality of a permanent form assembly comprising of two parallel surfaces of claim 1 forming a first enclosure of said building.
5. A plurality of a permanent form assembly comprising of two or more parallel surfaces of claim 1 forming a next enclosure which placed on top of the first enclosure; and so on forming a multistory building.
6. A plurality of a permanent form assembly comprising of two or more parallel surfaces of claim 1 should contain vertical reinforcing bars to provide connections with a supporting foundation claim 3, first enclosure claim 4 and next enclosure claim 5.
7. A plurality of a permanent form assembly comprising of two or more parallel surfaces of claim 1 should contain horizontal reinforcing bars structures to provide connections within permanent form assembly and to the next form assembly and to all the perimeters of a building.
8. Two or more parallel surfaces of permanent form assembly of claim 1 comprising: of drywall covered with waterproof substance, backboard, brick, precast decorative stone, or other waterproof shells; the size and the shape of the said surfaces could vary.
9. A component, which has a purpose to maintain an open channel with a defined size between outer and inner, shells of claim 1 comprising: of parallel nonstructural or light gauge metal studs, wooden studs, polystyrene studs or other permanent components that will maintain the space between two or more parallel surfaces.
10. Metal studs, wooden studs, polystyrene studs of claim 9 should have openings for poured concrete to be able to travel within permanent form assembly and to the next permanent form assembly to provide bounding to a plurality of a permanent form assembly after poured concrete is cured; the distance between to parallel studs should be between 12 to 18 inches.
11. Metal studs, wooden studs, polystyrene studs of claim 9 should have openings to provide space for reinforcing bars to pass through the permanent form assembly and to the next permanent form assembly to provide bounding to a plurality of a permanent form assembly after poured concrete is cured.
12. A plurality of a permanent form assembly of claim 1 could be filled with high-density concrete or lightweight concrete (cellular, foamed, aired) or with combination of both.
13. The workers do not have to be outside of the building's walls if the outer exterior of a permanent form assembly of claim 1 constructed from precast decorative stone or brick as all the work could be done from inside and therefore no need to provide any kind of protection fence during construction of high-rise buildings.
14. Precast decorative stone could be assembled into the form's shell claim 1 using “Lego technology” without or with very limited amount of tile glue or thin set, which will be then introduced and bounded by a poured concrete.
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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080005990A1 (en) * 2003-10-06 2008-01-10 Oscar Marty Modular system of permanent forms for casting reinforced concrete buildings on site
US8720160B1 (en) * 2011-09-14 2014-05-13 Alan Brian Cooper Process for forming concrete walls and other vertically positioned shapes
US8827235B1 (en) 2012-05-11 2014-09-09 William L. Fisher, III Concrete form for building foundation construction with form insert creating recessed sections
US20150101263A1 (en) * 2012-05-14 2015-04-16 Nev-X Systems Limited Building foundation
US20150275462A1 (en) * 2012-02-02 2015-10-01 Empire Technology Development Llc Modular concrete reinforcement
CN105064500A (en) * 2015-07-17 2015-11-18 南通德源建设工程科技有限公司 Balcony beam slab inner side filling wall body and main body structure integral casting construction method
US9523201B2 (en) * 2014-09-12 2016-12-20 Sergei V. Romanenko Construction components having embedded internal support structures to provide enhanced structural reinforcement for, and improved ease in construction of, walls comprising same
CN106677418A (en) * 2017-01-12 2017-05-17 云南昆钢建设集团有限公司 Cast-in-situ ardealite based early strength fireproof composite wallboard and preparation method thereof
US20180051456A1 (en) * 2016-08-22 2018-02-22 Jessie Edward Hudlow Disaster-resistant structure and method for securing disaster-resistant structures to a body of cast material

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US20010029717A1 (en) * 1997-02-04 2001-10-18 Spakousky John G. Composite building block with modular connective structure
US20020017070A1 (en) * 2000-06-30 2002-02-14 Batch Juan R. Plastic module for insulated concrete waffle wall
US6363683B1 (en) * 1998-01-16 2002-04-02 James Daniel Moore, Jr. Insulated concrete form
US6536172B1 (en) * 1999-06-01 2003-03-25 Victor A. Amend Insulating construction form and manner of employment for same
US6935081B2 (en) * 2001-03-09 2005-08-30 Daniel D. Dunn Reinforced composite system for constructing insulated concrete structures
US20070062144A1 (en) * 2003-10-13 2007-03-22 Soo-Chang Moon Fiber reinforced cement board and foam plastic insulated stay in place forms systems with perforated metal stud for cencrete reinforced structure
US7415804B2 (en) * 2002-09-05 2008-08-26 Coombs Jerry D Isulated concrete form having welded wire form tie

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US20010029717A1 (en) * 1997-02-04 2001-10-18 Spakousky John G. Composite building block with modular connective structure
US6363683B1 (en) * 1998-01-16 2002-04-02 James Daniel Moore, Jr. Insulated concrete form
US6536172B1 (en) * 1999-06-01 2003-03-25 Victor A. Amend Insulating construction form and manner of employment for same
US20020017070A1 (en) * 2000-06-30 2002-02-14 Batch Juan R. Plastic module for insulated concrete waffle wall
US6935081B2 (en) * 2001-03-09 2005-08-30 Daniel D. Dunn Reinforced composite system for constructing insulated concrete structures
US7415804B2 (en) * 2002-09-05 2008-08-26 Coombs Jerry D Isulated concrete form having welded wire form tie
US20070062144A1 (en) * 2003-10-13 2007-03-22 Soo-Chang Moon Fiber reinforced cement board and foam plastic insulated stay in place forms systems with perforated metal stud for cencrete reinforced structure

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080005990A1 (en) * 2003-10-06 2008-01-10 Oscar Marty Modular system of permanent forms for casting reinforced concrete buildings on site
US8720160B1 (en) * 2011-09-14 2014-05-13 Alan Brian Cooper Process for forming concrete walls and other vertically positioned shapes
US9725867B2 (en) * 2012-02-02 2017-08-08 Empire Technology Development Llc Modular concrete reinforcement
US20150275462A1 (en) * 2012-02-02 2015-10-01 Empire Technology Development Llc Modular concrete reinforcement
US8827235B1 (en) 2012-05-11 2014-09-09 William L. Fisher, III Concrete form for building foundation construction with form insert creating recessed sections
US9428901B2 (en) * 2012-05-14 2016-08-30 Nev-X Systems Limited Modular building system
US20150101263A1 (en) * 2012-05-14 2015-04-16 Nev-X Systems Limited Building foundation
US9523201B2 (en) * 2014-09-12 2016-12-20 Sergei V. Romanenko Construction components having embedded internal support structures to provide enhanced structural reinforcement for, and improved ease in construction of, walls comprising same
CN105064500A (en) * 2015-07-17 2015-11-18 南通德源建设工程科技有限公司 Balcony beam slab inner side filling wall body and main body structure integral casting construction method
US20180051456A1 (en) * 2016-08-22 2018-02-22 Jessie Edward Hudlow Disaster-resistant structure and method for securing disaster-resistant structures to a body of cast material
CN106677418A (en) * 2017-01-12 2017-05-17 云南昆钢建设集团有限公司 Cast-in-situ ardealite based early strength fireproof composite wallboard and preparation method thereof

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