US20100058687A1 - Method of constructing a multi-storey building using prefabricated modular panels - Google Patents

Method of constructing a multi-storey building using prefabricated modular panels Download PDF

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US20100058687A1
US20100058687A1 US12/205,496 US20549608A US2010058687A1 US 20100058687 A1 US20100058687 A1 US 20100058687A1 US 20549608 A US20549608 A US 20549608A US 2010058687 A1 US2010058687 A1 US 2010058687A1
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panels
concrete
floor
building
panel
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US12/205,496
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Bernard M. NORMAND
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Normand Bernard M
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/16Structures made from masses, e.g. of concrete, cast or similarly formed in situ with or without making use of additional elements, such as permanent forms, substructures to be coated with load-bearing material
    • E04B1/165Structures made from masses, e.g. of concrete, cast or similarly formed in situ with or without making use of additional elements, such as permanent forms, substructures to be coated with load-bearing material with elongated load-supporting parts, cast in situ
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/30Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure
    • E04C2/38Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure with attached ribs, flanges, or the like, e.g. framed panels
    • E04C2/384Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure with attached ribs, flanges, or the like, e.g. framed panels with a metal frame
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/86Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2/8623Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with spacers and at least one form leaf being monolithic
    • E04B2/8629Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with spacers and at least one form leaf being monolithic with both form leaves and spacers being monolithic

Abstract

A method of constructing a multi-storey building entails using prefabricated modular wall panels and floor panels. The prefabricated wall panels have a frame that includes studs, rebar and an upright channel into which concrete is poured and cured to form a concrete column (or a hybrid steel-and-concrete column). Prefabricated floor panels have a frame that includes joists, sheathing and a trench-like track that forms a trough for receiving concrete that cures in the trough to create a concrete beam (or a hybrid steel-and-concrete beam). This novel method is extremely efficient for constructing multi-storey buildings, substantially reducing both construction costs and construction time.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This is the first application filed for the present technology.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The present technology relates generally to building construction and, in particular, to the construction of buildings using prefabricated components.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Cast-in-place concrete (CIPC) is commonly used to construct both low-rise and high-rise buildings. This technique requires concrete forms to be installed and then removed after the concrete is poured and cured. This is both time-consuming and expensive, thus increasing the overall construction time and construction cost for a given building.
  • In addition, it is typical practice for the formwork, steel reinforcement and the fabrication of concrete elements to be done by one trade and the infilling between the columns with steel studs and exterior sheathing, along with the interior demising partition, done by another trade. The same holds true for low-rise structural steel construction with open web joists and concrete slabs, which are erected by one trade, followed by infilling of exterior curtain and interior demising partitions by another trade. Because both of these methods involve using multiple trades, coordination can become problematic, i.e. there is more room for error when more than one trade is responsible for interrelated tasks. This in turn can lead to construction delays and a higher overall construction cost.
  • Furthermore, in cold-weather climates, typical construction techniques can be problematic. For example, extensive tarping is often required to keep the interior of the unfinished building warm and dry.
  • From the foregoing, it is apparent that the prior-art construction techniques need to be improved. Accordingly, there remains a need in the construction industry for a more efficient technique for constructing a building.
  • SUMMARY
  • In general, the present technology provides an innovative method of constructing a multi-storey building by using prefabricated modular wall panels and prefabricated modular floor panels. The novel prefabricated wall panels have a frame that includes studs and an upright channel into which concrete is poured and cured to form a concrete column (or a hybrid steel-and-concrete column). Similarly, the novel prefabricated floor panels have a frame that includes joists, sheathing and a trench-like track that forms a trough for receiving concrete that cures in the trough to create a concrete beam (or a hybrid steel-and-concrete beam).
  • Thus, a main aspect of the present technology is a method of constructing a building, the method involving steps of preparing a construction site by pouring a floor slab with upright rebar positioned to align with load-bearing concrete columns that are to be poured, erecting an assembly of modular prefabricated wall panels by connecting the wall panels to define one or more walls of the building, the wall panels comprising a frame having a plurality of substantially vertical members, a subset of the plurality of substantially vertical members being closed channels, laying modular prefabricated floor panels onto a top end of the assembly of modular prefabricated wall panels, the floor panels comprising a frame having a plurality of horizontally arranged joists and a sheathing mounted onto the frame, each of the floor panels further comprising a trench-like track that acts as a trough for receiving rebar and concrete, and pouring concrete into the troughs in the floor panels for flowing into the channels, the concrete curing in the troughs to form horizontal concrete beams and curing in the channels to form concrete columns. This completes the walls and load-bearing columns. A roof can then be added for a simple one-storey building. However, the main utility of this invention lies in building multi-storey buildings. Thus, in the context of the construction a multi-storey building, the method would further comprise steps of erecting wall panels and laying modular prefabricated floor panels onto a top end of the assembly of modular prefabricated wall panels, the floor panels comprising a frame having a plurality of horizontally arranged joists and a sheathing mounted onto the frame, each of the floor panels further comprising a trench-like track that acts as a trough for receiving rebar and concrete. The method would also furthermore comprise laying reinforcing rods horizontally over the floor panels and then pouring concrete over the reinforcing rods and into the troughs in the floor panels, the concrete curing to form horizontal concrete beams that are aligned with and supported from below by the load-bearing rebar and concrete columns.
  • For completion of the second floor, the method would further comprise steps of erecting a third-storey assembly of modular prefabricated wall panels on top of the floor panels, the wall panels having closed channels and then pouring concrete into the troughs which enable concrete to flow into the closed channels through an open top end of each of the closed channels. The concrete cures in the troughs and closed channels to form second-storey load-bearing concrete beams and columns within the floor and wall panels of the second storey. The second-storey horizontal concrete beams are aligned with and supported from below by the concrete columns.
  • In like fashion, to complete yet a further floor, the method would further involve installing another set of wall and floor panels and then pouring concrete over the floor, into the troughs and into the channels, the concrete curing in the troughs and channels to form horizontal concrete beams and vertical columns. The beams are aligned with and supported from below by the load-bearing concrete columns.
  • To build further floors, this process can be repeated. In other words, for building further floors, the method would further involve steps of erecting wall panels, laying floor panels, placing rebar, pouring concrete beams and columns within the troughs and channels in the floor and walls panels.
  • Another main aspect of the present invention is a modular prefabricated wall panel for use in constructing a building. The wall panel has a frame having a plurality of spaced-apart vertically arranged studs and a vertically arranged closed channel within which concrete can be poured and cured. This wall panel also has a sheet of exterior cladding attached to one side of the frame.
  • Yet another main aspect of the present invention is a modular prefabricated floor panel for use in constructing a building. The floor panel has a pair of spaced-apart frames, each frame comprising a plurality of spaced-apart horizontally arranged joists and a sheathing attached to each frame. This floor panel also has a trench-like track connected to each of the pair of spaced-apart frames panels to thereby define a trough between the frames for receiving rebar and concrete.
  • By implementing the method outlined above and the wall and floor panels introduced above, it is possible to construct a novel multi-storey building, which thus represents another main aspect of this invention. This novel multi-storey building has a plurality of modular prefabricated wall panels assembled together to form the walls of the building, the wall panels comprising upright channels into which rebar is placed and concrete is poured and cured to form hybrid steel-and-concrete load-bearing columns. This multi-storey building also has a plurality of modular prefabricated floor panels assembled together to form the floors of the building, the floor panels comprising horizontal troughs into which concrete is poured and cured to form hybrid steel-and-concrete horizontal beams.
  • In one main implementation of this technology, the concrete columns are aligned with and supported by the concrete beams of the storey immediately below while the concrete beams are, in turn, aligned with and supported by the concrete columns of the storey immediately below.
  • This innovative construction method is highly efficient, thus reducing construction time and construction cost when building multi-storey buildings.
  • The details and particulars of these aspects of the technology will now be described below, by way of example, with reference to the attached drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • Further features and advantages of the present technology will become apparent from the following detailed description, taken in combination with the appended drawings, in which:
  • FIG. 1 is a flowchart depicting steps of constructing a building in accordance with an aspect of the present invention;
  • FIG. 2 is a flowchart depicting steps of constructing a building in accordance with another aspect of the present invention;
  • FIG. 3 is a flowchart depicting steps of constructing a building in accordance with another aspect of the present invention;
  • FIG. 4 is a flowchart depicting steps of constructing a building in accordance with another aspect of the present invention;
  • FIG. 5 is an isometric view of a wall panel in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 6 is an isometric view of a floor panel in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 7 is an isometric view of the floor panel of FIG. 6 overlaid with reinforcing rod;
  • FIG. 8 is an isometric view of the floor panel of FIG. 6 after concrete has been poured;
  • FIG. 9 is an isometric view of a floor slab at a construction site;
  • FIG. 10 is an isometric view schematically depicting the assembly of ground floor wall panels on the floor slab;
  • FIG. 11 is an isometric view schematically depicting the assembly of floor panels on the wall panels;
  • FIG. 12 is an isometric view schematically depicting assembly of second-storey wall panels;
  • FIG. 13 is an isometric view schematically depicting the laying of second-storey floor panels on top of the assembly of wall panels;
  • FIG. 14 is an isometric view schematically depicting a the concrete beams and columns poured and cured for the first storey;
  • FIG. 15 is an isometric view schematically depicting assembly of wall and floor panels on the third storey in preparation for pouring concrete for the second storey;
  • FIG. 16 is an isometric view schematically depicting the concrete columns and beams that have been poured and cured for the second storey;
  • FIGS. 17 and 17A are elevation and cross-sectional views of an example of a wall panel having a window;
  • FIGS. 18 and 18A are top plan and front views of an example of a floor panel;
  • FIGS. 19A-19D are plan views of exemplary wall panel assemblies for each of the various storeys of a multi-storey building, presented by way of example;
  • FIG. 19E is an exemplary shoring plan, presented by way of example;
  • FIGS. 20A-20E are plans views of exemplary floor panel assemblies for each of the various storeys of the same multi-storey building, again presented by way of example;
  • FIG. 20F is an example of a roof plan showing exemplary panel layout;
  • FIGS. 21A-21E-3 are various elevation views of the multi-storey building;
  • FIGS. 22A-22N are various cross-sectional views that are referenced in FIGS. 20B and 20C;
  • FIG. 23 is an isometric view of the multi-storey building framework, showing all of the wall panel frames and floor panel frames; and
  • FIG. 24 is an isometric cutaway view of a portion of the building framework shown in FIG. 23, showing how concrete can flow through the upright channels and horizontal troughs of the framework.
  • It will be noted that throughout the appended drawings, like features are identified by like reference numerals.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • In general, the present technology provides an innovative method of constructing a multi-storey building by using prefabricated modular wall panels and prefabricated modular floor panels. The novel prefabricated wall panels have a frame that includes studs and an upright channel into which concrete is poured and cured to form a concrete column (or a hybrid steel-and-concrete column). Similarly, the novel prefabricated floor panels have a frame that includes joists, sheathing and a trench-like track that forms a trough for receiving concrete that cures in the trough to create a concrete beam (or a hybrid steel-and-concrete beam). These panels are prefabricated before being delivered to the construction site. They are assembled into walls (both exterior and interior) and floors. Concrete is poured into the channels of the wall panels to produce load-bearing concrete columns. Similarly, concrete is poured into troughs in the floor panels to form concrete beams.
  • These load-bearing columns and beams are thus formed only in the walls (either exterior walls or interior demising partition walls) and in the floors, thus minimally interfering with the architectural layout of the floor plans. Because all columns are within the walls, there are no “orphaned” columns inconveniently placed on the resulting floor plan. In contrast, when constructing a building with prior-art formwork methods (Cast in Place concrete and structural steel construction with open joists), columns are placed strategically throughout all floors which take up valuable floor space. This present invention reduces column sizes and places them within the 6″ (or other size) stud wall cavity, and thus eliminates all columns within the floor space. The columns can be placed within the partitions, for example roughly every 6½′ and are reduced in size to, for example, 6″×6″ or 6″×12″ (or other appropriate sizes), thereby maintaining the structural integrity of the building. There are thus more columns that are spaced closer together than in a typical (prior-art) building, thus allowing the building to withstand just as much weight, if not more than a standard building.
  • Furthermore, no removable concrete forms are required using this novel construction method, which thereby greatly reduces time, cost and complexity.
  • Moreover, since the troughs (which can be, for example, steel tracks) remain with the cured concrete, the result is a hybrid steel-and-concrete beam, which has excellent load-bearing capability. Likewise, since the channels (which can be, for example, steel box-beam channels) also remain with the cured concrete, the resulting structure is a hybrid steel-and-concrete column, which also has excellent load-bearing capability.
  • The present invention will now be described in greater detail with reference to the embodiments illustrated in the attached figures.
  • FIG. 1 is a flowchart showing steps of the novel method of constructing a building in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 1, an initial step 10 involves preparing a construction site by pouring a floor slab. Upright rebar can be positioned to align with load-bearing concrete columns that are to be poured. Once the floor is ready, the next step 12 entails erecting an assembly of modular prefabricated wall panels by connecting the wall panels to define one or more walls of the building. As will be elaborated below, the wall panels comprise a frame having a plurality of substantially vertical members, a subset of the plurality of substantially vertical members being closed channels that are aligned with the upright rebar set in the floor slab. At step 14, modular prefabricated floor panels are installed over the assembly of wall panels. At step 16, second-storey wall panels are assembled on top of the first-storey floor panels. At step 18, second-storey floor panels are assembled on top of the second-storey wall panels. Accordingly, two storeys of wall and floor panels are assembled before concrete is poured for the first storey. At step 19, rebar is inserted in the troughs and columns and laid over the floor. At step 20, concrete is poured over the top of the first-storey floor panels, to thus form the floor slab. In the process, concrete flows into the troughs of the floor panels and from the troughs flows into the channels in the wall panels. Concrete thus cures in both the channels and the troughs. As a result, concrete beams are formed in the troughs in the floor panels and concrete columns are formed in the channels of the wall panels.
  • In one embodiment, the method involves (as depicted in FIG. 1) a step 19 of installing rebar or reinforcing rod. This can entail splicing additional upright rebar to the upright rebar that is already set in the floor slab. Rebar is laid (as will be elaborated below) over the floor panels prior to pouring concrete, as well as in the channels and troughs.
  • The wall and floor panels can be prefabricated prior to being delivered to the construction site. The panels are engineered/designed to specifications that are specific to the building/dwelling to be constructed, as depicted in step 9 in FIG. 2.
  • In one embodiment, the method involves (as depicted in FIG. 3), shoring the floor panels prior to pouring the concrete. An example of a shoring plan is presented by way of example only in FIG. 19E.
  • In one embodiment, the method involves (as depicted in FIG. 3), cross-bracing the wall panels. In other words, the wall panels are temporarily braced. Workers check that the wall panels are plumb, and fasten the wall panels to the floor slab.
  • As depicted in the flowchart in FIG. 4, in one embodiment, the method may entail using wall panels having exterior sheathing pre-attached to the wall panel frame.
  • Additional storeys of the multi-storey building can be built by repeating the foregoing steps of erecting wall panels, pouring concrete columns within the channels in the walls panels, laying floor panels atop the wall panels, laying reinforcing rods horizontally, and pouring concrete over the reinforcing rods and into the horizontal troughs to form concrete beams that are supported by the concrete columns which in turn support the concrete beams of the floor above.
  • FIG. 5 is an isometric view of a wall panel 100 in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. As depicted in FIG. 5, the wall panel 100 has top and bottom tracks 102, 104 that form part of a frame. The frame of each wall panel 100 can be prefabricated by fastening a plurality of spaced-apart, vertically arranged studs 106 and a vertically arranged box channel 108 to the top and bottom tracks 102, 104. The top track 102 has a hole 112 in the track above the box channel 108 to thereby enable concrete 110 to flow through the hole in the top track into the box channel. Cross-bracing and stiffeners can then be fastened to the studs and box channel. During prefabrication, an exterior wall cladding (e.g. DensGlass Gold® Sheathing by Georgia-Pacific or any other gypsum sheathing) can be attached to one side of the frame. As will be appreciated by those of ordinary skill in the art, other claddings can be added such as insulation, wood, vinyl siding, etc. Although this figure shows only a single channel 108, it should be understood that two or more channels can be provided in the wall panel for receiving concrete to form respective load-bearing columns. The two channels can be spaced apart to permit an aperture for a window to be disposed between the channels.
  • FIG. 6 is an isometric view of a floor panel 200 in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. This modular prefabricated floor panel 200 can be used in constructing a building. The floor panel 200 comprises a pair of spaced-apart frames, each frame comprising a plurality of spaced-apart horizontally arranged joists 202, 204 and a sheathing 208 attached to each frame. The floor panel also comprises a trench-like track connected to each of the pair of spaced-apart frames panels to thereby define a trough 206 between the frames for receiving concrete. In one embodiment, the frame comprises a plurality of joists connected back to back with fasteners, top and bottom tracks connected to the top and bottom sides of the joists and a sheathing mounted to the top track. Optionally, stiffeners can be provided for interconnecting adjacent joists.
  • In one embodiment, the frames of the floor panels are spaced apart by a predetermined distance defining an elongated gap into which is placed a trench-like track that acts as the horizontal trough for receiving concrete which, when cured, forms each concrete beam. In one particular embodiment, the predetermined distance defining the gap between the frames is equal to a depth of the joists.
  • FIG. 7 is an isometric view of the floor panel of FIG. 6 overlaid with reinforcing rod 210. This figure is intentionally simplified since normally a plurality of these panels is assembled together before the reinforcing rods are overlaid. Once the reinforcing rod is laid, concrete is poured and cured. FIG. 8 shows how the concrete 212 fills in the trough 208 and forms an upper level floor slab.
  • FIG. 9 is an isometric view of a floor slab 50 at a construction site (prepared using techniques already known in the art). FIG. 10 is an isometric view schematically depicting the assembly of ground floor wall panels 100 on the floor slab 50. Subsequently, as shown in FIG. 11, the floor panels 200 are installed. FIG. 12 is an isometric view schematically depicting the erecting of second-storey wall panels. FIG. 13 is an isometric view schematically depicting the laying of second-storey floor panels 200 on top of the assembly of second-storey wall panels 100. As shown schematically, the floor panels have troughs 206 for receiving concrete. Concrete is then poured over the first storey ceiling. The concrete flows into the troughs, and then flows into the channels, thus forming columns in the channels and beams in the troughs. The concrete is poured to also form an upper level slab floor over the sheathing. In the process, the bottoms of the next storey columns are set, thus locking these into place. FIG. 14 is an isometric view schematically these concrete beams and concrete columns after these have been poured.
  • FIG. 15 is an isometric view schematically depicting the addition of third-storey wall panels and floor panels. FIG. 16 is an isometric view schematically depicting the building after concrete is poured for the second storey, i.e. after pouring the second-storey slab, the troughs and channels are filled with concrete to thereby form the concrete beams and concrete columns. As mentioned above, the rest of the multi-storey building is constructed by repeating these steps of assembling the modular prefab wall and floor panels and by pouring the concrete columns and beams.
  • FIGS. 17 and 17A are elevation and cross-sectional views of an example of a wall panel 100 having a window designated by label W10. The wall panel in this particular example has five channels for pouring five columns. Any number of columns can be created in a wall panel. However, suitable spacing must be provided between adjacent columns for windows and doors. Likewise, the number, spacing and type of studs that are used in the wall panels may vary.
  • FIGS. 18 and 18A are top plan and front views of an example of a floor panel 200. The number, spacing and type of joists that are used in the floor panels may vary. The floor panels, like the wall panels, can be constructed in various different shapes with any number of troughs. The troughs can be disposed at various orientations. However, as noted above, it is preferable for load bearing, to ensure that the beams and columns are aligned with one another so that building loads are transferred through the columns and beams.
  • FIGS. 19A-19D are plan views of exemplary wall panel assemblies for each of the various storeys of a multi-storey building, presented by way of example. It should be understood that these plans are presented merely by way of example to illustrate one particular layout of wall and floor panels (and one particular configuration of columns and beams). The black squares represent the concrete columns. These panel, column and beam configurations will, of course, vary for different buildings. FIG. 19E is an exemplary shoring plan, presented by way of example, showing how the shoring is to be done for this particular building.
  • FIGS. 20A-20E are plans views of exemplary floor panel assemblies for each of the various storeys of the same multi-storey building, again presented by way of example. Note how the concrete beams and columns align with one another. FIG. 20F is an example of a roof plan showing exemplary panel layout;
  • FIGS. 21A-21E-3 are various elevation views of the multi-storey building. These views show how windows are placed in the building (in between the adjacent columns, as described above).
  • FIGS. 22A-22N are various cross-sectional views that are referenced in FIGS. 20B and 20C. These cross-sectional views present myriad construction details for the sake of completeness, but will not be further described herein.
  • FIG. 23 is an isometric view of the multi-storey building framework, showing all of the wall panel frames and floor panel frames.
  • FIG. 24 is an isometric cutaway view of a portion of the building framework shown in FIG. 23, showing how concrete can flow through the upright channels 108 and horizontal troughs 106 of the framework. The resulting structure can be referred to a hybrid structure since the load-bearing columns are hybrid steel-and-concrete columns while the beams are hybrid steel-and-concrete beams. In other words, the surrounding steel channels share part of the load with the concrete columns that are formed inside the channels. Likewise, the three-sided steel tracks (that form the troughs) share part of the bending load with the concrete beams.
  • The frames of the wall and floor panels presented in the foregoing disclosure can be constructed of steel or any other suitable metal or composite material. Preferably, but not necessarily, the studs and joists can be made using steel tracks, e.g. commercially available 18 gauge (or 16 gauge) galvanized C-channel or U-channel steel tracks. Similarly, the troughs and box channels can also be made using steel tracks, e.g. 18 gauge or 16 gauge galvanized steel tracks, although other materials or steel of another gauge can be substituted. For the sake of illustration only, an example exterior wall panels can be constructed of 6″×18 gauge C-channel, 1-1×3″-18 ga L-angle, 1-1″×1″-18 ga L-angle which are used for the bottoms of the panels, one being smaller to enable concrete to flow over it, 6″×18 ga steel studs with various flanges (1¼, 1⅝ depending on load design), 6″×6″ galvanized columns, 1½″ stiffeners, 5½″ bridging clips (18 ga), wafer head-self drilling framing screw fasteners 7/16, exterior DensGlass® sheathing or equivalent (½″ or ⅝″), 8″ by 16 gauge track. Once shop drawings for each wall and floor panel assembly have been engineered, materials are ordered for all the variously sized components of both the wall and floor panels. Wall panel jigs are constructed for the assembly of various panels. Firstly, both top and bottom tracks are installed in the jig. Then, 6″ studs are placed at 16″ on center (o.c.) or 24″ o.c. Once the track and studs are installed in the panel, columns are placed within the wall cavity at various locations and are designed to align with the floor assembly beams. Then, 1½″ stiffeners with bridging clips are added at the midpoints of the panels with clips fastened at each stud to increase the rigidity of the panel. Once the fastening of the upper and lower track is complete, the panel is turned over to fasten the track and studs on both the top and bottom of the other side. Then, 6″×6″ column holes are cut into the 6″ track at the column locations. This allows the upper floor concrete to flow down into the channels to form the concrete columns. An 8″ C-channel is installed perpendicular to the studs on a horizontal plane fastened the top of the 6″ track. This will give support to the upper exterior wall panels and form for the concrete on the perimeter beam. The DensGlass® or gypsum will then be installed on the exterior of the wall panel. The exterior (perimeter) wall panel is thus complete. Windows and door opening(s) should be framed within the wall panels between the concrete column forms, as needed.
  • For interior demising wall panels, the following methodology can be used: firstly, top track and bottom angles are installed in the jig. Then, 6″ studs are placed at 16″ o.c. or 24″ o.c. inside the track and angles. Once that is completed, 6″×6″ columns are placed at various locations within wall assembly and are designed to align with floor assembly beams. Then, 1½″ stiffeners are added at the midpoint of the panels with clips fastened at each stud to increase the rigidity of the panel. Once the fastening of the upper and lower track is complete, the panel is then turned over to fasten the track and stud on both the top and bottom of the other side. 2″-18 ga galvanized flat stock cross bracing is fastened to the track/studs and columns. Then, 6″ by 6″ column holes are cut out of the 6″ track at the column locations. This will allow upper floor concrete to flow down into the channel and form the column.
  • For floor panels, the following materials can be used: 8″ track—18 ga galvanized, 6″ joist—18 ga galvanized, 1⅛″ or 1⅝ flange, 1½ 18 ga galvanized U-channel, ½″ fire treated plywood sheathing, 7/16 wafer head self-drilling galvanized screws. In terms of methodology, a jig is assembled on a working table for the various sizes of panels to be fabricated. The joists are fastened back to back continuously with 7/16 screws. They are then placed within the jig at a spacing of 16 o.c. or 18 o.c. and fastened with 8″ track on both ends. Then the two outer studs are turned inwardly, thus creating a flat surface around the perimeter. The surface will then be the form work for the concrete beam of each panel on each side. The plywood is installed perpendicular to studs, covering the complete panel. Stiffeners are added at various locations as required. All floor and walls panels are loaded on a flat bed in a progressive manner and shipped to site. Site preparation requires a floor slab in place with rebar for the columns and plumbing to be installed. The floor slab has to be designed to support the structure.
  • Installation and assembly of wall panels proceeds as follows: The assembly of the wall panels for the first storey walls and the floor panels for the first storey ceiling (second-storey floor) are repeated in the same fashion for the upper floors.
  • Exterior wall and interior wall panels are offloaded and placed on the floor slab in their respective locations. 45-degree interior cross-bracing is added as temporary bracing to support the panels. Wall plumbness is checked as walls are secured with cross-bracing. Panels are then fastened to the slab and leveled. Floor panels are then shipped on a flat bed to the site and offloaded. Each floor panel is placed on top of the wall panels in its respective location while maintaining a gap between each panel that is approximately 6″ to 8″. This gap can be filled with an 8″ track which will then be fastened on each side of the panel that will act as a form once the concrete is poured. Each beam has been designed to line up with the columns in the wall panels. Floor panels are then fastened with screws to the top of the wall panels. This is only a temporary means to hold them together—once the concrete is poured and cured the structure will hold together by itself. Once the floor system has been secured, cross-bracing is removed and shoring is placed at the underside of the complete floor system, as engineered. See, for example, the shoring plan depicted in FIG. 19E. Reinforcing rod is placed on the floor and the rebar is placed in all columns extending above floor deck for splicing to rebar for the next floor. 2nd floor wall panels and/or floor panels are then shipped to site and installed in the same manner as the first floor. The reinforcing rod is placed inside the entire interior and perimeter beams on the first floor along with rebar and complete slab as engineered. Pea stone concrete of the first floor is then pumped uniformly into all columns and then floor throughout and finished according to engineered specs. The following day, re-shoring of the 2nd floor proceeds along with the removal of cross-bracing for the complete area. The 3rd and 4th floor etc will be based on curing and re-shoring as engineered. The complete system must be engineered to comply with all applicable building codes. The foregoing example is merely intended to be illustrative of the best mode of implementing this technology as of the filing date, and is not meant to limit the scope of the invention. It should be expressly understood that the specific dimensions, material types, fastener sizes, etc. are presented solely to illustrate one way of implementing this technology. These dimensions, sizes, fasteners, material types, etc. can be varied without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.
  • For the purposes of this specification, the term “prefabricated” means that the panel or other component in question has been fabricated prior to being transported to the construction site. It should be understood that while it is preferable to prefabricate the complete panels prior to transporting them to the job site, it is not essential that this be done, since it is also possible to assemble some of the components of the panels in situ, i.e. at the job site.
  • For the purposes of this specification, “sheathing” means a structural covering, usually boards, plywood, or other sheet material that is placed over studding, rafters, etc. In this case, the sheathing is placed on top of the assembly of frames to support the rebar can be placed and the concrete that is poured to form the floor of the next storey. The sheathing can be plywood treated with a fire-resistant preservative or any other suitable covering. It should be understood that it is preferable to attach the sheathing before transporting the panels to the job site, but this is not necessary.
  • This novel technology can be applied to efficiently construct multi-storey buildings. While this technology is primarily intended for low-rise multi-storey buildings such as, for example, buildings have six floors or less, the technology can be applied in theory to the construction of a high-rise building as well, provided that the structure is engineered to withstands the loads involved.
  • This novel technology provides a number of substantial advantages over the prior art. For example, this novel technology reduces construction time and construction cost by doing away with removable concrete forms and eliminating the coordination problems associated with employing different trades to complete the framing and cladding. Since the panels are lightweight, mobile cranes can lift the panels from a flatbed truck (without requiring a tower crane, which is far more expensive and time-consuming). This novel construction method also eliminates the forming contractor and all the structures are engineered in house, reducing on-site engineering costs. Since only one trade is responsible for the entire framework and all partitions, quality control is improved (fewer mistakes are likely to be made by only a single trade). Furthermore, this technique allows other trades (e.g. electricians, plumbers) to proceed on the lower levels while the construction on the upper levels may continue, again reducing construction time substantially.
  • This technique furthermore is easy to implement. The panels are quickly and easily attached to one another using fasteners. A mobile crane can easily lift the panels from a flatbed truck and with the guiding hand of a couple workers easily position the panels at the right place on the building. Due to the repetitive nature of the assembly process, workers will quickly become adept at assembling the panels and pouring the columns and beams, thus improving efficiency.
  • This novel technique furthermore reduces waste (compared to prior-art construction techniques) and is thus environmentally friendly.
  • Since the prefab panels already have exterior cladding, there is no need to tarp the building (during bad weather). Alternatively, a first (intermediate) cladding can be pre-installed and a finished (final) cladding can be added on site, which also is efficient. Moreover, the floor space is optimized since the columns are intelligently located within exterior and interior walls. Since the columns are small, i.e. no thicker than a stud, they perfectly fit within the wall space.
  • This new technology has been described in terms of specific implementations and configurations which are intended to be exemplary only. The scope of the exclusive right sought by the Applicant is therefore intended to be limited solely by the appended claims.

Claims (20)

1. A method of constructing a building, the method comprising steps of:
preparing a construction site by pouring a floor slab with upright rebar positioned to align with load-bearing concrete columns that are to be poured;
erecting an assembly of modular prefabricated wall panels by connecting the wall panels to define one or more walls of the building, the wall panels comprising a frame having a plurality of substantially vertical members, a subset of the plurality of substantially vertical members being closed channels;
laying modular prefabricated floor panels onto a top end of the assembly of modular prefabricated wall panels, the floor panels comprising a frame having a plurality of horizontally arranged joists and a sheathing mounted onto the frame, each of the floor panels further comprising a trench-like track that acts as a trough for receiving concrete; and
pouring concrete into the troughs in the floor panels for flowing into the channels, the concrete curing in the troughs to form horizontal concrete beams and curing in the channels to form concrete columns.
2. The method as claimed in claim 1 further comprising a step of adding rebar prior to pouring concrete.
3. The method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the concrete beams are aligned with and supported from below by the load-bearing concrete columns.
4. The method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the steps of erecting the wall panels and laying the floor panels comprises erecting two storeys of modular prefabricated wall panels and two floors of floor panels before pouring the concrete.
5. The method as claimed in claim 4 further comprising building additional storeys of the building by repeating the steps of erecting wall panels, laying floor panels, pouring concrete beams and columns within the troughs and channels in the wall and floor panels.
6. The method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the frame of each wall panel is prefabricated by:
fastening a plurality of spaced-apart, vertically arranged studs and a vertically arranged box channel to top and bottom tracks, the top track having a hole in the track above the box channel to thereby enable concrete to flow through the hole in the top track into the box channel; and
fastening cross-bracing and stiffeners to the studs and box channel.
7. The method as claimed in claim 6 wherein each wall panel is prefabricated by attaching an exterior wall sheathing to one side of the frame.
8. The method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the frames of the floor panels are spaced apart by a predetermined distance defining an elongated gap into which is placed a trench-like track that acts as the horizontal trough for receiving concrete which, when cured, forms each concrete beam.
9. The method as claimed in claim 8 wherein the predetermined distance defining the gap between the frames is equal to a depth of the joists.
10. The method as claimed in claim 1 further comprising steps of:
temporarily bracing the wall panels;
checking that the wall panels are plumb; and
fastening the wall panels to the floor slab.
11. The method as claimed in claim 1 further comprising steps of:
fastening floor panels to a top portion of the wall panels;
removing bracing from the wall panels; and
shoring an underside of the floor panels.
12. A modular prefabricated wall panel for use in constructing a building, the wall panel comprising:
a frame having a plurality of spaced-apart vertically arranged studs and a vertically arranged closed channel within which concrete can be poured and cured; and
a sheet of exterior sheathing attached to one side of the frame.
13. The modular prefabricated wall panel as claimed in claim 12 further comprising top and bottom tracks connected to the studs and channel, the top track having holes aligned with a top of the channel to permit poured concrete to flow into the channel.
14. The modular prefabricated wall panel as claimed in claim 12 comprising two channels for receiving concrete to form respective load-bearing columns, the two channels being spaced apart to permit an aperture for a window to be disposed between the channels.
15. A modular prefabricated floor panel for use in constructing a building, the floor panel comprising:
a pair of spaced-apart frames, each frame comprising a plurality of spaced-apart horizontally arranged joists and a sheathing attached to each frame; and
a trench-like track connected to each of the pair of spaced-apart frames panels to thereby define a trough between the frames for receiving concrete.
16. The modular prefabricated floor panel as claimed in claim 15 wherein the frame comprises:
a plurality of joists connected back to back with fasteners;
top and bottom tracks connected to the top and bottom sides of the joists; and
a sheathing mounted to the top track or to one or more of the plurality of joists.
17. The modular prefabricated floor panel as claimed in claim 15 further comprising stiffeners interconnecting adjacent joists.
18. A multi-storey building comprising:
a plurality of modular prefabricated wall panels assembled together to form the walls of the building, the wall panels comprising upright channels into which concrete is poured and cured to form hybrid steel-and-concrete load-bearing columns; and
a plurality of modular prefabricated floor panels assembled together to form the floors of the building, the floor panels comprising horizontal troughs into which concrete is poured and cured to form hybrid steel-and-concrete horizontal beams.
19. The multi-storey building as claimed in claim 18 wherein the columns of each upper floor are aligned with and are supported by the beams of the floor immediately below.
20. The multi-storey building as claimed in claim 19 wherein the beams of each upper floor are aligned with and are supported by the columns of the floor immediately below.
US12/205,496 2008-09-05 2008-09-05 Method of constructing a multi-storey building using prefabricated modular panels Abandoned US20100058687A1 (en)

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CN102322144A (en) * 2011-06-22 2012-01-18 赵之昆 Straw wall body-based frame column/beam template-less construction technology
CN102561509A (en) * 2011-12-26 2012-07-11 北京工业大学 Latticed single-row reinforced special-shaped sectional concrete column-wallboard shock absorption house and making method
CN102635248A (en) * 2011-02-10 2012-08-15 刘开才 Modularized quickly-assembled house
CN103061410A (en) * 2013-01-15 2013-04-24 中南大学 Building assembled with prefabricated space frame substructures and construction method thereof
CN103306483A (en) * 2013-06-21 2013-09-18 深圳海龙建筑制品有限公司 Industrial construction method of building
CN103556821A (en) * 2013-10-08 2014-02-05 沈阳建筑大学 Tooth-form connecting method for prefabricated half shear wall and beam
CN103590602A (en) * 2013-10-22 2014-02-19 重庆建工第三建设有限责任公司 Method for constructing cast-in-site concrete hollow floor systems
CN103669574A (en) * 2013-12-16 2014-03-26 张跃 Building frame system and assembly method thereof
CN104481147A (en) * 2014-10-30 2015-04-01 中交四航局第三工程有限公司 Rapid construction method for offshore reinforced concrete frame structure
WO2014182539A3 (en) * 2013-05-08 2016-03-31 Kt-India, Llc Method and system for rapid construction of structurally reinforced concrete structures using prefabricated assemblies and method of making the same
CN105863112A (en) * 2016-04-14 2016-08-17 北京工业大学 Modular cold-bent thin-wall type steel combined wall and connection method thereof
CN105863110A (en) * 2016-04-14 2016-08-17 北京工业大学 Modular assembling type cold-bent thin-wall type steel wall board structural system
CN105888102A (en) * 2016-04-14 2016-08-24 北京工业大学 Modular assembly type L-shaped cold-formed thin-walled steel combined wall and connecting mode thereof
CN106088400A (en) * 2016-06-24 2016-11-09 北京工业大学 A kind of modular assembly formula light gauge cold-formed steel shape combined wall
WO2017054722A1 (en) * 2015-09-30 2017-04-06 李宜君 Concave building construction method
AU2018100643B4 (en) * 2017-09-12 2018-09-13 Iavilaer Pty Ltd Building construction method
US10227785B2 (en) * 2013-07-29 2019-03-12 Richard J. McCaffrey Portable robotic casting of volumetric modular building components
AU2018316356B1 (en) * 2017-09-12 2019-03-14 Iavilaer Pty Ltd Building construction method

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102635248A (en) * 2011-02-10 2012-08-15 刘开才 Modularized quickly-assembled house
CN102322144A (en) * 2011-06-22 2012-01-18 赵之昆 Straw wall body-based frame column/beam template-less construction technology
CN102561509B (en) * 2011-12-26 2014-12-03 北京工业大学 Latticed single-row reinforced special-shaped sectional concrete column-wallboard shock absorption house and making method
CN102561509A (en) * 2011-12-26 2012-07-11 北京工业大学 Latticed single-row reinforced special-shaped sectional concrete column-wallboard shock absorption house and making method
CN103061410A (en) * 2013-01-15 2013-04-24 中南大学 Building assembled with prefabricated space frame substructures and construction method thereof
CN103061410B (en) * 2013-01-15 2015-06-03 中南大学 Building assembled with prefabricated space frame substructures and construction method thereof
US9683361B2 (en) 2013-05-08 2017-06-20 Kt-India, Llc Method and system for rapid construction of structurally reinforced concrete structures using prefabricated assemblies and method of making the same
WO2014182539A3 (en) * 2013-05-08 2016-03-31 Kt-India, Llc Method and system for rapid construction of structurally reinforced concrete structures using prefabricated assemblies and method of making the same
CN103306483A (en) * 2013-06-21 2013-09-18 深圳海龙建筑制品有限公司 Industrial construction method of building
US10227785B2 (en) * 2013-07-29 2019-03-12 Richard J. McCaffrey Portable robotic casting of volumetric modular building components
CN103556821A (en) * 2013-10-08 2014-02-05 沈阳建筑大学 Tooth-form connecting method for prefabricated half shear wall and beam
CN103590602A (en) * 2013-10-22 2014-02-19 重庆建工第三建设有限责任公司 Method for constructing cast-in-site concrete hollow floor systems
WO2015090094A1 (en) * 2013-12-16 2015-06-25 张跃 Building frame system and assembly method thereof
CN103669574A (en) * 2013-12-16 2014-03-26 张跃 Building frame system and assembly method thereof
CN104481147A (en) * 2014-10-30 2015-04-01 中交四航局第三工程有限公司 Rapid construction method for offshore reinforced concrete frame structure
WO2017054722A1 (en) * 2015-09-30 2017-04-06 李宜君 Concave building construction method
CN105863112A (en) * 2016-04-14 2016-08-17 北京工业大学 Modular cold-bent thin-wall type steel combined wall and connection method thereof
CN105863110A (en) * 2016-04-14 2016-08-17 北京工业大学 Modular assembling type cold-bent thin-wall type steel wall board structural system
CN105888102A (en) * 2016-04-14 2016-08-24 北京工业大学 Modular assembly type L-shaped cold-formed thin-walled steel combined wall and connecting mode thereof
CN106088400A (en) * 2016-06-24 2016-11-09 北京工业大学 A kind of modular assembly formula light gauge cold-formed steel shape combined wall
AU2018100643B4 (en) * 2017-09-12 2018-09-13 Iavilaer Pty Ltd Building construction method
AU2018316356B1 (en) * 2017-09-12 2019-03-14 Iavilaer Pty Ltd Building construction method
WO2019051538A1 (en) * 2017-09-12 2019-03-21 Iavilaer Pty Ltd Building construction method
US10822786B2 (en) * 2017-09-12 2020-11-03 Iavilaer Proprietary Limited Building construction method

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