US20080016768A1 - Chemically-modified mixed fuels, methods of production and used thereof - Google Patents

Chemically-modified mixed fuels, methods of production and used thereof Download PDF

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US20080016768A1
US20080016768A1 US11/489,143 US48914306A US2008016768A1 US 20080016768 A1 US20080016768 A1 US 20080016768A1 US 48914306 A US48914306 A US 48914306A US 2008016768 A1 US2008016768 A1 US 2008016768A1
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methane
gas
fuel
chemically
source
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Keith A. Togna
Craig T. Euen
Steven W. Weeks
Mohammed I. Loya
Matthew C. Warren
Richard H. Kendrick
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Honeywell International Inc
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Honeywell International Inc
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Assigned to HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC. reassignment HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: WEEKS, STEVEN W., EUEN, CRAIG T., KENDRICK, RICHARD H., LOYA, MOHAMMED I., TONGA, KEITH A., WARREN, MATTHEW C.
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L3/00Gaseous fuels; Natural gas; Synthetic natural gas obtained by processes not covered by subclass C10G, C10K; Liquefied petroleum gas
    • C10L3/06Natural gas; Synthetic natural gas obtained by processes not covered by C10G, C10K3/02 or C10K3/04
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B3/00Hydrogen; Gaseous mixtures containing hydrogen; Separation of hydrogen from mixtures containing it; Purification of hydrogen
    • C01B3/02Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen
    • C01B3/32Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air
    • C01B3/34Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents
    • C01B3/36Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents using oxygen or mixtures containing oxygen as gasifying agents
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2203/00Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/02Processes for making hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/025Processes for making hydrogen or synthesis gas containing a partial oxidation step
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste
    • Y02E50/34Methane
    • Y02E50/346Methane from landfill gas

Abstract

A chemically-modified mixed fuel has been produced, wherein at least part of the fuel is a) cost-efficient, b) renewable and/or a consistent resource (e.g. biogenic fuels), c) easy to use, d) easy to transport and e) relatively “clean” with respect to the amount of time/resources it requires to convert the fuel to a “useable” form. Specifically, a chemically-modified mixed fuel has been developed that comprises methane gas from at least two methane-production sources. In addition, this chemically-modified mixed fuel can be utilized in any process that incorporates a Kellogg Primary Reformer. A method for producing the chemically-modified mixed fuel described herein comprises a) providing a first methane-containing gas from a first methane-production source, b) providing a second methane-containing gas from a second methane-production source, c) blending the first methane-containing gas with the second methane-containing gas at a suitable pressure to form a chemically-modified mixed fuel. In additional embodiments, at least one additional methane-containing gas can be provided from at least one additional methane-production source and blended with the chemically-modified fuel.

Description

    FIELD OF THE SUBJECT MATTER
  • The field of the subject matter disclosed herein is chemically-modified mixed fuels comprising at least one natural gas source. Methods of production of these fuels and appropriate uses are also disclosed.
  • BACKGROUND
  • New and modified fuels are being investigated for both their abilities to efficiently and effectively provide energy, while at the same time lowering the cost of acquiring and utilizing the fuel. Obviously, fuel that is provided from renewable or consistent resources will be the most cost efficient option in the long-term, but the fuel should be accessible and relatively easy to use from the standpoint that it is clean fuel which is provided in its usable form.
  • One process that uses fuel is the synthesis of ammonia. A Kellogg Reforming System or Kellogg Primary Reformer, as shown in Prior Art FIG. 1, can be utilized in the formation of ammonia. The Kellogg Reformer (100) uses natural gas as a fuel source for the process and a combination of natural gas and steam as reactants during the process. While natural gas is a cleaner burning fuel that other fuel sources, it can be expensive to acquire and utilize on a regular basis. As shown in Prior Art FIG. 1, fuel (110) and a combination of natural gas and steam (120) is introduced into the primary reformer (130), which contains a plurality of catalyst tubes (140). Flue gas (150) exits from the primary reformer (130), while at the same time, fuel (160) for the secondary reformer (170) travels from the primary reformer (130) into the secondary reformer (170) and is mixed with air (180). Reformed gas (190) then exits the secondary reformer (170).
  • In addition, natural gas primarily comes from the breakdown of fossils in the earth's crust, which is obviously neither a renewable or consistent resource. Other sources of natural gas are so-called “unconventional” resources, which includes “deep natural gas”, “tight natural gas”, “Devonian shale gas”, “coalbed methane”, “geopressurized zones” and “methane hydrates”. All of these sources are considered “unconventional”, because they are either difficult to reach or extract or not certain to produce large quantities of natural gas.
  • Therefore, it would be ideal to find a more cost-efficient fuel source which can displace at least part of the natural gas required for the process to run. In addition to being cost-efficient, ideal fuels and fuel sources should be a) renewable and/or a consistent resource (e.g. biogenic fuels), b) easy to use, c) easy to transport and d) relatively “clean” with respect to the amount of time/resources it requires to convert the fuel to a “useable” form.
  • SUMMARY OF THE SUBJECT MATTER
  • A chemically-modified mixed fuel has been produced, wherein at least part of the fuel is a) cost-efficient, b) renewable and/or a consistent resource (e.g. biogenic fuels), c) easy to use, d) easy to transport and e) relatively “clean” with respect to the amount of time/resources it requires to convert the fuel to a “useable” form.
  • Specifically, a chemically-modified mixed fuel has been developed that comprises methane gas from at least two methane-production sources. In addition, this chemically-modified mixed fuel can be utilized in any process that incorporates a Kellogg Primary Reformer.
  • A method for producing the chemically-modified mixed fuel described herein comprises a) providing a first methane-containing gas from a first methane-production source, b) providing a second methane-containing gas from a second methane-production source, c) blending the first methane-containing gas with the second methane-containing gas at a suitable pressure to form a chemically-modified mixed fuel. In additional embodiments, at least one additional methane-containing gas can be provided from at least one additional methane-production source and blended with the chemically-modified fuel.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • Prior Art FIG. 1 shows a contemplated Kellogg Reforming Exchanger System
  • FIG. 2 shows a contemplated Kellogg System.
  • FIG. 3 shows a contemplated Kellogg System wherein landfill gas is introduced to form a chemically-modified mixed fuel.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • A chemically-modified mixed fuel has been produced, wherein at least part of the fuel is a) cost-efficient, b) renewable and/or a consistent resource (e.g. biogenic fuels), c) easy to use, d) easy to transport and e) relatively “clean” with respect to the amount of time/resources it requires to convert the fuel to a “useable” form.
  • Specifically, a chemically-modified fuel has been developed that comprises methane gas from at least two methane-production sources. In addition, this chemically-modified fuel can be utilized in any process that incorporates a Kellogg Primary Reformer.
  • A “methane-production source”, as it sounds, is used herein to describe a source of methane gas and/or methane gas production. Contemplated “methane-production sources” may comprise a general natural gas source, a fossil fuel source, a biogenic fuel source, such as a landfill, an abiogenic source, an “unconventional” source, such as those described herein previously or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, a first methane-production source comprises a fossil fuel source and a second methane-production source comprises a landfill. First and second gas streams that comprise methane come from the first methane-production source and second methane-production source respectively. The at least one methane-production source produces gas and/or gas streams that comprise natural gas, Area-6 gas, landfill gas or a combination thereof.
  • The gas streams that come from each of the methane-production sources are contemplated to comprise various components, in addition to methane. It should be understood, however, that methane is a significant component of each gas stream. For example, typical natural gas from a fossil fuel source comprises 70-90% of methane, 0-20% of propane, 0-8% of carbon dioxide, 0-0.2% of oxygen, 0-5% of nitrogen, 0-5% of hydrogen sulphide and trace amounts of rare gases, such as argon, helium, neon or xenon. Landfill gas from a biogenic fuel source generally comprises about 45-50% of methane, about 35% of carbon dioxide about 12% of nitrogen, about 1-4% of oxygen, and trace amounts of ethane, propane, isobutane, n-butane, isopentane and other organics. The heat value of landfill gas is approximately 500 BTU's/scf (standard cubic foot), which is about half the heat value of natural gas. In fuel applications, approximately one scf of landfill gas will displace ½ scf of natural gas.
  • The fuel industry has recognized landfill gas as a viable fuel alternative. There are about 120 landfill gas projects in the United States wherein landfill gas is being utilized as an alternative fuel source. As solid waste decomposes in the landfill, methane and carbon dioxide gases are produced. Some landfills, such as the Waverly landfill, increase the decomposition rate in the landfill by reclaiming the landfill's leachate and applying it on the landfill's contents. As the gas is generated, large underground pockets are formed, which eventually will percolate to the surface and discharge to the environment. To prevent this environmental problem, landfills have historically captured the gas before it reaches the surface and burned it in a flare.
  • A method for producing the chemically-modified mixed fuel described herein comprises a) providing a first methane-containing gas from a first methane-production source, b) providing a second methane-containing gas from a second methane-production source, c) blending the first methane-containing gas with the second methane-containing gas at a suitable pressure to form a chemically-modified mixed fuel. In additional embodiments, at least one additional methane-containing gas can be provided from at least one additional methane-production source and blended with the chemically-modified fuel. Therefore, in the chemically-modified fuels produced herein, there will be at least two methane-containing gas streams that are combined to form the fuel.
  • In one contemplated embodiment, a chemically-modified fuel is produced specifically for use in a Kellogg Primary Reformer. As a fuel, natural gas is burned in three places within the Kellogg facility—the primary reformer arch burners, the primary reformer tunnel burners and the auxiliary boiler. The auxiliary boiler provides supplemental high-pressure steam that is used as a process reactant and to provide mechanical work in various turbine-driven machines locally. The tunnel burners provide supplemental heat to the primary reformer furnace, and the arch burners are the main source of heat for the reaction of methane and water occurring in the primary reformer.
  • The auxiliary boiler burns approximately 3000 scfm (standard cubic feet per minute) of 100% natural gas. The firing of this boiler is tightly controlled to maintain a consistent total steam rate and pressure. The tunnel burners consume approximately 800 scfm of 100% natural gas. The firing of the tunnel burners is controlled automatically based on the desired temperature within the convection section of the furnace. The arch burners consume a blend of approximately 2000 scfm of “Area-6 recycle gas”, which comprises 43% hydrogen, 40% nitrogen and 17% methane and about 8000 scfm of natural gas. The firing of the arch burners is controlled automatically to maintain the desired temperature in the radiant section of the furnace.
  • Combustion air is provided to the three burner applications via a single forced draft (FD) fan and duct system. The combustion flue gases from the three burner applications combine in a common duct system where process heaters and a combustion air pre-heater recover heat from the flue gas stream, as it is pulled from the furnace via a single induced draft (ID) fan and exits through a single stack. FIG. 2 shows the fuel/flue gas system described herein. In this Figure, combustion air (210) is provided into the system (200) by a forced draft fan and duct arrangement (220), as previously described. This air (210) travels to the auxiliary boiler (230) and the primary reformer (240). Natural gas (250) is introduced to the system (200) as the fuel source, with “Area-6 gas” (255) also introduced in the natural gas stream (250) for the primary reformer (240). The flue gas stream (260) is pulled from the furnace via a single induced draft fan (270) and exits through a stack (280). Tables 1 and 2 are directly related to the process shown in FIG. 2, in that the numbers 1-15 shown in FIG. 2 are shown also in Tables 1 and 2. The data measured at those locations are also presented in Tables 1 and 2.
  • TABLES 1 and 2 Combustion Air and Flue Gas System Stream Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Compo- MW nent Nitro- 28.0 77.50% 77.50% 77.50% 77.50% 77.50% gen Carbon 44.0 0.10% 0.10% 0.10% 0.10% 0.10% Dioxide Carbon 28.0 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Mon- oxide Oxygen 32.0 20.80% 20.80% 20.80% 20.80% 20.80% Argon 40.0 0.90% 0.90% 0.90% 0.90% 0.90% Water 18.0 0.70% 0.70% 0.70% 0.70% 0.70% Total 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% Mol 28.886 28.886 28.886 28.886 28.886 27.71 27.82 27.74 27.74 27.74 Weight Total MPH 19420 19420 14100 5320 1391 17150 5822 22972 22972 22972 Mole Total lb/hr 560963 560963 407287 153677 40194 475305 161978 637283 637283 637283 Wgt Std SCFM 122669 122669 89064 33605 8790 108330 36775 145105 145105 145105 Volume Actual ACFM 127387 257429 187812 70865 9132 502685 140509 332676 212204 202309 Volume Excess % 10% 10% 10% Air Excess % 2.1% 2.1% 2.1% O2 Pressure “H2O 0.0 7.0 5.0 5.0 −0.2 −0.5 −5.5 −11.0 −19.0 0.0 Temp- Deg F. 80 650 650 650 80 1950 1500 700 265 265 erature Total Primary Reformer Heat 513.0 MBTU/Hr Input: Total Auxilliary Boiler Heat Input 175.0 MBTU/Hr BTU/Burner 3.03 MBTU/Hr Fuel Gas System Stream Number 10 11 12 13 14 15 Pri Tot Component MW LHV HHV Nitrogen 28.0 0.0 0.0 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% 9.98% 32.00% 9.31% Oxygen 32.0 0.0 0.0 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Carbon Dioxide 44.0 0.0 0.0 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Carbon 28.0 321.0 321.0 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Monoxide Methane CH4 16.0 911.0 1012.0 94.30 94.30% 94.30% 94.30% 74.23% 25.00% 75.72% Ethane C2H6 30.0 1622.0 1773.0 2.50 2.50% 2.50% 2.50% 1.78% 0.00% 1.83% Propane C3H8 44.1 2322.0 2524.0 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% 0.71% 0.00% 0.73% Butane C4H10 58.1 3018.0 3271.0 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% 0.71% 0.00% 0.73% Hydrogen  2.0 275.0 325.0 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 12.59% 43.00% 11.68% Water 18.0 0.0 0.0 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Total 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% MW 17.14 17.14 17.14 17.14 16.18 13.82 16.25 Net LHV BTU/SCF 954 954 954 954 778 346 791 Net HHV BTU/SCF 1057 1057 1057 1057 865 393 879 Total Mole MPH 1737 484 1126 127 1585 459 1712 Total Wgt lb/hr 29781 8302 19308 2171 25653 6345 27824 Std Volume SCFM 10973 3059 7114 800 10014 2900 10814 Heat Input KBTU/Min 10463 2917 6784 763 7787 1003 8550 Pressure PSIG 135 10 135 10 75 75 75 Temperature Deg F. 60 60 360 360 279 80 100 A/F Ratio 10.99 10.99 8.89 9.05
  • Contemplated chemically-modified fuel produced for use in this Kellogg Primary Reformer comprises methane-containing gas from a natural gas source and methane-containing gas from a biogenic gas source. The biogenic gas source in this example is a landfill. Only the fuel portion of the natural gas is displaced with landfill gas in this case. The use of landfill gas to displace a portion of the natural gas will significantly reduce the Kellogg Primary Reformer's fuel costs, not to mention the fact that landfill gas can be considered a “renewable resource”. A detailed example showing this particular embodiment is shown in the Examples Section as Example 1. Practical considerations and typical equipment arrangements are also disclosed in the Examples section. FIG. 3 shows an updated arrangement of FIG. 2, including a landfill gas stream. In this Figure, combustion air (310) is provided into the system (300) by a forced draft fan and duct arrangement (320), as previously described. This air (310) travels to the auxiliary boiler (330) and the primary reformer (340). Natural gas (350) is introduced to the system (300) as the fuel source, with “Area-6 gas” (355) and Land Fill Gas (357) also introduced in the natural gas stream (350) for the primary reformer (340). The flue gas stream (360) is pulled from the furnace via a single induced draft fan (370) and exits through a stack (380). Tables 3 and 4 are directly related to the process shown in FIG. 3, in that the numbers 1-16 shown in FIG. 3 are shown also in Tables 3 and 4. The data measured at those locations are also presented in Tables 3 and 4.
  • TABLES 3 and 4 Combustion Air and Flue Gas System Stream Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Component MW Nitrogen 28.0 77.50% 77.50% 77.50% 77.50% 77.50% Carbon 44.0 0.10% 0.10% 0.10% 0.10% 0.10% Dioxide Carbon 28.0 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Monoxide Oxygen 32.0 20.80% 20.80% 20.80% 20.80% 20.80% Argon 40.0 0.90% 0.90% 0.90% 0.90% 0.90% Water 18.0 0.70% 0.70% 0.70% 0.70% 0.70% Total 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% Mol Weight 28.886 28.886 28.886 28.886 28.886 25.59 27.82 26.15 26.15 26.15 Total Mole MPH 19420 19420 14099 5320 1391 17372 5822 23194 23194 23194 Total Wgt lb/hr 560954 560954 407277 153677 40194 444616 161978 606594 606594 606594 Std Volume SCFM 122667 122667 89062 33605 8790 109734 36775 146508 146508 146508 Actual ACFM 127385 257425 187808 70865 9132 509198 140509 335894 214257 204266 Volume Excess Air % 10% 10% 10% Excess O2 % 2.1% 2.1% 2.1% Pressure “H2O 0.0 7.0 5.0 5.0 −0.2 −0.5 −5.5 −11.0 −19.0 0.0 Temperature Deg F. 80 650 650 650 80 1950 1500 700 265 265 Total Primary Reformer Heat Input: 513.0 MBTU/Hr Total Auxilliary Boiler Heat Input 175.0 MBTU/Hr % Change in FD Fan Suction 0.00% Decrease in Flow as Compared to As Flow Is Case % Change in ID Fan Suction 0.97% Increase in Flow as Compared to As Is Flow Case CO2 Available in Land Fill 113.3 TPD Gas: Fuel Gas System Stream Number 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Pri Tot Component MW LHV HHV Nitrogen 28.0 0.0 0.0 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% 8.84% 32.00% 1.00% 8.33% Oxygen 32.0 0.0 0.0 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.05% 0.00% 0.20% 0.05% Carbon 44.0 0.0 0.0 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 11.82% 0.00% 45.20% 11.05% Dioxide Carbon 28.0 321.0 321.0 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Monoxide Methane 16.0 911.0 1012.0 94.30% 94.30% 94.30% 94.30% 66.10% 25.00% 53.45% 67.94% CH4 Ethane 30.0 1622.0 1773.0 2.50% 2.50% 2.50% 2.50% 1.23% 0.00% 0.05% 1.31% C2H6 Propane 44.1 2322.0 2524.0 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% 0.50% 0.00% 0.04% 0.53% C3H8 Butane 58.1 3018.0 3217.0 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% 0.50% 0.00% 0.06% 0.53% C4H10 Hydrogen  2.0 275.0 325.0 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 10.97% 43.00% 0.00% 10.27% Water 18.0 0.0 0.0 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Total 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% MW 17.14 17.14 17.14 17.14 19.37 13.82 28.85 19.22 Net LHV BTU/SCF 954 954 954 954 679 346 490 697 Net HHV BTU/SCF 1057 1057 1057 1057 755 393 545 775 Total Mole MPH 1493 484 882 127 1816 459 475 1943 Total Wgt lb/hr 25593 8302 15120 2171 35167 6345 13703 37339 Std Volume SCFM 9430 3059 5571 800 11471 2900 3000 12271 Heat Input KBTU/ 8992 2917 5312 763 7787 1003 1471 8550 Min Pressure PSIG 135 10 135 25 75 75 75 0 Temperature Deg F. 60 60 360 360 236 80 157 0 Gas Density lb/ft♯ ♭3 0.4607 0.0760 0.2921 0.0775 0.2329 0.2143 0.3915 Line ID Inches 6.065 6.065 7.981 3.068 7.981 6.065 12.390 Line FPS 76.9 151.2 41.4 151.6 120.7 41.0 11.6 Velocity Line FPM 4615 9073 2483 9099 7244 2460 697 Velocity A/F Ratio 10.99 10.99 7.76 7.97
  • In another embodiment, a chemically-modified mixed fuel can be produced that combines three or more methane-containing gas streams from at least two different sources. It should also be understood that other gas streams—such as recycle gas, inert gases, non-methane-based hydrocarbon gases, etc can be added to the chemically-modified mixed fuel, as long as there is at least a first methane-containing gas and a second methane-containing gas that are mixed to form the chemically-modified mixed fuel.
  • In some embodiments, synthetic gases including those that may contain significant amounts of methane, may be utilized alone or in combination with natural, non-synthetic gases. These synthetic gases would need to be able to replace some of the natural gases currently being used in the target process without leading to expensive apparatus modifications or expensive starting materials.
  • The methane-containing gases utilized in the production of the chemically-modified mixed fuels, along with any other additional gases, should be blended at a suitable pressure in order to address concerns with respect to flow rate and also to address additional pressure considerations needed later in the particular process. For example, the first methane-containing gas may be held at a lower pressure initially in order to affect blending with the second methane-containing gas. Once blended, the chemically-modified mixed gas may then be transported under increasing pressure until reaching the optimum pressure for the particular process—such as the Kellogg process described herein. The suitable pressure does not necessarily refer to the pressure needed for the process that is utilizing the fuel, but instead refers to the pressure needed to optimally blend the gas streams to form the mixed gas fuel.
  • EXAMPLES Example 1 The Waverly, Va. Site
  • Enerdyne Power Systems, Inc. in conjunction with Waverly Gas Producers, LLC has proposed to supply landfill gas to the Honeywell Hopewell Plant (Kellogg site). The source of the landfill gas is the landfill located in Waverly, Va.
  • Approximately 3000 scfm of landfill gas is currently available to displace approximately 1500 scfm of natural gas in the Kellogg plant. The available landfill gas is used to displace the natural gas being burned in the arch burners of the primary reformer. The arch burners are the best option for the chemically-modified fuels because they already burn a blended fuel stream containing inerts (the A-6 recycle gas described herein). The displaced natural gas volume in this Example is relatively small compared to the total fuel volume and there is minimal risk to process reliability.
  • In this Example, the price of landfill gas is fixed for the first 18 months at $3.20/DKT, and thereafter, the price of landfill gas will be based on the price of natural gas at that time. The landfill gas price is determined by averaging the current delivered cost of natural gas and the delivered floor price of landfill gas. The total savings expected over the 15-year life of the project for this Example is projected to be $15-30 million.
  • At the landfill site, multiple vertical wells are utilized under vacuum to extract the gas from the landfill. At the landfill site, the extracted gas will be processed in the following manner:
  • Filtration to remove particulate matter
  • Carbon filtration to remove siloxane and organics
  • Refrigeration to remove water moisture and dry the gas
  • Compression for transferring gas through the supply pipeline
  • The gas is then transferred via an 18″ pipeline from the landfill site to the Kellogg site. When the landfill gas reaches the Kellogg site, its pressure is approximately 40 psig (pounds per square inch gauge). At this point, the flow rate of the landfill gas is metered for billing purposes. Also, the landfill gas can be sampled and analyzed at this point to review and ensure gas quality and requirements.
  • An on-site compression station is utilized at this point to increase the pressure of the gas from about 40 psig to a minimum of 75 psig that is required for use in the Kellogg Primary Reformer arch burners. A typical compressor used for this purpose is installed in a modular fashion, with the initial, single compressor powered by one 300 HP, 3600 RPM motor and is designed to handle 4000 scfm of landfill gas. Single compressors can be added over time as the volume of landfill gas is increased.
  • After compression, the landfill gas passes through a coalescing filter to assure the dryness of the gas before being routed to the Primary Reformer. The landfill gas is then blended with the Reformer's arch burner fuel stream. Table 5 shows the existing and modified fuel flow rates at the initial flow rate of the landfill gas (3000 scfm).
  • TABLE 5 Operating Parameter Initial Scenario Modified Scenario Total Fuel Flow 10000 scfm  11500 scfm  Natural Gas Flow 8000 scfm 6500 scfm Area-6 Recycle Gas Flow 2000 scfm 2000 scfm Landfill Gas Flow   0 scfm 3000 scfm % Natural Gas 80%  57% % Area-6 Recycle Gas Flow 20%  17% % Landfill Gas 0% 26% Inerts Flow  800 scfm 1500 scfm % Inerts 8% 20% % Increase in Total Flow 0% 15% Natural Gas Displaced   0 scfm 1500 scfm % Natural Gas Displaced 0% 19%
  • At 3000 scfm of landfill gas, the combustion air requirement is expected to be similar to existing conditions. Specifically, the calculated combustion air requirement for landfill gas is 0.40% less than existing conditions. The total volume of flue gas will not significantly change with landfill gas. Specifically, the total volume of flue gas will increase by only about 0.61%.
  • At the initial volume of landfill gas (3000 scfm), the following updates will be to be made to a conventional system:
  • Replacement of burner tips
  • Installation of tie-in for landfill gas
  • Installation of electronic over-speed trip capability on the ID and FD fans
  • Installation of various instrumentation and controls
  • As the volume of landfill gas increases, the following updates should be considered:
  • Piping size increase from blend point to burners
  • ID fan capacity increase
  • Installation of balancing ball valves for splitting flow in each of the arch burners
  • Installation of an additional fuel header and control valves on the Reformer
  • Installation of future blend point for tunnel burners
  • Ties into additional fuel gas systems
  • Primary Equipment List/Specifications
  • This list of equipment and specifications is for illustrative purposes and should provide enough information to one of ordinary skill in the art to practice the subject matter disclosed herein. GC-21 On-Site Landfill Gas Compressor: Vilter Model VSSG-1501 oil flooded screw compressor, 4000 scfm capacity, 30 psig suction, 75 psig discharge. The compressor is capable of a continuous 100 psig discharge. In addition, the compressor has a 300 HP, 3600 RPM, 4160 VAC, 3 phase capacity. A Modicon PLC control panel is included.
  • John Zinc Arch Burner Assemblies: Model FFC-PC-10; quantity 154.
  • Fuel Tie-ins and Isolation Valves
  • Instrumentation, Control Logic and Piping
  • The overall goal is to burn all of the landfill gas that is available all of the time. The capacity of the landfill gas compressor will be controlled from the skid-mounted Modicon PLC controller utilizing the slide valve (essentially an internal recycle valve) on the compressor and an external recycle valve.
  • To allow the new compressor to maximize the landfill gas being used, a split pressure control system will be used. If the discharge pressure reaches 85 psig, the compressor will go to recycle control and will hold a fixed discharge pressure at approximately 85 psig. When the discharge pressure falls below 85 psig, the compressor will switch over to suction pressure control and will then control to a suction pressure set point (preliminarily set for 20 psig). This control will all be done by the PLC-based control system supplied with the compressor.
  • The process effluent temperature from the primary reformer will continue to be controlled by TIC-117 cascading to HFC-2700 (BTU controller), cascading to FIC-778 (natural gas fuel to the primary reformer). The BTU calculation is modified to include the energy input from the landfill gas in the calculation (it currently includes the Area-6 return gas and the natural gas to the primary reformer). This control scheme will allow for constant BTU supply to the reformer with any (or no) landfill gas flow.
  • A double block and bleed system is installed in the landfill gas line similar to that which is installed into the Area-6 return gas line. This system will activate via a single solenoid valve to positively block off the landfill gas flow to the fuel system. The double block and bleeds will trip and will close HV-721A and HV-721B and open HV-721C on the following conditions:
  • High oxygen content (>4.0% on AI-720A or AI-720B)
  • High Temperature (>350° F. on TI-721)
  • GC-21 Status=Down/Trip
  • Reformer Trip (DCS or Hardware—Anytime V-101A/C are tripped or FCV-778 is closed)
  • Piping and Instrumentation Process Conditions: Fluid (Gas): Landfill Gas Composition (Mole %): Methane (53.45%) Carbon Dioxide (45.20%) Nitrogen (1.00%) Oxygen (0.20%) Ethane (0.05%) Propane (0.04%) Isobutane (0.03%)
  • n-Butane (0.02%)
  • Isopentane (0.01%) 100% Total Average Molecular Weight: 28.879 Mixture Cp/Cv Ratio: 1.212 Process Conditions—Compressor Suction: Pressure: 30 psig normal (design pressure 60 psig) Temperature: 70° F. Process Conditions—Compressor Discharge: Pressure: 75 psig normal (design pressure 280 psig) Temperature: 157° F. Line Size: 12″ SCH 10S 304 LSS, HP Spec. 5210 Natural Gas Piping for Purging Purposes:
  • 2″ 5210 to just upstream of restriction orifice. Increase to 4″ 5210 at restriction orifice inlet. Restriction orifice is 4″, 300# flanges, 0.723″ orifice (designed to pass 2000 scfm maximum at a 250 psig inlet pressure).
  • Natural Gas Relief Valve on Purge Supply:
  • This relief valve will protect the landfill gas suction piping from natural gas overpressurization when purging back to the landfill. This valve should be a 2J3 for natural gas service. Set pressure is 60 psig.
  • Energy and Utility Requirements Electrical Supply: 1 300-HP motor; 3 phase, 4160 VAC, 60 Hz 1 10-HP motor for oil pump; 3 phase, 480 VAC, 60 Hz 1 7.5-HP motor for oil cooler and recycle cooler fan; 3 phase, 460 VAC, 60 Hz 1 2-HP motor for oil system charge pump; 3 phase, 460 VAC, 60 Hz Instrument Air:
  • Less than 10 scfm required
  • Process Sewer:
  • The compressor has a suction scrubber that discharges moisture to drain. Little to no moisture is expected to be present.
  • Practical Considerations:
  • The loss of landfill gas pressure is seen because of on-site compression failure. On-site compression failure could cause low gas pressure at the burners resulting in a plant trip. The natural gas control valve, which is upstream of the blending point, is designed to control the desired pressure at the burners. In the event of loss of on-site landfill gas compression, the natural gas control valve will open to provide the additional fuel required for maintaining adequate pressure.
  • The loss of landfill pressure could also occur because of off-site compression failure at the landfill site, for example. This risk can be minimized by providing adequate notification and adjustment points along the pipeline at designated points. In addition, the existing natural gas control valve system is designed to compensate for the loss of landfill gas flow.
  • Supply piping corrosion may also occur as a function of moisture content in the landfill gas and its dew point. This concern can be addressed by the use of HDPE piping underground and installation of the coalescing filter to remove traces of moisture in the gas. Also, exiting the on-site compressor, the temperature of the landfill gas will be approximately 160° F.—well above its dew point.
  • Landfill gas comprises 1-4% oxygen. Since Area-6 return gas or Kellogg purge gas (when Cryo is down) contain hydrogen, there is a concern regarding the hydrogen explosion limits of the blended fuel stream. Computer modeling was utilized to determine the potential for explosion under a worst case scenario: 4% oxygen in landfill gas and Kellogg burning 6000 scfm purge gas with 70% hydrogen. The results of the computer modeling indicate that the addition of air (additional oxygen) is required to combust the blend of gases, and therefore, the stream is not explosive. In order to address this concern, redundant oxygen analyzers have been installed to monitor the oxygen content of the landfill gas. Interlocks have been set up to trip the double block and bleed system that will stop the flow of landfill gas if an oxygen content of 4% or greater is detected on either analyzer. Thermocouples have also been installed in multiple locations that will also trip the landfill gas should a high temperature be reached—which indicates combustion within the pipe. If high oxygen is detected, it will be necessary to purge the piping of the gas prior to reintroduction into the fuel gas system. This reintroduction can be accomplished by using natural gas to push the landfill gas backward through the pipeline into the landfill. A restriction orifice has been sized to allow a maximum of 2000 scfm of natural gas for this purpose. Since the natural gas is at a normal supply pressure of 250 psig, a relief valve will be set for 60 psig and can pass in excess of 2400 scfm.
  • Deposition in the radiant and convection sections of the Primary Reformer furnace is addressed by the removal of siloxane from the landfill gas. Siloxane is a compound contained in many consumer products, and therefore, it can be found in landfills. The siloxane contaminates the landfill gas, and when combusted, forms a fine, white dust on furnace surfaces. If the furnace surface temperature exceeds 1900° F., the white siloxane dust transforms into an adherent glassy compound. This deposition will severely foul the process heat transfer coils within the convection section and force a Kellogg shutdown. The coils may also have to be replaced, as a result of the deposition, which would lead to a prolonged shutdown.
  • Thus, specific embodiments and applications of chemically-modified fuels, their uses and their methods of production have been disclosed. It should be apparent, however, to those skilled in the art that many more modifications besides those already described are possible without departing from the inventive concepts herein. The inventive subject matter, therefore, is not to be restricted except in the spirit of the disclosure. Moreover, in interpreting the disclosure, all terms should be interpreted in the broadest possible manner consistent with the context. In particular, the terms “comprises” and “comprising” should be interpreted as referring to elements, components, or steps in a non-exclusive manner, indicating that the referenced elements, components, or steps may be present, or utilized, or combined with other elements, components, or steps that are not expressly referenced.

Claims (20)

1. A chemically-modified mixed fuel, wherein the fuel comprises methane gas from at least two methane-production sources.
2. The chemically-modified fuel of claim 1, wherein the at least two sources comprises at least one fossil source, at least one biogenic source, at least one abiogenic source or a combination thereof.
3. The chemically-modified fuel of claim 2, wherein the at least two sources comprises at least one fossil source and at least one biogenic source.
4. The chemically-modified fuel of claim 3, wherein the at least two sources consists of at least one fossil source and at least one biogenic source.
5. The chemically-modified fuel of claim 2, wherein the at least one biogenic source comprises landfill gas.
6. The chemically-modified fuel of claim 1, wherein at least one of the methane-production sources comprises natural gas, Area-6 gas, landfill gas or a combination thereof.
7. The chemically-modified fuel of claim 1, wherein the percentage of methane in each of the at least two methane-production sources is greater than about 40%.
8. The chemically-modified fuel of claim 1, wherein the percentage of methane in each of the at least two methane-production sources is greater than about 50%.
9. The chemically-modified fuel of claim 1, wherein the percentage of methane in at least one of the at least two methane-production sources is greater than about 70%.
10. A fuel-burning process, comprising:
a Kellogg Primary Reformer System, and
a chemically-modified mixed fuel, wherein the fuel comprises methane gas from at least two methane-production sources.
11. The chemically-modified fuel of claim 10, wherein at least one of the methane-production sources comprises natural gas, Area-6 gas, landfill gas or a combination thereof.
12. A method for producing the chemically-modified mixed fuel, comprising:
providing a first methane-containing gas from a first methane-production source,
providing a second methane-containing gas from a second methane-production source, and
blending the first methane-containing gas with the second methane-containing gas at a suitable pressure to form a chemically-modified mixed fuel.
13. The method of claim 12, further comprising at least one additional methane-containing gas which is provided from at least one additional methane-production source and blended with the chemically-modified fuel.
14. The method of claim 12, wherein the first methane-production source and the second methane-production source comprise at least one fossil source, at least one biogenic source, at least one abiogenic source or a combination thereof.
15. The method of claim 14, wherein the first methane-production source and the second methane-production source comprise at least one fossil source and at least one biogenic source.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein the first methane-production source and the second methane-production source comprise consists of at least one fossil source and at least one biogenic source.
17. The method of claim 14, wherein the at least one biogenic source comprises landfill gas.
18. The method of claim 13, wherein the percentage of methane in each of the at least two methane-production sources is greater than about 40%.
19. The method of claim 13, wherein the percentage of methane in each of the at least two methane-production sources is greater than about 50%.
20. The method of claim 13, wherein the percentage of methane in at least one of the at least two methane-production sources is greater than about 70%.
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