US20050061001A1 - Streamlined methane gas generation system - Google Patents

Streamlined methane gas generation system Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20050061001A1
US20050061001A1 US10956803 US95680304A US2005061001A1 US 20050061001 A1 US20050061001 A1 US 20050061001A1 US 10956803 US10956803 US 10956803 US 95680304 A US95680304 A US 95680304A US 2005061001 A1 US2005061001 A1 US 2005061001A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
mixed gas
high purity
gas stream
streamlined
stream
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10956803
Inventor
Valerie Maston
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
New Energy Solutions Inc
Original Assignee
New Energy Solutions Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12PFERMENTATION OR ENZYME-USING PROCESSES TO SYNTHESISE A DESIRED CHEMICAL COMPOUND OR COMPOSITION OR TO SEPARATE OPTICAL ISOMERS FROM A RACEMIC MIXTURE
    • C12P5/00Preparation of hydrocarbons or halogenated hydrocarbons
    • C12P5/02Preparation of hydrocarbons or halogenated hydrocarbons acyclic
    • C12P5/023Methane
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F17/00Preparation of fertilisers characterised by the composting step
    • C05F17/0027Multi-step composting process, (e.g. anaerobic-aerobic)
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M21/00Bioreactors or fermenters specially adapted for specific uses
    • C12M21/04Bioreactors or fermenters specially adapted for specific uses for producing gas, e.g. biogas
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M47/00Means for after-treatment of the produced biomass or of the fermentation or metabolic products, e.g. storage of biomass
    • C12M47/18Gas cleaning, e.g. scrubbers; Separation of different gases
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12PFERMENTATION OR ENZYME-USING PROCESSES TO SYNTHESISE A DESIRED CHEMICAL COMPOUND OR COMPOSITION OR TO SEPARATE OPTICAL ISOMERS FROM A RACEMIC MIXTURE
    • C12P3/00Preparation of elements or inorganic compounds except carbon dioxide
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F11/00Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor
    • C02F11/02Biological treatment
    • C02F11/04Anaerobic treatment; Production of methane by such processes
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste
    • Y02E50/34Methane
    • Y02E50/343Methane production by fermentation of organic by-products, e.g. sludge
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/10General improvement of production processes causing greenhouse gases [GHG] emissions
    • Y02P20/14Reagents; Educts; Products
    • Y02P20/141Feedstock
    • Y02P20/145Feedstock the feedstock being materials of biological origin
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse
    • Y02W30/43Aerobic fermentation, e.g. composting
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse
    • Y02W30/47Anaerobic fermentation, e.g. methanation combined with capture, recycling or flaring

Abstract

A process for producing high purity methane gas from digested or composted organic materials as well as a high purity methane gas generation system that operates in accordance with this process are provided. The inventive system, which is capable of delivering at least about 0.5 slpm of methane product gas, is streamlined in design and provides a more reliable and cost-effective source of renewable methane gas.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATION
  • This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/766,552, filed Jan. 27, 2004, which claims priority from U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/443,410, filed Jan. 29, 2003.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention generally relates to a process for producing high purity methane gas from biogas or a mixed gas stream and further relates to a streamlined high purity methane gas generation system that operates in accordance with the inventive process.
  • BACKGROUND ART
  • High purity methane gas production by digestion or composting of organic materials offers promise for solving alternative energy problems. For example, in agricultural settings this technology could be used to offset energy expenses, to control odor, and to produce a marketable product.
  • Digestion occurs when bacteria produce biogas by decomposing organic matter in the presence of air for aerobic digestion, or in an environment that is devoid of air for anaerobic digestion. Interest in on-farm biogas generation was prompted by the energy crisis of the 1970s, with several farm operations throughout the country experimenting with anaerobic digesters. This experimentation, however, was frequently marked by dissatisfaction on the part of farm owners due to high system cost and/or system failure. The lack of economic feasibility and technological failure appear responsible for the fact that anaerobic digestion has not been widely used in agricultural settings.
  • Thus, a need exists for a more reliable and cost effective system for generating renewable sources of high purity methane gas.
  • It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide such a system.
  • It is a more particular object to provide a high purity methane gas generation system that is streamlined in design and-that reliably and cost-effectively converts organic materials such as animal waste into the desired methane product gas.
  • It is another more particular object to provide a reliable, cost-effective and streamlined high purity methane gas generation system that is self-sustaining during normal operation, requiring no outside sources of energy (e.g., electric, gas).
  • SUMMARY
  • The present invention therefore provides a process for producing high purity methane gas from digested or composted organic materials, which comprises:
      • 1) digesting or composting organic materials to produce a biogas or mixed gas stream containing methane, carbon dioxide and trace impurities such as hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen and oxygen, wherein the mixed gas stream may also contain small quantities of water;
      • 2) directing the biogas or mixed gas stream to a first mixed gas purification device for removing at least a portion of the hydrogen sulfide from the mixed gas stream;
      • 3) directing portions of the desulfurized, mixed gas stream to one or more mixed gas-driven engines that power one or more compressors, wherein the mixed gas stream serves to fuel the one or more mixed gas-driven engines;
      • 4) directing remaining portions of the desulfurized, mixed gas stream to the one or more compressors for compressing the mixed gas stream; and
      • 5) directing the compressed, desulfurized, mixed gas stream to a second mixed gas purification device for removing at least a portion of the carbon dioxide and any excess nitrogen from the mixed gas stream to produce a high purity methane gas product stream.
  • The present invention further provides a streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system. The inventive system uses biogas to fuel one or more mixed gas-driven compressors employed therein, and basically comprises:
      • 1) one or more devices for digesting and/or composting organic materials to produce a biogas or mixed gas stream containing methane, carbon dioxide and trace impurities such as hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen and oxygen;
      • 2) a first mixed gas purification device, which serves to remove at least a portion of the hydrogen sulfide from the mixed gas stream, wherein the first mixed gas purification device is in fluid communication with the one or more devices for digesting and/or composting organic materials;
      • 3) at least one mixed gas-driven compressor, which serves to compress or pressurize the desulfurized, mixed gas stream, wherein the at least one mixed gas-driven compressor is in fluid communication with the first mixed gas purification device; and
      • 4) a second mixed gas purification device, which serves to remove at least a portion of the carbon dioxide and any excess nitrogen from the compressed, desulfurized, mixed gas stream to produce a high purity methane gas product stream, wherein the second mixed gas purification device is in fluid communication with the at least one mixed gas-driven compressor.
  • Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent to one of ordinary skill from the following detailed description and accompanying drawings.
  • Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. All publications, patent applications, patents and other references mentioned herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety. In case of conflict, the present specification, including definitions, will control. In addition, the materials, methods, and examples are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • Particular features of the disclosed invention are illustrated by reference to the accompanying drawings in which:
  • FIG. 1 is a process flow schematic of a preferred embodiment of the high purity methane gas generation system of the present invention; and
  • FIG. 2 is a process flow schematic of a more preferred embodiment of the high purity methane gas generation system of the present invention.
  • BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
  • The methane gas generation system of the present invention is capable of delivering at least one (1) cubic foot per hour at standard conditions (1 scfh) or 0.5 standard liters per minute (0.5 slpm) of the desired methane gas product stream. The inventive system is streamlined in design and provides a more reliable and cost-effective source of renewable methane gas. Further, the inventive system depends upon digested or composted organic materials and not fossil fuels to produce high purity methane gas. Moreover, in a preferred embodiment, the invention system is self-sustaining during normal operation, requiring no outside sources of energy (e.g., electric, natural gas).
  • Referring now to FIG. 1 in detail, a process flow schematic of a preferred embodiment of the high purity methane gas generation system of the present invention is shown and generally designated by reference numeral 10. In this embodiment, organic materials such as plant material, animal waste, food waste, or human waste, are fed into an anaerobic or aerobic digester or composter 12. For anaerobic digesters, an anaerobic microbe would be added to digester 12 to form a reaction solution. The digestion period would be allowed to last for from about 3 to about 21 days, while forming a biogas or mixed gas stream containing predominantly methane and carbon dioxide along with trace impurities such as hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen and oxygen. As will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, the length of the anaerobic digestion period depends upon the type of organic materials being processed and the design of the digester.
  • The biogas or mixed gas stream emanating from digester or composter 12 is passed to a first mixed gas purification device 14 for removing at least a portion of the hydrogen sulfide from the stream to maximize the life of, for example, downstream molecular sieves or adsorbents. As is well known to those skilled in the art, hydrogen sulfide may be removed using conventional hydrogen sulfide scrubbers, absorbents or adsorbents such as activated charcoal and bituminous coal, zinc oxide, and mixtures thereof.
  • In a preferred embodiment, hydrogen sulfide is removed by catalytic carbon. More specifically, activated bituminous coal is employed in the first mixed gas purification device 14 and a small amount of air is added to the stream prior to entering device 14 so as to facilitate the following reaction on the activated bituminous coal:
    2H2S+O2→2 H2O+2S
  • In a more preferred embodiment, the first mixed gas purification device 14 is a carbon adsorber, which is available from USFilter Westates Carbon, 10 Technology Drive, Lowell, Mass. 01851, under the product designation VENT-SCRUB™ VSC-Series VSC1000 carbon adsorber, preloaded with Midas OCM odor control media.
  • A portion of the desulfurized, mixed gas stream is then passed to at least one mixed gas-driven engine 16, which powers at least one compressor 18, while remaining portions are passed to the compressor 18, which compresses the gas to a pressure exceeding the operating pressure of a second mixed gas purification device 20. In a preferred embodiment, the gas is compressed to a pressure of up to about 1.18 megapascals (MPa), more preferably up to about 1.38 MPa.
  • A portion of the mixed gas stream (either before or after hydrogen sulfide removal) may also be passed to one or more mixed gas-driven engines (not shown) for powering one or more generators (also not shown). The generator(s) would produce electric energy for on site use to offset energy expenses and/or for export to electricity grids. One or more batteries may be used in conjunction with the generator(s).
  • Upon leaving compressor 18, the compressed, desulfurized, mixed gas stream is directed to the second mixed gas purification device 20 for removing at least a portion of the carbon dioxide and any excess nitrogen (i.e., nitrogen levels exceeding 0.5% by volume in the mixed gas stream) contained therein.
  • The second mixed gas purification device 20 is not limited. In a preferred embodiment, device 20 is a membrane-based separation device or system that employs at least one membrane having carbon dioxide selectivity and optionally, also employs at least one membrane having nitrogen selectivity. In a more preferred embodiment, the second mixed gas purification device 20 is a pressure swing absorption (PSA) device or system comprised of at least two molecular sieve chambers. The PSA device or system may be used alone or in combination with the membrane-based separation device or system.
  • Generally speaking, in the contemplated PSA device or system, the mixed gas stream would be passed to at least one of a plurality of adsorption zones at an elevated pressure effective to adsorb carbon dioxide and any excess nitrogen (i.e., the more strongly adsorbed components), while at least methane would pass through (i.e., the less strongly adsorbed component(s)). At a defined time, the passing of the mixed gas stream to the PSA device or system would be terminated and the adsorption zone(s) would be depressurized by one or more concurrent depressurization steps where the pressure would be reduced to a defined level which would permit the separated, less strongly adsorbed methane remaining in the adsorption zone(s) to be drawn off. Then, the adsorption zone(s) would be depressurized by a counter-current depressurization step where the pressure in the adsorption zone(s) would be further reduced by withdrawing desorbed gas counter-currently to the direction of the mixed gas stream. Finally, the adsorption zone(s) would be purged and re-pressurized. As is well known to those skilled in the art, the PSA process is generally carried out in a sequential processing cycle that includes each bed of the PSA device or system.
  • In a more preferred embodiment, the PSA device or system 20 is comprised of a housing and at least two molecular sieve chambers (preferably, from about 5 to about 10 molecular sieve chambers) contained within the housing for receiving a molecular sieve or adsorbent for separating carbon dioxide and any excess nitrogen from the mixed gas stream.
  • Molecular sieves or adsorbents suitable for use in the present invention are not limited and include carbon fiber composite molecular sieves, zeolite molecular sieves, as well as, other molecularly selective media.
  • In yet a more preferred embodiment, the second mixed gas purification device 20 is a rotary valve driven nine bed PSA device or system, which is available from QuestAir Technologies Inc., 6961 Russell Avenue, Burnaby, BC V5J 4R8, under the product designation QuestAir M-3200 PSA gas separator.
  • The process for producing high purity methane gas embodied within system 10, as shown in FIG. 1, may be summarized as set forth below:
      • 1) digesting or composting organic materials to produce a biogas or mixed gas stream containing methane, carbon dioxide and trace impurities such as hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen and oxygen, wherein the mixed gas stream may also contain small quantities of water;
      • 2) directing the biogas or mixed gas stream to a first mixed gas purification device 14 for removing at least a portion of the hydrogen sulfide from the mixed gas stream;
      • 3) directing portions of the desulfurized, mixed gas stream to one or more mixed gas-driven engines 16 that power one or more compressors 18, wherein the mixed gas stream serves to fuel the one or more mixed gas-driven engines 16;
      • 4) directing remaining portions of the desulfurized, mixed gas stream to the one or more compressors 18 for compressing the mixed gas stream; and
      • 5) directing the compressed, desulfurized, mixed gas stream to a second mixed gas purification device 20 for removing at least a portion of the carbon dioxide and any excess nitrogen from the mixed gas stream to produce a high purity methane gas product stream.
  • The inventive system 10 produces up to about 3000 slpm of methane gas at >90% purity, at pressures ranging from about 1.0 to about 1.4 MPa. The methane gas product stream exiting the second mixed gas purification device 20 meets the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standards for compressed natural gas (CNG) and may be used for low-pressure applications such as fuel for natural gas engines and any other devices that use pipeline natural gas.
  • In a more preferred embodiment and as best shown in FIG. 2, the methane generation system 10 of the present invention, may further comprise: (1) means 22 for removing at least a portion of any water contained in the mixed gas stream, which is in fluid communication with the digester or composter 12; (2) means 24 for introducing air into the mixed gas stream to facilitate hydrogen sulfide removal in the first mixed gas purification device 14, which is in fluid communication with the digester or composter 12; (3) means 26 for heating the mixed gas stream to prevent water “drop out” and to facilitate hydrogen sulfide removal in the first mixed gas purification device 14, which is in fluid communication with the digester or composter 12; (4) optionally, means (not shown) for removing water from the mixed gas stream, which is in fluid communication with the second mixed gas purification device 20; (5) means 28 for neutralizing sudden pressure surges in the methane gas product stream, which is in fluid communication with the second mixed gas purification device 20; and (6) optionally, one or more high pressure, mixed-gas driven compressors for further compressing the methane gas product stream for higher-pressure applications (e.g., pressures ranging from about 4.8 to about 25.0 MPa for adding the product stream to natural gas pipelines and/or for fueling CNG vehicles), which is/are in fluid communication with the second mixed gas purification device 20.
  • Means 22 for removing at least a portion of any water contained in the mixed gas stream is not limited and, in a preferred embodiment, comprises a coalescing filter in which small water droplets present in the mixed gas stream combine to form larger droplets that are of sufficient size to accumulate or collect in the filter housing. In a more preferred embodiment, coalescing filter 22 serves to reduce the relative humidity in the mixed gas stream to a level ranging from about 70 to about 95%.
  • Means 24 for introducing air into the mixed gas stream to facilitate hydrogen sulfide removal in the first mixed gas purification device 14 is also not limited and, in a preferred embodiment, comprises an air injection system capable of providing air to the mixed gas stream in an amount ranging from about 10 to about 500 times stoichiometric. At low flow conditions (i.e., 20% rated) the air injection system 24 provides no more than about 0.5% by volume, based on the total volume of the mixed gas stream, of air to the mixed gas stream, while at high flow conditions (i.e., 100% rated) system 24 provides an amount of air to the mixed gas stream equal to at least about 10 times the amount of total sulfur in the gas stream.
  • Means 26 for heating the mixed gas stream to prevent water “drop out” and to facilitate hydrogen sulfide removal in the first mixed gas purification device 14 is also not limited and, in a preferred embodiment, comprises a heating device capable of heating the mixed gas stream to a temperature ranging from about 15 to about 33° C. before the mixed gas stream enters the first mixed gas purification device 14.
  • Means 28 for neutralizing sudden pressure surges in gas streams is known and includes, but are not limited to, surge tanks capable of holding one to five times the volume of high purity methane gas emanating from the second mixed gas purification device 20.
  • The process for producing high purity methane gas, which is embodied within the more preferred embodiment of device 10, as shown in FIG. 2, may be summarized as set forth below:
      • (a) digesting or composting organic materials to produce a mixed gas stream containing methane, carbon dioxide and trace impurities including hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen and oxygen, wherein the mixed gas stream may also contain small quantities of water;
      • (b) directing the mixed gas stream to: (i) means 22 for removing at least a portion of any water contained in the mixed gas stream; (ii) means 24 for aerating the mixed gas stream; and (iii) means 26 for heating the mixed gas stream to a temperature ranging from about 15 to about 33° C.;
      • (c) directing the condensed, aerated and heated mixed gas stream to a first mixed gas purification device 14 for removing at least a portion of the hydrogen sulfide contained therein;
      • (d) directing a portion of the desulfurized, mixed gas stream to a mixed gas-driven engine 16 for fueling same, wherein the mixed gas-driven engine 16 powers two compressors 34, 36;
      • (e) directing remaining portions of the desulfurized, mixed gas stream to the compressors 34, 36 for compressing the mixed gas stream to a pressure of up to about 1.38 MPa;
      • (f) directing the compressed, desulfurized, mixed gas stream to a second mixed gas purification device 20 for removing at least a portion of the carbon dioxide and any excess nitrogen contained therein to produce a high purity methane gas product stream; and
      • (g) directing the high purity methane gas product stream to means 28 for neutralizing sudden pressure surges in the product stream.
  • The more preferred embodiment of inventive system 10 produces from about 200 to about 1000 slpm of methane gas at >98.5% purity, at a pressure of about 1.4 MPa.
  • Although this invention has been shown and described with respect to detailed embodiments thereof, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes in form and detail thereof may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (23)

  1. 1. A streamlined process for producing high purity methane gas from digested or composted organic materials, which comprises:
    (a) digesting or composting organic materials to produce a mixed gas stream containing methane, carbon dioxide and trace impurities including hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen and oxygen, wherein the mixed gas stream may also contain small quantities of water;
    (b) directing the biogas or mixed gas stream to a first mixed gas purification device for removing at least a portion of the hydrogen sulfide from the mixed gas stream;
    (c) directing portions of the desulfurized, mixed gas stream to one or more mixed gas-driven engines that power one or more compressors, wherein the mixed gas stream serves to fuel the one or more mixed gas-driven engines;
    (d) directing remaining portions of the desulfurized, mixed gas stream to the one or more compressors for compressing the mixed gas stream; and
    (e) directing the compressed, desulfurized, mixed gas stream to a second mixed gas purification device for removing at least a portion of the carbon dioxide and any excess nitrogen from the mixed gas stream to produce a high purity methane gas product stream.
  2. 2. The streamlined process for producing high purity methane gas of claim 1, wherein the biogas or mixed gas stream is produced by anaerobically digesting the organic materials.
  3. 3. The streamlined process for producing high purity methane gas of claim 1, which further comprises directing portions of the mixed gas stream or desulfurized, mixed gas stream to one or more mixed gas-driven engines for powering one or more generators.
  4. 4. A streamlined process for producing high purity methane gas from digested or composted organic materials, which comprises:
    (a) digesting or composting organic materials to produce a mixed gas stream containing methane, carbon dioxide and trace impurities including hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen and oxygen, wherein the mixed gas stream may also contain small quantities of water;
    (b) directing the mixed gas stream to means for: (i) removing at least a portion of any water contained in the mixed gas stream; (ii) aerating the mixed gas stream; and (iii) heating the mixed gas stream to a temperature ranging from about 15 to about 33° C.;
    (c) directing the condensed, aerated and heated mixed gas stream to a first mixed gas purification device for removing at least a portion of the hydrogen sulfide contained therein;
    (d) directing a portion of the desulfurized, mixed gas stream to one or more mixed gas-driven engines for fueling same, wherein the one or more mixed gas-driven engines power one or more compressors;
    (e) directing remaining portions of the desulfurized, mixed gas stream to the one or more compressors for compressing the mixed gas stream; and
    (f) directing the compressed, desulfurized, mixed gas stream to a second mixed gas purification device for removing at least a portion of the carbon dioxide and any excess nitrogen contained therein to produce a high purity methane gas product stream.
  5. 5. The streamlined process for producing high purity methane gas of claim 4, wherein the mixed gas stream is produced by anaerobically digesting the organic materials.
  6. 6. The streamlined process for producing high purity methane gas of claim 4, which further comprises directing portions of the mixed gas stream or desulfurized, mixed gas stream to one or more mixed gas-driven engines for powering one or more generators.
  7. 7. The streamlined process for producing high purity methane gas of claim 4, which further comprises directing the high purity methane gas product stream to means for neutralizing sudden pressure surges in the product stream.
  8. 8. A streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system, which comprises:
    (a) one or more devices for digesting and/or composting organic materials to produce a mixed gas stream containing methane, carbon dioxide and trace impurities including hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen and oxygen;
    (b) a first mixed gas purification device, which serves to remove at least a portion of the hydrogen sulfide from the mixed gas stream, wherein the first mixed gas purification device is in fluid communication with the one or more devices for digesting and/or composting organic materials;
    (c) at least one mixed gas-driven compressor, which serves to compress the desulfurized, mixed gas stream, wherein the at least one mixed gas-driven compressor is in fluid communication with the first mixed gas purification device; and
    (d) a second mixed gas purification device, which serves to remove at least a portion of the carbon dioxide and any excess nitrogen from the compressed, desulfurized, mixed gas stream to produce a high purity methane gas product stream, wherein the second mixed gas purification device is in fluid communication with the at least one mixed gas-driven compressor.
  9. 9. The streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system of claim 8, wherein the system is self-sustaining during operation, requiring no outside sources of energy.
  10. 10. The streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system of claim 8, wherein the one or more devices for digesting and/or composting organic materials comprises one or more anaerobic digesters.
  11. 11. The streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system of claim 8, which further comprises one or more generators which are powered by one or more mixed gas-driven engines.
  12. 12. The streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system of claim 8, wherein the second mixed gas purification device is a pressure swing absorption device.
  13. 13. The streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system of claim 12, wherein the pressure swing absorption device comprises at least two molecular sieve chambers.
  14. 14. The streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system of claim 8, which further comprises one or more high pressure, mixed gas-driven compressors for further compressing the methane gas product stream, wherein the one or more high pressure, mixed gas-driven compressors are in fluid communication with the second mixed gas purification device.
  15. 15. The streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system of claim 8, which produces up to 3,000 standard liters per minute of methane gas at pressures ranging from about 1.0 to about 1.4 megapascals, wherein the methane gas has a purity level of greater than 90%.
  16. 16. A streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system, which comprises:
    (a) one or more devices for digesting and/or composting organic materials to produce a mixed gas stream containing methane, carbon dioxide and trace impurities including hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen and oxygen;
    (b) means for removing at least a portion of any water contained in the mixed gas stream, which is in fluid communication with the one or more devices for digesting and/or composting organic materials;
    (c) means for aerating the mixed gas stream, which is in fluid communication with the one or more devices for digesting and/or composting organic materials;
    (d) means for heating the mixed gas stream to a temperature ranging from about 15 to about 33° C., which is in fluid communication with the one or more devices for digesting and/or composting organic materials;
    (e) a first mixed gas purification device, which serves to remove at least a portion of the hydrogen sulfide from the mixed gas stream, wherein the first mixed gas purification device is in fluid communication with the one or more devices for digesting and/or composting organic materials;
    (f) at least one mixed gas-driven compressor in fluid communication with the first mixed gas purification device; and
    (g) a second mixed gas purification device, which serves to remove at least a portion of the carbon dioxide and any excess nitrogen from the mixed gas stream to produce a methane gas product stream, wherein the second mixed gas purification device is in fluid communication with the at least one mixed-gas driven compressor.
  17. 17. The streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system of claim 16, wherein the system is self-sustaining during operation, requiring no outside sources of energy.
  18. 18. The streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system of claim 16, wherein the one or more devices for digesting and/or composting organic materials comprises one or more anaerobic digesters.
  19. 19. The streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system of claim 16, which further comprises one or more generators which are powered by one or more mixed gas-driven engines.
  20. 20. The streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system of claim 16, wherein the second mixed gas purification device is a pressure swing absorption device.
  21. 21. The streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system of claim 20, wherein the pressure swing absorption device comprises at least two molecular sieve chambers.
  22. 22. The streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system of claim 16, which further comprises one or more high pressure, mixed-gas driven compressors for further compressing the methane gas product stream, wherein the one or more high pressure, mixed gas-driven compressors are in fluid communication with the second mixed gas purification device.
  23. 23. The streamlined, high purity methane gas generation system of claim 16, which produces up to 3,000 standard liters per minute of methane gas at pressures ranging from about 1.0 to about 1.4 megapascals, wherein the methane gas has a purity level of greater than 90%.
US10956803 2003-01-29 2004-10-01 Streamlined methane gas generation system Abandoned US20050061001A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US44341003 true 2003-01-29 2003-01-29
US10766552 US7033822B2 (en) 2003-01-29 2004-01-27 Self-contained and streamlined methane and/or high purity hydrogen generation system
US10956803 US20050061001A1 (en) 2003-01-29 2004-10-01 Streamlined methane gas generation system

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10956803 US20050061001A1 (en) 2003-01-29 2004-10-01 Streamlined methane gas generation system
PCT/US2005/034818 WO2006039335B1 (en) 2004-10-01 2005-09-27 A streamlined methane gas generation system

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10766552 Continuation-In-Part US7033822B2 (en) 2003-01-29 2004-01-27 Self-contained and streamlined methane and/or high purity hydrogen generation system

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20050061001A1 true true US20050061001A1 (en) 2005-03-24

Family

ID=36000299

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10956803 Abandoned US20050061001A1 (en) 2003-01-29 2004-10-01 Streamlined methane gas generation system

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US20050061001A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2006039335B1 (en)

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2006039335A2 (en) * 2004-10-01 2006-04-13 New Energy Solutions, Inc. A streamlined methane gas generation system
US20080016768A1 (en) * 2006-07-18 2008-01-24 Togna Keith A Chemically-modified mixed fuels, methods of production and used thereof
CN101831334A (en) * 2010-06-21 2010-09-15 霸州市利华燃气储运有限公司 System for producing power fuel for agricultural machinery by adopting biogas methanation way
WO2010124090A2 (en) * 2009-04-23 2010-10-28 Ghd,Inc. Methods and apparatuses to reduce hydrogen sulfide in a biogas
US7832475B2 (en) 2005-08-12 2010-11-16 University Of Wyoming Research Corporation Biogenic methane production enhancement systems
WO2012058755A1 (en) * 2010-11-05 2012-05-10 Valuqat Societe En Commandite Methods and apparatuses for producing biogases
FR3011750A1 (en) * 2013-10-15 2015-04-17 Air Liquide Process for the production of biomethane for injection into a gas network from a plurality of production facilities and assembly of devices for its implementation
US9102953B2 (en) 2009-12-18 2015-08-11 Ciris Energy, Inc. Biogasification of coal to methane and other useful products
US9255472B2 (en) 2008-07-02 2016-02-09 Ciris Energy, Inc. Method for optimizing in-situ bioconversion of carbon-bearing formations

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4409102A (en) * 1981-11-27 1983-10-11 Central Plants, Inc. Process for removing contaminants from a stream of methane gas
US5871565A (en) * 1997-01-15 1999-02-16 Praxair Technology, Inc. Vacuum/pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) for production of an oxygen enriched gas
US20010045162A1 (en) * 1999-11-19 2001-11-29 Mcquigg Kevin System for removing particulate and aerosol from a gas stream

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7033822B2 (en) * 2003-01-29 2006-04-25 New Energy Solutions, Inc. Self-contained and streamlined methane and/or high purity hydrogen generation system
US20050061001A1 (en) * 2003-01-29 2005-03-24 Maston Valerie A. Streamlined methane gas generation system

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4409102A (en) * 1981-11-27 1983-10-11 Central Plants, Inc. Process for removing contaminants from a stream of methane gas
US5871565A (en) * 1997-01-15 1999-02-16 Praxair Technology, Inc. Vacuum/pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) for production of an oxygen enriched gas
US20010045162A1 (en) * 1999-11-19 2001-11-29 Mcquigg Kevin System for removing particulate and aerosol from a gas stream

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2006039335A3 (en) * 2004-10-01 2006-06-01 New Energy Solutions Inc A streamlined methane gas generation system
WO2006039335A2 (en) * 2004-10-01 2006-04-13 New Energy Solutions, Inc. A streamlined methane gas generation system
US8127839B2 (en) 2005-08-12 2012-03-06 University Of Wyoming Research Corporation Formation pretreatment with biogenic methane production enhancement systems
US7832475B2 (en) 2005-08-12 2010-11-16 University Of Wyoming Research Corporation Biogenic methane production enhancement systems
US20110027849A1 (en) * 2005-08-12 2011-02-03 University Of Wyoming Research Corporation D/B/A Western Research Institute Formation Pretreatment with Biogenic Methane Production Enhancement Systems
US20080016768A1 (en) * 2006-07-18 2008-01-24 Togna Keith A Chemically-modified mixed fuels, methods of production and used thereof
US8545580B2 (en) 2006-07-18 2013-10-01 Honeywell International Inc. Chemically-modified mixed fuels, methods of production and uses thereof
US8980802B2 (en) 2006-07-18 2015-03-17 Honeywell International Inc. Chemically-modified mixed fuels, methods of production and uses thereof
US9255472B2 (en) 2008-07-02 2016-02-09 Ciris Energy, Inc. Method for optimizing in-situ bioconversion of carbon-bearing formations
WO2010124090A3 (en) * 2009-04-23 2011-02-24 Ghd,Inc. Methods and apparatuses to reduce hydrogen sulfide in a biogas
WO2010124090A2 (en) * 2009-04-23 2010-10-28 Ghd,Inc. Methods and apparatuses to reduce hydrogen sulfide in a biogas
US9102953B2 (en) 2009-12-18 2015-08-11 Ciris Energy, Inc. Biogasification of coal to methane and other useful products
CN101831334A (en) * 2010-06-21 2010-09-15 霸州市利华燃气储运有限公司 System for producing power fuel for agricultural machinery by adopting biogas methanation way
WO2012058755A1 (en) * 2010-11-05 2012-05-10 Valuqat Societe En Commandite Methods and apparatuses for producing biogases
US20130224819A1 (en) * 2010-11-05 2013-08-29 Pierre Rivard Methods and apparatuses for producing biogases
EP2862923A1 (en) * 2013-10-15 2015-04-22 L'air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Method for producing biomethane for injection into a gas network from a plurality of production sites and assembly of devices for carrying out said method
FR3011750A1 (en) * 2013-10-15 2015-04-17 Air Liquide Process for the production of biomethane for injection into a gas network from a plurality of production facilities and assembly of devices for its implementation
US9506605B2 (en) 2013-10-15 2016-11-29 L'Air Liquide Société Anonyme Pour L'Étude Et L'Exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Process for producing biomethane for injection into a gas network from a plurality of production sites and set of devices for the implementation thereof

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
WO2006039335A2 (en) 2006-04-13 application
WO2006039335B1 (en) 2006-08-10 application
WO2006039335A3 (en) 2006-06-01 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Kapdi et al. Biogas scrubbing, compression and storage: perspective and prospectus in Indian context
US6245127B1 (en) Pressure swing adsorption process and apparatus
US6322612B1 (en) PSA process for removal of bulk carbon dioxide from a wet high-temperature gas
Yang et al. Progress and perspectives in converting biogas to transportation fuels
Muñoz et al. A review on the state-of-the-art of physical/chemical and biological technologies for biogas upgrading
Harasimowicz et al. Application of polyimide membranes for biogas purification and enrichment
Ryckebosch et al. Techniques for transformation of biogas to biomethane
Carapellucci et al. Membrane systems for CO2 capture and their integration with gas turbine plants
US7314503B2 (en) Process to remove nitrogen and/or carbon dioxide from methane-containing streams
US4444572A (en) Process and installation for purification of the helium contained in a mixture of gas
US20020069838A1 (en) Method of utilizing a methane-containing biogas
Favre et al. Biogas, membranes and carbon dioxide capture
US20100129284A1 (en) Method and apparatus for producing hydrogen and recovering carbon dioxide
US6071326A (en) Process for the production of naphtha gas from landfill gas
US20040224396A1 (en) Self-contained and streamlined methane and/or high purity hydrogen generation system
EP1574581A2 (en) Method and apparatus for preparing methane gas
US20110185896A1 (en) Gas purification processes
EP1634946A1 (en) Environmentally safe process for generating biological natural gas
US7637984B2 (en) Integrated separation and purification process
WO2007116908A1 (en) Method for separation of methane, methane separator, and methane utilization system
CN101323799A (en) Coke oven gas dry cleaning temperature swing adsorption process
WO2003068366A1 (en) Method for treatment of a gaseous mixture comprising hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide
JP2003320221A (en) Biogas refining method and biogas refining apparatus
US7691182B1 (en) Process for hydrogen production via integrated processing of landfill gas and biomass
US20030143719A1 (en) Process for purifying energetic gases such as biogas and natural gas

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: NEW ENERGY SOLUTIONS, INC., MASSACHUSETTS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MASTON, VALERIE A.;REEL/FRAME:015424/0208

Effective date: 20041013