US20070274640A1 - Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components - Google Patents

Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components Download PDF

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Publication number
US20070274640A1
US20070274640A1 US11827267 US82726707A US2007274640A1 US 20070274640 A1 US20070274640 A1 US 20070274640A1 US 11827267 US11827267 US 11827267 US 82726707 A US82726707 A US 82726707A US 2007274640 A1 US2007274640 A1 US 2007274640A1
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Prior art keywords
pads
switches
bench
fig
amplifier
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11827267
Inventor
Ut Tran
Hamid Eslampour
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Ut Tran
Hamid Eslampour
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/42Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements
    • G02B6/4201Packages, e.g. shape, construction, internal or external details
    • G02B6/4219Mechanical fixtures for holding or positioning the elements relative to each other in the couplings; Alignment methods for the elements, e.g. measuring or observing methods especially used therefor
    • G02B6/4228Passive alignment, i.e. without a detection of the degree of coupling or the position of the elements
    • G02B6/4232Passive alignment, i.e. without a detection of the degree of coupling or the position of the elements using the surface tension of fluid solder to align the elements, e.g. solder bump techniques
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/42Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements
    • G02B6/4201Packages, e.g. shape, construction, internal or external details
    • G02B6/4219Mechanical fixtures for holding or positioning the elements relative to each other in the couplings; Alignment methods for the elements, e.g. measuring or observing methods especially used therefor
    • G02B6/422Active alignment, i.e. moving the elements in response to the detected degree of coupling or position of the elements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/42Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements
    • G02B6/4201Packages, e.g. shape, construction, internal or external details
    • G02B6/4219Mechanical fixtures for holding or positioning the elements relative to each other in the couplings; Alignment methods for the elements, e.g. measuring or observing methods especially used therefor
    • G02B6/4228Passive alignment, i.e. without a detection of the degree of coupling or the position of the elements
    • G02B6/423Passive alignment, i.e. without a detection of the degree of coupling or the position of the elements using guiding surfaces for the alignment
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/42Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements
    • G02B6/4201Packages, e.g. shape, construction, internal or external details
    • G02B6/4219Mechanical fixtures for holding or positioning the elements relative to each other in the couplings; Alignment methods for the elements, e.g. measuring or observing methods especially used therefor
    • G02B6/422Active alignment, i.e. moving the elements in response to the detected degree of coupling or position of the elements
    • G02B6/4227Active alignment methods, e.g. procedures and algorithms
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01SDEVICES USING STIMULATED EMISSION
    • H01S5/00Semiconductor lasers
    • H01S5/02Structural details or components not essential to laser action
    • H01S5/022Mountings; Housings
    • H01S5/02236Mounts or sub-mounts
    • H01S5/0224Up-side down mounting, e.g. flip-chip or epi-side down mounted laser
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01SDEVICES USING STIMULATED EMISSION
    • H01S5/00Semiconductor lasers
    • H01S5/02Structural details or components not essential to laser action
    • H01S5/022Mountings; Housings
    • H01S5/02236Mounts or sub-mounts
    • H01S5/02256Details of fixing the laser diode on the mount
    • H01S5/02268Positioning, e.g. using marks for positioning of the laser diode
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01SDEVICES USING STIMULATED EMISSION
    • H01S5/00Semiconductor lasers
    • H01S5/02Structural details or components not essential to laser action
    • H01S5/022Mountings; Housings
    • H01S5/02236Mounts or sub-mounts
    • H01S5/02256Details of fixing the laser diode on the mount
    • H01S5/02272Details of fixing the laser diode on the mount using soldering

Abstract

Optical components may be precisely positioned in three dimensions with respect to one another. A bonder which has the ability to precisely position the components in two dimensions can be utilized. The components may be equipped with contacts at different heights so that as the components come together in a third dimension, their relative positions can be sensed. This information may be fed back to the bonder to control the precise alignment in the third dimension.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/392,018, filed on Mar. 29, 2006, which is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/174,940, filed on Jul. 5, 2005, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,050,682, which is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/609,804, filed on Jun. 30, 2003, which issued as U.S. Pat. No. 6,959,134.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0002]
    This invention relates generally to the assembly of components for optical communication networks.
  • [0003]
    In optical networks, a number of components may be placed on a structure, such as an optical bench or a planar lightwave circuit. It is advantageous to precisely position these structures using high precision flip chip bonders. However, such bonders are only able to provide alignment in the X and Z coordinates, which basically exist in a plane corresponding to the plane of the optical bench or the planar lightwave circuit.
  • [0004]
    These bonders do not control the positioning in the transverse or Y direction normal to the surface of the bench or circuit. Unfortunately, optical coupling efficiency between components is also highly dependent on the Y-height placement. However, the present inventors know of no methodology or tooling to address the Y-height placement aspect.
  • [0005]
    Thus, there is a need for better ways to provide alignment operations for building passive optical devices.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0006]
    FIG. 1 is an enlarged, cross-sectional view of one embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0007]
    FIG. 2 is a schematic depiction of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1;
  • [0008]
    FIG. 3 is an enlarged, cross-sectional depiction of another embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0009]
    FIG. 4 is a schematic depiction of the embodiment shown in FIG. 3;
  • [0010]
    FIG. 5 is an enlarged, cross-sectional view of still another embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0011]
    FIG. 6 is a schematic depiction of the embodiment shown in FIG. 5; and
  • [0012]
    FIG. 7 is a schematic depiction of another embodiment.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0013]
    Referring to FIG. 1, an optical amplifier 14 may be positioned on a silicon optical bench or planar lightwave circuit 12 in one embodiment of the present invention. The bench 12 may be L-shaped in cross section in one embodiment of the present invention. The bench 12 and the optical amplifier 14 may each have a part 16 a, 16 b of a waveguide 16 that ultimately needs to be aligned. Thus, it is desirable to use a high precision flip chip bonder or other chip placement tool to position the amplifier 14 precisely on the bench 12 so that the portion 16 a of the waveguide lines up with the portion 16 b of the waveguide on the separate bench 12 and amplifier 14.
  • [0014]
    Though the present description speaks of amplifiers and benches, the present invention is applicable to aligning and positioning any optical component with respect to any other optical component. Thus, the discussion of optical amplifiers and benches is merely meant as an illustrative example.
  • [0015]
    The amplifier 14 may have a bonding pad 18 including a plurality of portions 18 a-18 d. Each of the portions 18 a-18 d may be a distinct portion that extends downwardly from the amplifier 14 and is separated from adjacent portions in one embodiment.
  • [0016]
    Conversely, on the bench 12, a plurality of bonding pads 20 a-20 d may be provided which extend upwardly and which are distinct and separate from their respective neighbors in one embodiment. In one embodiment, the bonding pads 20 and the bonding pads 18 are made of the same material, such as gold. However, the bonding pads 20 a-20 d have a stepped configuration such that the height of the pads 20 a is higher than the pads 20 b, which is higher than the pads 20 c, which is higher than the pads 20 d.
  • [0017]
    Thus, when the amplifier 14 is lowered onto the bench 12, one or more of the pads 18 makes physical contact with one or more of the pads 20. However, as shown in FIG. 1, there is no contact between any of the pads 18 or any of the pads 20 since the amplifier 14 and bench 12 are being positioned in the Y direction. The physical contact between particular pads 18 and 20 may also close an electrical switch 21 whose contacts are formed by the pads 18 and 20.
  • [0018]
    Thus, referring to FIG. 2, the pads 18 and 20 form a plurality of switches 21 (which are closed when the pads 18 make contact with their aligned pads 20). The switches 21 are shown in their open position because no contact has been established between pads 18 and 20 in FIG. 1. The switches 21 a-21 d in FIG. 2 are coupled to a contact 22 a-22 d. The contact 22 may be probed by a probing tool or other device to determine whether or not the switches 21 are open or closed.
  • [0019]
    Depending on which switches 21 are closed, the precise Y dimension orientation of the amplifier 14 and the bench 12, relative to one another, can be determined. In particular, since each pad 20 may have a different height in one embodiment, closure of any switch 21 indicates a relative spacing between the amplifier 14 and bench 12.
  • [0020]
    For example, referring to FIG. 3, the pad 18 a has now made contact with the pad 20 a, as indicated at B. Thus, referring to FIG. 4, the switch 21 a is closed, but the other switches 21 remain open. As indicated at A′, the waveguide portions 16 a and 16 b are still not precisely aligned.
  • [0021]
    Referring to FIG. 5, after further displacement in the Y dimension, the pad 18 b now also contacts the pad 20 b, as shown in B′. To achieve this result, the pad 18 a may be deformed in one embodiment. In this position, the waveguide portions 16 a and 16 b are precisely aligned as shown at A″. Here, the switches 21 b and 21 a are both closed and the switches 21 c and 21 d are both open as shown in FIG. 6. Thus, the precise relative positions in the Y dimension can be determined to any desired granularity. More or fewer switches 21 may be provided to achieve the desired results, with variations in their heights in units of 0.2 nm, for example, or any other value such as 0.05 nm or 0.5 nm as desired for the particular application.
  • [0022]
    The flip chip bonder has precise alignment in the X and Z coordinates. Through the provision of the switches 21, precise alignment can be obtained in the Y direction. Therefore, the precise positioning of the parts is possible on a real time basis in some embodiments of the present invention. Rapid, nondestructive screening and sorting may also be accomplished using for example a prober to determine the resistance of the switches after the bonding step has been completed.
  • [0023]
    In some embodiments, the switches 21 may be fabricated during wafer processing using combinations of masking and etching, dry or wet, and the same process steps as deposition, via etch, and the like. Resolution of the switches 21 may be defined by the thicknesses of the respective pads 18, 20. Since the pads 18 and 20 define the switches 21, a material to facilitate electrical contact (such as gold) may be provided on the facing surfaces of the pads 18 and 20.
  • [0024]
    During the bonding process, a metal on the amplifier 14 side may deform or shrink to enable bond establishment between the amplifier 14 and bench 12. The deformation stops when the bonding force is withdrawn. This action facilitates the connection of the bond pad 18 on the amplifier 14, connecting or shorting the switches 21 at different step heights. Depending on the degree of deformation or transformation of the pads 18 on the amplifier 14, more or fewer contacts may be closed. By measuring the resistance of the switches 21 after bonding, one can determine the distance (and/or deformation) in the Y dimension of the amplifier 14 relative to the bench 12.
  • [0025]
    The construction of the switches 21 can be reversed depending on the overall process sequence. Pads of different heights may be fabricated on the amplifier 14 and the mating pads may be provided on the bench 12 in another embodiment. The concept of the switches 21 can be extended to checking other critical bonding factors which determine coupling efficiency, such as bonding integrity, tilt angle, and rotation angle.
  • [0026]
    The Y-height can be determined immediately after bonding by checking the switches 21 using wafer probing. In cases where the bench is a wafer and multiple components are aligned using this method, the prober may provide a wafer map for sorting and the wafer map may reduce the cost of testing for bad bench/amplifier combinations 10, translating to lower cost of the overall product in some embodiments. With a continuity meter or prober communicating with the bonder, besides the X and Z coordinates, the real time Y-height bonding data can be fed back to the bonder for real time control. The feedback may facilitate the optical passive alignment and high volume production and, therefore, may further reduce manufacturing costs.
  • [0027]
    Referring to FIG. 7, the amplifier 14 and bench 12 may be represented by integrated switches 21. Those switches 21 sense the distance between the amplifier 14 and the bench 12. That information may be read out by a wafer prober or continuity tester 26 using the contacts 22. The information about what switches 21 are open and closed may then be converted into a relative position in the Y direction. That information may then be provided by the prober 26 back to the bonder 24. The bonder 24 may then appropriately position the amplifier 14 and bench 12 based on the desired orientation.
  • [0028]
    While the present invention has been described with respect to a limited number of embodiments, those skilled in the art will appreciate numerous modifications and variations therefrom. It is intended that the appended claims cover all such modifications and variations as fall within the true spirit and scope of this present invention.

Claims (5)

  1. 1. An optical component comprising:
    a body; and
    a stepped contact surface on said body.
  2. 2. The component of claim 1 wherein said stepped contact surface includes electrical contacts.
  3. 3. The component of claim 2 wherein said contacts are aligned to couple to contacts on another component to complete an electrical circuit.
  4. 4. The component of claim 3 wherein said contacts are formed of gold.
  5. 5. The component of claim 2 wherein said stepped contact surface includes a plurality of upstanding steps, at least one of which is physically deformable and each of which includes an electrical contact.
US11827267 2003-06-30 2007-07-11 Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components Abandoned US20070274640A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10609804 US6959134B2 (en) 2003-06-30 2003-06-30 Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components
US11174940 US7050682B2 (en) 2003-06-30 2005-07-05 Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components
US11392018 US7260296B2 (en) 2003-06-30 2006-03-29 Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components
US11827267 US20070274640A1 (en) 2003-06-30 2007-07-11 Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11827267 US20070274640A1 (en) 2003-06-30 2007-07-11 Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components
US12454059 US20090226135A1 (en) 2003-06-30 2009-05-12 Measureing the position of passively aligned optical components

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20070274640A1 true true US20070274640A1 (en) 2007-11-29

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US10609804 Expired - Fee Related US6959134B2 (en) 2003-06-30 2003-06-30 Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components
US11174940 Expired - Fee Related US7050682B2 (en) 2003-06-30 2005-07-05 Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components
US11392018 Active US7260296B2 (en) 2003-06-30 2006-03-29 Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components
US11827267 Abandoned US20070274640A1 (en) 2003-06-30 2007-07-11 Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components
US12454059 Abandoned US20090226135A1 (en) 2003-06-30 2009-05-12 Measureing the position of passively aligned optical components

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US10609804 Expired - Fee Related US6959134B2 (en) 2003-06-30 2003-06-30 Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components
US11174940 Expired - Fee Related US7050682B2 (en) 2003-06-30 2005-07-05 Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components
US11392018 Active US7260296B2 (en) 2003-06-30 2006-03-29 Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components

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US12454059 Abandoned US20090226135A1 (en) 2003-06-30 2009-05-12 Measureing the position of passively aligned optical components

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US (5) US6959134B2 (en)
CN (1) CN1802580A (en)
DE (1) DE112004001188T5 (en)
GB (1) GB2419951B (en)
WO (1) WO2005006048A1 (en)

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6959134B2 (en) * 2003-06-30 2005-10-25 Intel Corporation Measuring the position of passively aligned optical components

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US5173763A (en) * 1991-02-11 1992-12-22 International Business Machines Corporation Electronic packaging with varying height connectors
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US5856641A (en) * 1998-01-08 1999-01-05 Packard Hughes Interconnect Company Switch having raised contact features and a deflectable substrate
US6097097A (en) * 1996-08-20 2000-08-01 Fujitsu Limited Semiconductor device face-down bonded with pillars
US6518163B2 (en) * 1999-12-27 2003-02-11 Fujitsu Limited Method for forming bumps, semiconductor device, and solder paste
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US20030133668A1 (en) * 2001-02-14 2003-07-17 Wagner David K Packaging and alignment methods for optical components, and optical apparatus employing same
US20030218191A1 (en) * 2000-03-15 2003-11-27 Per-Erik Nordal Vertical electrical interconnections in a stack
US20040227212A1 (en) * 2001-08-31 2004-11-18 Klaus Goller Making contact with the emitter contact of a semiconductor
US6940178B2 (en) * 2001-02-27 2005-09-06 Chippac, Inc. Self-coplanarity bumping shape for flip chip
US7312529B2 (en) * 2005-07-05 2007-12-25 International Business Machines Corporation Structure and method for producing multiple size interconnections

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5077878A (en) * 1990-07-11 1992-01-07 Gte Laboratories Incorporated Method and device for passive alignment of diode lasers and optical fibers
US5173763A (en) * 1991-02-11 1992-12-22 International Business Machines Corporation Electronic packaging with varying height connectors
US5345365A (en) * 1992-05-05 1994-09-06 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Interconnection system for high performance electronic hybrids
US6097097A (en) * 1996-08-20 2000-08-01 Fujitsu Limited Semiconductor device face-down bonded with pillars
US5856641A (en) * 1998-01-08 1999-01-05 Packard Hughes Interconnect Company Switch having raised contact features and a deflectable substrate
US6518163B2 (en) * 1999-12-27 2003-02-11 Fujitsu Limited Method for forming bumps, semiconductor device, and solder paste
US20030218191A1 (en) * 2000-03-15 2003-11-27 Per-Erik Nordal Vertical electrical interconnections in a stack
US20030133668A1 (en) * 2001-02-14 2003-07-17 Wagner David K Packaging and alignment methods for optical components, and optical apparatus employing same
US6940178B2 (en) * 2001-02-27 2005-09-06 Chippac, Inc. Self-coplanarity bumping shape for flip chip
US20040227212A1 (en) * 2001-08-31 2004-11-18 Klaus Goller Making contact with the emitter contact of a semiconductor
US20030114024A1 (en) * 2001-12-18 2003-06-19 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Printed wiring board having plurality of conductive patterns passing through adjacent pads, circuit component mounted on printed wiring board and circuit module containing wiring board with circuit component mounted thereon
US7312529B2 (en) * 2005-07-05 2007-12-25 International Business Machines Corporation Structure and method for producing multiple size interconnections

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US20050265665A1 (en) 2005-12-01 application
DE112004001188T5 (en) 2006-05-11 application
WO2005006048A1 (en) 2005-01-20 application
GB2419951A (en) 2006-05-10 application
GB2419951B (en) 2006-12-13 grant
US7050682B2 (en) 2006-05-23 grant
US20040264869A1 (en) 2004-12-30 application
US7260296B2 (en) 2007-08-21 grant
US6959134B2 (en) 2005-10-25 grant
US20060182395A1 (en) 2006-08-17 application
CN1802580A (en) 2006-07-12 application
GB0520457D0 (en) 2005-11-16 grant
US20090226135A1 (en) 2009-09-10 application

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