US20060066559A1 - Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements - Google Patents

Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20060066559A1
US20060066559A1 US11100762 US10076205A US2006066559A1 US 20060066559 A1 US20060066559 A1 US 20060066559A1 US 11100762 US11100762 US 11100762 US 10076205 A US10076205 A US 10076205A US 2006066559 A1 US2006066559 A1 US 2006066559A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
display
frame
method
writing
mems
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
US11100762
Other versions
US7602375B2 (en )
Inventor
Clarence Chui
Manish Kothari
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
SnapTrack Inc
Original Assignee
IDC LLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G3/00Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
    • G09G3/20Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters
    • G09G3/34Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source
    • G09G3/3433Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source using light modulating elements actuated by an electric field and being other than liquid crystal devices and electrochromic devices
    • G09G3/3466Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source using light modulating elements actuated by an electric field and being other than liquid crystal devices and electrochromic devices based on interferometric effect
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2300/00Aspects of the constitution of display devices
    • G09G2300/06Passive matrix structure, i.e. with direct application of both column and row voltages to the light emitting or modulating elements, other than LCD or OLED
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2310/00Command of the display device
    • G09G2310/02Addressing, scanning or driving the display screen or processing steps related thereto
    • G09G2310/0243Details of the generation of driving signals
    • G09G2310/0245Clearing or presetting the whole screen independently of waveforms, e.g. on power-on
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2310/00Command of the display device
    • G09G2310/02Addressing, scanning or driving the display screen or processing steps related thereto
    • G09G2310/0243Details of the generation of driving signals
    • G09G2310/0254Control of polarity reversal in general, other than for liquid crystal displays

Abstract

Charge balanced display data writing methods use write and hold cycles of opposite polarity during selected frame update periods. A release cycle may be provided to reduce the chance that a given display element wil become stuck in an actuated state.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. Section 119(e) to U.S. Provisional Application 60/613,483, entitled Method and Device for Driving Interferometric Modulators, and filed on Sep. 27, 2004. The entire disclosure of this application is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) include micro mechanical elements, actuators, and electronics. Micromechanical elements may be created using deposition, etching, and or other micromachining processes that etch away parts of substrates and/or deposited material layers or that add layers to form electrical and electromechanical devices. One type of MEMS device is called an interferometric modulator. An interferometric modulator may comprise a pair of conductive plates, one or both of which may be transparent and/or reflective in whole or part and capable of relative motion upon application of an appropriate electrical signal. One plate may comprise a stationary layer deposited on a substrate, the other plate may comprise a metallic membrane separated from the stationary layer by an air gap. Such devices have a wide range of applications, and it would be beneficial in the art to utilize and/or modify the characteristics of these types of devices so that their features can be exploited in improving existing products and creating new products that have not yet been developed.
  • SUMMARY
  • The system, method, and devices of the invention each have several aspects, no single one of which is solely responsible for its desirable attributes. Without limiting the scope of this invention, its more prominent features will now be discussed briefly. After considering this discussion, and particularly after reading the section entitled “Detailed Description of Certain Embodiments” one will understand how the features of this invention provide advantages over other display devices.
  • In one embodiment, a method of actuating a MEMS display element is provided, wherein the MEMS display element comprises a portion of an array of MEMS display elements. The method includes writing display data to the MEMS display element with a potential difference of a first polarity during a first portion of a display write process, and re-writing the display data to the MEMS display element with a potential difference having a polarity opposite the first polarity during a second portion of the display write process. Subsequently, a first bias potential having the first polarity is applied to the MEMS display element during a third portion of the display write process and a second bias potential having the opposite polarity is applied to the MEMS display element during a fourth portion of the display write process.
  • In another embodiment, a method of maintaining a frame of display data on an array of MEMS display elements includes alternately applying approximately equal bias voltages of opposite polarities to the MEMS display elements for periods of time defined at least in part by the inverse of a rate at which frames of display data are received by a display system. Each period of time may be substantially equal to 1/(2f) or 1/(4f), wherein f is a defined frequency of frame refresh cycles.
  • In another embodiment, a method of writing frames of display data to an array of MEMS display elements at a rate of one frame per defined frame update period includes writing display data to the MEMS display elements, wherein the writing takes less than the frame update period and applying a series of bias potentials of alternating polarity to the MEMS display elements for the remainder of the frame update period.
  • Display devices are also provided. In one such embodiment, a MEMS display device is configured to display images at a frame update rate, the frame update rate defining a frame update period. The display device includes row and column driver circuitry configured to apply a polarity balanced sequence of bias voltages to substantially all columns of a MEMS display array for portions of at least one frame update period, wherein the portions are defined by a time remaining between completing a frame write process for a first frame, and beginning a frame write process for a next subsequent frame.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is an isometric view depicting a portion of one embodiment of an interferometric modulator display in which a movable reflective layer of a first interferometric modulator is in a released position and a movable reflective layer of a second interferometric modulator is in an actuated position.
  • FIG. 2 is a system block diagram illustrating one embodiment of an electronic device incorporating a 3×3 interferometric modulator display.
  • FIG. 3 is a diagram of movable mirror position versus applied voltage for one exemplary embodiment of an interferometric modulator of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 4 is an illustration of a set of row and column voltages that may be used to drive an interferometric modulator display.
  • FIGS. 5A and 5B illustrate one exemplary timing diagram for row and column signals that may be used to write a frame of display data to the 3×3 interferometric modulator display of FIG. 2.
  • FIG. 6A is a cross section of the device of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 6B is a cross section of an alternative embodiment of an interferometric modulator.
  • FIG. 6C is a cross section of another alternative embodiment of an interferometric modulator.
  • FIG. 7 is a timing diagram illustrating application of opposite write polarities to different frames of display data.
  • FIG. 8 is a timing diagram illustrating write and hold cycles during a frame update period in a first embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 9 is a timing diagram illustrating write and hold cycles during a frame update period in a first embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 10 is a timing diagram illustrating variable length write and hold cycles during frame update periods.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • The following detailed description is directed to certain specific embodiments of the invention. However, the invention can be embodied in a multitude of different ways. In this description, reference is made to the drawings wherein like parts are designated with like numerals throughout. As will be apparent from the following description, the invention may be implemented in any device that is configured to display an image, whether in motion (e.g., video) or stationary (e.g., still image), and whether textual or pictorial. More particularly, it is contemplated that the invention may be implemented in or associated with a variety of electronic devices such as, but not limited to, mobile telephones, wireless devices, personal data assistants (PDAs), hand-held or portable computers, GPS receivers/navigators, cameras, MP3 players, camcorders, game consoles, wrist watches, clocks, calculators, television monitors, flat panel displays, computer monitors, auto displays (e.g., odometer display, etc.), cockpit controls and/or displays, display of camera views (e.g., display of a rear view camera in a vehicle), electronic photographs, electronic billboards or signs, projectors, architectural structures, packaging, and aesthetic structures (e.g., display of images on a piece of jewelry). MEMS devices of similar structure to those described herein can also be used in non-display applications such as in electronic switching devices.
  • One interferometric modulator display embodiment comprising an interferometric MEMS display element is illustrated in FIG. 1. In these devices, the pixels are in either a bright or dark state. In the bright (“on” or “open”) state, the display element reflects a large portion of incident visible light to a user. When in the dark (“off” or “closed”) state, the display element reflects little incident visible light to the user. Depending on the embodiment, the light reflectance properties of the “on” and “off” states may be reversed. MEMS pixels can be configured to reflect predominantly at selected colors, allowing for a color display in addition to black and white.
  • FIG. 1 is an isometric view depicting two adjacent pixels in a series of pixels of a visual display, wherein each pixel comprises a MEMS interferometric modulator. In some embodiments, an interferometric modulator display comprises a row/column array of these interferometric modulators. Each interferometric modulator includes a pair of reflective layers positioned at a variable and controllable distance from each other to form a resonant optical cavity with at least one variable dimension. In one embodiment, one of the reflective layers may be moved between two positions. In the first position, referred to herein as the released state, the movable layer is positioned at a relatively large distance from a fixed partially reflective layer. In the second position, the movable layer is positioned more closely adjacent to the partially reflective layer. Incident light that reflects from the two layers interferes constructively or destructively depending on the position of the movable reflective layer, producing either an overall reflective or non-reflective state for each pixel.
  • The depicted portion of the pixel array in FIG. 1 includes two adjacent interferometric modulators 12 a and 12 b. In the interferometric modulator 12 a on the left, a movable and highly reflective layer 14 a is illustrated in a released position at a predetermined distance from a fixed partially reflective layer 16 a. In the interferometric modulator 12 b on the right, the movable highly reflective layer 14 b is illustrated in an actuated position adjacent to the fixed partially reflective layer 16 b.
  • The fixed layers 16 a, 16 b are electrically conductive, partially transparent and partially reflective, and may be fabricated, for example, by depositing one or more layers each of chromium and indium-tin-oxide onto a transparent substrate 20. The layers are patterned into parallel strips, and may form row electrodes in a display device as described further below. The movable layers 14 a, 14 b may be formed as a series of parallel strips of a deposited metal layer or layers (orthogonal to the row electrodes 16 a, 16 b) deposited on top of posts 18 and an intervening sacrificial material deposited between the posts 18. When the sacrificial material is etched away, the deformable metal layers are separated from the fixed metal layers by a defined air gap 19. A highly conductive and reflective material such as aluminum may be used for the deformable layers, and these strips may form column electrodes in a display device.
  • With no applied voltage, the cavity 19 remains between the layers 14 a, 16 a and the deformable layer is in a mechanically relaxed state as illustrated by the pixel 12 a in FIG. 1. However, when a potential difference is applied to a selected row and column, the capacitor formed at the intersection of the row and column electrodes at the corresponding pixel becomes charged, and electrostatic forces pull the electrodes together. If the voltage is high enough, the movable layer is deformed and is forced against the fixed layer (a dielectric material which is not illustrated in this Figure may be deposited on the fixed layer to prevent shorting and control the separation distance) as illustrated by the pixel 12 b on the right in FIG. 1. The behavior is the same regardless of the polarity of the applied potential difference. In this way, row/column actuation that can control the reflective vs. non-reflective pixel states is analogous in many ways to that used in conventional LCD and other display technologies.
  • FIGS. 2 through 5 illustrate one exemplary process and system for using an array of interferometric modulators in a display application. FIG. 2 is a system block diagram illustrating one embodiment of an electronic device that may incorporate aspects of the invention. In the exemplary embodiment, the electronic device includes a processor 21 which may be any general purpose single- or multi-chip microprocessor such as an ARM, Pentium®, Pentium II®, Pentium III®, Pentium IV®, Pentium® Pro, an 8051, a MIPS®, a Power PC®, an ALPHA®, or any special purpose microprocessor such as a digital signal processor, microcontroller, or a programmable gate array. As is conventional in the art, the processor 21 may be configured to execute one or more software modules. In addition to executing an operating system, the processor may be configured to execute one or more software applications, including a web browser, a telephone application, an email program, or any other software application.
  • In one embodiment, the processor 21 is also configured to communicate with an array controller 22. In one embodiment, the array controller 22 includes a row driver circuit 24 and a column driver circuit 26 that provide signals to a pixel array 30. The cross section of the array illustrated in FIG. 1 is shown by the lines 1-1 in FIG. 2. For MEMS interferometric modulators, the row/column actuation protocol may take advantage of a hysteresis property of these devices illustrated in FIG. 3. It may require, for example, a 10 volt potential difference to cause a movable layer to deform from the released state to the actuated state. However, when the voltage is reduced from that value, the movable layer maintains its state as the voltage drops back below 10 volts. In the exemplary embodiment of FIG. 3, the movable layer does not release completely until the voltage drops below 2 volts. There is thus a range of voltage, about 3 to 7 V in the example illustrated in FIG. 3, where there exists a window of applied voltage within which the device is stable in either the released or actuated state. This is referred to herein as the “hysteresis window” or “stability window.” For a display array having the hysteresis characteristics of FIG. 3, the row/column actuation protocol can be designed such that during row strobing, pixels in the strobed row that are to be actuated are exposed to a voltage difference of about 10 volts, and pixels that are to be released are exposed to a voltage difference of close to zero volts. After the strobe, the pixels are exposed to a steady state voltage difference of about 5 volts such that they remain in whatever state the row strobe put them in. After being written, each pixel sees a potential difference within the “stability window” of 3-7 volts in this example. This feature makes the pixel design illustrated in FIG. 1 stable under the same applied voltage conditions in either an actuated or released pre-existing state. Since each pixel of the interferometric modulator, whether in the actuated or released state, is essentially a capacitor formed by the fixed and moving reflective layers, this stable state can be held at a voltage within the hysteresis window with almost no power dissipation. Essentially no current flows into the pixel if the applied potential is fixed.
  • In typical applications, a display frame may be created by asserting the set of column electrodes in accordance with the desired set of actuated pixels in the first row. A row pulse is then applied to the row 1 electrode, actuating the pixels corresponding to the asserted column lines. The asserted set of column electrodes is then changed to correspond to the desired set of actuated pixels in the second row. A pulse is then applied to the row 2 electrode, actuating the appropriate pixels in row 2 in accordance with the asserted column electrodes. The row 1 pixels are unaffected by the row 2 pulse, and remain in the state they were set to during the row 1 pulse. This may be repeated for the entire series of rows in a sequential fashion to produce the frame. Generally, the frames are refreshed and/or updated with new display data by continually repeating this process at some desired number of frames per second. A wide variety of protocols for driving row and column electrodes of pixel arrays to produce display frames are also well known and may be used in conjunction with the present invention.
  • FIGS. 4 and 5 illustrate one possible actuation protocol for creating a display frame on the 3×3 array of FIG. 2. FIG. 4 illustrates a possible set of column and row voltage levels that may be used for pixels exhibiting the hysteresis curves of FIG. 3. In the FIG. 4 embodiment, actuating a pixel involves setting the appropriate column to −Vbias, and the appropriate row to +ΔV, which may correspond to −5 volts and +5 volts respectively Releasing the pixel is accomplished by setting the appropriate column to +Vbias, and the appropriate row to the same +ΔV, producing a zero volt potential difference across the pixel. In those rows where the row voltage is held at zero volts, the pixels are stable in whatever state they were originally in, regardless of whether the column is at +Vbias, or −Vbias. As is also illustrated in FIG. 4, it will be appreciated that voltages of opposite polarity than those described above can be used, e.g., actuating a pixel can involve setting the appropriate column to +Vbias, and the appropriate row to −ΔV. In this embodiment, releasing the pixel is accomplished by setting the appropriate column to −Vbias, and the appropriate row to the same −ΔV, producing a zero volt potential difference across the pixel.
  • FIG. 5B is a timing diagram showing a series of row and column signals applied to the 3×3 array of FIG. 2 which will result in the display arrangement illustrated in FIG. 5A, where actuated pixels are non-reflective. Prior to writing the frame illustrated in FIG. 5A, the pixels can be in any state, and in this example, all the rows are at 0 volts, and all the columns are at +5 volts. With these applied voltages, all pixels are stable in their existing actuated or released states.
  • In the FIG. 5A frame, pixels (1,1), (1,2), (2,2), (3,2) and (3,3) are actuated. To accomplish this, during a “line time” for row 1, columns 1 and 2 are set to −5 volts, and column 3 is set to +5 volts. This does not change the state of any pixels, because all the pixels remain in the 3-7 volt stability window. Row 1 is then strobed with a pulse that goes from 0, up to 5 volts, and back to zero. This actuates the (1,1) and (1,2) pixels and releases the (1,3) pixel. No other pixels in the array are affected. To set row 2 as desired, column 2 is set to −5 volts, and columns 1 and 3 are set to +5 volts. The same strobe applied to row 2 will then actuate pixel (2,2) and release pixels (2,1) and (2,3). Again, no other pixels of the array are affected. Row 3 is similarly set by setting columns 2 and 3 to −5 volts, and column 1 to +5 volts. The row 3 strobe sets the row 3 pixels as shown in FIG. 5A. After writing the frame, the row potentials are zero, and the column potentials can remain at either +5 or −5 volts, and the display is then stable in the arrangement of FIG. 5A. It will be appreciated that the same procedure can be employed for arrays of dozens or hundreds of rows and columns. It will also be appreciated that the timing, sequence, and levels of voltages used to perform row and column actuation can be varied widely within the general principles outlined above, and the above example is exemplary only, and any actuation voltage method can be used with the present invention.
  • The details of the structure of interferometric modulators that operate in accordance with the principles set forth above may vary widely. For example, FIGS. 6A-6C illustrate three different embodiments of the moving mirror structure. FIG. 6A is a cross section of the embodiment of FIG. 1, where a strip of metal material 14 is deposited on orthogonally extending supports 18. In FIG. 6B, the moveable reflective material 14 is attached to supports at the corners only, on tethers 32. In FIG. 6C, the moveable reflective material 14 is suspended from a deformable layer 34. This embodiment has benefits because the structural design and materials used for the reflective material 14 can be optimized with respect to the optical properties, and the structural design and materials used for the deformable layer 34 can be optimized with respect to desired mechanical properties. The production of various types of interferometric devices is described in a variety of published documents, including, for example, U.S. Published Application 2004/0051929. A wide variety of well known techniques may be used to produce the above described structures involving a series of material deposition, patterning, and etching steps.
  • It is one aspect of the above described devices that charge can build on the dielectric between the layers of the device, especially when the devices are actuated and held in the actuated state by an electric field that is always in the same direction. For example, if the moving layer is always at a higher potential relative to the fixed layer when the device is actuated by potentials having a magnitude larger than the outer threshold of stability, a slowly increasing charge buildup on the dielectric between the layers can begin to shift the hysteresis curve for the device. This is undesirable as it causes display performance to change over time, and in different ways for different pixels that are actuated in different ways over time. As can be seen in the example of FIG. 5B, a given pixel sees a 10 volt difference during actuation, and every time in this example, the row electrode is at a 10 V higher potential than the column electrode. During actuation, the electric field between the plates therefore always points in one direction, from the row electrode toward the column electrode.
  • This problem can be reduced by actuating the MEMS display elements with a potential difference of a first polarity during a first portion of the display write process, and actuating the MEMS display elements with a potential difference having a polarity opposite the first polarity during a second portion of the display write process. This basic principle is illustrated in FIGS. 7, 8A, and 8B.
  • In FIG. 7, two frames of display data are written in sequence, frame N and frame N+1. In this Figure, the data for the columns goes valid for row 1 (i.e., either +5 or −5 depending on the desired state of the pixels in row 1) during the row 1 line time, valid for row 2 during the row 2 line time, and valid for row 3 during the row 3 line time. Frame N is written as shown in FIG. 5B, which will be termed positive polarity herein, with the row electrode 10 V above the column electrode during MEMS device actuation. During actuation, the column electrode may be at −5 V, and the scan voltage on the row is +5 V in this example. The actuation and release of display elements for Frame N is thus performed according to the center row of FIG. 4 above.
  • Frame N+1 is written in accordance with the lowermost row of FIG. 4. For Frame N+1, the scan voltage is −5 V, and the column voltage is set to +5 V to actuate, and −5 V to release. Thus, in Frame N+1, the column voltage is 10 V above the row voltage, termed a negative polarity herein. As the display is continually refreshed and/or updated, the polarity can be alternated between frames, with Frame N+2 being written in the same manner as Frame N, Frame N+3 written in the same manner as Frame N+1, and so on. In this way, actuation of pixels takes place in both polarities. In embodiments following this principle, potentials of opposite polarities are respectively applied to a given MEMS element at defined times and for defined time durations that depend on the rate at which image data is written to MEMS elements of the array, and the opposite potential differences are each applied an approximately equal amount of time over a given period of display use. This helps reduce charge buildup on the dielectric over time.
  • A wide variety of modifications of this scheme can be implemented. For example, Frame N and Frame N+1 can comprise different display data. Alternatively, it can be the same display data written twice to the array with opposite polarities. One specific embodiment wherein the same data is written twice with opposite polarity signals is illustrated in additional detail in FIG. 8.
  • In this Figure, Frame N and N+1 update periods are illustrated. These update periods are typically the inverse of a selected frame update rate that is defined by the rate at which new frames of display data are received by the display system. This rate may, for example, be 15 Hz, 30 Hz, or another frequency depending on the nature of the image data being displayed.
  • It is one feature of the display elements described herein that a frame of data can generally be written to the array of display elements in a time period shorter than the update period defined by the frame update rate. In the embodiment of FIG. 8, the frame update period is divided into four portions or intervals, designated 40, 42, 44, and 46 in FIG. 8. FIG. 8 illustrates a timing diagram for a 3 row display, such as illustrated in FIG. 5A.
  • During the first portion 40 of a frame update period, the frame is written with potential differences across the modulator elements of a first polarity. For example, the voltages applied to the rows and columns may follow the polarity illustrated by the center row of FIG. 4 and FIG. 5B. As with FIG. 7, in FIG. 8, the column voltages are not shown individually, but are indicated as a multi-conductor bus, where the column voltages are valid for row 1 data during period 50, are valid for row 2 data during period 52, and valid for row 3 data during period 54, wherein “valid” is a selected voltage which differs depending on the desired state of a display element in the column to be written. In the example of FIG. 5B, each column may assume a potential of +5 or −5 depending on the desired display element state. As explained above, row pulse 51 sets the state of row 1 display elements as desired, row pulse 53 sets the state of row 2 display elements as desired, and row pulse 55 sets the state of row 3 display elements as desired.
  • During a second portion 42 of the frame update period, the same data is written to the array with the opposite polarities applied to the display elements. During this period, the voltages present on the columns are the opposite of what they were during the first portion 40. If the voltage was, for example, +5 volts on a column during time period 50, it will be −5 volts during time period 60, and vice versa. The same is true for sequential applications of sets of display data to the columns, e.g., the potential during period 62 is opposite to that of 52, and the potential during period 64 is opposite to that applied during time period 54. Row strobes 61, 63, 65 of opposite polarity to those provided during the first portion 40 of the frame update period re-write the same data to the array during second portion 42 as was written during portion 40, but the polarity of the applied voltage across the display elements is reversed.
  • In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 8, both the first period 40 and the second period 42 are complete before the end of the frame update period. In this embodiment, this time period is filled with a pair of alternating hold periods 44 and 46. Using the array of FIGS. 3-5 as an example, during the first hold period 44, the rows are all held at 0 volts, and the columns are all brought to +5 V. During the second hold period 46, the rows remain at 0 volts, and the columns are all brought to −5 V. Thus, during the period following array writing of Frame N, but before array writing of Frame N+1, bias potentials of opposite polarity are each applied to the elements of the array. During these periods, the state of the array elements does not change, but potentials of opposite polarity are applied to minimize charge buildup in the display elements.
  • During the next frame update period for Frame N+1, the process may be repeated, as shown in FIG. 8. It will be appreciated that a variety of modifications of this overall method may be utilized to advantageous effect. For example, more than two hold periods could be provided. FIG. 9 illustrates an embodiment where the writing in opposite polarities is done on a row by row basis rather than a frame by frame basis. In this embodiment, the time periods 40 and 42 of FIG. 8 are interleaved. In addition, the modulator may be more susceptible to charging in one polarity than the other, and so although essentially exactly equal positive and negative write and hold times are usually most advantageous, it might be beneficial in some cases to skew the relative time periods of positive and negative polarity actuation and holding slightly. Thus, in one embodiment, the time of the write cycles and hold cycles can be adjusted so as to allow the charge to balance out. In an exemplary embodiment, using values selected purely for illustration and ease of arithmetic, an electrode material can have a rate of charging in positive polarity is twice as fast the rate of charging in the negative polarity. If the positive write cycle, write+, is 10 ms, the negative write cycle, write−, could be 20 ms to compensate. Thus the write+ cycle will take a third of the total write cycle, and the write− cycle will take two-thirds of the total write time. Similarly the hold cycles could have a similar time ratio. In other embodiments, the change in electric field could be non-linear, such that the rate of charge or discharge could vary over time. In this case, the cycle times could be adjusted based on the non-linear charge and discharge rates.
  • In some embodiments, several timing variables are independently programmable to ensure DC electric neutrality and consistent hysteresis windows. These timing settings include, but are not limited to, the write+ and write− cycle times, the positive hold and negative hold cycle times, and the row strobe time.
  • While the frame update cycles discussed herein have a set order of write+, write−, hold+, and hold−, this order can be changed. In other embodiments, the order of cycles can be any other permutation of the cycles. In still other embodiments, different cycles and different permutations of cycles can be used for different display update periods. For example, Frame N might include only a write+ cycle, hold+ cycle, and a hold− cycle, while subsequent Frame N+1 could include only a write−, hold+, and hold− cycle. Another embodiment could use write+, hold+, write−, hold− for one or a series of frames, and then use write−, hold−, write+, hold+ for the next subsequent one or series of frames. It will also be appreciated that the order of the positive and negative polarity hold cycles can be independently selected for each column. In this embodiment, some columns cycle through hold+ first, then hold−, while other columns go to hold− first and then to hold+. In one example, depending on the configuration of the column driver circuit, it may be more advantageous to set half the columns at −5 V and half at +5 V for the first hold cycle 44, and then switch all column polarities to set the first half to +5 V and the second half to −5 V for the second hold cycle 46.
  • It has also been found advantageous to periodically include a release cycle for the MEMS display elements. It is advantageous to perform this release cycle for one or more rows during some of the frame update cycles. This release cycle will typically be provided relatively infrequently, such as every 100,000 or 1,000,000 frame updates, or every hour or several hours of display operation. The purpose of this periodic releasing of all or substantially all pixels is to reduce the chance that a MEMS display element that is continually actuated for a long period due to the nature of the images being displayed will become stuck in an actuated state. In the embodiment of FIG. 8, for example, period 50 could be a write+ cycle that writes all the display elements of row 1 into a released state every 100,000 frame updates. The same may be done for all the rows of the display with periods 52, 54, and/or 60, 62, 64. Since they occur infrequently and for short periods, these release cycles may be widely spread in time (e.g. every 100,000 or more frame updates or every hour or more of display operation) and spread at different times over different rows of the display so as to eliminate any perceptible affect on visual appearance of the display to a normal observer.
  • FIG. 10 shows another embodiment wherein frame writing may take a variable amount of the frame update period, and the hold cycle periods are adjusted in length in order fill the time between completion of the display write process for one frame and the beginning of the display write process for the subsequent frame. In this embodiment, the time to write a frame of data, e.g. periods 40 and 42, may vary depending on how different a frame of data is from the preceding frame. In FIG. 10, Frame N requires a complete frame write operation, wherein all the rows of the array are strobed. To do this in both polarities requires time periods 40 and 42 as illustrated in FIGS. 8 and 9. For Frame N+1, only some of the rows require updates because in this example, the image data is the same for some of the rows of the array. Rows that are unchanged (e.g. row 1 and row N of FIG. 10) are not strobed. Writing the new data to the array thus requires shorter periods 70 and 72 since only some of the rows need to be strobed. For Frame N+1, the hold cycles 44, 46 are extended to fill the remaining time before writing Frame N+2 is to begin. In this example, Frame N+2 is unchanged from Frame N+1. No write cycles are then needed, and the update period for Frame N+2 is completely filled with hold cycles 44 and 46. As described above, more than two hold cycles, e.g. four cycles, eight cycles, etc. could be used.
  • It will be understood by those of skill in the art that numerous and various modifications can be made without departing from the spirit of the present invention. Therefore, it should be clearly understood that the forms of the present invention are illustrative only and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.

Claims (22)

  1. 1. A method of actuating a MEMS display element, said MEMS display element comprising a portion of an array of MEMS display elements, said method comprising:
    writing display data to said MEMS display element with a potential difference of a first polarity during a first portion of a display write process;
    re-writing said display data to said MEMS display element with a potential difference having a polarity opposite said first polarity during a second portion of said display write process,
    applying a first bias potential having said first polarity to said MEMS display element during a third portion of said display write process; and
    applying a second bias potential having said opposite polarity to said MEMS display element during a fourth portion of said display write process.
  2. 2. The method of claim 1, wherein said first portion of said display write process comprises writing a first frame of display data to said array of MEMS display elements, and wherein said second portion of said display write process comprises re-writing said first frame of display data to said array of MEMS display elements.
  3. 3. The method of claim 2, wherein said third and fourth portions of said display write process comprises holding said first frame of display data following said rewriting.
  4. 4. The method of claim 3, additionally comprising writing a second frame of display data using said writing, re-writing, applying a first bias potential and applying a second bias potential.
  5. 5. The method of claim 1, wherein said first portion of said display write process comprises writing a first row of display data to said array of MEMS display elements, and wherein said second portion of said display write process comprises re-writing said first row of display data to said array of MEMS display elements.
  6. 6. The method of claim 5, wherein said third and fourth portions of said display write process comprises holding said first row of display data following said re-writing.
  7. 7. The method of claim 6, additionally comprising writing a second row of display data using said writing, re-writing, applying a first bias potential and applying a second bias potential.
  8. 8. The method of claim 1, wherein said first, second, third, and fourth portions of said display write process each comprise approximately one-fourth of a time period defined by the inverse of a rate at which frames of display data are received by a display system.
  9. 9. The method of claim 1, wherein said first portion and said second portion together comprise less than ½ of a time period defined by the inverse of a rate at which frames of display data are received by a display system.
  10. 10. The method of claim 1, wherein said first portion extends for a first time periods and said second portion extends for a second time period.
  11. 11. The method of claim 10, wherein said first and second time periods are different.
  12. 12. The method of claim 11, wherein said first and second time periods are determined based at least in part on a polarity dependent dielectric charging rate.
  13. 13. A method of maintaining a frame of display data on an array of MEMS display elements, said method comprising alternately applying approximately equal bias voltages of opposite polarities to said MEMS display elements for periods of time defined at least in part by the inverse of a rate at which frames of display data are received by a display system.
  14. 14. The method of claim 13, wherein each said period of time is substantially equal to 1/(2f), wherein f is a defined frequency of frame refresh cycles.
  15. 15. The method of claim 13, wherein each said period of time is substantially equal to 1/(4f), wherein f is a defined frequency of frame refresh cycles.
  16. 16. A method writing frames of display data to an array of MEMS display elements at a rate of one frame per defined frame update period, said method comprising:
    writing display data to said MEMS display elements, wherein said writing takes less than said frame update period; and
    applying a series of bias potentials of alternating polarity to said MEMS display elements for the remainder of said frame update period.
  17. 17. The method of claim 16 wherein said series comprises an application of a first polarity during approximately half of said remainder of said frame update period, and an application of a second opposite polarity during approximately half of said frame update period.
  18. 18. A MEMS display device configured to display images at a frame update rate, said frame update rate defining a frame update period, said display device comprising a column driver circuit configured to apply a polarity balanced sequence of bias voltages to substantially all columns of a MEMS display array for portions of at least one frame update period, wherein said portions are defined by a time remaining between completing a frame write process for a first frame, and beginning a frame write process for a next subsequent frame.
  19. 19. The MEMS display device of claim 18, wherein said driver circuit is configured to apply the same voltage to substantially all columns of said display array during a portion of said frame update period.
  20. 20. A method of driving a MEMS display comprising periodically releasing substantially all pixels of said display, wherein said periodic releasing occurs for each pixel at an infrequent rate such that there is no perceptible affect on visual appearance of the display to a normal observer.
  21. 21. The method of claim 20, wherein any given periodically released pixel is released at a rate slower than once per hour of display use.
  22. 22. The method of claim 20, wherein any given periodically released pixel is released at a rate slower than once per 100,000 displayed frames of image data.
US11100762 2004-09-27 2005-04-06 Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements Expired - Fee Related US7602375B2 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US61348304 true 2004-09-27 2004-09-27
US11100762 US7602375B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2005-04-06 Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements

Applications Claiming Priority (20)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11100762 US7602375B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2005-04-06 Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements
AU2005203281A AU2005203281A1 (en) 2004-09-27 2005-07-27 Method and system for writing data to mems display elements
SG200504673A SG121050A1 (en) 2004-09-16 2005-07-27 System and method for allocating session initiatioMethod and system for writing data to mems displayelements n protocol (sip) identifications (ids) to user agents
SG2009063850A SG155973A1 (en) 2004-09-27 2005-07-27 Method and system for writing data to mems display elements
CA 2514626 CA2514626A1 (en) 2004-09-27 2005-08-04 Method and system for writing data to mems display elements
JP2005226224A JP5073930B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2005-08-04 Method and system for writing data to Mems display elements
TW94130567A TWI370799B (en) 2004-09-27 2005-09-06 Method and system for writing data to mems display elements
MXPA05009547A MXPA05009547A (en) 2004-09-27 2005-09-07 Method and system for writing data to mems display elements.
KR20050084146A KR101154927B1 (en) 2004-09-27 2005-09-09 Method and system for writing data to mems display elements
EP20050255639 EP1640950A3 (en) 2004-09-27 2005-09-14 MEMS display device and data writing method adapted therefor
CN 201110204626 CN102254506A (en) 2004-09-27 2005-09-15 MEMS display device and data writing method adapted therefor
CN 200510103441 CN1755788B (en) 2004-09-27 2005-09-15 Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements
US11234061 US8310441B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2005-09-22 Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements
RU2005129912A RU2005129912A (en) 2004-09-27 2005-09-26 A method and apparatus for recording data mems display elements
BRPI0503896A BRPI0503896A (en) 2004-09-27 2005-09-27 method and system for recording data on MEMS display elements
US12578547 US8514169B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2009-10-13 Apparatus and system for writing data to electromechanical display elements
US12851523 US8344997B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2010-08-05 Method and system for writing data to electromechanical display elements
JP2010228486A JP2011059695A (en) 2004-09-27 2010-10-08 Method and system for writing data to mems display element
US13672558 US8791897B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2012-11-08 Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements
US14307888 US20160203775A1 (en) 2004-09-27 2014-06-18 Method and system for writing data to mems display elements

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11234061 Continuation US8310441B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2005-09-22 Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements

Related Child Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11234061 Continuation-In-Part US8310441B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2005-09-22 Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements
US12578547 Continuation-In-Part US8514169B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2009-10-13 Apparatus and system for writing data to electromechanical display elements

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20060066559A1 true true US20060066559A1 (en) 2006-03-30
US7602375B2 US7602375B2 (en) 2009-10-13

Family

ID=35539205

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11100762 Expired - Fee Related US7602375B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2005-04-06 Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements

Country Status (7)

Country Link
US (1) US7602375B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1640950A3 (en)
JP (2) JP5073930B2 (en)
KR (1) KR101154927B1 (en)
CN (2) CN1755788B (en)
CA (1) CA2514626A1 (en)
RU (1) RU2005129912A (en)

Cited By (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20050286114A1 (en) * 1996-12-19 2005-12-29 Miles Mark W Interferometric modulation of radiation
US20060044246A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-02 Marc Mignard Staggered column drive circuit systems and methods
US20060044298A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-02 Marc Mignard System and method of sensing actuation and release voltages of an interferometric modulator
US20060044928A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-02 Clarence Chui Drive method for MEMS devices
US20060057754A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-16 Cummings William J Systems and methods of actuating MEMS display elements
US20060056000A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-16 Marc Mignard Current mode display driver circuit realization feature
US20060067653A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Gally Brian J Method and system for driving interferometric modulators
US20060066560A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Gally Brian J Systems and methods of actuating MEMS display elements
US20060066597A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Sampsell Jeffrey B Method and system for reducing power consumption in a display
US20060067648A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Clarence Chui MEMS switches with deforming membranes
US20060066598A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Floyd Philip D Method and device for electrically programmable display
US20060066937A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Idc, Llc Mems switch with set and latch electrodes
US20060066561A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Clarence Chui Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements
US20060066601A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Manish Kothari System and method for providing a variable refresh rate of an interferometric modulator display
US20060066594A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Karen Tyger Systems and methods for driving a bi-stable display element
US20060077520A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-04-13 Clarence Chui Method and device for selective adjustment of hysteresis window
US20060077127A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-04-13 Sampsell Jeffrey B Controller and driver features for bi-stable display
US20060077505A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-04-13 Clarence Chui Device and method for display memory using manipulation of mechanical response
US20060103613A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-05-18 Clarence Chui Interferometric modulator array with integrated MEMS electrical switches
US20060250350A1 (en) * 2005-05-05 2006-11-09 Manish Kothari Systems and methods of actuating MEMS display elements
US20060279495A1 (en) * 2005-05-05 2006-12-14 Moe Douglas P Dynamic driver IC and display panel configuration
US20070041079A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2007-02-22 Clarence Chui Interferometric modulators having charge persistence
US20070053652A1 (en) * 2005-09-02 2007-03-08 Marc Mignard Method and system for driving MEMS display elements
US20070126673A1 (en) * 2005-12-07 2007-06-07 Kostadin Djordjev Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements
US20070182707A1 (en) * 2006-02-09 2007-08-09 Manish Kothari Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements
US20070247419A1 (en) * 2006-04-24 2007-10-25 Sampsell Jeffrey B Power consumption optimized display update
US20080180576A1 (en) * 2007-01-25 2008-07-31 Anderson Michael H Arbitrary power function using logarithm lookup table
US20100245313A1 (en) * 2009-03-27 2010-09-30 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Low voltage driver scheme for interferometric modulators
US7920136B2 (en) 2005-05-05 2011-04-05 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. System and method of driving a MEMS display device
US20120169702A1 (en) * 2009-12-22 2012-07-05 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho Tabular member swinging device
US8391630B2 (en) 2005-12-22 2013-03-05 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. System and method for power reduction when decompressing video streams for interferometric modulator displays
US8514169B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2013-08-20 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and system for writing data to electromechanical display elements

Families Citing this family (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1999052006A3 (en) 1998-04-08 1999-12-29 Etalon Inc Interferometric modulation of radiation
US8928967B2 (en) 1998-04-08 2015-01-06 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Method and device for modulating light
US7916980B2 (en) 2006-01-13 2011-03-29 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Interconnect structure for MEMS device
US8736590B2 (en) 2009-03-27 2014-05-27 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Low voltage driver scheme for interferometric modulators
US20110109615A1 (en) * 2009-11-12 2011-05-12 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Energy saving driving sequence for a display
US20110148837A1 (en) * 2009-12-18 2011-06-23 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Charge control techniques for selectively activating an array of devices
KR20130096155A (en) 2010-04-16 2013-08-29 플렉스 라이팅 투 엘엘씨 Illumination device comprising a film-based lightguide
JP5813549B2 (en) * 2012-03-26 2015-11-17 株式会社東芝 Display device and a driving method thereof

Citations (88)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4441791A (en) * 1980-09-02 1984-04-10 Texas Instruments Incorporated Deformable mirror light modulator
US4500171A (en) * 1982-06-02 1985-02-19 Texas Instruments Incorporated Process for plastic LCD fill hole sealing
US4519676A (en) * 1982-02-01 1985-05-28 U.S. Philips Corporation Passive display device
US4566935A (en) * 1984-07-31 1986-01-28 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator and method
US4571603A (en) * 1981-11-03 1986-02-18 Texas Instruments Incorporated Deformable mirror electrostatic printer
US4662746A (en) * 1985-10-30 1987-05-05 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator and method
US4982184A (en) * 1989-01-03 1991-01-01 General Electric Company Electrocrystallochromic display and element
US5018256A (en) * 1990-06-29 1991-05-28 Texas Instruments Incorporated Architecture and process for integrating DMD with control circuit substrates
US5078479A (en) * 1990-04-20 1992-01-07 Centre Suisse D'electronique Et De Microtechnique Sa Light modulation device with matrix addressing
US5079544A (en) * 1989-02-27 1992-01-07 Texas Instruments Incorporated Standard independent digitized video system
US5083857A (en) * 1990-06-29 1992-01-28 Texas Instruments Incorporated Multi-level deformable mirror device
US5096279A (en) * 1984-08-31 1992-03-17 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator and method
US5099353A (en) * 1990-06-29 1992-03-24 Texas Instruments Incorporated Architecture and process for integrating DMD with control circuit substrates
US5179274A (en) * 1991-07-12 1993-01-12 Texas Instruments Incorporated Method for controlling operation of optical systems and devices
US5192946A (en) * 1989-02-27 1993-03-09 Texas Instruments Incorporated Digitized color video display system
US5192395A (en) * 1990-10-12 1993-03-09 Texas Instruments Incorporated Method of making a digital flexure beam accelerometer
US5206629A (en) * 1989-02-27 1993-04-27 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator and memory for digitized video display
US5212582A (en) * 1992-03-04 1993-05-18 Texas Instruments Incorporated Electrostatically controlled beam steering device and method
US5214420A (en) * 1989-02-27 1993-05-25 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator projection system with random polarity light
US5214419A (en) * 1989-02-27 1993-05-25 Texas Instruments Incorporated Planarized true three dimensional display
US5278652A (en) * 1991-04-01 1994-01-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated DMD architecture and timing for use in a pulse width modulated display system
US5280277A (en) * 1990-06-29 1994-01-18 Texas Instruments Incorporated Field updated deformable mirror device
US5287096A (en) * 1989-02-27 1994-02-15 Texas Instruments Incorporated Variable luminosity display system
US5296950A (en) * 1992-01-31 1994-03-22 Texas Instruments Incorporated Optical signal free-space conversion board
US5312513A (en) * 1992-04-03 1994-05-17 Texas Instruments Incorporated Methods of forming multiple phase light modulators
US5411769A (en) * 1990-11-13 1995-05-02 Texas Instruments Incorporated Method of producing micromechanical devices
US5489952A (en) * 1993-07-14 1996-02-06 Texas Instruments Incorporated Method and device for multi-format television
US5497262A (en) * 1994-07-29 1996-03-05 Texas Instruments Incorporated Support posts for micro-mechanical devices
US5497172A (en) * 1994-06-13 1996-03-05 Texas Instruments Incorporated Pulse width modulation for spatial light modulator with split reset addressing
US5497197A (en) * 1993-11-04 1996-03-05 Texas Instruments Incorporated System and method for packaging data into video processor
US5499062A (en) * 1994-06-23 1996-03-12 Texas Instruments Incorporated Multiplexed memory timing with block reset and secondary memory
US5506597A (en) * 1989-02-27 1996-04-09 Texas Instruments Incorporated Apparatus and method for image projection
US5515076A (en) * 1989-02-27 1996-05-07 Texas Instruments Incorporated Multi-dimensional array video processor system
US5517347A (en) * 1993-12-01 1996-05-14 Texas Instruments Incorporated Direct view deformable mirror device
US5597736A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-01-28 Texas Instruments Incorporated High-yield spatial light modulator with light blocking layer
US5602671A (en) * 1990-11-13 1997-02-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated Low surface energy passivation layer for micromechanical devices
US5610625A (en) * 1992-05-20 1997-03-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated Monolithic spatial light modulator and memory package
US5610624A (en) * 1994-11-30 1997-03-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator with reduced possibility of an on state defect
US5610438A (en) * 1995-03-08 1997-03-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated Micro-mechanical device with non-evaporable getter
US5619366A (en) * 1992-06-08 1997-04-08 Texas Instruments Incorporated Controllable surface filter
US5629790A (en) * 1993-10-18 1997-05-13 Neukermans; Armand P. Micromachined torsional scanner
US5633652A (en) * 1984-02-17 1997-05-27 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Method for driving optical modulation device
US5726675A (en) * 1990-06-27 1998-03-10 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image information control apparatus and display system
US5745281A (en) * 1995-12-29 1998-04-28 Hewlett-Packard Company Electrostatically-driven light modulator and display
US5883684A (en) * 1997-06-19 1999-03-16 Three-Five Systems, Inc. Diffusively reflecting shield optically, coupled to backlit lightguide, containing LED's completely surrounded by the shield
US6028690A (en) * 1997-11-26 2000-02-22 Texas Instruments Incorporated Reduced micromirror mirror gaps for improved contrast ratio
US6038056A (en) * 1997-05-08 2000-03-14 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator having improved contrast ratio
US6040937A (en) * 1994-05-05 2000-03-21 Etalon, Inc. Interferometric modulation
US6061075A (en) * 1992-01-23 2000-05-09 Texas Instruments Incorporated Non-systolic time delay and integration printing
US6180428B1 (en) * 1997-12-12 2001-01-30 Xerox Corporation Monolithic scanning light emitting devices using micromachining
US6201633B1 (en) * 1999-06-07 2001-03-13 Xerox Corporation Micro-electromechanical based bistable color display sheets
US6232936B1 (en) * 1993-12-03 2001-05-15 Texas Instruments Incorporated DMD Architecture to improve horizontal resolution
US20020015215A1 (en) * 1994-05-05 2002-02-07 Iridigm Display Corporation, A Delaware Corporation Interferometric modulation of radiation
US20020024711A1 (en) * 1994-05-05 2002-02-28 Iridigm Display Corporation, A Delaware Corporation Interferometric modulation of radiation
US6362912B1 (en) * 1999-08-05 2002-03-26 Microvision, Inc. Scanned imaging apparatus with switched feeds
US6522794B1 (en) * 1994-09-09 2003-02-18 Gemfire Corporation Display panel with electrically-controlled waveguide-routing
US20030043157A1 (en) * 1999-10-05 2003-03-06 Iridigm Display Corporation Photonic MEMS and structures
US6545335B1 (en) * 1999-12-27 2003-04-08 Xerox Corporation Structure and method for electrical isolation of optoelectronic integrated circuits
US6548908B2 (en) * 1999-12-27 2003-04-15 Xerox Corporation Structure and method for planar lateral oxidation in passive devices
US6549338B1 (en) * 1999-11-12 2003-04-15 Texas Instruments Incorporated Bandpass filter to reduce thermal impact of dichroic light shift
US20030072070A1 (en) * 1995-05-01 2003-04-17 Etalon, Inc., A Ma Corporation Visible spectrum modulator arrays
US6552840B2 (en) * 1999-12-03 2003-04-22 Texas Instruments Incorporated Electrostatic efficiency of micromechanical devices
US6674090B1 (en) * 1999-12-27 2004-01-06 Xerox Corporation Structure and method for planar lateral oxidation in active
US20040051929A1 (en) * 1994-05-05 2004-03-18 Sampsell Jeffrey Brian Separable modulator
US6710908B2 (en) * 1994-05-05 2004-03-23 Iridigm Display Corporation Controlling micro-electro-mechanical cavities
US20040058532A1 (en) * 2002-09-20 2004-03-25 Miles Mark W. Controlling electromechanical behavior of structures within a microelectromechanical systems device
US20040080807A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-04-29 Zhizhang Chen Mems-actuated color light modulator and methods
US6741377B2 (en) * 2002-07-02 2004-05-25 Iridigm Display Corporation Device having a light-absorbing mask and a method for fabricating same
US6741384B1 (en) * 2003-04-30 2004-05-25 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Control of MEMS and light modulator arrays
US20050001828A1 (en) * 2003-04-30 2005-01-06 Martin Eric T. Charge control of micro-electromechanical device
US6853418B2 (en) * 2002-02-28 2005-02-08 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Liquid crystal display device
US6853129B1 (en) * 2000-07-28 2005-02-08 Candescent Technologies Corporation Protected substrate structure for a field emission display device
US6855610B2 (en) * 2002-09-18 2005-02-15 Promos Technologies, Inc. Method of forming self-aligned contact structure with locally etched gate conductive layer
US20050038950A1 (en) * 2003-08-13 2005-02-17 Adelmann Todd C. Storage device having a probe and a storage cell with moveable parts
US6859218B1 (en) * 2000-11-07 2005-02-22 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Electronic display devices and methods
US6862022B2 (en) * 2001-07-20 2005-03-01 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Method and system for automatically selecting a vertical refresh rate for a video display monitor
US6862141B2 (en) * 2002-05-20 2005-03-01 General Electric Company Optical substrate and method of making
US6862029B1 (en) * 1999-07-27 2005-03-01 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Color display system
US6861277B1 (en) * 2003-10-02 2005-03-01 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Method of forming MEMS device
US20050057442A1 (en) * 2003-08-28 2005-03-17 Olan Way Adjacent display of sequential sub-images
US6870581B2 (en) * 2001-10-30 2005-03-22 Sharp Laboratories Of America, Inc. Single panel color video projection display using reflective banded color falling-raster illumination
US20050069209A1 (en) * 2003-09-26 2005-03-31 Niranjan Damera-Venkata Generating and displaying spatially offset sub-frames
US20050068583A1 (en) * 2003-09-30 2005-03-31 Gutkowski Lawrence J. Organizing a digital image
US20060044291A1 (en) * 2004-08-25 2006-03-02 Willis Thomas E Segmenting a waveform that drives a display
US20060044523A1 (en) * 2002-11-07 2006-03-02 Teijido Juan M Illumination arrangement for a projection system
US20060057754A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-16 Cummings William J Systems and methods of actuating MEMS display elements
US7161728B2 (en) * 2003-12-09 2007-01-09 Idc, Llc Area array modulation and lead reduction in interferometric modulators
US7366393B2 (en) * 2006-01-13 2008-04-29 Optical Research Associates Light enhancing structures with three or more arrays of elongate features

Family Cites Families (75)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
NL8001281A (en) 1980-03-04 1981-10-01 Philips Nv A display device.
NL8103377A (en) 1981-07-16 1983-02-16 Philips Nv A display device.
US4482213A (en) 1982-11-23 1984-11-13 Texas Instruments Incorporated Perimeter seal reinforcement holes for plastic LCDs
US4710732A (en) 1984-07-31 1987-12-01 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator and method
US4709995A (en) 1984-08-18 1987-12-01 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Ferroelectric display panel and driving method therefor to achieve gray scale
US4596992A (en) 1984-08-31 1986-06-24 Texas Instruments Incorporated Linear spatial light modulator and printer
US5061049A (en) 1984-08-31 1991-10-29 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator and method
US4615595A (en) 1984-10-10 1986-10-07 Texas Instruments Incorporated Frame addressed spatial light modulator
US5172262A (en) 1985-10-30 1992-12-15 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator and method
US5835255A (en) * 1986-04-23 1998-11-10 Etalon, Inc. Visible spectrum modulator arrays
FR2605444A1 (en) 1986-10-17 1988-04-22 Thomson Csf Method for controlling a matrix screen and electro-optical control circuit implementing such process
US4956619A (en) 1988-02-19 1990-09-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator
US4856863A (en) 1988-06-22 1989-08-15 Texas Instruments Incorporated Optical fiber interconnection network including spatial light modulator
US5028939A (en) 1988-08-23 1991-07-02 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator system
US5170156A (en) 1989-02-27 1992-12-08 Texas Instruments Incorporated Multi-frequency two dimensional display system
US5162787A (en) 1989-02-27 1992-11-10 Texas Instruments Incorporated Apparatus and method for digitized video system utilizing a moving display surface
US5272473A (en) 1989-02-27 1993-12-21 Texas Instruments Incorporated Reduced-speckle display system
US4954789A (en) 1989-09-28 1990-09-04 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator
US5124834A (en) 1989-11-16 1992-06-23 General Electric Company Transferrable, self-supporting pellicle for elastomer light valve displays and method for making the same
US5037173A (en) 1989-11-22 1991-08-06 Texas Instruments Incorporated Optical interconnection network
US5227900A (en) 1990-03-20 1993-07-13 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Method of driving ferroelectric liquid crystal element
US5216537A (en) 1990-06-29 1993-06-01 Texas Instruments Incorporated Architecture and process for integrating DMD with control circuit substrates
US5142405A (en) 1990-06-29 1992-08-25 Texas Instruments Incorporated Bistable dmd addressing circuit and method
US5526688A (en) 1990-10-12 1996-06-18 Texas Instruments Incorporated Digital flexure beam accelerometer and method
US5233459A (en) 1991-03-06 1993-08-03 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Electric display device
US5226099A (en) 1991-04-26 1993-07-06 Texas Instruments Incorporated Digital micromirror shutter device
US5168406A (en) 1991-07-31 1992-12-01 Texas Instruments Incorporated Color deformable mirror device and method for manufacture
US5254980A (en) 1991-09-06 1993-10-19 Texas Instruments Incorporated DMD display system controller
US5563398A (en) 1991-10-31 1996-10-08 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator scanning system
CA2081753C (en) 1991-11-22 2002-08-06 Jeffrey B. Sampsell Dmd scanner
US5233385A (en) 1991-12-18 1993-08-03 Texas Instruments Incorporated White light enhanced color field sequential projection
US5233456A (en) 1991-12-20 1993-08-03 Texas Instruments Incorporated Resonant mirror and method of manufacture
US5231532A (en) 1992-02-05 1993-07-27 Texas Instruments Incorporated Switchable resonant filter for optical radiation
EP0562424B1 (en) 1992-03-25 1997-05-28 Texas Instruments Incorporated Embedded optical calibration system
US5327286A (en) 1992-08-31 1994-07-05 Texas Instruments Incorporated Real time optical correlation system
US5325116A (en) 1992-09-18 1994-06-28 Texas Instruments Incorporated Device for writing to and reading from optical storage media
CN1057614C (en) 1993-01-11 2000-10-18 德克萨斯仪器股份有限公司 Pixel control circuitry for spatial light modulator
US5461411A (en) 1993-03-29 1995-10-24 Texas Instruments Incorporated Process and architecture for digital micromirror printer
US5365283A (en) 1993-07-19 1994-11-15 Texas Instruments Incorporated Color phase control for projection display using spatial light modulator
US5526172A (en) 1993-07-27 1996-06-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated Microminiature, monolithic, variable electrical signal processor and apparatus including same
US5581272A (en) 1993-08-25 1996-12-03 Texas Instruments Incorporated Signal generator for controlling a spatial light modulator
US5552925A (en) 1993-09-07 1996-09-03 John M. Baker Electro-micro-mechanical shutters on transparent substrates
US5457493A (en) 1993-09-15 1995-10-10 Texas Instruments Incorporated Digital micro-mirror based image simulation system
US5526051A (en) 1993-10-27 1996-06-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated Digital television system
US5459602A (en) 1993-10-29 1995-10-17 Texas Instruments Micro-mechanical optical shutter
US5452024A (en) 1993-11-01 1995-09-19 Texas Instruments Incorporated DMD display system
US5583688A (en) 1993-12-21 1996-12-10 Texas Instruments Incorporated Multi-level digital micromirror device
US5448314A (en) 1994-01-07 1995-09-05 Texas Instruments Method and apparatus for sequential color imaging
US5444566A (en) 1994-03-07 1995-08-22 Texas Instruments Incorporated Optimized electronic operation of digital micromirror devices
US5454906A (en) 1994-06-21 1995-10-03 Texas Instruments Inc. Method of providing sacrificial spacer for micro-mechanical devices
US5552924A (en) 1994-11-14 1996-09-03 Texas Instruments Incorporated Micromechanical device having an improved beam
JP3311224B2 (en) * 1994-12-28 2002-08-05 キヤノン株式会社 A display device using the same and inversion signal generation circuit for a display device
US5567334A (en) 1995-02-27 1996-10-22 Texas Instruments Incorporated Method for creating a digital micromirror device using an aluminum hard mask
US5535047A (en) 1995-04-18 1996-07-09 Texas Instruments Incorporated Active yoke hidden hinge digital micromirror device
JPH0973067A (en) * 1995-06-15 1997-03-18 Canon Inc Optical modulation device and driving method for picture display device
US6008785A (en) * 1996-11-28 1999-12-28 Texas Instruments Incorporated Generating load/reset sequences for spatial light modulator
US6151167A (en) * 1998-08-05 2000-11-21 Microvision, Inc. Scanned display with dual signal fiber transmission
JP3919954B2 (en) * 1998-10-16 2007-05-30 富士フイルム株式会社 Array-type light modulation element and a driving method of a flat display
US20070285385A1 (en) * 1998-11-02 2007-12-13 E Ink Corporation Broadcast system for electronic ink signs
JP3466951B2 (en) * 1999-03-30 2003-11-17 株式会社東芝 The liquid crystal display device
US6433907B1 (en) * 1999-08-05 2002-08-13 Microvision, Inc. Scanned display with plurality of scanning assemblies
US6245590B1 (en) * 1999-08-05 2001-06-12 Microvision Inc. Frequency tunable resonant scanner and method of making
US6747775B2 (en) * 2000-03-20 2004-06-08 Np Photonics, Inc. Detunable Fabry-Perot interferometer and an add/drop multiplexer using the same
US6792293B1 (en) * 2000-09-13 2004-09-14 Motorola, Inc. Apparatus and method for orienting an image on a display of a wireless communication device
EP1334623A2 (en) * 2000-10-12 2003-08-13 Reveo, Inc. 3d projection system with a digital micromirror device
US7291363B2 (en) * 2001-06-30 2007-11-06 Texas Instruments Incorporated Lubricating micro-machined devices using fluorosurfactants
US7283112B2 (en) 2002-03-01 2007-10-16 Microsoft Corporation Reflective microelectrical mechanical structure (MEMS) optical modulator and optical display system
KR20050014846A (en) * 2002-05-29 2005-02-07 젯비디 디스플레이스 리미티드 Display Device
JP2003058134A (en) * 2002-06-28 2003-02-28 Seiko Epson Corp Electrooptical device and driving method of electrooptical material, its driving circuit, electronic equipment and display device
US6775047B1 (en) * 2002-08-19 2004-08-10 Silicon Light Machines, Inc. Adaptive bipolar operation of MEM device
US20050264472A1 (en) * 2002-09-23 2005-12-01 Rast Rodger H Display methods and systems
US6972881B1 (en) * 2002-11-21 2005-12-06 Nuelight Corp. Micro-electro-mechanical switch (MEMS) display panel with on-glass column multiplexers using MEMS as mux elements
US7283105B2 (en) * 2003-04-24 2007-10-16 Displaytech, Inc. Microdisplay and interface on single chip
US7072093B2 (en) * 2003-04-30 2006-07-04 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Optical interference pixel display with charge control
JP2004145286A (en) * 2003-08-28 2004-05-20 Seiko Epson Corp Device, method, and program for image display

Patent Citations (99)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4441791A (en) * 1980-09-02 1984-04-10 Texas Instruments Incorporated Deformable mirror light modulator
US4571603A (en) * 1981-11-03 1986-02-18 Texas Instruments Incorporated Deformable mirror electrostatic printer
US4519676A (en) * 1982-02-01 1985-05-28 U.S. Philips Corporation Passive display device
US4500171A (en) * 1982-06-02 1985-02-19 Texas Instruments Incorporated Process for plastic LCD fill hole sealing
US5633652A (en) * 1984-02-17 1997-05-27 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Method for driving optical modulation device
US4566935A (en) * 1984-07-31 1986-01-28 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator and method
US5096279A (en) * 1984-08-31 1992-03-17 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator and method
US4662746A (en) * 1985-10-30 1987-05-05 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator and method
US4982184A (en) * 1989-01-03 1991-01-01 General Electric Company Electrocrystallochromic display and element
US5515076A (en) * 1989-02-27 1996-05-07 Texas Instruments Incorporated Multi-dimensional array video processor system
US5214419A (en) * 1989-02-27 1993-05-25 Texas Instruments Incorporated Planarized true three dimensional display
US5079544A (en) * 1989-02-27 1992-01-07 Texas Instruments Incorporated Standard independent digitized video system
US5287096A (en) * 1989-02-27 1994-02-15 Texas Instruments Incorporated Variable luminosity display system
US6049317A (en) * 1989-02-27 2000-04-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated System for imaging of light-sensitive media
US5192946A (en) * 1989-02-27 1993-03-09 Texas Instruments Incorporated Digitized color video display system
US5214420A (en) * 1989-02-27 1993-05-25 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator projection system with random polarity light
US5206629A (en) * 1989-02-27 1993-04-27 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator and memory for digitized video display
US5506597A (en) * 1989-02-27 1996-04-09 Texas Instruments Incorporated Apparatus and method for image projection
US5078479A (en) * 1990-04-20 1992-01-07 Centre Suisse D'electronique Et De Microtechnique Sa Light modulation device with matrix addressing
US5726675A (en) * 1990-06-27 1998-03-10 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image information control apparatus and display system
US5083857A (en) * 1990-06-29 1992-01-28 Texas Instruments Incorporated Multi-level deformable mirror device
US5600383A (en) * 1990-06-29 1997-02-04 Texas Instruments Incorporated Multi-level deformable mirror device with torsion hinges placed in a layer different from the torsion beam layer
US5018256A (en) * 1990-06-29 1991-05-28 Texas Instruments Incorporated Architecture and process for integrating DMD with control circuit substrates
US5099353A (en) * 1990-06-29 1992-03-24 Texas Instruments Incorporated Architecture and process for integrating DMD with control circuit substrates
US5280277A (en) * 1990-06-29 1994-01-18 Texas Instruments Incorporated Field updated deformable mirror device
US5305640A (en) * 1990-10-12 1994-04-26 Texas Instruments Incorporated Digital flexure beam accelerometer
US5192395A (en) * 1990-10-12 1993-03-09 Texas Instruments Incorporated Method of making a digital flexure beam accelerometer
US5411769A (en) * 1990-11-13 1995-05-02 Texas Instruments Incorporated Method of producing micromechanical devices
US5602671A (en) * 1990-11-13 1997-02-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated Low surface energy passivation layer for micromechanical devices
US5278652A (en) * 1991-04-01 1994-01-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated DMD architecture and timing for use in a pulse width modulated display system
US5745193A (en) * 1991-04-01 1998-04-28 Texas Instruments Incorporated DMD architecture and timing for use in a pulse-width modulated display system
US5179274A (en) * 1991-07-12 1993-01-12 Texas Instruments Incorporated Method for controlling operation of optical systems and devices
US6061075A (en) * 1992-01-23 2000-05-09 Texas Instruments Incorporated Non-systolic time delay and integration printing
US5296950A (en) * 1992-01-31 1994-03-22 Texas Instruments Incorporated Optical signal free-space conversion board
US5212582A (en) * 1992-03-04 1993-05-18 Texas Instruments Incorporated Electrostatically controlled beam steering device and method
US5606441A (en) * 1992-04-03 1997-02-25 Texas Instruments Incorporated Multiple phase light modulation using binary addressing
US5312513A (en) * 1992-04-03 1994-05-17 Texas Instruments Incorporated Methods of forming multiple phase light modulators
US5610625A (en) * 1992-05-20 1997-03-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated Monolithic spatial light modulator and memory package
US5619366A (en) * 1992-06-08 1997-04-08 Texas Instruments Incorporated Controllable surface filter
US5619365A (en) * 1992-06-08 1997-04-08 Texas Instruments Incorporated Elecronically tunable optical periodic surface filters with an alterable resonant frequency
US5597736A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-01-28 Texas Instruments Incorporated High-yield spatial light modulator with light blocking layer
US5489952A (en) * 1993-07-14 1996-02-06 Texas Instruments Incorporated Method and device for multi-format television
US5608468A (en) * 1993-07-14 1997-03-04 Texas Instruments Incorporated Method and device for multi-format television
US5629790A (en) * 1993-10-18 1997-05-13 Neukermans; Armand P. Micromachined torsional scanner
US5497197A (en) * 1993-11-04 1996-03-05 Texas Instruments Incorporated System and method for packaging data into video processor
US5517347A (en) * 1993-12-01 1996-05-14 Texas Instruments Incorporated Direct view deformable mirror device
US6232936B1 (en) * 1993-12-03 2001-05-15 Texas Instruments Incorporated DMD Architecture to improve horizontal resolution
US6680792B2 (en) * 1994-05-05 2004-01-20 Iridigm Display Corporation Interferometric modulation of radiation
US6710908B2 (en) * 1994-05-05 2004-03-23 Iridigm Display Corporation Controlling micro-electro-mechanical cavities
US6055090A (en) * 1994-05-05 2000-04-25 Etalon, Inc. Interferometric modulation
US20020015215A1 (en) * 1994-05-05 2002-02-07 Iridigm Display Corporation, A Delaware Corporation Interferometric modulation of radiation
US6674562B1 (en) * 1994-05-05 2004-01-06 Iridigm Display Corporation Interferometric modulation of radiation
US6867896B2 (en) * 1994-05-05 2005-03-15 Idc, Llc Interferometric modulation of radiation
US6040937A (en) * 1994-05-05 2000-03-21 Etalon, Inc. Interferometric modulation
US20040051929A1 (en) * 1994-05-05 2004-03-18 Sampsell Jeffrey Brian Separable modulator
US20020024711A1 (en) * 1994-05-05 2002-02-28 Iridigm Display Corporation, A Delaware Corporation Interferometric modulation of radiation
US5497172A (en) * 1994-06-13 1996-03-05 Texas Instruments Incorporated Pulse width modulation for spatial light modulator with split reset addressing
US5499062A (en) * 1994-06-23 1996-03-12 Texas Instruments Incorporated Multiplexed memory timing with block reset and secondary memory
US5497262A (en) * 1994-07-29 1996-03-05 Texas Instruments Incorporated Support posts for micro-mechanical devices
US6522794B1 (en) * 1994-09-09 2003-02-18 Gemfire Corporation Display panel with electrically-controlled waveguide-routing
US5610624A (en) * 1994-11-30 1997-03-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator with reduced possibility of an on state defect
US5610438A (en) * 1995-03-08 1997-03-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated Micro-mechanical device with non-evaporable getter
US20030072070A1 (en) * 1995-05-01 2003-04-17 Etalon, Inc., A Ma Corporation Visible spectrum modulator arrays
US5745281A (en) * 1995-12-29 1998-04-28 Hewlett-Packard Company Electrostatically-driven light modulator and display
US6038056A (en) * 1997-05-08 2000-03-14 Texas Instruments Incorporated Spatial light modulator having improved contrast ratio
US5883684A (en) * 1997-06-19 1999-03-16 Three-Five Systems, Inc. Diffusively reflecting shield optically, coupled to backlit lightguide, containing LED's completely surrounded by the shield
US6028690A (en) * 1997-11-26 2000-02-22 Texas Instruments Incorporated Reduced micromirror mirror gaps for improved contrast ratio
US6180428B1 (en) * 1997-12-12 2001-01-30 Xerox Corporation Monolithic scanning light emitting devices using micromachining
US6201633B1 (en) * 1999-06-07 2001-03-13 Xerox Corporation Micro-electromechanical based bistable color display sheets
US6862029B1 (en) * 1999-07-27 2005-03-01 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Color display system
US6362912B1 (en) * 1999-08-05 2002-03-26 Microvision, Inc. Scanned imaging apparatus with switched feeds
US20030043157A1 (en) * 1999-10-05 2003-03-06 Iridigm Display Corporation Photonic MEMS and structures
US6549338B1 (en) * 1999-11-12 2003-04-15 Texas Instruments Incorporated Bandpass filter to reduce thermal impact of dichroic light shift
US6552840B2 (en) * 1999-12-03 2003-04-22 Texas Instruments Incorporated Electrostatic efficiency of micromechanical devices
US6548908B2 (en) * 1999-12-27 2003-04-15 Xerox Corporation Structure and method for planar lateral oxidation in passive devices
US6545335B1 (en) * 1999-12-27 2003-04-08 Xerox Corporation Structure and method for electrical isolation of optoelectronic integrated circuits
US6674090B1 (en) * 1999-12-27 2004-01-06 Xerox Corporation Structure and method for planar lateral oxidation in active
US6853129B1 (en) * 2000-07-28 2005-02-08 Candescent Technologies Corporation Protected substrate structure for a field emission display device
US6859218B1 (en) * 2000-11-07 2005-02-22 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Electronic display devices and methods
US6862022B2 (en) * 2001-07-20 2005-03-01 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Method and system for automatically selecting a vertical refresh rate for a video display monitor
US6870581B2 (en) * 2001-10-30 2005-03-22 Sharp Laboratories Of America, Inc. Single panel color video projection display using reflective banded color falling-raster illumination
US6853418B2 (en) * 2002-02-28 2005-02-08 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Liquid crystal display device
US6862141B2 (en) * 2002-05-20 2005-03-01 General Electric Company Optical substrate and method of making
US6741377B2 (en) * 2002-07-02 2004-05-25 Iridigm Display Corporation Device having a light-absorbing mask and a method for fabricating same
US6855610B2 (en) * 2002-09-18 2005-02-15 Promos Technologies, Inc. Method of forming self-aligned contact structure with locally etched gate conductive layer
US20040058532A1 (en) * 2002-09-20 2004-03-25 Miles Mark W. Controlling electromechanical behavior of structures within a microelectromechanical systems device
US20040080807A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-04-29 Zhizhang Chen Mems-actuated color light modulator and methods
US20060044523A1 (en) * 2002-11-07 2006-03-02 Teijido Juan M Illumination arrangement for a projection system
US20050001828A1 (en) * 2003-04-30 2005-01-06 Martin Eric T. Charge control of micro-electromechanical device
US6741384B1 (en) * 2003-04-30 2004-05-25 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Control of MEMS and light modulator arrays
US20050038950A1 (en) * 2003-08-13 2005-02-17 Adelmann Todd C. Storage device having a probe and a storage cell with moveable parts
US20050057442A1 (en) * 2003-08-28 2005-03-17 Olan Way Adjacent display of sequential sub-images
US20050069209A1 (en) * 2003-09-26 2005-03-31 Niranjan Damera-Venkata Generating and displaying spatially offset sub-frames
US20050068583A1 (en) * 2003-09-30 2005-03-31 Gutkowski Lawrence J. Organizing a digital image
US6861277B1 (en) * 2003-10-02 2005-03-01 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Method of forming MEMS device
US7161728B2 (en) * 2003-12-09 2007-01-09 Idc, Llc Area array modulation and lead reduction in interferometric modulators
US20060044291A1 (en) * 2004-08-25 2006-03-02 Willis Thomas E Segmenting a waveform that drives a display
US20060057754A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-16 Cummings William J Systems and methods of actuating MEMS display elements
US7366393B2 (en) * 2006-01-13 2008-04-29 Optical Research Associates Light enhancing structures with three or more arrays of elongate features

Cited By (50)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20050286114A1 (en) * 1996-12-19 2005-12-29 Miles Mark W Interferometric modulation of radiation
US20060044246A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-02 Marc Mignard Staggered column drive circuit systems and methods
US20060044298A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-02 Marc Mignard System and method of sensing actuation and release voltages of an interferometric modulator
US20060044928A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-02 Clarence Chui Drive method for MEMS devices
US20060057754A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-16 Cummings William J Systems and methods of actuating MEMS display elements
US20060056000A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-16 Marc Mignard Current mode display driver circuit realization feature
US7889163B2 (en) 2004-08-27 2011-02-15 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Drive method for MEMS devices
US7928940B2 (en) 2004-08-27 2011-04-19 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Drive method for MEMS devices
US7852542B2 (en) 2004-08-27 2010-12-14 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Current mode display driver circuit realization feature
US20060103613A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-05-18 Clarence Chui Interferometric modulator array with integrated MEMS electrical switches
US20060066598A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Floyd Philip D Method and device for electrically programmable display
US20060066937A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Idc, Llc Mems switch with set and latch electrodes
US20060066561A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Clarence Chui Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements
US20060066601A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Manish Kothari System and method for providing a variable refresh rate of an interferometric modulator display
US20060066594A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Karen Tyger Systems and methods for driving a bi-stable display element
US20060077520A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-04-13 Clarence Chui Method and device for selective adjustment of hysteresis window
US20060077127A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-04-13 Sampsell Jeffrey B Controller and driver features for bi-stable display
US20060077505A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-04-13 Clarence Chui Device and method for display memory using manipulation of mechanical response
US20060067648A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Clarence Chui MEMS switches with deforming membranes
US7724993B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2010-05-25 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. MEMS switches with deforming membranes
US20060066597A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Sampsell Jeffrey B Method and system for reducing power consumption in a display
US20070041079A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2007-02-22 Clarence Chui Interferometric modulators having charge persistence
US8878825B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2014-11-04 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. System and method for providing a variable refresh rate of an interferometric modulator display
US8514169B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2013-08-20 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and system for writing data to electromechanical display elements
US8310441B2 (en) * 2004-09-27 2012-11-13 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements
US20060067653A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Gally Brian J Method and system for driving interferometric modulators
US20060066560A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Gally Brian J Systems and methods of actuating MEMS display elements
US7626581B2 (en) * 2004-09-27 2009-12-01 Idc, Llc Device and method for display memory using manipulation of mechanical response
US7667884B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2010-02-23 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Interferometric modulators having charge persistence
US7675669B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2010-03-09 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Method and system for driving interferometric modulators
US7679627B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2010-03-16 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Controller and driver features for bi-stable display
US7843410B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2010-11-30 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Method and device for electrically programmable display
US7948457B2 (en) 2005-05-05 2011-05-24 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Systems and methods of actuating MEMS display elements
US8174469B2 (en) 2005-05-05 2012-05-08 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Dynamic driver IC and display panel configuration
US20060279495A1 (en) * 2005-05-05 2006-12-14 Moe Douglas P Dynamic driver IC and display panel configuration
US7920136B2 (en) 2005-05-05 2011-04-05 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. System and method of driving a MEMS display device
US20060250350A1 (en) * 2005-05-05 2006-11-09 Manish Kothari Systems and methods of actuating MEMS display elements
US20070053652A1 (en) * 2005-09-02 2007-03-08 Marc Mignard Method and system for driving MEMS display elements
US20070126673A1 (en) * 2005-12-07 2007-06-07 Kostadin Djordjev Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements
US8391630B2 (en) 2005-12-22 2013-03-05 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. System and method for power reduction when decompressing video streams for interferometric modulator displays
US20070182707A1 (en) * 2006-02-09 2007-08-09 Manish Kothari Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements
US8194056B2 (en) * 2006-02-09 2012-06-05 Qualcomm Mems Technologies Inc. Method and system for writing data to MEMS display elements
US8049713B2 (en) 2006-04-24 2011-11-01 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Power consumption optimized display update
US20070247419A1 (en) * 2006-04-24 2007-10-25 Sampsell Jeffrey B Power consumption optimized display update
US20080180576A1 (en) * 2007-01-25 2008-07-31 Anderson Michael H Arbitrary power function using logarithm lookup table
US7957589B2 (en) 2007-01-25 2011-06-07 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Arbitrary power function using logarithm lookup table
US20100245313A1 (en) * 2009-03-27 2010-09-30 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Low voltage driver scheme for interferometric modulators
US8405649B2 (en) 2009-03-27 2013-03-26 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Low voltage driver scheme for interferometric modulators
US9075234B2 (en) * 2009-12-22 2015-07-07 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho Tabular member swinging device
US20120169702A1 (en) * 2009-12-22 2012-07-05 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho Tabular member swinging device

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
CN1755788A (en) 2006-04-05 application
EP1640950A2 (en) 2006-03-29 application
CA2514626A1 (en) 2006-03-27 application
KR20060092869A (en) 2006-08-23 application
JP2011059695A (en) 2011-03-24 application
KR101154927B1 (en) 2012-07-02 grant
RU2005129912A (en) 2007-04-10 application
CN1755788B (en) 2011-09-14 grant
CN102254506A (en) 2011-11-23 application
EP1640950A3 (en) 2008-09-10 application
US7602375B2 (en) 2009-10-13 grant
JP5073930B2 (en) 2012-11-14 grant
JP2006099062A (en) 2006-04-13 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US7603001B2 (en) Method and apparatus for providing back-lighting in an interferometric modulator display device
US7420725B2 (en) Device having a conductive light absorbing mask and method for fabricating same
US7349141B2 (en) Method and post structures for interferometric modulation
US7321457B2 (en) Process and structure for fabrication of MEMS device having isolated edge posts
US20080084600A1 (en) System and method for reducing visual artifacts in displays
US20080013145A1 (en) Microelectromechanical device with optical function separated from mechanical and electrical function
US20080055706A1 (en) Reflective display device having viewable display on both sides
US7321456B2 (en) Method and device for corner interferometric modulation
US7586484B2 (en) Controller and driver features for bi-stable display
US20080158648A1 (en) Peripheral switches for MEMS display test
US20060103613A1 (en) Interferometric modulator array with integrated MEMS electrical switches
US20060065940A1 (en) Analog interferometric modulator device
US20080112031A1 (en) System and method of implementation of interferometric modulators for display mirrors
US20070121118A1 (en) White interferometric modulators and methods for forming the same
US20090267953A1 (en) Controller and driver features for bi-stable display
US20060066595A1 (en) Method and system for driving a bi-stable display
US20060176241A1 (en) System and method of transmitting video data
US7460292B2 (en) Interferometric modulator with internal polarization and drive method
US20060044298A1 (en) System and method of sensing actuation and release voltages of an interferometric modulator
US20060066596A1 (en) System and method of transmitting video data
US7550810B2 (en) MEMS device having a layer movable at asymmetric rates
US20100080890A1 (en) Apparatus and method for reducing slippage between structures in an interferometric modulator
US7369296B2 (en) Device and method for modifying actuation voltage thresholds of a deformable membrane in an interferometric modulator
US20060066598A1 (en) Method and device for electrically programmable display
US20080316566A1 (en) High aperture-ratio top-reflective am-imod displays

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: IDC, LLC, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:CHUI, CLARENCE;KOTHARI, MANISH;REEL/FRAME:016454/0903

Effective date: 20050404

AS Assignment

Owner name: QUALCOMM MEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:IDC, LLC;REEL/FRAME:023435/0918

Effective date: 20090925

Owner name: QUALCOMM MEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.,CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:IDC, LLC;REEL/FRAME:023435/0918

Effective date: 20090925

CC Certificate of correction
FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

AS Assignment

Owner name: SNAPTRACK, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:QUALCOMM MEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:039891/0001

Effective date: 20160830

REMI Maintenance fee reminder mailed
LAPS Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees

Free format text: PATENT EXPIRED FOR FAILURE TO PAY MAINTENANCE FEES (ORIGINAL EVENT CODE: EXP.)

FP Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee

Effective date: 20171013