US20050167751A1 - Semiconductor memory device for storing data as state of majority carriers accumulated in channel body and method of manufacturing the same - Google Patents

Semiconductor memory device for storing data as state of majority carriers accumulated in channel body and method of manufacturing the same Download PDF

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US20050167751A1
US20050167751A1 US10/994,629 US99462904A US2005167751A1 US 20050167751 A1 US20050167751 A1 US 20050167751A1 US 99462904 A US99462904 A US 99462904A US 2005167751 A1 US2005167751 A1 US 2005167751A1
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region
drain
plug
conductive type
emitter
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US7301195B2 (en
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Hiroomi Nakajima
Kazumi Inoh
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Toshiba Corp
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66007Multistep manufacturing processes
    • H01L29/66075Multistep manufacturing processes of devices having semiconductor bodies comprising group 14 or group 13/15 materials
    • H01L29/66227Multistep manufacturing processes of devices having semiconductor bodies comprising group 14 or group 13/15 materials the devices being controllable only by the electric current supplied or the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched, e.g. three-terminal devices
    • H01L29/66409Unipolar field-effect transistors
    • H01L29/66477Unipolar field-effect transistors with an insulated gate, i.e. MISFET
    • H01L29/66825Unipolar field-effect transistors with an insulated gate, i.e. MISFET with a floating gate
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C16/00Erasable programmable read-only memories
    • G11C16/02Erasable programmable read-only memories electrically programmable
    • G11C16/06Auxiliary circuits, e.g. for writing into memory
    • G11C16/34Determination of programming status, e.g. threshold voltage, overprogramming or underprogramming, retention
    • G11C16/3418Disturbance prevention or evaluation; Refreshing of disturbed memory data
    • G11C16/3431Circuits or methods to detect disturbed nonvolatile memory cells, e.g. which still read as programmed but with threshold less than the program verify threshold or read as erased but with threshold greater than the erase verify threshold, and to reverse the disturbance via a refreshing programming or erasing step
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/28Manufacture of electrodes on semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in H01L21/20 - H01L21/268
    • H01L21/28273Making conductor-insulator-conductor-insulator-semiconductor electrodes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/70Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of a plurality of solid state components formed in or on a common substrate or of parts thereof; Manufacture of integrated circuit devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/77Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of a plurality of solid state components or integrated circuits formed in, or on, a common substrate
    • H01L21/78Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of a plurality of solid state components or integrated circuits formed in, or on, a common substrate with subsequent division of the substrate into plural individual devices
    • H01L21/82Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of a plurality of solid state components or integrated circuits formed in, or on, a common substrate with subsequent division of the substrate into plural individual devices to produce devices, e.g. integrated circuits, each consisting of a plurality of components
    • H01L21/84Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of a plurality of solid state components or integrated circuits formed in, or on, a common substrate with subsequent division of the substrate into plural individual devices to produce devices, e.g. integrated circuits, each consisting of a plurality of components the substrate being other than a semiconductor body, e.g. being an insulating body
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/02Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier
    • H01L27/12Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being other than a semiconductor body, e.g. an insulating body
    • H01L27/1203Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being other than a semiconductor body, e.g. an insulating body the substrate comprising an insulating body on a semiconductor body, e.g. SOI
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/68Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor controllable by only the electric current supplied, or only the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched
    • H01L29/76Unipolar devices, e.g. field effect transistors
    • H01L29/772Field effect transistors
    • H01L29/78Field effect transistors with field effect produced by an insulated gate
    • H01L29/7841Field effect transistors with field effect produced by an insulated gate with floating body, e.g. programmable transistors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/68Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor controllable by only the electric current supplied, or only the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched
    • H01L29/76Unipolar devices, e.g. field effect transistors
    • H01L29/772Field effect transistors
    • H01L29/78Field effect transistors with field effect produced by an insulated gate
    • H01L29/788Field effect transistors with field effect produced by an insulated gate with floating gate
    • H01L29/7881Programmable transistors with only two possible levels of programmation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C16/00Erasable programmable read-only memories
    • G11C16/02Erasable programmable read-only memories electrically programmable
    • G11C16/04Erasable programmable read-only memories electrically programmable using variable threshold transistors, e.g. FAMOS

Abstract

A semiconductor memory device comprises a substrate; a semiconductor layer of a first conductive type isolated from the substrate by an insulator layer; a memory transistor having a gate electrode, a drain and a source regions of a second conductive type formed in the semiconductor layer, and a channel body of the first conductive type formed in the semiconductor layer between the regions, the memory transistor operative to store data as a state of majority carriers accumulated in the channel body; an impurity-diffused region of the first conductive type formed at a location in contact with the upper surface of the drain region, the impurity-diffused region having a higher impurity concentration of the first conductive type than an impurity concentration of the second conductive type in the drain region; and a write transistor including a bipolar transistor having the impurity-diffused region as an emitter region, the drain region as a base region and the channel body as a collector region, the write transistor operative to write data in the memory transistor.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application is based upon and claims the benefit of priority from the prior Japanese Patent Application No. 2004-025935, filed on Feb. 2, 2004; the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates to a semiconductor memory device, for example, a semiconductor memory device for storing data as a state of majority carriers accumulated in a channel body of a transistor formed in a substrate such as an SOI substrate, and method of manufacturing the same.
  • 2. Description of the Related Art
  • A semiconductor memory device that can achieve dynamic storage in a simpler cell structure has been proposed recently for the purpose of replacing DRAM (JP 2002/343886A, FIGS. 1-4). A memory cell includes a transistor having a floating body (channel body) formed in an SOI substrate. The memory cell can achieve binary storage as a first data state (for example, data “1”) in which excess majority carriers are accumulated in the body and a second data state (for example, data “0”) in which excess majority carriers are released from the body.
  • Such the memory cell is called a “FBC (floating body cell)” and the semiconductor memory device using the FBC is called a “FBC memory”. The FBC memory is not provided with a capacitor that is employed in a normal DRAM. Therefore, it has a simple cell array structure and a small unit cell area, and accordingly it can be highly integrated easily.
  • Similar to other conventional semiconductor memory devices such as DRAM, the FBC is also desired for quick writing of data and preventing occurrences of data destruction.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • A device aspect of the present invention is directed to a semiconductor memory device, comprising: a substrate; a semiconductor layer of a first conductive type isolated from the substrate by an insulator layer; a memory transistor having a gate electrode, a drain and a source regions of a second conductive type formed in the semiconductor layer, and a channel body of the first conductive type formed in the semiconductor layer between the regions, the memory transistor operative to store data as a state of majority carriers accumulated in the channel body; an impurity-diffused region of the first conductive type formed at a location in contact with the upper surface of the drain region, the impurity-diffused region having a higher impurity concentration of the first conductive type than an impurity concentration of the second conductive type in the drain region; and a write transistor including a bipolar transistor having the impurity-diffused region as an emitter region, the drain region as a base region and the channel body as a collector region, the write transistor operative to write data in the memory transistor.
  • Another device aspect of the present invention is directed to a semiconductor memory device, comprising: a substrate; a semiconductor layer of a first conductive type isolated from the substrate by an insulator layer; a plurality of memory transistors, each having a gate electrode, a pair of impurity regions of a second conductive type formed in the semiconductor layer, and a channel body of the first conductive type formed in the semiconductor layer between the regions, the memory transistor operative to store data as a state of majority carriers accumulated in the channel body; an interlayer insulator film formed to cover the plurality of memory transistors; and a conductive plug shared by memory transistors in which one of the pair of impurity regions being adjacent each other among the plurality of memory transistors, formed in and projected through the interlayer insulator film, and buried in one of the pair of impurity regions.
  • A method aspect of the present invention is directed to a method of manufacturing a semiconductor memory device, comprising: forming a memory transistor having a gate electrode, a drain and a source regions of a second conductive type formed in a semiconductor layer of a first conductive type isolated from a substrate by an insulator layer, and a channel body of the first conductive type formed in the semiconductor layer between the regions; forming an interlayer insulator film to cover the memory transistor; forming an emitter contact hole in the interlayer insulator film to expose the drain region; forming an emitter plug of the first conductive type in the emitter contact hole; and forming an emitter region of the first conductive type in the upper surface of the drain region by thermally diffusing an impurity of the first conductive type from inside the emitter plug to the upper surface of the drain region, the emitter region having a higher impurity concentration of the first conductive type than an impurity concentration of the second conductive type in the drain region.
  • Another method aspect of the present invention is directed to a method of manufacturing a semiconductor memory device, comprising: forming a memory transistor having a gate electrode, a drain and a source regions of a second conductive type formed in a semiconductor layer of a first conductive type isolated from a substrate by an insulator layer, and a channel body of the first conductive type formed in the semiconductor layer between the regions; forming an interlayer insulator film to cover the memory transistor; forming an emitter contact hole in the interlayer insulator film to expose the drain region; and forming a single crystalline layer of the first conductive type serving as an emitter region in the emitter contact hole by selective epitaxial growth.
  • A further method aspect of the present invention is directed to a method of manufacturing a semiconductor memory device, comprising: forming a plurality of memory transistors, each having a gate electrode, a pair of impurity regions of a second conductive type formed in a semiconductor layer of a first conductive type isolated from a substrate by an insulator layer, and a channel body of the first conductive type formed in the semiconductor layer between the regions, in which adjacent memory transistors share one of the pair of impurity regions; forming an interlayer insulator film to cover the plurality of memory transistors; forming a contact hole in the interlayer insulator film as entering inside one of the pair of impurity regions; and forming a conductive plug in the contact hole as entering inside one of the pair of impurity regions and as being shared by adjacent memory transistors.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is an illustrative view showing “1” write operation in a memory cell according to a first comparative example;
  • FIG. 2 is an illustrative view showing “0” write operation in the same memory cell;
  • FIG. 3 is an illustrative view showing read operation in the same memory cell;
  • FIG. 4 is a graph showing a voltage-current characteristic of the same memory cell;
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a memory cell according to a second comparative example;
  • FIG. 6 is an equivalent circuit diagram of the same memory cell;
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram briefly showing a memory cell according to a first embodiment;
  • FIG. 8 is a schematic cross-sectional view of transistors configuring the same memory cell and a peripheral circuit;
  • FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram of the major part of the memory cell according to the second comparative example;
  • FIG. 10 is a process diagram of a first step in a method of manufacturing the memory cell according to the first embodiment;
  • FIG. 11 is a process diagram of a second step in the method;
  • FIG. 12 is a process diagram of a third step in the method;
  • FIG. 13 is a process diagram of a fourth step in the method;
  • FIG. 14 is a process diagram of a fifth step in the method;
  • FIG. 15 is a process diagram of a sixth step in the method;
  • FIG. 16 is a process diagram of a seventh step in the method;
  • FIG. 17 is a process diagram of an eighth step in the method;
  • FIG. 18 is a process diagram of a ninth step in the method;
  • FIG. 19 is a process diagram of a tenth step in the method;
  • FIG. 20 is a process diagram of an eleventh step in the method;
  • FIG. 21 is a process diagram of a twelfth step in the method;
  • FIG. 22 is a process diagram of a thirteenth step in the method;
  • FIG. 23 is a plan view showing a layout of part of a cell array according to the first embodiment;
  • FIG. 24 is a schematic diagram of A1-A2 section in FIG. 23;
  • FIG. 25 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a memory cell according to a second embodiment;
  • FIG. 26 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a memory cell according to a third embodiment;
  • FIG. 27 is a process diagram of a first step in a method of manufacturing the memory cell according to the third embodiment;
  • FIG. 28 is a process diagram of a second step in the method;
  • FIG. 29 is a process diagram of a third step in the method;
  • FIG. 30 is a process diagram of a fourth step in the method;
  • FIG. 31 is a process diagram of a fifth step in the method;
  • FIG. 32 is a process diagram of a sixth step in the method;
  • FIG. 33 is a process diagram of a seventh step in the method;
  • FIG. 34 is a process diagram of an eighth step in the method;
  • FIG. 35 is a process diagram of a ninth step in the method;
  • FIG. 36 is a process diagram of a tenth step in the method;
  • FIG. 37 is a process diagram of an eleventh step in the method;
  • FIG. 38 is a plan-view showing a layout of part of a cell array according to a fourth embodiment;
  • FIG. 39 is a schematic diagram of B1-B2 section in FIG. 38;
  • FIG. 40 is a schematic cross-sectional view of part of a cell array according to a fifth embodiment;
  • FIG. 41 shows operation of a memory cell according to a third comparative example;
  • FIG. 42 shows operation of a memory cell according to a fifth embodiment;
  • FIG. 43 is a process diagram of a first step in a method of manufacturing the memory cell according to the fifth embodiment;
  • FIG. 44 is a process diagram of a second step in the method;
  • FIG. 45 is a process diagram of a third step in the method;
  • FIG. 46 is a process diagram of a fourth step in the method;
  • FIG. 47 is a process diagram of a fifth step in the method;
  • FIG. 48 is a process diagram of a sixth step in the method;
  • FIG. 49 is a process diagram of a seventh step in the method;
  • FIG. 50 is a schematic cross-sectional view of part of a cell array according to a sixth embodiment;
  • FIG. 51 is a schematic cross-sectional view of part of a cell array according to a seventh embodiment;
  • FIG. 52 is a process diagram of a first step in a method of manufacturing the memory cell according to the seventh embodiment;
  • FIG. 53 is a process diagram of a second step in the method;
  • FIG. 54 is a process diagram of a third step in the method;
  • FIG. 55 is a process diagram of a fourth step in the method;
  • FIG. 56 is a process diagram of a fifth step in the method;
  • FIG. 57 is a process diagram of a sixth step in the method; and
  • FIG. 58 is a process diagram of a seventh step in the method.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The embodiments of the present invention will be described in accordance with the items as classified below. A memory cell means the FBC.
      • FIRST EMBODIMENT
        • First Comparative Example
        • Second Comparative Example
        • Structure of Memory Cell in First Embodiment
        • Main Effects of First Embodiment
        • Method of Manufacturing Memory Cell in First Embodiment
        • Cell Array in First Embodiment
      • SECOND EMBODIMENT
      • THIRD EMBODIMENT
      • FOURTH EMBODIMENT
      • FIFTH EMBODIMENT
        • Structure of Memory Cell in Fifth Embodiment
        • Main Effects of Fifth Embodiment
        • Method of Manufacturing Memory Cell in Fifth Embodiment
      • SIXTH EMBODIMENT
      • SEVENTH EMBODIMENT
  • In the figures for showing the embodiments, the same parts as those once explained are given the same reference numerals to omit further explanations.
  • First Embodiment
  • Prior to description of a memory cell according to a first embodiment, in order to provide an understanding of the same, a first and a second comparative examples are described first.
  • First Comparative Example
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a memory cell according to the first comparative example. The memory cell MC comprises a single memory transistor MTr. The memory transistor MTr is formed on an SOI substrate 1. The memory transistor MTr includes an n-type drain region 5 and an n-type source region 7 formed in a p-type semiconductor layer 3 of the SOI substrate 1, and a gate electrode 9 disposed on the semiconductor layer 3 via a gate insulator film. A p-type channel body 11 is formed in the semiconductor layer 3 between the drain region 5 and the source region 7 immediately beneath the gate electrode 9. The channel body 11 is a floating body. The gate electrode 9 is connected to a word line WL, the drain region 5 to a bit line BL, and the source region 7 to a source line SL, which is grounded.
  • Operations in the memory cell MC are described with reference to FIGS. 1-3. FIGS. 2 and 3 show the same sectional structure as that shown in FIG. 1. FIG. 1 shows data “1” write operation, FIG. 2 data “0” write operation, and FIG. 3 data read operation.
  • As shown in FIG. 1, on write of data “1” into the memory cell MC, a certain bias condition is given to allow a large channel current to flow in the memory cell MC. For example, 1.5 V is applied to the word line WL and 1.5 V to the bit line BL. As a result, majority carriers (holes in the shown example) are generated due to impact ionization in the vicinity of the drain region 5 and accumulated in the channel body 11.
  • On the other hand, on write of data “0”, as shown in FIG. 2, 1.5 V is applied to the word line WL and −1 V to the bit line BL, for example. As a result, majority carriers are released from the channel body 11 to the drain region 5 because a PN junction between the drain region 5 and the channel body 11 is forward biased.
  • A difference in state of carriers accumulated in the body 11 results in a difference in threshold of the memory transistor MTr. Accordingly, as shown in FIG. 3, 1.5 V is applied to the word line WL and 0.2 V to the bit line BL, for example, to detect the presence/absence or magnitude of a cell current to read out
  • FIG. 4 shows a characteristic of Ids-Vgs (Drain current-Gate voltage) in the memory transistor MTr in terms of data “0” and “1”. The excess majority carriers in the channel body 11 gradually escape from it through the PN junction between the drain region 5 and the source region 7 while they are left for a long time. Therefore, it is required to perform refresh operations in certain cycles like in a DRAM.
  • Second Comparative Example
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a memory cell MC according to a second comparative example. FIG. 6 shows an equivalent circuit diagram thereof. This memory cell MC comprises a write transistor WTr for data writing in addition to the memory transistor MTr shown in FIG. 1. The transistor WTr is a parasitic bipolar transistor. In detail, the transistor WTr has a p-type emitter region 13, which is so formed in the semiconductor layer 3 that the n-type drain region 5 locates between the region 13 and the channel body 11. The transistor WTr employs the drain region 5 as an n-type base region and the channel body 11 as a p-type collector region.
  • In the memory cell MC, the gate electrode 9 is connected to the word line WL, the drain region 5 to the bit line BL that crosses the word line WL, and the source region 7 to the source line SL. The emitter region 13 is connected to an emitter line EL that extends in parallel with the word line WL.
  • Similar to the first comparative example, the memory cell MC of the second comparative example dynamically stores the first data state (“1” data) that holds excess majority carriers (holes) in the channel body 11 of the memory transistor MTr and the second data state (“0” data) that holds less excess majority carriers. FIG. 5 shows an exemplary bias for writing “1” to the memory cell MC. On “1” write, −1.5 V is applied to the word line WL, −1 V to the bit line BL, and 0 V to the emitter line EL while the source line SL is kept at 0 V.
  • In this case, as a PN junction between the p-type emitter region 13 and the n-type drain region 5 (the base-emitter junction in the transistor WTr) is forward biased, holes are injected from the emitter region 13 to the drain region 5. The injected holes partly recombine in the drain region 5 and the remains reach the p-type channel body 11. In other words, “1” write is an operation to inject holes into the channel body 11 of the memory transistor MTr by on-operation of the bipolar transistor or the write transistor WTr. Hereinafter, this write is referred to as “bipolar write”.
  • Bipolar write can easily increase a current flowing in the channel body 11 (collector current) to achieve quick “1” write by adjusting a voltage across the emitter line EL and the bit line BL.
  • “0” write is performed in the same manner as in the first comparative example with 1.5 V applied to the word line WL to elevate the potential on the channel body 11 and −2 V to the bit lie BL while keeping the write transistor WTr off. As a result, a forward bias is applied across the channel body 11 and the drain region 5 to release holes from inside the channel body 11 to the drain region 5 to write “0” data with less excess holes. The memory cell MC of the second comparative example is also required to refresh data at a certain cycle because it stores data “0” or “1” dynamically.
  • Structure of Memory Cell in First Embodiment
  • The memory cell according to the first embodiment can achieve much quicker write in the same write operation as the second comparative example because the impurity concentration in the emitter region can be increased higher than the second comparative example. FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram briefly showing the memory cell according to the first embodiment. The memory cell MC comprises a set of the memory transistor MTr and the write transistor WTr similar to the second comparative example.
  • The memory transistor MTr is an NMOS transistor that has a floating body. The write transistor WTr is a bipolar transistor that employs the floating body as a collector. These transistors are formed on a SOI substrate 27 having a stacked structure that includes a silicon substrate 21 (an example of the substrate), a silicon oxide layer 23 (an example of the insulator layer), and a p-type single crystalline silicon layer 25 (an example of the semiconductor layer of the first conductive type). The silicon layer 25 is isolated from the silicon substrate 21 by the silicon oxide layer 23. A device isolation layer 29 is formed to surround the silicon layer 25.
  • The memory transistor MTr has a gate electrode 33 disposed on the silicon layer 25 via a gate insulator film 31, and n-type (an example of the first conductive type) regions of a drain 35 and a source 37 self-aligned with the gate electrode and formed in the silicon layer 25. A p-type channel body 39 is formed in the silicon layer 25 between these regions immediately beneath the gate electrode 33. The channel body 39 is a floating body. Similar to the first and second comparative examples, the memory transistor MTr stores data as a state of majority carriers accumulated in the channel body 39. In detail, it stores either a first data state that holds excess majority carriers in the channel body 39 or a second data state that holds excess majority carriers less than the first data state in the channel body 39.
  • An impurity-diffused region 41 of p-type (an example of the first conductive type) is formed at a location, in contact with the upper surface of the drain region 35, close to the gate electrode 33. In detail, the impurity-diffused region 41 is formed in the drain region 35 shallower than the drain region 35. The write transistor WTr is a PNP bipolar transistor that has the p-type impurity-diffused region 41 as an emitter region, the n-type drain region 35 as a base region, and the p-type channel body 39 as a collector. It is employed to write data in the memory transistor MTr.
  • The impurity-diffused region 41 (emitter region) is shallower than the drain region 35 (base region). Specifically, the impurity-diffused region 41 has a depth of 20-30 nm, and the drain region 35 a depth of 50-150 nm. The impurity-diffused region 41 (emitter region) has a p-type impurity concentration higher than an n-type impurity concentration of 1×1019/cm3 in the drain region 35 (base region). For example, it ranges from 1×1020/cm3 to 1×1021/cm3.
  • On the drain region 35 between the device isolation film 29 and the impurity-diffused region 41, a conductive drain plug 43 (contact plug) to be connected to the region 35 is formed. This plug 43 is composed of polysilicon that contains an n-type impurity.
  • On the impurity-diffused region 41 (emitter region), a conductive emitter plug 45 to be connected to the region 41 is formed. The emitter plug 45 is composed of polysilicon that contains a p-type impurity, which is diffused into the drain region 35 to form the impurity-diffused region 41.
  • On the source region 37, a conductive source plug 47 to be connected to the region 37 is formed. The plug 47 is composed of n-type polysilicon. The source plug 47, the gate electrode 33, the emitter plug 45 and the drain plug 43 are aligned in this order.
  • A cell array is arranged on the SOI substrate 27, including a plurality of memory cells MC arrayed (a structure of the cell array is described later). A peripheral circuit such as a bit line selector is also formed on the SOI substrate 27 as shown in a cross-sectional view of FIG. 8. The memory cell MC has the same section as shown in FIG. 7. In a peripheral circuit region on the SOI substrate 27, an NMOS transistor Q or a component in the peripheral circuit can be seen.
  • Main Effects of First Embodiment
  • Main effects of the first embodiment are described in comparison with the second comparative example. FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram of the major part of the memory cell according to the second comparative example, which corresponds to FIG. 7. FIG. 9 differs from FIG. 7 mainly in the following. The p-type silicon layer 25 between the device isolation film 29 and the drain region 35 is employed as an emitter region 49, which has a p-type impurity concentration of 1×1017/cm3. The drain plug 43 and the emitter region 49 are aligned in reverse order.
  • A high-concentration emitter region has an increased hFE (the current amplification factor of a bipolar transistor), which increases the write current and results in much quicker bipolar write. In the second comparative example of FIG. 9, however, the emitter region 49 can not have a higher p-type impurity concentration than the n-type impurity concentration in the drain region 35. This reason is described below.
  • In the structure of the second comparative example the emitter region 49 forms a junction with the drain region 35 (base region) at the side 48 of the drain region 35 using the p-type silicon layer 25 as the emitter region 49. The memory transistor MTr has an NMOS structure including the n-type regions of the drain 35 and the source 37 formed in the p-type silicon layer 25. Operation of the NMOS requires the p-type impurity concentration in the silicon layer 25 being lower than the n-type impurity concentration in the regions of the drain 35 and the source 37. For example, if the n-type impurity concentration in the regions of the drain 35 and the source 37 is equal to 1×1019/cm3, the p-type impurity concentration in the silicon layer 25 is equal to 1×1017/cm3. In this case, the p-type impurity concentration in the emitter region 49 comes to 1×1017/cm3. Accordingly, in the second comparative example the p-type impurity concentration in the emitter region 49 is lower than the n-type impurity concentration in the drain region 35 (base region). Thus, the write transistor WTr has an hFE equal to or below 1 (one), which is lower than that of a normal bipolar transistor.
  • To the contrary, in the first embodiment shown in FIG. 7, the p-type impurity-diffused region 41 serving as the emitter region is formed at the location in contact with the drain region 35. Therefore, without such the restriction as the second comparative example has, the p-type impurity concentration in the impurity-diffused region 41 can be controlled higher than the n-type impurity concentration in the drain region 35. Thus, the write transistor WTr can be designed to have an hFE more than 1 (one), which enables much quicker write. For example, in the first embodiment the p-type impurity concentration in the emitter region is at least double-digit larger than the second comparative example. It results in an at least double-digit larger emitter current, which achieves quicker write to the memory transistor MTr.
  • The impurity-diffused region 41 may be located closer to the device isolation film 29 rather than to the gate electrode 33 while locating the emitter plug 45 outward together. The above effect can be achieved also in such the structure, in which the drain plug 43 is located between the emitter plug 45 and the gate electrode 33.
  • Method of Manufacturing Memory Cell in First Embodiment
  • A method of manufacturing the memory cell according to the first embodiment is described with reference to FIGS. 10-22, which are cross sectional views of the SOI substrate and others showing the method in order of process steps. First, as shown in FIG. 10, the SOI substrate 27 is prepared. The SOI substrate 27 has a stacked structure including the silicon substrate 21 serving as a support substrate, the silicon oxide layer 23 serving as a buried oxide film, and the p-type silicon layer 25. The silicon layer 25 has a relatively low p-type impurity concentration (1×1014/cm3).
  • As shown in FIG. 11, processes of photolithography and reactive ion etching are applied to remove regions other than device formation regions 51 from the silicon layer 25 to form trenches 53. A technology of STI (Shallow Trench Isolation) is applied to form the device isolation film 29 in the trenches 53. Then, ions of a p-type impurity at a slightly higher concentration are implanted into the entire surface of the silicon layer 25 to turn the device formation region 51 to a channel region. In this case, the device formation region 51 has an impurity concentration of 1×1018/cm3. In an exemplary condition for the ion implantation, the p-type impurity is boron (B), and its dose ranges from 1×1013/cm2 to 1.5×1013/cm2.
  • As shown in FIG. 12, thermal oxidation of the entire surface of the silicon layer 25 forms a thin insulator film serving as the gate insulator film, on which a polysilicon film is formed with a thickness of about 300 nm by CVP (Chemical Vapor Deposition) The polysilicon film and the thin insulator film are patterned by photolithography and reactive ion etching to form the gate electrode 33 and the gate insulator film 31 in the device formation region 51.
  • As shown in FIG. 13, ions of an n-type impurity are implanted into the device formation region 51 using a mask of the gate electrode 33 to form an n-type low-concentration region 57 or LDD (Lightly Doped Drain) region. In an exemplary condition for the ion implantation, the n-type impurity is phosphorous (P), and its dose is equal to about 1×1013/cm2. Then, CVD is applied to form a silicon nitride film over the surface of the silicon layer 25. The silicon nitride film is etched by reactive ion etching to form a sidewall nitride film 55 on the side of the gate electrode 33. Ions of an n-type impurity are implanted into the device formation region 51 using a mask of the gate electrode 33 and the sidewall nitride film 55 to form an n-type high-concentration region 59. In an exemplary condition for the ion implantation, the n-type impurity is phosphorous (P), and its dose ranges from 1×1013/cm2 to 2×1013/cm2. The n-type low-concentration region 57 and the n-type high-concentration region 59 form LDD structured regions of the drain 35 and the source 37. The n-type concentration in these regions 35 and 37 is equal to 1×1019/cm3. The above processes form the memory transistor MTr that includes the gate electrode 33, the drain region 35, the source region 37 and the channel body 39.
  • As shown in FIG. 14, the sidewall nitride film 55 is removed by etching (with a heated phosphoric acid, for example). The sidewall nitride film 55 is employed for the MOS transistor in the peripheral circuit. A sidewall nitride film for the memory transistor MTr is formed in a later process.
  • As shown in FIG. 15, LPCVD (Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition) is applied to form a silicon oxide film 61, a silicon nitride film 63, and a relatively thick (300 nm) silicon oxide film 65 over the silicon layer 25 in turn. These layers form an interlayer insulator film 67 that covers the memory transistor MTr. The silicon oxide film 65 is polished to planarize the silicon oxide film 65 so as to expose the silicon nitride film 63 on the gate electrode 33.
  • As shown in FIG. 16, processes of photolithography and reactive ion etching are applied to form a drain contact hole 69 to expose the drain region 35 and a source contact hole 71 to expose the source region 37 in the interlayer insulator film 67.
  • As shown in FIG. 17, an n-type polysilicon film with a thickness of 400 nm is formed over the interlayer insulator film 67 by CVD so as to fill up the contact holes 69 and 71. The polysilicon film is then subjected to reactive ion etching so that the polysilicon film resides in the contact holes 69 and 71. Thus, a drain plug 43 is formed in the drain contact hole 69, a source plug 47 in the source contact hole 71.
  • As shown in FIG. 18, processes of photolithography and reactive ion etching are applied to form an emitter contact hole 73 to expose the drain region 35 in the interlayer insulator film 67 between the drain plug 43 and the gate electrode 33.
  • As shown in FIG. 19, a p-type polysilicon film with a thickness of 400 nm to be emitter plugs is formed over the interlayer insulator film 67 by CVD so as to fill up the contact hole 73. The polysilicon film has a p-type impurity concentration of about 1e20/cm3. The polysilicon film is then subjected to reactive ion etching such that the polysilicon film resides in the contact hole 73. Thus, an emitter plug 45 is formed in the emitter contact hole 73.
  • The structure shown in FIG. 20 is heated at a temperature of 1015° C. for 10 seconds to activate the n-type impurity in the regions of the drain 35 and the source 37. This heating also diffuses the p-type impurity from the p-type emitter plug 45 into the upper surface 50 of the drain region 35. As a result, the p-type impurity-diffused region 41 (emitter region), having a higher p-type impurity concentration than the n-type impurity concentration in the drain region 35, is formed in the upper surface 50 of the drain region 35. Thus, the write transistor WTr or bipolar transistor is formed to have the impurity-diffused region 41 as the emitter region, the drain region 35 as the base region, and the channel body 39 as the collector region.
  • As shown in FIG. 21, the exposed silicon nitride film 63 and the below-located silicon oxide film 61 are removed by reactive ion etching to expose the upper surface of the gate electrode 33. A titanium film is formed over the interlayer insulator film 67 by spattering. The structure shown in FIG. 21 is heated to cause reaction of the titanium film with silicon in the gate electrode 33, the drain plug 43, the emitter plug 45 and the source plug 47. As a result, a titanium silicide film 75 is formed over the upper surfaces of the gate electrode 33, the drain plug 43, the emitter plug 45 and the source plug 47.
  • As shown in FIG. 22, on the interlayer insulator film 67, a silicon oxide film 77 or an interlayer insulator film with a thickness of 600 nm is formed by LPCVD. Then, plugs, not shown, are formed in the silicon oxide film 77 to connect the drain plug 43 to the bit line BL, the emitter plug 45 to the emitter line EL, and the source plug 47 to the source line SL, respectively. Through the above processes, the memory cell according to the first embodiment can be produced.
  • As shown in FIGS. 18 and 19, the emitter contact hole 73 is formed closer to the gate electrode 33 rather than to the drain contact hole 69 to form the emitter plug 45 closer to the gate electrode 33 rather than to the drain plug 43. Alternatively, they may be aligned in reverse order. In a word, the drain contact hole 69 is formed closer to the gate electrode 33 rather than to the emitter contact hole 73 to form the drain plug 43 closer to the gate electrode 33 rather than to the emitter plug 45.
  • The emitter plug 45 is formed after formation of the drain plug 43 and the source plug 47 while they may be formed in reverse order.
  • Cell Array in First Embodiment
  • FIG. 23 is a plan view showing a layout of part of a cell array according to the first embodiment. FIG. 24 is a schematic diagram of A1-A2 section in FIG. 23. A structure of the cell array is described with reference to FIGS. 23 and 24. The source line SL, the word line WL and the emitter line EL extend in the same direction. The source line SL is connected to the source plug 47, and the emitter line EL to the emitter plug 45. Extending in the direction orthogonal to these lines, the bit line BL is connected to the drain plug 43. The cell array is structured to include a plurality of arrayed memory cells MC. In detail, the memory cells MC are arrayed in matrix at intersections of the word lines WL and the bit lines BL.
  • FIG. 24 shows two adjacent memory cells MC1 and MC2. The memory cell MC1 has the same section as that of the memory cell shown in FIG. 7. The memory cell MC2 has a sectional structure in which the section of the memory cell MC1 is folded back about the device isolation film 29 located between the memory cell MC1 and the memory cell MC2. In a word, a mirror image relation is found in the sections of the memory cell MC1 and the memory cell MC2. Accordingly, the source plug 47, the gate electrode 33, the emitter plug 45 and the drain plug 43 in the memory cell MC1, and the drain plug 43, the emitter plug 45, the gate electrode 33 and the source plug 47 in the memory cell MC2 are aligned in this order.
  • The mirror image relation is also found in the plains of the memory cell MC1 and the memory cell MC2. Accordingly, the source line SL, the word line WL and the emitter line EL in the memory cell MC1, and the emitter line EL, the word line WL and the source line SL in the memory cell MC2 are aligned in this order.
  • Second Embodiment
  • A second embodiment is describe with reference to FIG. 25, which is a schematic cross-sectional view of a memory cell MC according to the second embodiment. In this embodiment, the emitter plug 45 has a p-type single crystalline structure, which is employed as an emitter region or impurity-diffused region.
  • The emitter plug 45 has a p-type impurity concentration (between 1×1020/cm3 and 1×1021/cm3), which is controlled higher than an n-type impurity concentration (1×1019/cm3) in the drain region 35. Therefore, the second embodiment can achieve the same effect as that of the first embodiment.
  • In the memory cell according to the second embodiment, after the process steps described in the first embodiment with reference to FIGS. 10-18, the emitter plug 45 is formed in the emitter contact hole 73 shown in FIG. 18 by selective epitaxial growth while doping a p-type impurity. A condition for this selective epitaxial growth is described briefly as follows. A gas of SiH4+B2H6 is employed under pressure of 10 Torr at a temperature of 700° C.
  • In this selective epitaxial growth, such the p-type impurity-diffused region 41 as in the first embodiment is hardly formed in the drain region 35. Thus, in the second embodiment the p-type impurity-diffused region 41 is not located in the current path of the memory transistor MTr. Therefore, it is possible to reduce the source-drain resistance in the memory transistor MTr lower than the first embodiment.
  • Third Embodiment
  • FIG. 26 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a memory cell according to a third embodiment, which correspond to FIG. 22 in the first embodiment. The third embodiment differs from the first embodiment shown in FIG. 22 in the gate electrode 33 that is partly buried in the silicon layer 25. Therefore, the memory transistor MTr has a recess channel structure, which has a below-described effect.
  • In the first embodiment shown in FIG. 22, the p-type impurity-diffused region 41 is located in the current path of the memory transistor MTr. To the contrary, in the third embodiment shown in FIG. 26, the current path of the memory transistor MTr is located beneath the impurity-diffused region 41 though the p-type impurity-diffused region 41 is formed in the drain region 35 because the memory transistor MTr has the recess channel structure. Accordingly, the source-drain resistance can be lowered.
  • Thus, the memory cell according to the third embodiment has an effect capable of lowering the source-drain resistance in addition to the same effect as that of the first embodiment capable of achieving quick write using the high-concentration emitter region (the impurity-diffused region 41).
  • A method of manufacturing the memory cell according to the third embodiment is described with reference to FIGS. 27-37, which are cross sectional views of the SOI substrate and others showing the method in order of process steps. First, after the process steps of FIGS. 10 and 11 described in the first embodiment, as shown in FIG. 27, processes of photolithography and reactive ion etching are applied to recess a gate electrode formation region 79 in the device formation region 51 to form a recess therein. The depth of the recess is almost half the silicon layer 25.
  • Then, as shown in FIG. 28, a process of thermal oxidation is employed to form a thin insulator film serving as the gate insulator film over the silicon layer 25. A polysilicon film with a thickness of about 300 nm is formed on the insulator film by CVD. The polysilicon film and the thin insulator film are patterned by photolithography and reactive ion etching to form the gate electrode 33 and the gate insulator film 31 in the gate electrode formation region 79. Thus, the lower portion of the gate electrode 33 is buried in the gate electrode formation region 79.
  • Subsequent process steps are similar to those in the first embodiment. In a word, the process steps of FIGS. 13-22 in the first embodiment correspond to those of FIGS. 29-37 and FIG. 26.
  • Fourth Embodiment
  • A fourth embodiment is mainly characterized in sharing of a drain plug by adjacent memory cells. FIG. 38 is a plan view showing an outline of part of a cell array according to the fourth embodiment, which corresponds to FIG. 23. FIG. 39 is a schematic diagram of B1-B2 section in FIG. 38, which corresponds to FIG. 24.
  • A difference from the first embodiment of FIGS. 23 and 24 is found in that the device isolation film 29 between the memory cell MC1 and the memory cell MC2 is omitted to allow the drain region 35 and the drain plug 43 to be shared. As a result, the area of a memory cell MC can be reduced to achieve a highly integrated semiconductor memory device.
  • Fifth Embodiment
  • Structure of Memory Cell in Fifth Embodiment
  • A fifth embodiment is mainly characterized in sharing of a drain plug by adjacent two memory cells, which plug is formed to reach the silicon oxide layer in the SOI substrate. FIG. 40 is a schematic cross-sectional view of part of a cell array according to the fifth embodiment showing adjacent two memory cells MC1 and MC2. The drain region 35 and the source region 37 are a pair of impurity regions. The memory cells MC1 and MC2 share the drain region 35 or one of the pair of impurity regions.
  • The memory cell MC of the fifth embodiment comprises a single memory transistor MTr like the first comparative example shown in FIG. 1. Accordingly, it is not configured to comprise the impurity-diffused region 41 (emitter region) and the emitter plug 45, which are formed in the first embodiment of FIG. 7. The area occupied by the memory cell MC is reduced by: (1) not forming the device isolation film 29; and (2) sharing the drain plug 43 and the source plug 47.
  • The fifth embodiment is provided with the interlayer insulator film 67 that covers the memory transistor MTr and receives the drain plug 43 and the source plug 47 buried therein. The drain plug 43 projects through the interlayer insulator film 67, gets buried in the drain region 35, and reaches the silicon oxide layer 23. Similarly, the source plug 47 projects through the interlayer insulator film 67, gets buried in the source region 37, and reaches the silicon oxide layer 23. The plugs 43 and 47 are of n-type.
  • Main Effects of Fifth Embodiment
  • The fifth embodiment has effects, which are described in comparison with a third comparative example. FIG. 41 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a memory cell according to the third comparative example. A difference from the fifth embodiment of FIG. 40 is found in that the drain plug 43 is located on the drain region 35 and the source plug 47 on the source region 37.
  • It is assumed in the third comparative example of FIG. 41 that data ‘1’ is stored in the memory cell MC2 and data “0” in the memory cell MC1. The “1”-stored state means that a majority of holes are accumulated in the channel body 39. To the contrary, the “0”-stored state means that holes are not present in the channel body 39.
  • In order to select the memory cell MC2 to rewrite the data from “1” to “0”, a positive voltage is applied to the word line WL of the memory cell MC2 and a negative voltage to the bit line BL. Holes in the channel body 39 of the memory cell MC2 are injected from the channel body 39 into the drain region 35 connected to the bit line BL as indicated by (a) and recombined therein.
  • As holes have a long diffusion length, part of the holes injected into the drain region 35 may flow in the channel body of the non-selected adjacent memory cell MC1 as indicated by (b). This flow causes a problem because it destroys the data “0” stored in the non-selected memory cell MC1 (Disturb by a parasitic pnp bipolar transistor). In a word, when majority carriers excessively accumulated inside the channel body 39 of a memory cell flow in an adjacent memory cell, the flow invites data destruction in the adjacent memory cell.
  • The fifth embodiment is described to the contrary with reference to FIG. 42, which shows the same section as that of FIG. 40. FIG. 42 shows the same state of operation as that in the third comparative example of FIG. 41. In the fifth embodiment the drain plug 43 reaches the silicon oxide layer 23 and accordingly divides the drain region 35 in the memory cell MC1 from the drain region 35 in the memory cell MC2. Therefore, holes in the channel body 39 of the memory cell MC1 dissipate when they recombine at an interface between the drain plug 43 and the drain region 35 as indicated by (c). As a result, minority carriers or holes can not flow in the adjacent memory cell MC1, which is thus protected from data destruction. As the drain plug 43 reaches the silicon oxide layer 23, in comparison with a later described sixth embodiment, a higher effect is achieved to prevent holes from flowing in the adjacent memory cell MC1.
  • In the state of FIG. 42, a negative voltage is applied to the bit line BL of the memory cell MC2 and 0 V to the source line SL. Accordingly, holes in the channel body 39 of the memory cell MC2 flow in the drain plug 43 mainly as well as in the source plug 47 partly. In the fifth embodiment, therefore, the source plug 47 is also formed to reach the silicon oxide layer 23. This is effective to prevent holes in the channel body 39 of the memory cell MC2 from flowing in an adjacent memory cell (not shown) at the source plug 47, which is thus protected from data destruction.
  • Method of Manufacturing Memory Cell in Fifth Embodiment
  • FIGS. 43-49 are cross sectional views of the SOI substrate and others showing a method of manufacturing according to the fifth embodiment in order of process steps. First, it undergoes the steps of FIGS. 10-12 described in the first embodiment except for formation of the device isolation film around the device formation region 51. Therefore, the memory transistors MTr are formed to share the drain region 35 or the source region 37 by adjacent memory transistors. The material of the gate electrode 33, or the polysilicon film, has a thickness of 150 nm. The step of FIG. 43 is then performed. This step is similar to that of FIG. 13. The following steps of FIGS. 44 and 45 are similar to those of FIGS. 14 and 15.
  • The step of FIG. 46 is then performed. This step corresponds to that of FIG. 16 except for the depth of the drain contact hole 69 and the source contact hole 71. In the fifth embodiment these contact holes 69 and 71 are formed to enter inside the drain region 35 and the source region 37, pass through the drain region 35 and the source region 37, and reach the silicon oxide layer 23 in the SOI substrate.
  • The step of FIG. 47 is performed next. This step corresponds to that of FIG. 17 except that the drain plug 43 is formed in the drain contact hole 69 so as to enter inside the drain region 35 and reach the silicon oxide layer 23, and is shared by adjacent memory transistors MTr. Similarly, the source plug 47 is formed in the source contact hole 71 so as to enter inside the source region 37 and reach the silicon oxide layer 23, and is shared by adjacent memory transistors MTr. Subsequent steps of FIGS. 48 and 49 are same as those of FIGS. 21 and 22, respectively.
  • Sixth Embodiment
  • FIG. 50 is a schematic cross-sectional view of part of a cell array according to a sixth embodiment, which corresponds to FIG. 40 in the fifth embodiment. A difference from FIG. 40 is found in that the drain plug 43 and the source plug 47 buried in the silicon layer 25 are not formed to reach the silicon oxide layer 23.
  • Similar to the fifth embodiment, the sixth embodiment is also possible to prevent minority carriers or holes from flowing in an adjacent memory cell, which is thus protected from data destruction. In the sixth embodiment, as the bottom 81 of the drain plug 43 also contacts with the drain region 35, the drain plug 43 has a larger contact area with the drain region 35 than that of the fifth embodiment. Thus, the sixth embodiment is possible to reduce the contact resistance of the drain plug 43, as similar to the source plug 47.
  • The structure of the sixth embodiment can be achieved by halting the etching in the step of FIG. 46 in the fifth embodiment before the drain contact hole 69 and the source contact hole 71 reach the silicon oxide layer 23 after entering inside the drain region 35 and the source region 37, respectively.
  • Seventh Embodiment
  • FIG. 51 is a schematic cross-sectional view of part of a cell array according to a seventh embodiment, which is a combination of the first embodiment in FIG. 7 and the fifth embodiment in FIG. 40. In a word, the drain plug 43 is buried in the interlayer insulator film 67 covering the memory transistor MTr and the write transistor WTr and connected to the drain region 35. In this case, the drain plug 43 projects through the interlayer insulator film 67, gets buried in the drain region 35, and reaches the silicon oxide layer 23. Similarly, the source plug 47 projects through the interlayer insulator film 67, gets buried in the source region 37, and reaches the silicon oxide layer 23.
  • Therefore, the seventh embodiment is possible to achieve quick bipolar write and prevent data destruction in the adjacent memory cell MC.
  • In the second comparative example of FIG. 9, as the plug located outward is the emitter plug 45, adjacent memory cells MC can not share the plug located outward in the seventh embodiment of FIG. 51 (the drain plug 43). This is because adjacent memory cells MC1 and MC2 share the bit line BL in the extending direction of the bit line BL as can be seen from FIG. 23. In this case, if they also share the emitter line EL, these memory cells can not obtain the selectivity on “1” write.
  • A method of manufacturing according to the seventh embodiment is described based on FIGS. 52-58, which are cross sectional views of the SOI substrate and others showing the method in the seventh embodiment in order of process steps. First, it undergoes the steps of FIGS. 10-15 described in the first embodiment except for formation of the device isolation film 29 around the device formation region 51. The step of FIG. 52 is then performed. This step corresponds to that of FIG. 16 except that the drain contact hole 69 and the source contact hole 71 reach the silicon oxide layer 23.
  • The step of FIG. 53 corresponds to that of FIG. 17 except that the drain contact hole 69 and the source contact hole 71 reach the silicon oxide layer 23 and accordingly the drain plug 43 and the source plug 47 also contact with the silicon oxide layer 23. The steps of FIGS. 54-58 are similar to those of FIGS. 18-22.
  • As obvious from the foregoing, an aspect of the present invention provides a semiconductor memory device capable of quick writing of data and method of manufacturing the same. In addition, another aspect of the present invention provides a semiconductor memory device capable of preventing occurrences of data destruction and method of manufacturing the same.

Claims (20)

1. A semiconductor memory device, comprising:
a substrate;
a semiconductor layer of a first conductive type isolated from said substrate by an insulator layer;
a memory transistor having a gate electrode, a drain and a source regions of a second conductive type formed in said semiconductor layer, and a channel body of said first conductive type formed in said semiconductor layer between said regions, said memory transistor operative to store data as a state of majority carriers accumulated in said channel body;
an impurity-diffused region of said first conductive type formed at a location in contact with the upper surface of said drain region, said impurity-diffused region having a higher impurity concentration of said first conductive type than an impurity concentration of said second conductive type in said drain region; and
a write transistor including a bipolar transistor having said impurity-diffused region as an emitter region, said drain region as a base region and said channel body as a collector region, said write transistor operative to write data in said memory transistor.
2. The semiconductor memory device according claim 1, wherein said impurity-diffused region is formed in said drain region shallower than said drain region.
3. The semiconductor memory device according claim 2, further comprising an emitter plug connected to said drain region and containing polysilicon of said first conductive type,
wherein said impurity-diffused region is formed to contain an impurity of said first conductive type diffused from inside said emitter plug to said drain region.
4. The semiconductor memory device according claim 1, wherein said impurity-diffused region is connected to said drain region and formed in a conductive emitter plug having a single crystalline structure.
5. The semiconductor memory device according claim 1, further comprising:
a conductive source plug connected to said source region;
a conductive emitter plug connected to said impurity-diffused region; and
a conductive drain plug connected to said drain region, wherein said source plug, said gate electrode, said emitter plug and said drain plug are aligned in this order.
6. The semiconductor memory device according claim 5, wherein a set of said memory transistor and said write transistor configures a memory cell, and wherein in adjacent memory cells, said source plug, said gate electrode, said emitter plug and said drain plug in one of said memory cells, and said drain plug, said emitter plug, said gate electrode and said source plug in the other of said memory cells are aligned in this order.
7. The semiconductor memory device according claim 6, wherein said adjacent memory cells share said drain plug.
8. The semiconductor memory device according claim 1, further comprising:
an interlayer insulator film formed to cover said memory transistor and said write transistor; and
a conductive drain plug buried in said interlayer insulator film and connected to said drain region, wherein said drain plug is projected through said interlayer insulator film and buried in said drain region so as to reach said insulator layer.
9. The semiconductor memory device according claim 1, wherein at least part of said gate electrode is buried in said semiconductor layer.
10. The semiconductor memory device according claim 1, wherein said impurity-diffused region has an impurity concentration of said first conductive type ranging from 1×1020/cm3 to 1×1021/cm3.
11. The semiconductor memory device according claim 6, comprising:
a cell array including a plurality of said memory cells arranged in matrix; and
a transistor formed in said semiconductor layer and operative to serve as a component in a peripheral circuit of said cell array.
12. The semiconductor memory device according claim 1, wherein said memory transistor stores either a first data state in which said channel body holds excess majority carriers or a second data state in which said channel body holds less majority carriers than said first data state.
13. A semiconductor memory device, comprising:
a substrate;
a semiconductor layer of a first conductive type isolated from said substrate by an insulator layer;
a plurality of memory transistors, each having
a gate electrode,
a pair of impurity regions of a second conductive type formed in said semiconductor layer, and
a channel body of said first conductive type formed in said semiconductor layer between said regions, said memory transistor operative to store data as a state of majority carriers accumulated in said channel body;
an interlayer insulator film formed to cover said plurality of memory transistors; and
a conductive plug shared by memory transistors in which one of said pair of impurity regions being adjacent each other among said plurality of memory transistors, formed in and projected through said interlayer insulator film, and buried in one of said pair of impurity regions.
14. The semiconductor memory device according claim 13, wherein said plug reaches said insulator layer.
15. The semiconductor memory device according claim 13, wherein said plug contains polysilicon of said second conductive type.
16. A method of manufacturing a semiconductor memory device, comprising:
forming a memory transistor having a gate electrode, a drain and a source regions of a second conductive type formed in a semiconductor layer of a first conductive type isolated from a substrate by an insulator layer, and a channel body of said first conductive type formed in said semiconductor layer between said regions;
forming an interlayer insulator film to cover said memory transistor;
forming an emitter contact hole in said interlayer insulator film to expose said drain region;
forming an emitter plug of said first conductive type in said emitter contact hole; and
forming an emitter region of said first conductive type in the upper surface of said drain region by thermally diffusing an impurity of said first conductive type from inside said emitter plug to the upper surface of said drain region, said emitter region having a higher impurity concentration of said first conductive type than an impurity concentration of said second conductive type in said drain region.
17. The method according to claim 16, further comprising:
forming in said interlayer insulator film a drain contact hole to expose said drain region and a source contact hole to expose said source region; and
forming a conductive drain plug in said drain contact hole and a conductive source plug in said source contact hole.
18. The method according to claim 17,
the step of forming said memory transistor including forming said drain region as being shared by adjacent memory transistors,
the step of forming said drain contact hole including forming said drain contact hole as reaching said insulator layer, and
the step of forming said drain plug including forming said drain plug in said drain contact hole as being shared by adjacent memory transistors and as reaching said insulator layer.
19. A method of manufacturing a semiconductor memory device, comprising:
forming a memory transistor having a gate electrode, a drain and a source regions of a second conductive type formed in a semiconductor layer of a first conductive type isolated from a substrate by an insulator layer, and a channel body of said first conductive type formed in said semiconductor layer between said regions;
forming an interlayer insulator film to cover said memory transistor;
forming an emitter contact hole in said interlayer insulator film to expose said drain region; and
forming a single crystalline layer of said first conductive type serving as an emitter region in said emitter contact hole by selective epitaxial growth.
20. A method of manufacturing a semiconductor memory device, comprising:
forming a plurality of memory transistors, each having a gate electrode, a pair of impurity regions of a second conductive type formed in a semiconductor layer of a first conductive type isolated from a substrate by an insulator layer, and a channel body of said first conductive type formed in said semiconductor layer between said regions, in which adjacent memory transistors share one of said pair of impurity regions;
forming an interlayer insulator film to cover said plurality of memory transistors;
forming a contact hole in said interlayer insulator film as entering inside one of said pair of impurity regions; and
forming a conductive plug in said contact hole as entering inside one of said pair of impurity regions and as being shared by adjacent memory transistors.
US10/994,629 2004-02-02 2004-11-23 Semiconductor memory device for storing data as state of majority carriers accumulated in channel body and method of manufacturing the same Expired - Fee Related US7301195B2 (en)

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