US20050123362A1 - Block with multifaceted bottom surface - Google Patents

Block with multifaceted bottom surface Download PDF

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Publication number
US20050123362A1
US20050123362A1 US11040653 US4065305A US2005123362A1 US 20050123362 A1 US20050123362 A1 US 20050123362A1 US 11040653 US11040653 US 11040653 US 4065305 A US4065305 A US 4065305A US 2005123362 A1 US2005123362 A1 US 2005123362A1
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Prior art keywords
surface
block
bottom
blocks
course
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11040653
Inventor
Gerald Price
Raymond Price
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Mortarless Technologies LLC
Original Assignee
Rockwood Retaining Walls Inc
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C1/00Building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings
    • E04C1/39Building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings characterised by special adaptations, e.g. serving for locating conduits, for forming soffits, cornices, or shelves, for fixing wall-plates or door-frames, for claustra
    • E04C1/395Building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings characterised by special adaptations, e.g. serving for locating conduits, for forming soffits, cornices, or shelves, for fixing wall-plates or door-frames, for claustra for claustra, fences, planting walls, e.g. sound-absorbing
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D29/00Independent underground or underwater structures; Retaining walls
    • E02D29/02Retaining or protecting walls
    • E02D29/025Retaining or protecting walls made up of similar modular elements stacked without mortar

Abstract

A block for use in constructing a retaining wall having a bottom with a non-planar portion which creates a gap between the bottom surface and the top surface of a lower course of similar blocks when the block is placed thereon. This gap assists the block in resting on the lower course of blocks in a stable, level manner by providing a space where small amounts of rubble and dirt may exist without interfering with the stacking of the blocks. The non-planar, preferably concave, portion is also advantageous in that it reduces the unit weight of the block without significantly affecting the structural integrity of the block. Preferably, the block's bottom surface further comprises a plurality of grooves which further reduce the weight of the block and provide additional clearance in the gap for larger stones. It is envisioned that these grooves be “V” shaped, thereby having angled walls which act to funnel the larger stones into an area of adequate clearance when the block is being placed on a lower course of similar blocks.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application is a Continuation of application Ser. No. 10/438,385, filed May 15, 2003, which is a Continuation of application Ser. No. 09/864,357, filed May 23, 2001, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,592,301, which is a Continuation of application Ser. No. 09/377,094, filed Aug. 19, 1999, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,250,850.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    This invention relates generally to the construction of retaining walls used in landscaping applications. Such walls are used to provide lateral support between differing ground levels where the change in one elevation to the other occurs over a relatively short distance, thereby reducing the possibility of erosion and landslides. Retaining walls can be both functional and decorative and range from small gardening applications to large-scale construction. They are constructed of a variety of materials and shapes. Some have been constructed of wood timbers, others of rock in a natural form (such as limestone). Still others have been constructed of manufactured aggregate or concrete blocks. The present invention relates to a manufactured block.
  • [0003]
    Constructing a fit and true retaining wall can be an arduous endeavor. In addition to laying a level first course on ground that is usually located at the foot or in the side of a steep embankment, the builder must ensure that each subsequent course is level. An error made in a lower course is usually exaggerated as higher courses are stacked above it. As a wall made of blocks necessarily develops somewhat of a grid-like appearance, interruptions or undulations in the lines of the wall become readily apparent to the human eye.
  • [0004]
    One particular problem the prior art has failed to overcome is developing a retaining wall block shaped to avoid these undulations and interruptions which are caused by blocks being stacked on dirt or debris found on the upper surface of the lower course of blocks. Dirt presents itself as a result of the fill material used to fill the gap between the rear of the wall and the earth it is being built to retain. This fill material usually consists of small, coarse rocks. They serve as a barrier between the earth and the wall and prevent wet earth from seeping through the bricks of the wall during inclement weather. Present wall building methods include laying a course of blocks, filling the space behind the course with fill material, packing the fill material, and carefully sweeping the dirt off each completed course prior to the addition of the next course. This final, sweeping step is time consuming but necessary to ensure the next course of blocks lies flat on the lower course.
  • [0005]
    Some larger blocks incorporate continuous cavities that extend from their bottom surface to their top surfaces. These cavities are intended to reduce the amount of material required to form the block, thereby reducing its cost and weight, and also allow an area to be filled with fill material once a course is finished. At first blush it would appear that, because the presence of cavities reduces the surface area of the top and bottom of the block, they would also serve to decrease the area for interference by small stones and debris between courses. However, because the cavities are filled with fill material, the fill material spills over the upper surfaces and exacerbates, rather than alleviates, the problem. Furthermore, smaller blocks cannot incorporate cavity portions without jeopardizing their structural integrity.
  • [0006]
    The inability of smaller blocks to accommodate cavity portions creates further problems. Making a solid block out of concrete results in a dense rock that is heavy for its relatively small size. Working with these rocks can become cumbersome. The absence of cavities or interruption in the sidewalls makes these blocks difficult to lift. They have few areas that lend themselves to easy gripping and lifting. This becomes an important consideration in light of the number of blocks that must be lifted and set in place during the construction of even a relatively small retaining wall.
  • [0007]
    It would be desirable to develop a retaining wall block shaped to accept a certain amount of dirt and debris from course to course without adversely affecting the overall structure and aesthetics of the resulting wall. It would also be desirable to devise a small retaining wall block which is has a reduced unit weight due to the absence of block material in an area that will not adversely affect the strength of the block, nor its appearance. Finally, it would be desirable to provide a small retaining wall block that is relatively easy to grasp and pick up off a stack of similar blocks.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0008]
    The present invention advantageously provides a block for use in building a retaining wall that produces a level course of blocks, despite the presence of a small amount of debris on the lower course of blocks.
  • [0009]
    The present invention is also advantageous in that it provides a relatively small block with material removed from strategic locations to provide a block that is lighter than it would have been had it been solid, yet the removal of material has not adversely affected the strength of the block, nor the appearance of the resulting wall.
  • [0010]
    The present invention advantageously provides a block that has areas for a person building a retaining wall to grasp the block when lifting the block off a stack of such blocks and placing the block on a lower course of blocks in the wall being constructed.
  • [0011]
    The instant invention relates to a retaining wall block so shaped that when placed on top of a lower course of similar blocks, it lies flat despite the inevitable presence of dirt, small stones, and other debris. This feature alleviates the time-consuming step of meticulously cleaning the top of each course of blocks before the next course may be laid on top of it.
  • [0012]
    The block generally comprises a continuous top surface, side surfaces extending from the top surface, front and back surfaces extending from the top surface and spanning laterally between the side surfaces and a bottom surface integral with the front, back and side surfaces.
  • [0013]
    In order to achieve the tolerance of small stones and debris between courses, a portion of the bottom face of the block of the present invention is non-planar, more specifically, concave. This concave surface significantly reduces the area for block-to-block contact between successive courses. Preferably, this non-planar portion covers more than one-half of the area of the bottom surface of the block. It also functions to provide an area of clearance or a gap between the stones where debris can migrate without causing interference or instability between courses. The concave portion is preferably shaped to form a portion of a cylinder and extends from one side surface to the other. Alternatively, the concave portion could be shaped to form a portion of a sphere or any other shape.
  • [0014]
    In addition to the concave portion of the bottom surface, the present invention further comprises a plurality of grooves formed in the bottom surface and preferably extending transversely of the bottom surface between the front and back surfaces. The grooves preferably are angled inwardly to form an inverted “V” shape when the block is given its intended orientation. The grooves allow spaces of increased clearance for larger stones. The grooves preferably comprise two opposed surfaces of a predetermined width extending the length of the groove. The two surfaces are angled to form a “V” shape and meet to form an angle α. The angled walls of the grooves not only reduce the weight of the block, but also act to funnel larger stones into the grooves, thereby positioning them into an area of maximum clearance. Alternatively, the first and second surfaces may be joined by a third, curved or flat, surface juxtaposed between the first and second surfaces. Such a third surface would give the groove an inverted “U” shape. The grooves are cut into the block and have a set depth that follows the irregular contour of the non-planar bottom surface.
  • [0015]
    Preferably, the bottom surface further comprises one or more downward projections proximate the rear surface and having an abutting surface which contacts the rear surface of a lower course of blocks when the block is stacked thereon. It is envisioned that the abutting surface is either parallel to the rear surface of the block, or forms an angle β with the rear surface. These projections create an automatic and uniform setback among successive courses of blocks so that the resulting retaining wall is angled rearwardly. This adds resistive strength to the wall against the natural forces exerted on the wall by the earth the wall is retaining.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0016]
    FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a block of the present invention, looking up at the bottom to reveal the details of the bottom surface;
  • [0017]
    FIG. 2 is a cross sectional view of the block of the present invention taken along lines 2-2 of FIG. 1;
  • [0018]
    FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view of the block of the present invention taken along lines 3-3 of FIG. 1 and shown with other blocks in phantom, stacked, as in a retaining wall;
  • [0019]
    FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view of the block of FIG. 1;
  • [0020]
    FIG. 5 is a perspective view of the block shown in FIG. 1 in a stacked relationship with other blocks, as in a wall, and showing debris resting on a lower course of blocks and accommodated for by the concave area of the bottom surface of the block of the present invention;
  • [0021]
    FIG. 6 is a perspective view of an alternative embodiment of the present invention, looking up at the bottom to show the detail of the bottom surface;
  • [0022]
    FIG. 7 is a sectional elevational view taken along lines 7-7 of FIG. 6;
  • [0023]
    FIG. 8 is an end elevational view of a block of the embodiment shown in FIG. 6, in stacked relation, as in a wall, with other blocks shown in phantom; and,
  • [0024]
    FIG. 9 is a bottom plan view of a block of the embodiment shown in FIG. 6.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0025]
    These and other objectives and advantages of the invention will appear more fully from the following description, made in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein like reference characters refer to the same or similar parts throughout the several views. And, although the disclosure hereof is detailed and exact to enable those skilled in the art to practice the invention, the physical embodiments herein disclosed merely exemplify the invention, which may be embodied in other specific structures. While the preferred embodiment has been described, the details may be changed without departing from the invention, which is defined only by the claims.
  • [0026]
    Referring now to FIG. 1, there is shown a retaining wall block 10 having a front surface 12, side surfaces 14 a and 14 b extending rearwardly from front surface 12 and integral with rear surface 16. Top surface 18 is generally planar and continuous across its extents. Top surface 18 extends from side surface 14 a to side surface 14 b and from front surface 12 to rear surface 16. Preferably, top surface 18 is generally perpendicular to side surfaces 14 a and 14 b, and also to front surface 12 and rear surface 16.
  • [0027]
    In the preferred embodiment shown in the Figures, front surface 12 comprises three parts, 12 a, 12 b, and 12 c. Part 12 c is generally parallel to rear surface 16 and lies between parts 12 a and 12 b. Parts 12 a and 12 b are angled such that they extend from part 12 c and diverge rearwardly to meet side surfaces 14 a and 14 b, respectively. Parts 12 a, 12 b, and 12 c are shown as split faces as opposed to formed faces; creating a face with a rock splitter results in an irregular, more natural appearing surface. Also shown in the Figures is a rear surface 16, which has a smaller width than front surface 12 such that side surface 14 a and 14 b must converge rearwardly in order to be integral with rear surface 16. This shape allows the construction of straight, concave, convex, or serpentine walls without interrupting the relatively uniform appearance created by the front surfaces 12 of a plurality of blocks 10 forming a wall.
  • [0028]
    Bottom surface 20 extends from front surface 12 to rear surface 16 and from side surface 14 a to side surface 14 b. Bottom surface 20 includes concave or non-planar portion 22. Concave portion 22 is depicted in FIGS. 1, 3 and 4 as a relatively cylindrical indentation in bottom surface 20, extending from side surface 14 a to side surface 14 b. Preferably, portion 22 does not extend forward of where side surfaces 14 a and 14 b meet parts 12 a and 12 b of front surface 12. This way concave portion 22 is not visible in a completed wall, regardless of whether the wall is straight, concave, convex, or serpentine.
  • [0029]
    Allowing concave portion 22 to extend from side surface 14 a to side surface 14 b creates a gap 24 between the bottom surface 20 and the upper surface of a lower course of blocks when block 10 is placed thereon. This gap 24 may be used for ease in picking the block up and setting the block down. Also, as shown in FIGS. 1, 3 and 4, concave portion 22 extends rearwardly but ends forward of downward projection 34, which is described in more detail below. Ending the concave or, non-planar portion 22 forward of downward projection 34 provides another flat surface for block-to-block contact to assist in the leveling and stabilization of block 10 on a lower course of blocks.
  • [0030]
    Alternatively, it is envisioned that concave portion 22 be an indentation of any shape, such as the generally spherical shape of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 6-9. Preferably, portion 22 is large enough to occupy at least 30 percent, more preferably on the order of 50 to 75 percent, of the surface area of bottom surface 20.
  • [0031]
    In a preferred embodiment, bottom surface 20 also includes at least one, preferably a plurality of, grooves 28. As shown in FIG. 2, grooves 28 are preferably “V”-shaped and extend from the bottom surface into the block toward top surface 18. In the embodiment depicted in FIGS. 1 and 2, grooves 28 are spaced generally equidistant from each other and oriented such that they extend from front to back generally across the non-planar portion 22. It is envisioned that grooves 28 could be located generally anywhere a cross bottom surface 20. It is preferred, however, that grooves 28 do not intersect front surface 12 so that grooves 28 remain hidden from view when block 10 is part of a completed wall.
  • [0032]
    Grooves 28 having the preferred “V” shape generally comprise at least a first surface 30 and a second surface 32. First surface 30 extends from bottom surface 20 and is integral with second surface 32. Second surface 32 extends from first surface 30 to bottom surface 20 thereby forming an angle α between first surface 30 and second surface 32 as seen in FIGS. 2 and 7. Angle α is preferably less than 180 degrees. Alternatively, first surface 30 and second surface 32 could be joined by a third surface (not shown in the Figures) which extends along the length of the groove and is juxtapose between the first and second surfaces. This third surface could be curved, thereby forming a “U” shaped groove, or the third surface could be flat, thereby forming a rectangular groove. However, a “V” shaped groove generally eases manufacturing.
  • [0033]
    As shown in all Figures, bottom surface 20 also includes at least one downward projection 34. Downward projection 34 may extend across bottom surface 20, adjacent rear surface 16 as shown in FIGS. 1, 2, and 4. Alternatively, projection 34 may be broken into more than one projection 34 as shown in FIGS. 6, 7 and 9. Projection 34 has an abutting surface 36, which is used to abut against the rear surface 16 of a lower course of blocks, thereby forming a setback between successive courses of blocks. This setback adds strength and stability to the resulting wall.
  • [0034]
    Abutting surface 36 may be substantially parallel to rear surface 16. Alternatively, for ease of manufacture, abutting surface 36 may angle rearwardly forming a relatively small angle β with rear surface 16 as shown in FIG. 3. Angle β is preferably less than 45 degrees, more preferably less than 30 degrees. A smaller angle β provides more resistance to horizontal block slippage due to external forces against the back of the resulting wall.
  • [0035]
    The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. Furthermore, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described. While the preferred embodiment has been described, the details may be changed without departing from the invention, which is defined by the claims.

Claims (19)

  1. 1. A block for use in constructing a multiple course retaining wall, the block comprising:
    a top surface;
    a bottom surface;
    opposing side surfaces, with each opposing side surface extending from the top surface to the bottom surface; and with each opposing side surface defining a plane;
    a front surface extending from the top surface to the bottom surface and extending between the opposing side surfaces, the front surface having an upper edge, a lower edge, and side edges, with the upper and lower edges being substantially parallel as viewed in front elevation, and with the side edges being substantially parallel as viewed in front elevation;
    a back surface extending from the top surface to the bottom surface and extending between the opposing side surfaces;
    wherein the plane defined by one of the opposing side surfaces intersects the plane defined by the other opposing side surface; and,
    wherein the bottom surface has an upwardly recessed portion intersecting with and extending from one of the opposing side surfaces towards the other opposing side surface, with the upwardly recessed portion creating a gap between the bottom surface of the block and a top surface of a lower course of blocks when said block is placed on the lower course of blocks in construction of the retaining wall.
  2. 2. The block of claim 1 wherein the upwardly recessed portion accounts for greater than one-quarter of the total surface area of the bottom surface.
  3. 3. The block of claim 1, further comprising a downwardly extending projection, with the projection configured and arranged to engage a block in an adjacent lower course of blocks.
  4. 4. The block of claim 1, wherein the front surface comprises a plurality of generally planar parts.
  5. 5. The block of claim 4, wherein one of the generally planar parts of the front surface is substantially parallel to the back surface of the block.
  6. 6. The block of claim 4, wherein at least two of the generally planar parts of the front surface are angled with respect to each other.
  7. 7. The block of claim 1, wherein the upward recessed portion defines at least one area of contact for the bottom surface of the block when it is disposed upon the top surface of a block in a lower course of blocks;
  8. 8. The block of claim 1, wherein the upward recessed portion defines at least one area of contact for the bottom surface of the block when it is positioned on top of a lower course of blocks in a retaining wall structure.
  9. 9. The block of claim 1, wherein the bottom surface further comprises at least one groove, with the groove configured to effectively increase the height of the gap formed by the upwardly recessed portion.
  10. 10. A block for use in constructing a multiple course retaining wall, the block comprising:
    a top surface;
    a bottom surface;
    opposing side surfaces, with each opposing side surface extending from the top surface to the bottom surface;
    a front surface extending from the top surface to the bottom surface and extending between the opposing side surfaces, the front surface having an upper edge, a lower edge, and side edges, with the upper and lower edges being substantially parallel as viewed in front elevation, and with the side edges being substantially parallel as viewed in front elevation;
    a back surface extending from the top surface to the bottom surface and extending between the opposing side surfaces;
    wherein the bottom surface has an upwardly recessed portion intersecting with and extending from one opposing side surface to the other opposing side surface, the upwardly recessed portion creating a gap between the bottom surface of the block and a top surface of a lower course of blocks when said block is placed on the lower course of blocks in construction of the retaining wall.
  11. 11. The block of claim 10 wherein the upwardly recessed portion accounts for greater than one-quarter of the total surface area of the bottom surface.
  12. 12. The block of claim 10, further comprising a downwardly extending projection, with the projection configured and arranged to engage a block in an adjacent lower course of blocks.
  13. 13. The block of claim 10, wherein the front surface comprises a plurality of generally planar parts.
  14. 14. The block of claim 13, wherein one of the generally planar parts of the front surface is substantially parallel to the back surface of the block.
  15. 15. The block of claim 13, wherein at least two of the generally planar parts of the front surface are angled with respect to each other.
  16. 16. The block of claim 10, wherein the bottom surface further comprises a groove, with a portion of the groove extending along the upwardly recessed portion of the bottom surface, wherein the groove effectively increases the height of the gap formed by the upwardly recessed portion.
  17. 17. The block of claim 10, wherein the bottom surface further comprises a groove extending from a point in proximity to the intersection of the front and bottom surfaces to a point in proximity to the intersection of the rear and bottom surfaces.
  18. 18. The block of claim 10, wherein the upward recessed portion defines peripheral areas of contact for the bottom surface of the block when it is disposed upon the top surface of a block in a lower course of blocks.
  19. 19. The block of claim 18, wherein the peripheral areas of contact comprise two spaced-apart portions.
US11040653 1999-08-19 2005-01-21 Block with multifaceted bottom surface Abandoned US20050123362A1 (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US09377094 US6250850B1 (en) 1999-08-19 1999-08-19 Block with multifaceted bottom surface
US09864357 US6592301B2 (en) 1999-08-19 2001-05-23 Block with multifaceted bottom surface
US10438385 US6910833B2 (en) 1999-08-19 2003-05-15 Block with multifaceted bottom surface
US11040653 US20050123362A1 (en) 1999-08-19 2005-01-21 Block with multifaceted bottom surface

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US11040653 US20050123362A1 (en) 1999-08-19 2005-01-21 Block with multifaceted bottom surface
US11471446 US7351014B2 (en) 1999-08-19 2006-06-20 Block with multifaceted bottom surface

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US20050123362A1 true true US20050123362A1 (en) 2005-06-09

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US09377094 Active US6250850B1 (en) 1999-08-19 1999-08-19 Block with multifaceted bottom surface
US09811119 Expired - Fee Related US6682269B2 (en) 1999-08-19 2001-03-17 Block with multifaceted bottom surface
US09864357 Expired - Fee Related US6592301B2 (en) 1999-08-19 2001-05-23 Block with multifaceted bottom surface
US10438385 Expired - Fee Related US6910833B2 (en) 1999-08-19 2003-05-15 Block with multifaceted bottom surface
US11040653 Abandoned US20050123362A1 (en) 1999-08-19 2005-01-21 Block with multifaceted bottom surface
US11471446 Expired - Fee Related US7351014B2 (en) 1999-08-19 2006-06-20 Block with multifaceted bottom surface

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US09377094 Active US6250850B1 (en) 1999-08-19 1999-08-19 Block with multifaceted bottom surface
US09811119 Expired - Fee Related US6682269B2 (en) 1999-08-19 2001-03-17 Block with multifaceted bottom surface
US09864357 Expired - Fee Related US6592301B2 (en) 1999-08-19 2001-05-23 Block with multifaceted bottom surface
US10438385 Expired - Fee Related US6910833B2 (en) 1999-08-19 2003-05-15 Block with multifaceted bottom surface

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US6250850B1 (en) * 1999-08-19 2001-06-26 Rockwood Retaining Walls, Inc. Block with multifaceted bottom surface
US6715965B2 (en) * 1999-09-30 2004-04-06 Redi-Rock International, Llc Retaining wall blocks and retaining walls constructed from such blocks
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US20050241257A1 (en) * 2004-04-30 2005-11-03 Price Raymond R Asymmetric retaining wall block
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US7124754B2 (en) * 2004-08-06 2006-10-24 Custom Precast & Masonry, Inc. Method and device for creating a decorative block feature
US20060096180A1 (en) * 2004-10-06 2006-05-11 Price Brian A Retaining wall block and grid system
US20060145050A1 (en) * 2004-12-30 2006-07-06 Price Raymond R Multi-block mold and system
US8136325B1 (en) 2005-10-20 2012-03-20 Van Lerberg David P Landscaping wall structure and form
KR100717831B1 (en) * 2005-11-22 2007-05-07 신승종 Construction method of embankment
US20080240857A1 (en) * 2007-03-28 2008-10-02 Joseph Ciccarello Irregularly shaped hexagonal paving stone with integral mating spacers
US9388571B2 (en) * 2007-11-21 2016-07-12 Dustin A. Brown Stone fabrication system with hidden mortar joint
US8251607B2 (en) 2008-01-15 2012-08-28 Ecs Solutions, Llc System and apparatus of fluid storage using paver blocks
US20090185870A1 (en) * 2008-01-18 2009-07-23 Shaw Kenneth L Retaining wall block and method of manufacture
US8291669B2 (en) * 2008-04-08 2012-10-23 Pavestone Company, Llc Interlocking structural block and method of manufacture
US8141315B1 (en) * 2009-03-03 2012-03-27 Ridgerock Retaining Walls, Inc. Modular wall block with block-locating jut and shear lug
US20110093014A1 (en) * 2009-10-19 2011-04-21 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Rod with Removable End and Inserter Therefor
US8708608B2 (en) * 2010-09-15 2014-04-29 Allan Block Llc Stackable segmental retaining wall block
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US6910833B2 (en) 2005-06-28 grant
US20010038775A1 (en) 2001-11-08 application
US20010026735A1 (en) 2001-10-04 application
US6682269B2 (en) 2004-01-27 grant
US20060239784A1 (en) 2006-10-26 application
US20030194279A1 (en) 2003-10-16 application
US6250850B1 (en) 2001-06-26 grant
US7351014B2 (en) 2008-04-01 grant
US6592301B2 (en) 2003-07-15 grant

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