US20040182099A1 - Device and method for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system - Google Patents

Device and method for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system Download PDF

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US20040182099A1
US20040182099A1 US10/388,629 US38862903A US2004182099A1 US 20040182099 A1 US20040182099 A1 US 20040182099A1 US 38862903 A US38862903 A US 38862903A US 2004182099 A1 US2004182099 A1 US 2004182099A1
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fluid
magnetic
power generator
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Li-Chieh Hsu
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Industrial Technology Research Institute ITRI
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L23/00Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices
    • H01L23/34Arrangements for cooling, heating, ventilating or temperature compensation ; Temperature sensing arrangements
    • H01L23/46Arrangements for cooling, heating, ventilating or temperature compensation ; Temperature sensing arrangements involving the transfer of heat by flowing fluids
    • H01L23/473Arrangements for cooling, heating, ventilating or temperature compensation ; Temperature sensing arrangements involving the transfer of heat by flowing fluids by flowing liquids
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/0001Technical content checked by a classifier
    • H01L2924/0002Not covered by any one of groups H01L24/00, H01L24/00 and H01L2224/00

Abstract

The invention is to provide a device and method for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system, wherein the waste heat of electronic device is a heat source to vaporize fluid and form bubbles as a forwarding pump of the ferrofluid. The fluid with magnetic nano particles is pumped forward and rotated by a fluid mechanism, then pass through a high density coil to result in the time varying magnetic flux and induced current. No additional heat-dissipating device is needed for this invention to dispose the waste heat, which is further reused to produce electricity, such that double effects of cooling and power saving may be achieved.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The invention relates to a device and method for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system, especially to a device and method applied for ferrofluid power generator and cooling p erformed by the phase change of fluid that may remove waste heat generated from an electronic device. [0001]
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Since IC was invented in 1959, IC fabrication technology has advanced tremendously. It is expected that an era of nano (nm) will come in the 21[0002] st century. However, micro electronic devices have huge impact on device component as well as system because the added chip functions within the same space causes increased heat, and it has become a big challenge to the engineers and researchers. It is predictable that more functions embedded in a chip, more cooling is required.
  • Hence, for either personal computer or notebook, cooling is always an issue. Although cooling fans are already installed inside of computer, but it increases weight, consumes extra power, and is not very effective. With the increased processing speed, computer generates more waste heat. For CPU(central processing unit) made by either INTEL or AMD, cooling must be done effectively, or the computer will become unstable, dead, or even burnt. [0003]
  • Notebook is convenient, light, portable, consequently, it is preferable to be made as small and light as possible. Therefore, the internal room of a notebook is always very limited. The most power-consuming component of a typical notebook is the central processing unit (CPU). The higher the processing speed, the more power consumed by CPU. Especially for new generation Pentium 4 processor, much more power is consumed than Pentium 3 processor or cheap Celeron model, it therefore generates more heat. [0004]
  • Consequently, for current manufacturers of electronic devices, especially for producers of notebook, they are all anxious to solve this heat-dissipating problem of electronic component. As shown in FIG. 1, the traditional way to dissipate heat is to arrange a fan [0005] 11 and heat-dissipating fin 12 on a central processing unit (CPU) 10, such that CPU waste heat is conducted to the large area of heat-dissipating fin 12, then forced convection is performed by the fan 11.
  • Currently, for most notebooks, a CPU-attached fan (as shown in FIG. 1) and a system fan are installed but, for notebooks with Pentium 4 CPU, this method is not only power consuming (the consuming power ranges from 1.6 W to 7.7 W, the average is around 4.5W) but also very noisy (the level of noise is around 39 dBA). Furthermore, the poor cooling efficiency of this type of cooling fan is far from perfect (cooling efficiency is only 0.1 W/cm[0006] 2) because of the limited heat-dissipation capacity of forced convection.
  • According to the shortcomings of aforementioned prior arts, the inventor proposes a device and method of ferrofluid power generator and cooling system, such that the heat-dissipating problem of notebook may be resolved effectively, wherein the waste heat generated from the CPU may be applied as a energy source for power generating, such that the double effects of cooling and power saving of a notebook are achieved. [0007]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The invention is to provide a brand new concept of heat dissipation; that is, the waste heat of a CPU is conducted to a specific working fluid by a high efficiency heat absorbing system, the fluid is therefore heated to its boiling point to generate bubbles, which are inflated and in turn they drive the nano-magnetic particles mixed in the fluid to pass through a micro-coil with high spinning speed. Not only may this method remove the waste heat to increase the working efficiency of the system, but also may the waste heat be reused to generate electric power. [0008]
  • The main objective of the invention is to provide a device and method for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system, wherein an advanced cooling method of phase change and a power generating system driven by waste heat are proposed, such that the double effects of cooling and power saving are reached. In addition, phase change cooling scheme is a much more effective heat dissipation method, no additional energy is needed, and no any noise is generated. [0009]
  • Another objective of the invention is to provide a device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling, which can be applied to in any heat generating electronic device. This system is comprised of a close loop pipe system and a coil. The pipe is connected to the electronic device, and filled with magnetized ferrofluid. The coil is wound around portion of the pipe. When the heat is conducted to the fluid and absorbed therein, part of the fluid is vaporized to generate bubbles to serve as forwarding pump, it drives the magnetized ferrofluid forward to pass through the coil, so that time varying magnetic flux is generated in the coil by spinning magnetic nano particles and then induced current is produced. [0010]
  • According to above concept, the pipe system is a closed loop. It is sequentially comprised of a vapor bubble pump, a vortex generator, a magnetic array, an induced magnetic field, etc. [0011]
  • According to above concept, the vapor bubble pump is connected to the electronic device. When heat is conducted to the fluid to vaporize part of the fluid into bubbles, the bubbles are inflated and squeezed to drive the magnetic particles mixed in the fluid to pass through the coil. A check valve is arranged at both sides of the vapor bubble pump to confine the bubble in a chamber, and squeeze the fluid to move toward the induced magnetic field due to bubble expansion. [0012]
  • According to above concept, the vortex generator is applied to rotate the magnetic particles to increase their spinning speed. The interior of the vortex generator has many surface cavities to generate vortex which results in the velocity variance around the particles, such that the magnetic particles are rotated. [0013]
  • According to above concept, the magnetic array is constructed by arranging an array of magnetic field outside the pipe system, such that the phase angles of spinning magnetic particles may be aligned. Consequently, when the magnetic particles enter the induced magnetic field, the time varying magnetic flux is increased. The magnetic array is a permanent magnetic field, by which the magnetic direction of the magnetic particles is aligned and the cancellation magnetic moment among magnetic particles may be prevented. [0014]
  • According to above concept, other passages may be arranged with a heat-dissipation device for further cooling. The heat-dissipation device is comprised of an array of horizontal fin-shape structure. The coil is wound around a section of the pipe outside of the induced magnetic field. The coil is made of copper in micrometer level. [0015]
  • According to above concept, the ferrofluid is essentially a mixed fluid with magnetic particles, low boiling-point liquid, and water. The low boiling-point liquid is a non-electrolytic chemical coolant, such as: fluoride solution of FC-87, PF-5052, FC-72, or any combination of the above. The magnetic particle is a magnetized nano iron particle. [0016]
  • According to above concept, the induced current is an alternate current (A.C.) with high frequency, so a rectifier may further be added to transform the A.C. into D.C. (direct current). If the electronic device is a CPU (central processing unit) installed in a notebook or any other chip thereof, then the converted D.C. may be used to recharge the Lithium battery inside the notebook. The electronic device may be any kind of micro mechanical-electrical device. [0017]
  • Another objective of the invention is to provide a magnetic power generating method. It uses the waste heat from an electronic device, the heat is absorbed by a fluid, part of which is vaporized into bubbles to drive the fluid with magnetic particles to pass through a coil. After that, the magnetic ferrofluid generates time varying magnetic flux and then induced current. [0018]
  • For your esteemed members of reviewing committee to further understand and recognize the structural object and function of the invention, a detailed description incorporated with corresponding drawings and number description is presented as the follows. [0019]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a heat-dissipating assembly for a computer CPU according to the prior arts. [0020]
  • FIG. 2 is an illustration for the preferable basic layout of device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to the invention. [0021]
  • FIG. 3 is a design framework view of a power generating system of the device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to one preferable embodiment of the invention. [0022]
  • FIG. 4 is a structural illustration for the entire device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to one preferable embodiment of the invention. [0023]
  • FIG. 5[0024] a is a 3-D illustration of FIG. 4.
  • FIG. 5[0025] b is a cross-sectional illustration for the partial enlargement of FIG. 5a.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • A detailed description of the invention will be presented thereinafter. Please refer to the drawings. Those who are familiar with this technique should understand that the following description is only for the purpose of illustration, but not for limiting the invention. [0026]
  • The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system of the preferable embodiments according to the invention is described thereinafter, but its actual layout does not have to completely match the description of the system design. Those who are familiar with such technique may have variations or modifications within the spirit and scope of the invention. [0027]
  • Please refer to FIG. 2, which is an illustration for the preferable basic layout of device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to the invention. The invention is mainly comprised of a pipe system [0028] 20 and a coil 30. The pipe system 20 is connected to an electronic device 40 (a central processing unit abbreviated as CPU is taken as an example thereinafter) that generates waste heat. The coil 30 is wound around part of the pipe system 20 which is a closed loop filled with low boiling-point fluid (not shown in the drawings), and the magnetic particles (not shown in the drawings) are again contained in the fluid. When the heat is conducted to the fluid and is absorbed therein, part of the fluid is vaporized to generate bubbles 201 to reach the cooling effect and to drive the fluid to flow and push the magnetic particles to pass through the coil 30, therefore time varying magnetic flux is generated in the coil 30 by the spinning magnetic particles and induced current is generated in the coil 30 as well.
  • A separate description of each part of the entire system is presented below. The pipe system [0029] 20 is sequentially comprised of a vapor bubble pump 21, a vortex generator 22, a magnetic array 23, an induced magnetic field 24, and other passages, etc.
  • The vapor bubble pump [0030] 21 is the part which is directly connected to the CPU 40 (central processing unit). In this zone 21, when the heat of CPU 40 is conducted to the fluid to vaporize part of the fluid into bubbles 201, the bubbles 201 are therefor inflated. A check valve 211 is arranged at each side of the vapor bubble pump 21 to confine the bubble in a chamber, then the fluid is squeezed to move toward the induced magnetic field 24 due to bubble expansion.
  • The interior of the vortex generator [0031] 22 has many surface cavities 221 to generate vortex which results in the velocity variance around the particles, so that the magnetic particles pass through the coil 30 with high spinning speed. The magnetic array 23 is constructed by arranging an array of magnetic field 20 outside this section of pipe system, such that the phase angles of the spinning magnetic particles may be aligned and same phase angle rotation is generated. Consequently, when the magnetic nano particles enter the induced magnetic field 24, the time varying magnetic flux is increased. Moreover, the magnetic array 31 is a permanent magnetic field, by which the magnetic direction of the magnetic particles is aligned that the neutralization of magnetic fields among magnetic particles may be prevented.
  • The induced magnetic field [0032] 24 is where the pipe system 20 is wound by the coil 30. Other part may be installed with a heat-dissipating device 25 for further heat disposal. The heat-dissipation device 25 is preferably a heat-dissipating structure comprised of an array of horizontal fins.
  • The fluid essentially is a mixed liquid with magnetic particles, low boiling-point liquid, and water. The low boiling-point liquid is a non-electrolytic chemical coolant, such as: fluoride solution of FC-87, PF-5052, FC-72, or any combination of the above. The saturation temperature for chemical coolants are: 56.6° C., 32.0° C., and 50.0° C. respectively, which are much lower than that of pure water (100° C.). Therefore the vaporization frequency and bubble quantities are increased, and heat conduction is improved, and as a result from that, the heat is dissipated quickly. The magnetic particle is a magnetized nano iron particle. The coil [0033] 30 is made of copper in micrometer level which helps the spinning magnetic nano iron particles to generate time varying magnetic flux.
  • Please refer to FIG. 3, which is a design framework view of a power generator system of the device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to one preferable embodiment of the invention. Similar to FIG. 2, the basic concept of power generation is: the fluid of the vapor bubble pump [0034] 21 absorbs the heat from central processing unit(CPU) 40 to generate bubbles 201, which in turn drive the magnetic particles to move forward; while fluid pass through vortex generator section 22, the vortex is generated in the cavities 221 inside of the vortex generator section 22, and the magnetic particles spin in cavities 221 because of different velocity surround the particles. Finally, the magnetic particles enter the magnetic array 23 to have their magnetic directions aligned by the permanent magnetic field 31, it therefore prevents the cancellation of the magnetic moment among magnetic particles. Consequently, the time varying magnetic flux in the induced magnetic field 24 is increased, and the maximum induced current is generated. The remaining waste heat of the entire power generator system is disposed by the heat-dissipating device 25. The resulting induced current A is a high-frequency alternate current (A.C.), a rectifier 32 may be added to transform the alternate current (A.C.) into direct current (D.C.). Hence, if the electronic device 40 is a CPU (central processing unit) in a notebook or any other chip thereof, then the transformed D.C. may be recharged into the Lithium battery 41 of the notebook.
  • Again, please refer to FIG. 4, which is a structural illustration for the entire device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to one preferable embodiment of the invention. FIG. 5[0035] a is a 3-D illustration of FIG. 4. FIG. 5b is a cross-section illustration for the partial enlargement of FIG. 5a, such as: vapor bubble pump 21, vortex generator 22, and magnetic array 31. The difference between this embodiment and those in FIG. 2 and FIG. 3 is that: the CPU 40 (central processing unit) is contacted with the ferrofluid power generator and cooling device according to the invention, so that the CPU 40 waste heat may be more effectively utilized and disposed.
  • The actual implementation takes Pentium 4 notebook as an example. Typically, the heat generated from a Pentium 4 CPU of a notebook is about 35W. Its surface temperature is about 70° C. to 85° C., its efficiency is estimated by computation. When the low boiling-point fluid described by the invention absorbs the CPU waste heat and results in phase change, the CPU is cooled and the fluid is vaporized to bubbles. This procedure of boiling and vaporizing of the fluid caused by the heat absorption may be calculated by Rohsenow's nucleate pool boiling relation as follows: [0036] C l · Δ T x h fg · P r s = C sf [ q / A μ l · h fg g c g ( ρ l - ρ v ) ] 0.33
    Figure US20040182099A1-20040923-M00001
  • And the power generating efficiency (η) is: η=P/Q [0037]
  • Where, P is the generated power and Q is the thermal energy. [0038]
  • For combined effect of phase change cooling and the ferrofluid power generating from waste heat, the heat dissipated is about 36W, the power generating efficiency is estimated as 10.7%, the generated power is around 3.5W. Therefore the estimated power saving for the entire system is about 17.86% of electric power consumed. Especially for a Lithium battery of notebook, it can only provide power for 1.5˜2.5 hours. Therefore power saving will prolong the battery's time or reduce its size. [0039]
  • In summary, the invention indeed provides a device and method for ferrofluid power generating and cooling. It is no longer necessary to use traditional power consuming fan, additional mechanism, or extra energy for cooling and heat dissipating. In this invention, an advanced electronic cooling scheme of phase change and an power generator system using waste heat as energy source are combined together to reach the effects of cooling and power saving. In addition, heat-dissipation by phase change may greatly improve the heat dissipation efficiency without consuming extra energy or generating any noise. The principle of the invention is to use low boiling-point magnetic nano ferrofluid. When the fluid absorbs heat and results in its phase change, the vaporized bubbles drive fluid with its magnetic particles forward and pass through the micro-coil to generate electric power. The invention therefore may be further applied to any heat-generating chip set or micro mechanical-electric device or auxiliary power generating equipment which utilizes thermal energy. [0040]

Claims (20)

1. A device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system, it is applied in an electronic device that generates heat, this device comprising::
A pipe system, which is connected to the electronic device by direct contact, and the pipe system contains fluid mixed with magnetic particles; and
A coil, which is wound around one part of the pipe system wherein. When the heat is conducted to the fluid and is absorbed therein, part of the fluid is vaporized to generate bubbles for cooling, it also pump fluid forward and push the magnetic particles to pass through the coil, the magnetic particles therefore c ause time varying magnetic flux inside the coil and it then produces induced current in the coil.
2. The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to claim 1, wherein the pipe system is sequentially comprised of a vapor bubble pump, a vortex generator, a magnetic array, an induced magnetic field, and other passages, etc.
3. The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to claim 2, wherein the vapor bubble pump has direct contact with the electronic device and, when heat is conducted to the fluid to vaporize part of the fluid into bubbles, the bubbles are inflated and squeezed to drive the magnetic particles mixed in the fluid to pass through the coil.
4. The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to claim 3, wherein a check valve is installed at each end of the vapor bubble pump to control the bubbles to progress in desired direction, so that the fluid is squeezed to move toward the induced magnetic field.
5. The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to claim 2, wherein, the vortex generator is applied to generate vortexes for the magnetic particles to increase their spinning speed when they pass through the coil.
6. The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according system to claim 5, wherein the interior of the vortex generator has many surface cavities to generate vortexes to the fluid, which result in the spinning magnetic particles.
7. The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to claim 2, wherein the magnetic array is installed by arranging an array of magnetic field outside this section of pipe system, so that the phase angles of the spinning magnetic particles may be aligned and a same phase angle rotation is achieved; consequently, when the magnetic particles enter the induced magnetic field, the time varying magnetic flux is increased.
8. The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to claim 7, wherein the magnetic array is a permanent magnetic field, by which the magnetic direction of the magnetic particles is aligned that the neutralization among the magnetic fields of magnetic particles may be prevented.
9. The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to claim 2, wherein the coil is wound around a portion of the pipe system where the induced magnetic field is located.
10. The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to claim 1, whereinthe fluid is a mixed solution with low boiling-point liquid.
11. The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to claim 10, wherein the low boiling-point liquid is a non-electrolytic chemical coolant.
12. The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to claim 11, wherein the non-electrolytic chemical coolant is a fluoride solution
13. The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to claim 12, wherein the fluoride solution is a solution selected from FC-87, PF-5052, FC-72, or any combination thereof.
14. The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to claim 13, wherein the mixed solution further contains water.
15. The device for ferrofluid power generator and cooling system according to claim 1, wherein the electronic device may be any kind of micro-mechanical-electrical device.
16. A method for ferrofluid power generating and cooling is applied in a heat generating electronic device, this method is comprised of the following steps:
providing a close loop pipe system, which is connected to the electronic device with direct contact, and which has a fluid containing magnetic particles; and
providing a coil, which is wound around portion of the pipe system wherein, when the heat is conducted to the fluid and is absorbed therein, part of the fluid is vaporized to generate bubbles to reach the cooling effect, and the bubbles pump the fluid forward and push the magnetic particles to pass through the coil, such that a time varying magnetic flux is generated in the coil by the magnetic particles and a induced current is generated by the coil as well.
17. The method for ferrofluid power generating and cooling according to claim 16 is further comprised of one step: providing a rectifier, which is used to transform the induced current into a direct current (D.C.) to recharge the electronic device.
18. The method for ferrofluid power generating and cooling according to claim 16, wherein the magnetic particle is a magnetized nano iron particle.
19. A ferrofluid power generator method, which utilizes the waste heat generated from an electronic device and, the heat is absorbed by a fluid, part of which is vaporized into bubbles to drive the fluid containing magnetic particles to pass through a coil, such that an electricity is generated by the time varying magnetic flux which is caused by the passing through of the fluid containing spinning magnetic particles.
20. The ferrofluid power generating method according to claim 31, wherein the phase change is caused by a reaction of fluid that is heated to its boiling point and vaporized to gas.
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