US20030031514A1 - Support structure - Google Patents

Support structure Download PDF

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Publication number
US20030031514A1
US20030031514A1 US10/198,078 US19807802A US2003031514A1 US 20030031514 A1 US20030031514 A1 US 20030031514A1 US 19807802 A US19807802 A US 19807802A US 2003031514 A1 US2003031514 A1 US 2003031514A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
clamp
support
bracing
reusable
assembly
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10/198,078
Inventor
Leslie Nicholson
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Leslie Nicholson
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB0117667A priority Critical patent/GB0117667D0/en
Priority to GB0117667.6 priority
Application filed by Leslie Nicholson filed Critical Leslie Nicholson
Publication of US20030031514A1 publication Critical patent/US20030031514A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D17/00Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments
    • E02D17/06Foundation trenches ditches or narrow shafts
    • E02D17/08Bordering or stiffening the sides of ditches trenches or narrow shafts for foundations
    • E02D17/083Shoring struts

Abstract

The present invention provides a reusable support assembly for use with an excavated channel or hole. The assembly includes a support structure having a plurality of piles and a perimeter frame, and at least one bracing clamp, wherein the bracing clamp provides an adjustable support for the support structure. The invention also relates to a bracing clamp for providing an adjustable support to a support structure that is used with an excavated channel or hole. The bracing clamp includes two engaging members, at least one clamp stiffening device, and at least one adjustable clamp extension mechanism. The engaging members are located at opposite ends of an axis as defined by the clamp stiffening device and the adjustable clamp extension mechanism. In another embodiment of the invention the support structure includes a perimeter frame having a plurality of beams and a plurality of connectors for connecting two beams and securing said two beams in position.

Description

  • The present invention relates to the field of support structures. In particular it discloses an adaptable and reusable support structure for the provision of structural support for excavated channels or holes. [0001]
  • In order to lay pipes, cables or telephone lines under ground, it is necessary to excavate a hole or channel along the route that such pipes or cables are required to be laid. These excavated channels or holes require structural support in order that they do not collapse while work is being carried out in laying the pipes or cables. The level of support required for such excavated sites depends directly on the dimensions of the channel or hole. [0002]
  • The prior art teaches of support structures for excavated channels or holes that comprise piles, brackets and waling beams. The procedure for deploying such support structures requires the piles to be driven down into the ground around the perimeter of the area to be excavated. The piles are designed to interconnect with each other so as to aid the structural support provided for the excavated channel or hole. This process then requires the user to weld a plurality of brackets to the piles around the entire perimeter of the excavated channel or hole. Thereafter, waling beams are cut and laid on top of the said brackets again being secured by means of welding. Welding is also employed in order to secure the intersection junctions of any two waling beams so as to form a perimeter frame for the support structure. [0003]
  • The dimensions of the perimeter frame are then required to be measured such that further support sections can be cut from waling beams in order that they fit across the breadth of an excavated channel or hole. These further support sections are once again secured in place by means of welding. [0004]
  • Deploying such structural supports can be both time consuming and costly as they require both on site cutting and welding in order to secure the waling beams and brackets. Traditionally, brackets are only welded at a pre-determined height in order that a single waling beam can be laid across the top of the brackets. Therefore, if an excavated channel or hole uncovers a subterranean body that requires additional support to be deployed, such as a gas mains, further welding and cutting of the brackets and waling beams is required. [0005]
  • When the work that was required to be carried out within an excavated channel or hole is complete, the support structure requires to be removed before the channel or hole is re-filled. The employment of welding for the various components complicates this removal process. It also results in the fact that piles, waling beams and brackets require to be cleaned before re-use. Additionally, because of the cutting of the waling beams and of the welding of the various sections these items are often left damaged and unusable. Therefore, traditional support structures are inherently wasteful as much of the support structure material is disposed of after use. This has the direct result of significantly increasing the costs involved in supplying such support structures. [0006]
  • It is an object of the present invention to provide a reusable support structure for use with an excavated channel or hole that does not require welding in order to be assembled. [0007]
  • It is a further object of the present invention to provide a reusable support structure for use in an excavated channel or hole that is inherently flexible so being suitable for deployment with a variety of channels or holes that incorporate subterranean bodies. [0008]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention provides a reusable support assembly for use with an excavated channel or hole. The assembly comprises a support structure having a plurality of piles and a perimeter frame, and at least one bracing clamp, wherein the bracing clamp provides an adjustable support for the support structure. [0009]
  • The invention also relates to bracing clamp for providing an adjustable support to a support structure that is used with an excavated channel or hole. The bracing clamp comprises two engaging members, at least one clamp stiffening device, and at least one adjustable clamp extension mechanism. The engaging members are located at opposite ends of an axis as defined by the clamp stiffening device and the adjustable clamp extension mechanism. [0010]
  • The invention in another aspect relates to a support structure for use with an excavated channel or hole. The support structure comprises a perimeter frame having a plurality of beams and a plurality of connectors for connecting two beams and securing said two beams in position.[0011]
  • Embodiments of the present invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying figures, in which: [0012]
  • FIG. 1 illustrates a schematic presentation of a reusable support structure in situ with an excavated channel; [0013]
  • FIG. 2 illustrates a cross sectional profile of a waling beam as used in the reusable support structure; [0014]
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a top view of a corner bracket of the reusable support structure; [0015]
  • FIG. 4 illustrates a cross sectional view of the corner bracket of the reusable support structure; [0016]
  • FIG. 5 presents a top view of an attachment means for a perimeter frame and a pile of the reusable support structure; [0017]
  • FIG. 6 presents a front view of the attachment means for the perimeter frame and the piles of the reusable support structure; [0018]
  • FIG. 7 presents a support bracket hanger of the reusable support structure; [0019]
  • FIG. 8 presents a front view of a piling support bracket of the reusable support structure; [0020]
  • FIG. 9 presents a front view and side view of a wedge of the piling support bracket; [0021]
  • FIG. 10 presents a bracing clamp of the reusable support structure; and [0022]
  • FIG. 11 presents an exploded illustration of the bracing clamp. [0023]
  • FIG. 12 presents a side profile of a clamp of the bracing clamp. [0024]
  • FIG. 13 presents a clamp stiffener of the bracing clamp. [0025]
  • FIG. 14 presents a detail of a bracing clamp in accordance with an alternative embodiment. [0026]
  • Referring initially to FIG. 1, a reusable support structure [0027] 1 can be seen to comprise of a plurality of piles 2, a surface perimeter frame 3 and two bracing clamps 4.
  • The surface perimeter frame [0028] 3 can be seen to further comprise four waling beams 5 and four corner brackets 6. FIG. 2 illustrates a cross sectional profile of the waling beams 5. It can be seen that such waling beams 5 have an H shaped cross sectional profile and so are ideal for the attachment of additional components of the support structure 1, as described below.
  • In particular FIG. 3 presents a top view of one of the corner brackets [0029] 6 attached to two waling beams 5. The corresponding cross sectional profile is presented in FIG. 4. The corner bracket 6 can be seen to comprise two bracket sections 7 that are attached via a pivoting means 8. Each bracket section 7 further comprises a locator 9 and four threaded screws 10 that in combination provide the securing mechanism for the bracket section 7 to a waling beam 5.
  • A locator [0030] 9 is positioned around a waling beam 5 and is thereafter secured in place by the threaded screws 10. With both bracket sections 7 attached as described, the corner bracket 6 provides a rigid securing means for the perimeter frame 3. However, the corner brackets 6 permit easy adjustment of the perimeter frame 3 by simply loosening the threaded screws 10 and allowing the corner bracket 6 to move about the pivoting means 8.
  • FIGS. 5 and 6 show how the perimeter frame [0031] 3 is attached to the piles 2. In particular FIG. 5 presents a top view of a single pile 2 including a section of the perimeter frame 3 and the attachment means 11, while FIG. 6 presents the corresponding front view. The attachment means 11 comprises at least one wedge shaped locator 12 mounted on a hanger plate 13 and a piling support bracket 14. A hanger plate 13 may incorporate a number of wedge shaped locators 12 so as to provide flexibility in the height at which the perimeter frame 3 is positioned.
  • The hanger plate [0032] 13 is secured to the piles 2 via a support bracket hanger 15, a side view of which is presented in FIG. 7. The support bracket hanger 15 is tightened in place by two threaded screws 10.
  • FIG. 8 presents a front view of the piling support bracket [0033] 14 that can be seen to comprise a support 16 and a wedge 17. FIG. 9 presents a front and side view of the wedge 17 of the pile support bracket 14.
  • The bracing clamp [0034] 4, as employed by the reusable support structure 1, is presented in FIG. 10 and in an exploded form in FIG. 11. It comprises two clamps 18, two hinge plugs 19, two fitting assemblies 20, a clamp extension pipe 21, an on-axis clamp stiffener 22, and four off-axis clamp stiffeners 23.
  • A side profile of the clamp [0035] 18 is shown in FIG. 12. The clamp 18 can be seen to comprise a main body 24, a hinged locator 25, a hinge 26, two location ports 27, a central pivoting port 28, and threaded screws 29 for securing the clamp 18. The hinge 26 within the hinged locator 25 allows the clamp 18 to be readily position about a waling beam 5. Thereafter, the clamp 18 can be secured in place by tightening the threaded screws 29. The clamp 18 is designed such that when it is incorporated with the other components of the bracing clamp 4 it can be manually pivoted about the central pivoting port 28.
  • The clamp extension pipe [0036] 21 is step-wise extendible such that the bracing clamp 4 can be employed with a range of channels or holes. It is the dimensions of the channel or hole that dictates the choice of length of the clamp extension pipe 21. The clamp extension pipe 21 is also interchangeable so as to allow for substitution if the dimensions of the channel or hole are out with the range of extension of a particular clamp extension pipe 21.
  • Further detail of the on axis clamp stiffener [0037] 22 is presented in FIG. 13. The clamp stiffeners 22 comprise an extendible ratchet means 30 and two connection ports 31 that enable the extendible ratchet means 30 to be connected to the other components of the bracing clamp 4. It should be noted that the off axis clamp stiffener 23 acts in an identical manner to the on axis stiffener 22 but simply on a smaller scale. Incorporation of the extendible ratchet means 30 in the clamp stiffeners 22 and 23 allows the bracing clamp to be manually adjusted and secured once in position.
  • The hinge plugs [0038] 19 and the fitting assemblies 20 incorporate connection ports 32 that allow them to be employed as adapter units within the bracing clamp 4. This allows the bracing clamp 4 to be constructed from the various modular components. The modular nature of the bracing clamp 4 results in it being highly adaptable and so suitable for use with a range of channels and holes.
  • In order to deploy the support structure [0039] 1 a series of interconnected piles 2 are driven into the ground around the perimeter of the area to be excavated. Thereafter, pile support brackets 14 are attached to the hanger plates 13 via the wedge shaped locators 12.
  • At this stage by cutting waling beams [0040] 5 to the required length the perimeter frame 3 can be constructed. Employing the corner brackets 6 allows the cut lengths of waling beam 5 to be secured together so forming the perimeter frame 3 as required. The perimeter frame 3 is then rested on top the pile support brackets 14.
  • As further excavation takes place the stress and strain experienced by the piles [0041] 2 and the perimeter frame 3 increases, therefore requiring the provision of additional support. This additional support is provided in the form of the bracing clamps 4.
  • The bracing clamps [0042] 4 have one end attached to one side of the perimeter frame 3 via one of the clamps 18. The length of the clamp extension pipe 21 is then chosen to be of the required length for the dimensions of the channel. The on axis clamp stiffener 22 is then manually adjusted such that the second clamp 18 is in a position to be attached to the opposite side of the perimeter frame 3. The incorporation of the off-axis clamp stiffeners 23 allows the angle of the clamps to be varied so as to take account of non-parallel sides of the perimeter frame.
  • FIG. 14 shows a bracing clamp in accordance with an alternative embodiment of the invention. In this embodiment, the bracing clamp [0043] 4 is provided with additional jack gussets 33, 34 mounted either side of the on-axis clamp stiffener 22. The jack gusset 33 is welded to the fitting assembly 20, with the jack gusset 34 welded on the clamp pipe. The jack gussets extend in a radial direction from the main axis of the clamp, and provide inner surfaces 35, 36 (or partial surfaces) in planes perpendicular to the main axis.
  • The jack gussets [0044] 33, 34 function to aid in the removal of the bracing clamp. When the clamps are in use, they are braced against the perimeter frame. A reaction force from the surrounding earth acts on the clamp via the perimeter frame. This force tends to resist the loosening of the threaded collar 37 on the threaded shaft 38 which forms part of the on-axis clamp stiffener 22. Depending on the magnitude of the compression provided by the clamps, the threaded collar may prove to be difficult to loosen, hampering the removal of the device.
  • This embodiment allows a jack [0045] 39, such as a hydraulic jack, to be placed between the jack gussets 33, 34 during the removal of the clamp. The jack abuts the inner surfaces and forces the jack gussets away from one another, thereby providing a temporary, supplementary, support to the clamp. This support relieves the resistance to the loosening of the threaded collar, which can be undone without the same degree of effort. The jack can then be released, and the clamp removed.
  • FIG. 14 shows the clamp in plan view, with the jacking gussets provided at one side of the main axis of the clamp, for the purposes of clarity. However, it is important to note that the jack gussets could be mounted in any position about the main axis of the clamp, for example, so that they protrude radially from the main axis in an upward direction. [0046]
  • Once deployed, as outlined above, the bracing clamp [0047] 4 provides the additional structural support required. It is known to those skilled in the art that the spacing of the bracing clamps 4 depends on its own dimensions and the depth of the excavation. On passing certain depths it may be required to incorporate a second layer of support comprising a second perimeter frame 3 and a second series of bracing clamps 4.
  • Other unforeseen factors can lead to the requirement of further localised support. For example subterranean bodies such as gas mains, water pipes or telephone cables can be uncovered. The presence of such bodies requires the provision of additional support so as to avoid damage to the subterranean body. [0048]
  • The present invention is ideal for employment with excavations of considerable depths and with the scenario of unexpected subterranean bodies. Added to the fact that an excavation is rarely regular in its geometry a degree of flexibility is highly desirable. [0049]
  • The presence of additional wedge shaped locators [0050] 12 on the hanger plates 13 allows for a second layer of support to be easily incorporated in a similar fashion to the first. The present invention also allows additional bracing clamps 4 to be easily added around subterranean bodies. The additional problem of irregular excavations can also be easily dealt with by adjusting the corner brackets 6 on the perimeter frame 3 and the clamp stiffeners 22 and 23 of the bracing clamps 4.
  • The flexibility of the reusable support structure [0051] 1 can be exploited still further. Although the above embodiment refers to predominately rectangular excavations the present invention is not restricted to such geometrical shapes. The corner brackets 6 and clamp stiffeners 22 and 23 permit the support structure 1 to employ other regular and irregular shaped perimeter frames 3.
  • The support structure [0052] 1 of the present invention is also inherently reusable. As no welding is required in deploying the piles 2, perimeter frames 3 or bracing clamps 4 there is no requirement for cleaning leading to a significantly reduced chance of damage to these components. Therefore the component parts can be easily re-deployed so cutting down the wastage inherent with systems as taught in the prior art.
  • An advantage of the present system is that it provides a reusable support structure for use with an excavated channel or hole that is formed from modular components and does not require welding in order to be assembled. [0053]
  • A further advantage of the present invention is that it provides a reusable support structure for use in an excavated channel or hole that is inherently flexible so being suitable for deployment with channels or holes of both regular or irregular shape. [0054]
  • A yet further advantage of the present invention is that it provides a reusable support structure for use in an excavated channel or hole that that can easily be adapted to strengthen areas around subterranean bodies. [0055]
  • A yet further advantage of the present invention is that it provides a reusable support structure for use in an excavated channel or hole that significantly reduces wastage of the component parts. [0056]
  • Further modifications and improvements may be added without departing from the scope of the invention herein intended. [0057]

Claims (31)

What is claimed is:
1. A reusable support assembly for use with an excavated channel or hole comprising:
a support structure having a plurality of piles and a perimeter frame; and
at least one bracing clamp, wherein the bracing clamp provides an adjustable support for the support structure.
2. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 1, wherein the bracing clamp is detachable from the support structure.
3. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 1, wherein the bracing clamp comprises engaging members for releasably connecting the bracing clamp to the support structure.
4. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 1, wherein the piles comprise an attachment assembly that allows the perimeter frame to be located relative to the piles.
5. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 4, wherein the attachment assembly comprises a plate, a support bracket and a fastener for securing the plate to the pile.
6. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 5, wherein the plate comprises at least one locator.
7. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 6, wherein the locator is in the form of a wedge.
8. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 6, wherein the support bracket comprises a support and a wedge, and the support bracket is attached to the plate by locating the wedge within the locator.
9. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 1, wherein the perimeter frame comprises a plurality of beams and a plurality of connectors for connecting two beams and securing said two beams in position.
10. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 9, wherein the beams have an H-shaped cross sectional profile.
11. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 9, wherein the connectors comprise two brackets, the brackets being connected to one another by a pivot.
12. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 11, wherein the brackets comprise a bracket locator adapted to locate the bracket on a beam and a plurality of bracket fasteners adapted to secure the bracket to the beam.
13. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 12, wherein the bracket fasteners include threaded screws.
14. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 1, wherein the bracing clamp comprises two engaging members, at least one clamp stiffening device and at least one adjustable clamp extension mechanism, the engaging members being located at opposite ends of an axis as defined by the clamp stiffening device and the adjustable clamp extension mechanism.
15. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 14, wherein the bracing clamp further comprises a hinge plug and a fitting assembly associated with each of the said engaging members, the hinge plug and fitting assembly being adapted to attach the engaging member to the end of the bracing clamp.
16. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 14, wherein the engaging members comprise a main body, two off-axis clamp stiffeners, a hinged locator, a pivoting port and a plurality of connecting ports.
17. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 16, wherein the off-axis clamp stiffeners are connected to the fitting assembly and the connecting ports such that manual adjustment of the off axis clamp stiffeners allows the engaging member to pivot about the pivoting port.
18. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 16, wherein the hinged locator comprises:
a hinge adapted to allow the hinged locator to be positioned about a beam of the perimeter frame, and;
a plurality of engaging member fasteners adapted to secure the hinged locator to the beam.
19. A reusable support assembly as claimed in claim 18, wherein the engaging member fastener comprises a threaded screw.
20. A bracing clamp for providing an adjustable support to a support structure for use with an excavated channel or hole comprising: two engaging members, at least one clamp stiffening device, and at least one adjustable clamp extension mechanism, wherein the engaging members are located at opposite ends of an axis as defined by the clamp stiffening device and the adjustable clamp extension mechanism.
21. A bracing clamp as claimed in claim 20, further comprising a hinge plug and a fitting assembly associated with each of the said engaging members, the hinge plug and fitting assembly being adapted to attach the engaging member to the end of the bracing clamp.
22. A bracing clamp as claimed in claim 20, wherein the engaging members comprise a main body, two off-axis clamp stiffeners, a hinged locator, a pivoting port and a plurality of connecting ports.
23. A bracing clamp as claimed in claim 22, wherein the off axis clamp stiffeners are connected to the fitting assembly and the connecting ports such that manual adjustment of the off-axis clamp stiffeners allows the engaging member to pivot about the pivoting port.
24. A bracing clamp as claimed in claim 22, wherein the hinged locator comprises:
a hinge adapted to allow the hinged locator to be positioned about a beam of the perimeter frame, and;
a plurality of engaging member fasteners adapted to secure the hinged locator to the beam.
25. A bracing clamp as claimed in claim 24, wherein the engaging member fasteners comprise a threaded screw.
26. A support structure for use with an excavated channel or hole comprising:
a perimeter frame having a plurality of beams and a plurality of connectors for connecting two beams and securing said two beams in position.
27. A support structure as claimed in claim 26, wherein the beams have an H-shaped cross sectional profile.
28. A support structure as claimed in claim 26, wherein the connectors comprise two brackets, the brackets being connected to one another by a pivot.
29. A support structure as claimed in claim 28, wherein the brackets comprise a bracket locator adapted to locate the bracket on a beam and a plurality of bracket fasteners adapted to secure the bracket to the beam.
30. A support structure as claimed in claim 29, wherein the bracket fasteners include threaded screws.
31. A bracing clamp for providing support to a support structure for use with an excavated channel or hole comprising: two engaging means, at least one clamp stiffening means, and at least one adjustable clamp extension means, wherein the engaging means are located at opposite ends of an axis as defined by the clamp stiffening means and the adjustable clamp extension means.
US10/198,078 2001-07-20 2002-07-19 Support structure Abandoned US20030031514A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

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GB0117667A GB0117667D0 (en) 2001-07-20 2001-07-20 Support structure
GB0117667.6 2001-07-20

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2422856A (en) * 2005-02-08 2006-08-09 Paul Radcliffe Shuttering supports
US7837413B1 (en) * 2008-01-23 2010-11-23 Kundel Sr Robert Adjustable trench box and spreader bar
US20180209114A1 (en) * 2015-07-22 2018-07-26 James Foley Trench box and method of assembly
US10604907B2 (en) * 2017-11-22 2020-03-31 National Trench Safety, Llc Corner roller cart for excavation support structures and methods for using same
EP3680392A1 (en) * 2019-01-14 2020-07-15 Key Staal B.V. Assembly of a waling beam and a coupling piece
US10760240B2 (en) 2017-11-22 2020-09-01 National Trench Safety, Llc Excavation support system and methods for installing same

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3440121A1 (en) * 1984-05-16 1985-11-21 Benno Domesle Post arrangement for sheeting
GB9507020D0 (en) * 1995-04-05 1995-05-31 Mechplant Limited Apparatus for supporting excavation
JP3500446B2 (en) * 1995-06-21 2004-02-23 日鐵建材工業株式会社 Earth retaining method for earth excavation and earth retaining structure
JP2000069969A (en) * 1998-08-28 2000-03-07 Hitachi Chem Co Ltd PRIMER DNA AND DETECTION OF mRNA WHICH CODES FOR PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN USING THE SAME

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2422856A (en) * 2005-02-08 2006-08-09 Paul Radcliffe Shuttering supports
US7837413B1 (en) * 2008-01-23 2010-11-23 Kundel Sr Robert Adjustable trench box and spreader bar
US20180209114A1 (en) * 2015-07-22 2018-07-26 James Foley Trench box and method of assembly
US10604906B2 (en) * 2015-07-22 2020-03-31 Kames Foley Trench box and method of assembly
US10604907B2 (en) * 2017-11-22 2020-03-31 National Trench Safety, Llc Corner roller cart for excavation support structures and methods for using same
US10760240B2 (en) 2017-11-22 2020-09-01 National Trench Safety, Llc Excavation support system and methods for installing same
EP3680392A1 (en) * 2019-01-14 2020-07-15 Key Staal B.V. Assembly of a waling beam and a coupling piece
NL2022395B1 (en) * 2019-01-14 2020-08-14 Key Staal B V Assembly of a purlin beam and a coupling piece

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Publication number Publication date
GB2378968A (en) 2003-02-26
GB0216977D0 (en) 2002-08-28
GB0117667D0 (en) 2001-09-12

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