US1915965A - Method and composition for detecting leaks in refrigerating systems - Google Patents

Method and composition for detecting leaks in refrigerating systems Download PDF

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Publication number
US1915965A
US1915965A US54112331A US1915965A US 1915965 A US1915965 A US 1915965A US 54112331 A US54112331 A US 54112331A US 1915965 A US1915965 A US 1915965A
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Prior art keywords
apparatus
refrigerating
method
lubricant
composition
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Harry M Williams
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FRIGIDAIRE Corp
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FRIGIDAIRE CORP
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M171/00Lubricating compositions characterised by purely physical criteria, e.g. containing as base-material, thickener or additive, ingredients which are characterised exclusively by their numerically specified physical properties, i.e. containing ingredients which are physically well-defined but for which the chemical nature is either unspecified or only very vaguely indicated
    • C10M171/008Lubricant compositions compatible with refrigerants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K5/00Heat-transfer, heat-exchange or heat-storage materials, e.g. refrigerants; Materials for the production of heat or cold by chemical reactions other than by combustion
    • C09K5/02Materials undergoing a change of physical state when used
    • C09K5/04Materials undergoing a change of physical state when used the change of state being from liquid to vapour or vice versa
    • C09K5/041Materials undergoing a change of physical state when used the change of state being from liquid to vapour or vice versa for compression-type refrigeration systems
    • C09K5/044Materials undergoing a change of physical state when used the change of state being from liquid to vapour or vice versa for compression-type refrigeration systems comprising halogenated compounds
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T436/00Chemistry: analytical and immunological testing
    • Y10T436/19Halogen containing

Description

. from leaks, even minute ones.

Patented June 27, 1933 UNITED. STATES PATENT OFFICE HARE? M. WILLIAMS, OF DAYTON, OHIO, ASSIGNOR TO FBIGIDAIQE CORPORATION, DAYTON, OHIO, A CORPORATION OF OHIO METHOD AND COMPOSITION FOR DETECTING LEAKS IN REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS N0 Drawing.

My invention relates to chemistry and more particularly to methods of testing apparatus suspected of leakage. It is especially concerned with methods of testing for leaks in a refrigerating system of the compression type.

In refrigerating apparatus of the compression type, refrigeration is produced by the evaporation of a volatile liquid, the vapors being compressed in a compressor, condensed in a condenser and again permitted to evaporate within the evaporator. A lubricant is used within such apparatus for sealing and/or lubricating the wearing surfaces. In some compression systems, the lubricant is deliberately carried throughout the complete cycle while in other systems, attempts are made to separate the lubricant from the refrigerant by means of an oil separator generally positioned on the high pressure side and designedto substantially prevent the passage of lubricant into the evaporator. Even in this last named system, some lubricant will pass the separator and will be carried along with the refrigerant through the complete cycle. Thus in all compression refrigerating systems, some lubricant will be present in all parts of the system at substantially all times.

It will be appreciated that it is essential for refrigerating apparatus to be quite free Otherwise, either the refrigerant and/or lubricant will gradually escape, or else air will gradually leak into the apparatus. In either event, the apparatus will gradually produce less and less refrigerating effect, although it apparently is working perfectly in every other respect. Consequently, it is necessary that the apparatus be thoroughly subjected to tests which willshow the existence of the smallest leak before such apparatus is installed and occasionally after the installation of such apparatus. It will also be appreciated that such tests must be of a simple nature for use in the field and inexpensive to perform, particularly where apparatus is manufactured under quantity production.

Many refrigerants are, however, quite difficult to detect because they do not react with Application filed May 29, 1931. Serial No. 541,123.

the well known and commercially available reagents: to give either a color, fum1ng,'or

odor test. Examples of such refrigerants are way diluting or otherwise affecting the properties of the refrigerants.

In carrying out my process for testing re-' frigerating apparatus for leaks, make use of the property of basic dyes to permanently. stain certain surfaces. For example, I have foundthat certain basic dyes such as methyl violet base, crystal violet, auramine. B, rhodamine B, etc.-have the property of perma nently staining certain materials .such as titanium oxide,silica,asbestos, mica, zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, frost, aluminum oxide, aluminum palmitate, and salts such as tri-basic calcium phosphate.

Thus, by coating the apparatus with a paint containing one or more of the above or similar substances, it is possible to obtain a permanent stain by permittinga basic dye to escape from the leaking apparatus.

As a specific example of one mode of carrying out my invention in a refrigerating system using CClgFg asthe refrigerant and mineral oil as the lubricant, I dissolve a small amount of basic dye, such as methyl violet base, in the mineral oil. This solution is obtained by first dissolving the methyl violet base in alcohol or other suitable solvent and then mixing and stirring the solution with the mineral oil, or by mixing the methyl violet base directly with the lubricant and stirring the mixture. The refrigerating system is then charged with its usual amount of (301 15 and mineral oil having the methyl violet base dissolved therein.

The refrigerating apparatus, and particularly those parts where leaks are likely to occur, are painted with a paint such as Duco containing titanium oxide, silica or any other I will indicate a leak which is then specifical- 1y detected by the stain.

After the leak has been detected and re-.

paired, the stain may be removed by painting over with the paint.

The other basic dyes may be used by dissolving the dye in the oil in substantially the same manner.

Likewise, other materials. such as those indicated above, may be used for detecting purposes. For example, the entire refrigerating apparatus may be dipped in aluminium pallnitate or the apparatus may be painted where leaks are likely to occur, with paint containing magnesium or aluminium oxide. Also, any of the other halo-fluoro derivatives may be used as the refrigerant and, in fact, any refrigerant which does not have the property of bleaching the color deposited by the basic dye.

It will be apparent, therefore, that I have rovided a very economical and simple test gor leaks in a refrigerating system. By painting or otherwise treating the parts of the apparatus as manufactured or the apparatus as assembled, no additional appa'ratus is necessary for the process.

Basic'dyes as purchased on the market frequently contain dextrine or other substance for standardizing purposes. It is advisable to utilize in my method, a basic dye free of dextrine or other filler.

While I have disclosed various dyes, substances capable of being stained, refrigerants, and lubricants, it should be understood that my invention involves the useof a dye capable ofpermanently staining certain surfaces with any refrigerant that does not destroy the permanent color imparted to the stainable substance.

What is claimed is as follows:

1. In refrigerating apparatus using as a working fluid both a refrigerant and a lubricant, the method of detecting leaks which comprises dissolving a basic dye in the lubricant, treating the apparatus with a material stainable with the basic dye, and staining the material at the point of leakage.

2. In refrigerating apparatus using a halofluoro derivative of an aliphatic hydrocarbon as the refrigerant and an oil, the method of detecting leaks which comprises dissolving a basic dye in the lubricant, treating the apparatus with a material stainable with the basic dye, and staining the material at the leak.

3. A working fluid for refrigerating sy s- J In testimony whereof I hereto aflix my signature.

HARRY M wILLIAMs.

US1915965A 1931-05-29 1931-05-29 Method and composition for detecting leaks in refrigerating systems Expired - Lifetime US1915965A (en)

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US1915965A US1915965A (en) 1931-05-29 1931-05-29 Method and composition for detecting leaks in refrigerating systems

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US1915965A US1915965A (en) 1931-05-29 1931-05-29 Method and composition for detecting leaks in refrigerating systems

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Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2479743A (en) * 1947-04-24 1949-08-23 Flemmon P Hall Leak indicator for sealed receptacles
US2682510A (en) * 1950-04-26 1954-06-29 Atomic Energy Commission Gamma and X-ray dosimetric method
US2937146A (en) * 1956-11-21 1960-05-17 Du Pont Antifreeze composition
US2937145A (en) * 1955-12-22 1960-05-17 Du Pont Antifreeze composition
US3370013A (en) * 1964-07-14 1968-02-20 Jet Air Products Company Pressure packaged refrigerant leak detector and method of packaging same
US3915630A (en) * 1969-05-12 1975-10-28 Pechiney Saint Gobain Preparation of organic solvent-soluble dyes
US4063893A (en) * 1976-09-13 1977-12-20 Stoulil Arthur C Dye stabilized trisodium phosphate cleaning solution
US4187798A (en) * 1977-06-29 1980-02-12 Nagatanien Honpo Co., Ltd. Method of detecting defective portion of sealing
US4250740A (en) * 1979-08-10 1981-02-17 Deere & Company Method for evaluating effectiveness of track link seals
US4291193A (en) * 1980-05-09 1981-09-22 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator
US4758366A (en) * 1985-02-25 1988-07-19 Widger Chemical Corporation Polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants and refrigerant oils colored with fluorescent dyes and method for their use as leak detectors
US5149453A (en) * 1985-02-25 1992-09-22 H. B. Fuller Automotive Products, Inc. Method for detecting leakage in a refrigeration system
WO1996007088A1 (en) * 1994-08-29 1996-03-07 Spectronics Corporation Method of introducing leak detection fluid
US5574213A (en) * 1995-03-13 1996-11-12 Shanley; Alfred W. Apparatus and method for detecting leaks
USRE35395E (en) * 1993-06-25 1996-12-10 Bright Solutions, Inc. Leak detection in heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems using an environmentally safe material
US6009745A (en) * 1997-10-10 2000-01-04 Apv Corporation Method of leak testing an assembled plate type heat exchanger
US6070455A (en) * 1995-07-21 2000-06-06 Bright Solutions, Inc. Leak detection additives
US6070454A (en) * 1995-07-21 2000-06-06 Bright Solutions, Inc. Leak detection additives for use in heating, ventilating, refrigeration, and air conditioning systems
USRE36951E (en) * 1994-08-29 2000-11-14 Spectronics Corporation Method of introducing leak detection dye into an air conditioning or refrigeration system including solid or semi-solid fluorescent dyes
US6170320B1 (en) 1997-01-24 2001-01-09 Mainstream Engineering Corporation Method of introducing an additive into a fluid system, especially useful for leak detection, as well as an apparatus for leak detection and a composition useful for leak detection
US6327897B1 (en) 1997-01-24 2001-12-11 Mainstream Engineering Corporation Method of introducing an in situant into a vapor compression system, especially useful for leak detection, as well as an apparatus for leak detection and a composition useful for leak detection
US20040262567A1 (en) * 1998-10-23 2004-12-30 Proem Pty Ltd. Stable compositions of liquefied refrigerant and UV dye
US20050026298A1 (en) * 2003-08-01 2005-02-03 Tim Bickett Dye solutions for use in methods to detect the prior evaporation of anhydrous ammonia and the production of illicit drugs
US20050272844A1 (en) * 2004-06-02 2005-12-08 Westman Morton A Leak detection materials and methods
EP2166040A1 (en) 2008-09-22 2010-03-24 Radiant Color N.V. Novel lipophilic fluorescent dyes and a process for their production
US20110146801A1 (en) * 2008-06-20 2011-06-23 Bright Solutions International Llc Injection additives into closed systems

Cited By (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2479743A (en) * 1947-04-24 1949-08-23 Flemmon P Hall Leak indicator for sealed receptacles
US2682510A (en) * 1950-04-26 1954-06-29 Atomic Energy Commission Gamma and X-ray dosimetric method
US2937145A (en) * 1955-12-22 1960-05-17 Du Pont Antifreeze composition
US2937146A (en) * 1956-11-21 1960-05-17 Du Pont Antifreeze composition
US3370013A (en) * 1964-07-14 1968-02-20 Jet Air Products Company Pressure packaged refrigerant leak detector and method of packaging same
US3915630A (en) * 1969-05-12 1975-10-28 Pechiney Saint Gobain Preparation of organic solvent-soluble dyes
US4063893A (en) * 1976-09-13 1977-12-20 Stoulil Arthur C Dye stabilized trisodium phosphate cleaning solution
US4187798A (en) * 1977-06-29 1980-02-12 Nagatanien Honpo Co., Ltd. Method of detecting defective portion of sealing
US4250740A (en) * 1979-08-10 1981-02-17 Deere & Company Method for evaluating effectiveness of track link seals
US4291193A (en) * 1980-05-09 1981-09-22 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator
US4758366A (en) * 1985-02-25 1988-07-19 Widger Chemical Corporation Polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants and refrigerant oils colored with fluorescent dyes and method for their use as leak detectors
US5149453A (en) * 1985-02-25 1992-09-22 H. B. Fuller Automotive Products, Inc. Method for detecting leakage in a refrigeration system
USRE35395E (en) * 1993-06-25 1996-12-10 Bright Solutions, Inc. Leak detection in heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems using an environmentally safe material
USRE36951E (en) * 1994-08-29 2000-11-14 Spectronics Corporation Method of introducing leak detection dye into an air conditioning or refrigeration system including solid or semi-solid fluorescent dyes
WO1996007088A1 (en) * 1994-08-29 1996-03-07 Spectronics Corporation Method of introducing leak detection fluid
US5650563A (en) * 1994-08-29 1997-07-22 Spectronics Corporation Method of introducing leak detection dye into an air conditioning or refrigeration system including solid or semi-solid fluorescent dyes
US5574213A (en) * 1995-03-13 1996-11-12 Shanley; Alfred W. Apparatus and method for detecting leaks
US6070455A (en) * 1995-07-21 2000-06-06 Bright Solutions, Inc. Leak detection additives
US6070454A (en) * 1995-07-21 2000-06-06 Bright Solutions, Inc. Leak detection additives for use in heating, ventilating, refrigeration, and air conditioning systems
US6327897B1 (en) 1997-01-24 2001-12-11 Mainstream Engineering Corporation Method of introducing an in situant into a vapor compression system, especially useful for leak detection, as well as an apparatus for leak detection and a composition useful for leak detection
US20020007663A1 (en) * 1997-01-24 2002-01-24 Mainstream Engineering Corporation Method of introducing an in situant into a vapor compression system, especially useful for leak detection, as well as an apparatus for leak detection and a composition useful for leak detection
US6170320B1 (en) 1997-01-24 2001-01-09 Mainstream Engineering Corporation Method of introducing an additive into a fluid system, especially useful for leak detection, as well as an apparatus for leak detection and a composition useful for leak detection
US6009745A (en) * 1997-10-10 2000-01-04 Apv Corporation Method of leak testing an assembled plate type heat exchanger
US6101867A (en) * 1998-02-05 2000-08-15 Bright Solutions, Inc. Dye concentrate
US20040262567A1 (en) * 1998-10-23 2004-12-30 Proem Pty Ltd. Stable compositions of liquefied refrigerant and UV dye
US20050026298A1 (en) * 2003-08-01 2005-02-03 Tim Bickett Dye solutions for use in methods to detect the prior evaporation of anhydrous ammonia and the production of illicit drugs
WO2005032458A3 (en) * 2003-08-01 2005-09-09 Glotell Products Inc Dye solution and method for detecting anhydrous ammonia
US7148066B2 (en) * 2003-08-01 2006-12-12 Glotell Products, Inc. Dye solutions for use in methods to detect the prior evaporation of anhydrous ammonia and the production of illict drugs
US20050272844A1 (en) * 2004-06-02 2005-12-08 Westman Morton A Leak detection materials and methods
US7943380B2 (en) 2004-06-02 2011-05-17 Bright Solutions, Inc. Leak detection materials and methods
US20110146801A1 (en) * 2008-06-20 2011-06-23 Bright Solutions International Llc Injection additives into closed systems
EP2166040A1 (en) 2008-09-22 2010-03-24 Radiant Color N.V. Novel lipophilic fluorescent dyes and a process for their production

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