US1883376A - Building construction - Google Patents

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US1883376A
US1883376A US227544A US22754427A US1883376A US 1883376 A US1883376 A US 1883376A US 227544 A US227544 A US 227544A US 22754427 A US22754427 A US 22754427A US 1883376 A US1883376 A US 1883376A
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column
beams
units
secured
shop
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US227544A
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Hilpert Meier George
Weiss Camillo
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Hilpert Meier George
Weiss Camillo
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2415Brackets, gussets, joining plates
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2448Connections between open section profiles
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2457Beam to beam connections
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/246Post to post connections

Description

Oct. 18, 1932 M. G. HILPERT ET AL 1,883,376
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed oct. 2o. 1927 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 I 5'/ Il..
lmentoz uu'u-u Oct. 18, 1932. M. G. HILPERT ET Al.;
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Oct. 20. 1927 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 M. G. HILPERT ET AL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ocr. 13, 1932.
Filed oct. 2o. 1927 e sheets-sheet 5 Oct. 18, 1932. M. G. HILPERT ET AL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Oct. 20. 1927 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 Oct. 18, 1932. M. G. HILPER-r ET AL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed oct. 2o. 1927 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 I gfrvoeniov W7. y W kfw Z /W A maw-hm Oct. 18,
M. G. HILPERT ET Al.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed oct. 2o. `1927 6 Sheets-Sheet. 6
` i est possible spee Patented ocr. 41a, 1932 MEIER GEORGE HILPERT AND CAMILLO WEISS, OF BETHLEHEM, PENNSYLVANIA IBILDIN G CONSTRUCTION Application led October 20, 1927. Serial No. 227,544.,
' 5 steel or steel and reinforced concrete.
In the present art of steel cage building construction, plain structural steel plates and shapes are fabricated in the shop into component building members such as columns '10 and beams, which are then installed in the building by field riveting. Each of these members is fabricated in the shop with such care as to permit its assembly in its final position inra steel ca e building with the greatand with the least expense.
Speed of erection of steel cage buildings is of constantly increasing importance, 1n view of the increasing wages of building ao tradesmen and the proportionate increase in related activities, as well as advance of property values and consequent large rental losses. These factors in addition to the fact that the erection process is affected by both weather,
. season and other hazards, tend to emphasize ythe importance of the erection phase of steel cage` building work.
In the past much study has been directed l `nomical 1n materlal but requlre a great to shop work, and there has been much endeavor toward the improvement of shop methods, and the reduction of shop costs, and even to the rolling of special building sections to eliminate much of the shop work. Hence there are available several whole series of special H sections .for building columns and girder sections for use as beams. Of necessity constant attention is being given to each advance toward that design which reduces the total weight of the building and proportionately reduces the total costand to this end yevery advantage is being taken of better steels, of better methods, and of the -latest discoveries.
It is therefore one of the principal objects of our invention to facilitate the assembly of steel ca e building constructions having beams o special design and having wind resisting bracing.
A steel cage building generally consists 50 of rectilinearly spaced columns and steel beams joining these columns at the'iloor levels, forming the floor systems. These floor systems consist of major beams joinin lines of columns from one side of the buildmg to the other, and minor beams joining the major beams at right angles thereto. The floor slabs are supported on two edges by major beams and on the remaining two edges by the minor beams, all of which together with the columns at each corner constitute a floor panel.
Heretofore all of the beams of such construction have been of the simple beam type, and designed and secured in the building with this fact in view. However, provision for greater wind forces may be madey by attaching the top and bottom flanges, as well as the web of the connecting beam rigidly to the column, thus forming beams with restrained ends. Where riveted connections are used, this arrangement requires considerable additional material, more careful shop work, and many more expensive field rivets to be driven during erection. This last item is very important, for the reason that field driven rivets cost ten to twenty times as much as those driven 1n the shop.
Beams with restralned ends are more ecoamount of costly field work. In the case of reinforced concrete, restrained beams are prevalent, but, the saving in material is greatly offset by costly form work and slow progress of erection. For steel beams, Vrestrained ends are obtained either by riveting brackets to the beams and columns or by welding in the field. In addition to the expense of field riveting, this method is objectionable in view of the .fact that the brackets encroach upon the clearances.
Welded construction properly designed would take care of the wind forces ,since the beams would be secured rigidly to the co1- umn on all edges, but the difficulty lies in the fact that all such welds must be made in the field. It is. practically impossible to obtain\ uniform field welds, in view of the constantly varying conditions of place, height, power, and men, and the difficulties of inspection or testing are very great. Furthermore, the
Gil
cost is practically prohibitive. Brieiy the application of welding to the steel cage building in the obvious manner would transfer much important fabrication from the shop to the field at the prohibitive increase in cost and also decrease in strength.
Both riveting and Welding for Wind forces constrains all beams to the columns and thus the beams are made to approximate continuous beams such as are described in our Patent No. 1,699,697, of January 22, 1929. A continuous beam may be described as having, in effect, three separate portions or units, namely two end cantilever portions-having tension top flanges and compression bottom flanges, and a single central unit having a tension bottom fiange and a compression top flange, this central unit being, in effect, a simple span from the points of contra-fleXure. Our present invention is directed to a new component part for the steel cage construction, constituting a new shop fabricated unit which may be either riveted or Welded. This new member includes part of the column and art of the beam supported therefrom, and 1s called for the purpose of this specification a Tree Unit. y
At the outset, the tree unit must not be confused with either a bracket or gusset plate construction, or a mere plate or angle connection. A bracket'or gusset plate is an auxiliary member, constituting a shelf for a' beam, and never forms part of the beam per se, because when a bracket is employed, the bea-m itself always extends in close to the column and performs all the beam function.
The bracket or gusset plate is essentially a strut or truss for connecting the simple beam to the column. On the other hand, a plate or angle connection is entirely a shear support, having no beam function. The tree unit, however, is a bracketless construction, and the beam member projects alone far from the column so as to form a section of the .com leted beam.
T e proposed tree unit construction combines the advantages of restrained ends for rolled steel or built-up steel beams, with speedy erection by standard methods. It confines the Welding to the shop with the consequent economy and faciltates for testing. It also permits the substitution of field bolts or field' rivets, with the elimination of `noise and reduction in cost. It also permits the application of the continuous beam principle whereby maximum efficiency and economy is obtained. Most building codes forbid the use of field bolts within a specified distance of the column, but our integral construction locates the field bolts outside o the prescribed limitation.
'It is therefore another object of our inven'tion to provide a member for building construction, which .consists of a columln member having cantilevering sections of beams secured thereto before erection. This tree unit consists of a column with cantilevering units attached thereto in one or more tiers. The cantilevering units are attached to the columns either by shop welding or shop riveting to opposite sides of the column and may be built up, rolled, or welded steel sections or a combination of steel and concrete such as described in our prior application prcviously referred to.
i It is important that this tree unit shall not be confused with a construction which consists of a column with beam attaching brackets, gusset plates, Web plates, angle plates, or the like, either shop fabricated or attached in the field. Such brackets or plates are not beam members in any sense of the Words as herein used, and cannot comprise, along with the connecting beams, such a continuous beam construction as is contemplated by this invention. On the contrary, the tree yunit comprises a column to which are attached-by riveting, Welding, or other appropriate shop fabricating means-members which possess all of the physical and mechanical properties of the ordinary beam used in construction work of this kind. Furthermore, as perviously stated, the'beam members of the proposed tree unit extend from the column member to a point at or near one ous beam which results from the final assembly of the tree units and center span beams. It is obvious that the extension of the ordinary bracket, gusset or web plates to one of these points from the column would be impracticable and not to be tolerated by any building code.
Tree units are preferably in two-story lengths with the cantilevers of both stories arranged in one plane to facilitate shipping. Continuity of beams framing into the columns per endicular to this plane may be obtained y attaching top and seat angles or special devices to the faces of the columns in such a way as to transfer 'ange stresses directly into the columns, or through the columns into the corresponding lianges of the ali ed beam.
n general, the design of the construction according to the present invention comprises; first, adopting for all ioor and roof systems the continuous type beam; second, so separating all continuous beams into their end and center units as to allow of separate handling; third, designing the floor and roof systems for the shop connection of all end units directly to the columns; fourth, shop fabrica- A columns except the corner columns are tree of Figure 1;
' Figure 3 is an elevation of a portion of the building looking in the direction of the arrows from the line-3 3;
Figure 4 is a detail view of one of the tree units which is entirely shop welded, using plates for flanges and web of the end units;
Figure 5 is an end view of the` structure lshown in Fig. 4;
Figure 6 is similar to Fig. 4 showing tre units constructed of rolled beams rather than plates;
Figure 7 is an end view-of the structure shown in Fig. 6;
Figure 8 shows a method of loading tree units on a fiat car for shipment in order to obtain the maximum capacity;
Figure 9 shows another method of loading tree units of larger size in which the projecting ends extend through well holes in theiatcar and are supported on the usual car horse;
Figure 10 is a perspective view of a shop welded tree unit -in a continuous beam con-l nected by riveting;
Figure 11 is similar to Fig. 10 with the exception that the tree unit is shop riveted instead of welded;
Figure 12 is also similar with the exception that standard beams are used for all units and the tree unit is -entirely shop welded;
Figure 13 is a plan view of an alternate arrangement of minor beams attached to the tree units making up a floor;
Figure 14 is a perspective view of the upper end of a tree unit having end units attached to the column inf'four directions;
Figure 15 is a side elevation of on'el'type of central unit showing welded construction with splice plates and intermediate beam connections Figure 16 is across-section taken along4 line p16-16 of Fig. 15 and showing the concrete applied thereto;
Figure 17 shows a portion of a tree unit in which the beam rather thanjhe column is continuous and welded construct-ion is used;
Figure 18 is an end view of the structure shown in Fig. 17;
Figure 19 is a. perspective view of atree unit in which one beam is continuous, and the column and the transverse beam are both welded thereto; and
Figure 20 is an elevation view somewhat similar to' Fig.- 3, but showing an arrangement of tree units with no intermediate beam,l
as for earthquake proof buildings and the like.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, six .stories of a building in the process of erection in accordance with our invention are shown in Figure 1, with the tree units embodied therein and indicated in general by the reference character 10. As shown, the
columns are spliced above the fourth floor;
the second, third and fourth storiesbeing supported by a lower tree unit, and the lifth and six floors being supported by an upper tree unit. This splicing is necessary for convenience in shipment, but it is desirable to construct the columns in the buildings with as few splices as possible within the shipping requirements. For greater or smaller numends of the beam members 11 of adjacent tree units are connectedby a length of beam 12. When so assembled the beam members 11 (or end units) and the beam members 12 (or center units) constitute a continuous beam ofthe type referred to in our copending application. Y The dimensions of the beam members l1 and the beam members 12 are designed so lthat the beam member 12 constitutes a central unit of a continuous beam andthe beam members l11 constitute the end unts thereof.
Since the joints between the members 11 andv 12 occur at the points of contraflexure, there is no bending at the joints and shear is the only force to be taken care of at the joints, which permits the use of field bolts for erection.
The continuous beams are the major beams and all except the boundary beams 22 run parallel to each other, in the direction of greatest wind forces. From these major continuous beams are supported transverse minor beams, which are simple or continuous beams connecting adjacent continuous beams.
These'minor beams support the floor panels Certain of the inbetween the columns. terior continuous beams terminate at the outer walls where they are secured directly to the columns. This arrangement is clearly shown at A in Figure 2 of the drawings.
The beam arrangement is shown in elevation in Figure 3, which more clearly brings out the construction. .This ligure shows the details for a typical installation, which may be any two or more floors of a building, although only two are shown for the sake of clearness. The two floors shown are entirely s'upported by the treeunits. Each column section 2O has integral therewith twobeam `members 11 for the upper Hoor of the group shown, and two similar beam members 11 for the lower floor of the same group. In this construction, the intermediate beam section transverse beam connections 14.- secured in the same manner. Thus, to erect the t-ree units and central unit beam members, it is only necessary to bolt the splice plates 13 to the beam sections 11.
At the top of each tree unit a splice plate 15 is shop fabricated integral with the tree unit. The splice plate 15 and the bottom portion of the column section are both provided with rivet holes in the shop, so that a column section may be secured to the one below by a minimum of field riveting.
The upper portion of a tree unit is illustratved in Figures 4 and 5 which show the details of construction for fabrication in the shop. The column section 20 is merely a length of rolled or fabricated H column such as is of general use for this purpose in present steel cage construction. In this embodiment the splice plates 15 are shown shop welded by both the tack and rivet weld methods to the upper end of the column section 20. It is, of course, within the purview of our invention to have this splice plate riveted in the Shop instead of welded. Angle clips 16 are welded to the flanges of the column at the floor levels to serveurs beam connections for the transverse or minor beams and these clips are provided with rivet holes 17 for the field riveting.
In the embodiment shown in Figures 4 and 5 the beam sections 11 are constructed entirely of plates welded together. The web portion 18 at its outer end is of the depth of the central unit or vintermediate beam 12 which together with the sections 11 constitutes the continuous beam. The plate 18 is of greater depth where it joins the column, forming a. bracket effect which results in a much stronger building, as it permits the end units of the continuous beam to be designed with proper regard to the actual distribution of stress. The upper flange 19 is merely a flat plate of tapering width according to moments, being preferably of full column web width at its connection to the column and of little or no width at the point of contraflexure. The end of the plate 19 where it abuts the column is cut away so that it may lie between the column flanges and have metal to metal contact with the web as well as the flanges of the column. The lower flange 21 of the beam section 11 is identical with the upper flange, except that it is a little longer due to the inclined position caused by the greater depth at the column en d.
- In shop fabricating the tree unit the we plates 18 may be first welded to the web of the column vertically along the central axis thereof. Then the upper flanges .19 may be fitted between the column flanges so as to abut against the column web and flanges and also lie upon the,top edge of the web plate 18. The Yplate 19 is then welded to the plate 18, the column web, and the column flanges. The lower flange plate 21 is fabricated in exactly the same manner; or, obviously, the whole beam section 11 may be first assembled and welded together as a unit and then welded to the column.
The embodiment shown in Figures 6 and 7 is of similar construction with the exception that the beam sections 11 are constructed of rolled sections, rather than being built up of separate plates. The column section 20 is identical with the preceding modification, and the splice plates 15 and angle clips 16 are secured thereto in exactly the same manner. The beam sections 11 are formed by cutting the desired length of rolled I beam and fitting the flanges thereof to lie between the flanges. of the column. The web 25 of the I beam is then welded to the column web preferably centrally and the flanges 26 and 27 of the I beam section are welded to the column web and flanges. The outer ends of the beam sec tions are provided with bolt holes 28 as in the preceding modification, but as the I beam is of uniform depth, the bolt holes will be located at the top of the end portion for thereason that the intermediate beam section 12 may be of less depth than the end unit. i
With this system of construction the vshop fabricated units are larger than heretofore used and convenience of' shipping must be considered.
Figure 8 shows a flat railway car which has been loaded with six tree units constructed as previously described, clearly illustrating that the units in spite of their size may be very conveniently shipped.
Figure 9 shows another arrangement for' shipping tree units for buildings in which the spans between adjacent columns are greater, and the beam sections 11 are correspondingly longer. The combined length of the two end units secured to their column sections is greater than the width of a flat ca'r. For shipping such tree units a flat car having a Well hole 30 is employed and car ho'rses 31 are used to support the entire.-
weight. y v
Figure 10 shows a portion of the building after the tree units and intermediate beams as well as the transverse beams have all been field bolted or riveted in place; .The tree unit.-
10 has been field riveted to the tree unit immediately below it and the beam section 12 has been secured to beam section`11A by field bolts 35. The beam unit 12 shown is built up in the Shop of a single plate of the dpe-f:
used with this arrangement while the concrete is setting. The angle clips 14 for the transverse beamsare shop Welded to the plate 12. The transverse beams 39 which occur at the columns are welded or rolled channels' which are field bolted to the angle cli s 16, shop welded to the column flanges. T e intermediate beams 4() are also channels which are field bolted to the angle clips 14 shop welded to the beam sections 12. The upper flange' of the beams 40 are strengthened by welding a small plate 41 against theupper flange of the channel and a splice plate 42 is welded to the plate 41 and the upper flange of the channel.
The fabrication of this construction is taken care of when the intermediate beams 40 are built up at the shop. The splice plate 42 is symmetrical about the beam section 12 and is provided with rivet holes in its outer end so that the splice plate can be secured to the adjacent beam when it is inserted in place as the splice plate 42 extends over the top of the beam section 12. By this construction continuity of strength is imparted to the intermediate beam so that they develop the advantages of the continuous beam construction. l
For the beams 39 which occur at the columns transverse to the main continuous beam the continuity of strength is developed by the tension rods 50. These are merely placed on top of the upper flanges of the end units 11 close to the column having been previously bent so that the ends thereof converge toward the beams. The length of these rods is such that the bond between them and the concrete and the bond between the concrete and the intermediate beam transmit the stresses in the beam around the column so as to develop the effect of continuity. The lengths of the tension rods are graduated as shown so as to taper ofi the strength, providing the maximum strength at the column.
The tree unit with its associated central unit of the continuous beam may have all of the shop fabrication by riveting instead of welding as shown in Figure 11. The tapered cantilever effect for the end units is secured by a web plate`18 similar to that shown in Figure 4. This plate is secured to the column web by angle clips riveted to the column web and the plate. The upper and lower flanges of the beam are formed by double flange angles riveted to the upper and lower edges of the plate 18. These angles are secured to the column flanges by angle clips 61 which are riveted to the angles and the column flanges. In this embodiment, the tension rods 50 pass through holes in the upper angles 60 and corresponding holes in the plate 18, which securely hold the tensionrods in osition.
tand'ard beams may be used for all of the elements of the shop fabricated units, as
shown in Figure 12.- The construction of this tree unit has beendescribed and illustrated in connection with Figure 6 and the field assembly `of the elements is identical with that l described in Figure 10.
` of contraflexure of the main continuous eams and may also be made continuous one strut beam wlth the other2 and the details of strut beam splice with major beam splice arranged for maximum strength at this juncture.
Continuous beams in two directions through the columns may be secured by the use of a column section such as shown in Figure 14 which the beam sections extend in four directions. This unit is constructed quite s1m1lar to that described in connection with Fi ure 4. In fact, this unit is con-1A structed y first fabricating a column section as. shown in Figure 4 by omitting the angle clips 16, and instead, welding beam sections 23 directly to the flanges of the column so that the web of the beam sections 23 is in the same plane with the column web. This unit involves more difficulties in shipping but gives the strongest building and easiest field assembly. Ihese units may be shipped by placing the units on a llat car so that two adjacent beam sections rest on the oor of the car. Other units will then be supported on top of th1s un1t. by staggering them so that the beam sections are notin line. In ,this manner, several of these units may be loaded on one flat car.
Figure 15 shows in detail the particular in. termediate beam 12 previously referred to. There 1s no flange for the upper edge of the plate 34, but the lower flange 38 is secured thereto by welding. The splice plates 35 are welded t o one end of the plate 34 and the angle clip which constitutes the beam connection for the beam 7 0 or 40 respectively,'occurring at the point of contraflexure is also welded to the sphce plate. Intermediate angle clips 36 are alsoy N ear the upper edge of the plate 34 are provlded `shear rods 71 of an upper concrete flange.
In the foregoing specification, the structure has been described for the steel cage holes 37 which receive the transverse welded to the plate 34 to form beam connections for the intermediate beams. l
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sof-
lconcrete when poured around the beam 12 with the. shear rods 71 inserted in the holes provided near the upperedge thereof, will may be desirable to have the beam continuous i with the column section welded thereto. Such a tree unit is shown in Figures 17 and 18. This unit is fabricated in the shop by first providing a bar 80 of the desired beam section, which is integral, and at least twice the length of an end unit plus lthe width of the column. Column sections 81 are then welded on the top and bottom of this beam at its central portion. Plate stiffeners 82 of approximately the thickness of theecolumn flange are then placed against the beam :web and flanges in line with the column flange. Thesestiffeners are then welded to the web and flanges of the beam 80 so that the section strength of the column 81 is carried through the beam 80 by equivalent metal.
In the embodiment shown in Figures 17 and 18,'con`necting angle clips 83 are welded to the web of the continuous beam 80 at the ends thereof. This adapts this tree unit for installation in the arrangement shown in Fignre 13. However, it is, of course, within the purview of our invention to substitute splice plates for the angle clips 83 so that the unit may be installed in the arrangementshown in Figure 2.
This embodiment of the invention may be further modified as shown in Figure 19. This tree unit is constructed by first fabricating a tree unit exactly like that shown in Figures 17 and 18. In addition, however, lprovision for the transverse beams is made y rigidly attaching thereto in the shop additional beam sections 85. These pieces l ive the end portions of their flanges notched so that the end of the bea-m section web may abut against the web of the continuous beam, and the upper and lower .lianges offy the beam section may ab-ut against the edges of the continuous beam flanges. The beam section web is then welded to the web. and anges of the continuous beam and the anges of the beam section are welded to the abutting angesof the continuous beam. Angle clips 86 are shown welded to the outer ends of the beam e. sections 85, but these may .also be'substituted by splice plates if desired.
The tree unit construction in its broad concept is particularly adapted for heavily loaded floors, or earthquake proof and windproof buildings, and when rail shipments donot control the dimensions, since delivery by boat jacent tree units are butted together, and se curedgby splice plates 93. The lower splice plates may be bent as at 94 so as to fit the adjacent inclined lower ianges of the beam s-ections 92. The column portions 91 of the tree units are provided with splice plates 95, as in the other forms.
Various other applications of this invention that are obvious have not been given speciic figures or description, but fall within the scope of our claims; for example, the beam may be made of other sections than those indicated, such as a box section or double web, or others known to the art. Likewise the columns may be made of any economical section that will suitably and economically frame to the-beams.
It is also obvious that our tree unit will allow of other floor arrangements than those shown inFigures 2 and 13. The use of the tree unit will thus afford its benefits of speed of erection or lesser weight of materials, or both, to all such special floor arrangements, as especially braced floors, or floors providing laft lopenings or special openings and the All of the above is equally applicable to roofA constructions and arrangements with the added detail of roof grades, that is, floors are practically always level whereas roofs are usually sloped in one or more directions. The shop fabricated tree unit is particularly amenable to roof details.
lfVhile several embodiments of our invention have been shown and described in comparative detail, the language is used in a descriptive and not a. limiting sense. The scope of our invention is therefore not limited to any of the embodiments shown, but includes such adaptations of the broad idea asv come within the scope of the appended claims.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed asnew and desired tobe secured by Letters Patent is: Y
1. A shop fabricated member for erection in a structure, comprising a column section and a laterally extending beam member secured thereto, the fiange and web of said beam member being secured to the column.
2. A shop fabricated member for erection 1n a structure at the point where a column and abean join, comprising a column member'and a beam member rigidly secured together, one of said members being integral,
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and the other being in two parts rigidly secured to the first member.
3. As an article of manufacture, a mem- `ber for installation in a structure of columns and beams of the continuous beam type, comprising a column section having shop fabricated therewith a laterally extending beam member constituting an end unit of a continuous beam. f
4. As an article of manufacture, a column section having rigidly secured -thereto before erection ends of beams, said rigid securement constituting the sole connection of the beams to the column.
5. As an article of manufacture, a column section having beam sections fully welded theretobefore erection.
6. As an article of manufacture, a member for installation in a structure of columns and beams of the continuous beam type, comprising a column section having shop welded thereto before erection beam members constituting the end units of continuous beams.
7. A continuous beam consisting of end units integral with supports' and central units joined substantially at the points of contraiiexure.
8. A continuous beam consisting of' end units integral with supports and central units of less depth joined substantially at the points of contra-iexure.
9. A shop fabricated member for erection.
in a structure, comprising a column section, a laterally extending beam web secured to the web of the column and a beam flange secured to said beam web and also secured to the 10. A shop fabricated member for erection in a structure, comprising a column section, a laterally extending beam web secured to the column,a beam iange secured to said beam web and also secured to the column and column, a beam flange secured to said beam web and also secured to the column flanges, and another beam web secured to the column flange in lthe plane of the column web and at substantially the same level as the first 0 beam web.
13. A shop fabricated member for erection in a structure, comprising a column member, la laterallyV extending beam web secured to the web of the column and a beam iiange secured to said beam web and also secured to the column flanges, the lower edge of said beam web being inclined whereby the web is of greatest depth at its attachment to the column.
14. A shop fabricated member for' use in constructing a building having a plurality of floors, comprising a. column section, and beam sections secured to the column at a plurality of floor levels. i
15. In a structure, a plurality of shop fabricated members each 'comprising a column section having laterally extending beam members secured thereto, in combination with beam units each secured between the ends of the said extending members, whereby the beam units and the shop fabricated members together constitute a continuous beam.
16. In a structure, a plurality of shop fabricated members each comprising a column section having laterally extending beam members secured thereto, beam units each secured between the adjacent free ends of said members to form therewith parallel continuous beams, and simple beam units secured transversely between the continuous beams to support the Hoor panels.
17. In a structure, a plurality of shop fabricated members eachcomprising a column section having laterally extending beam members secured thereto, beam units secured between the adjacent free ends of said members to form therewith parallel continuous beams,
and other continuous beams secured transversely to the said parallel continuous beams at the points of contra-lexure.
18. In a structure, a plurality of shop fabricated members each comprising a column section, a laterally extending beam web secured to each side of the web of the column, and a beam Harige secured to said beam web also secured to the column flanges, in combination with a plurality of beam units having each end secured to the shop fabricated members by attaching the web of the beam unit to the laterallyextending beam web.
19. In a structure, a plurality of shop fabricated members each comprising a column section having aligned beam members secured thereto at a. plurality of floor levels, in combination with beam units secured between the ends of adjacent aligned members whereby a continuous beam is formed at each of the said floor levels.
20. In a structure, a plurality of shop fabricated-members each comprising a column section having aligned beam members secured thereto at a plurality of floor levels, in combination with beam units secured between the ends'of adjacent aligned members whereby a continuous beam is formed at each of said iioor levels, the top of-each shop fabricated member being provided with a splicing element, whereby a second tier of columns may be secured thereto, for constructing a building of greater height.
21. In a structure, a plurality of shop fabricated members each comprising a column section having aligned beam members secured thereto at a plurality of floor levels, in combination with beam units secured between the adjacent free ends of said members whereby a continuous beam is formed at each of the said floor levels, transverse simple beam units secured to the columns perpendicular to the Acontinuous beams, and reinforcing rods placed on each side of the column and running in the direction of the simple beams, and adapted to be embedded in the lloor concrete to impart continuity of strength to the simple beams through the concrete bond.
22. In a structure including in combination, columns and continuous beams, Said beams having the adjacent end units of the adjoining spans integral with said columns, and the central units separate, but secured be'- tween the end units of adjacent columns substantially at the points of contra-eXure.
23. In a structure including in combinaj tion, steel columns and steel beams, a continuous I-beam having the webs and flanges of the adjacent end units of the adjoining spans integral with said columns, and the central units separate, but having its webs sccured at each end to the web of the adjacent Cil end unit.
24. In a. structure including in combination, columns and beams, a continuous beam having the adjacent end units of the adjoining spans integral with said columns, transverse beams secured between adjacent continuous beams, and means for imparting continui ty of strength to the transverse beams.V
25. In a structure including in combination columns and continuous beams, a continuous beam having the adjacent end units of the adjoining spans integral with said columns, and the central units separate, but secured between the end units at the points of contra-exure, transverse beams secured between adjacent continuous beams, and reinforcing rods passing over the top of the continuous beams at the transverse beams and adapted to be embedded in the floor concrete to give continuity of strength to the transverse beams.
In testimonywhereof we hereunto aiiix our signatures.
MEIER GEORGE HILPERT. CAMILLO WEISS.
US227544A 1927-10-20 1927-10-20 Building construction Expired - Lifetime US1883376A (en)

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US2424371A (en) * 1943-05-28 1947-07-22 Head Wrightson & Co Ltd Multistorey building construction
US2588225A (en) * 1948-08-19 1952-03-04 Gilbert D Fish Structural beam end connection
US2641829A (en) * 1945-10-02 1953-06-16 Sasso Maurice Method of connecting beams to girders
US3058553A (en) * 1960-04-27 1962-10-16 William H Hawes Continuous framing accessories for structural beams
US3058264A (en) * 1958-01-30 1962-10-16 Varlonga Giovanni Supporting structure for buildings
US3258282A (en) * 1962-11-14 1966-06-28 Timber Engineering Co End-to-end beam joint and connector
US3349539A (en) * 1964-12-24 1967-10-31 David B Cheskin Construction of two-way composite building system
US3374592A (en) * 1964-12-24 1968-03-26 David B. Cheskin Precast column with shear-head sections
US3382634A (en) * 1966-01-07 1968-05-14 Montague Betts Company Inc Shear head
US3466823A (en) * 1967-11-27 1969-09-16 Seamus Dowling Space form skeleton structures made of prefabricated tri-axial interlocking building elements having non-rigid force distributing connectors
US3508322A (en) * 1966-01-07 1970-04-28 Montague Betts Co Inc Methods of assembling shear heads
US4115971A (en) * 1977-08-12 1978-09-26 Varga I Steven Sawtooth composite girder
US4621477A (en) * 1985-07-18 1986-11-11 Kinst Dennis I Wall panel system
US5079890A (en) * 1989-01-11 1992-01-14 Kubik Marian L Space frame structure and method of constructing a space frame structure
US5226583A (en) * 1990-08-21 1993-07-13 Ishikawajima-Harima Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Module frame work for larger structure, method and device for assembling module frame work and coupler for module frame work
WO1996018774A1 (en) * 1994-12-13 1996-06-20 Houghton David L Steel moment resisting frame beam-to-column connections
US5660017A (en) * 1994-12-13 1997-08-26 Houghton; David L. Steel moment resisting frame beam-to-column connections
US5680738A (en) * 1995-04-11 1997-10-28 Seismic Structural Design Associates, Inc. Steel frame stress reduction connection
US6138427A (en) * 1998-08-28 2000-10-31 Houghton; David L. Moment resisting, beam-to-column connection
US6237303B1 (en) 1995-04-11 2001-05-29 Seismic Structural Design Steel frame stress reduction connection
US6516583B1 (en) * 1999-03-26 2003-02-11 David L. Houghton Gusset plate connections for structural braced systems
US20030177732A1 (en) * 2002-03-19 2003-09-25 Wahlsteen William J. Process and device for connecting I-beams
US20040050013A1 (en) * 2002-09-12 2004-03-18 Tadayoshi Okada High-strength bolted connection structure with no fire protection
US20050115164A1 (en) * 2002-04-18 2005-06-02 Han Bong K. Construction method for src structured high rise building
US20050188638A1 (en) * 2002-06-22 2005-09-01 Pace Malcolm J. Apparatus and method for composite concrete and steel floor construction
US20050204684A1 (en) * 2004-03-19 2005-09-22 Houghton David L Structural joint connection providing blast resistance and a beam-to-beam connection resistant to moments, tension and torsion across a column
US7047695B2 (en) 1995-04-11 2006-05-23 Seismic Structural Design Associates, Inc. Steel frame stress reduction connection
US20080022623A1 (en) * 2006-07-28 2008-01-31 Paul Brienen Coupling beam and method of use in building construction
US20100043348A1 (en) * 2008-08-21 2010-02-25 Houghton & Myers Llc Building metal frame, and method of making, and components therefor including column assemblies and full-length beam assemblies
US20100043338A1 (en) * 2008-08-21 2010-02-25 Houghton & Myers Llc Building metal frame, and method of making, and components therefor including column assemblies and full-length beam assemblies
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US20100043316A1 (en) * 2008-08-21 2010-02-25 Houghton & Myers Llc Steel-frame building and method of making
US20110030305A1 (en) * 2008-08-21 2011-02-10 Mitek Holdings, Inc. Building Structure, Method of Making, and Components
US20120216475A1 (en) * 2011-02-27 2012-08-30 Kamal Safari Kermanshahi Cold Formed Roof and Columns Building Structure System
US20130067832A1 (en) * 2010-06-08 2013-03-21 Sustainable Living Technology, Llc Lift-slab construction system and method for constructing multi-story buildings using pre-manufactured structures
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US20190106875A1 (en) * 2015-06-03 2019-04-11 Mitek Holdings, Inc. Gusset plate connection of braced beam to column
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US2424371A (en) * 1943-05-28 1947-07-22 Head Wrightson & Co Ltd Multistorey building construction
US2641829A (en) * 1945-10-02 1953-06-16 Sasso Maurice Method of connecting beams to girders
US2588225A (en) * 1948-08-19 1952-03-04 Gilbert D Fish Structural beam end connection
US3058264A (en) * 1958-01-30 1962-10-16 Varlonga Giovanni Supporting structure for buildings
US3058553A (en) * 1960-04-27 1962-10-16 William H Hawes Continuous framing accessories for structural beams
US3258282A (en) * 1962-11-14 1966-06-28 Timber Engineering Co End-to-end beam joint and connector
US3349539A (en) * 1964-12-24 1967-10-31 David B Cheskin Construction of two-way composite building system
US3374592A (en) * 1964-12-24 1968-03-26 David B. Cheskin Precast column with shear-head sections
US3508322A (en) * 1966-01-07 1970-04-28 Montague Betts Co Inc Methods of assembling shear heads
US3382634A (en) * 1966-01-07 1968-05-14 Montague Betts Company Inc Shear head
US3466823A (en) * 1967-11-27 1969-09-16 Seamus Dowling Space form skeleton structures made of prefabricated tri-axial interlocking building elements having non-rigid force distributing connectors
US4115971A (en) * 1977-08-12 1978-09-26 Varga I Steven Sawtooth composite girder
US4621477A (en) * 1985-07-18 1986-11-11 Kinst Dennis I Wall panel system
US5079890A (en) * 1989-01-11 1992-01-14 Kubik Marian L Space frame structure and method of constructing a space frame structure
US5226583A (en) * 1990-08-21 1993-07-13 Ishikawajima-Harima Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Module frame work for larger structure, method and device for assembling module frame work and coupler for module frame work
US5660017A (en) * 1994-12-13 1997-08-26 Houghton; David L. Steel moment resisting frame beam-to-column connections
WO1996018774A1 (en) * 1994-12-13 1996-06-20 Houghton David L Steel moment resisting frame beam-to-column connections
US5680738A (en) * 1995-04-11 1997-10-28 Seismic Structural Design Associates, Inc. Steel frame stress reduction connection
US6237303B1 (en) 1995-04-11 2001-05-29 Seismic Structural Design Steel frame stress reduction connection
US7047695B2 (en) 1995-04-11 2006-05-23 Seismic Structural Design Associates, Inc. Steel frame stress reduction connection
US6138427A (en) * 1998-08-28 2000-10-31 Houghton; David L. Moment resisting, beam-to-column connection
US6516583B1 (en) * 1999-03-26 2003-02-11 David L. Houghton Gusset plate connections for structural braced systems
US20030177732A1 (en) * 2002-03-19 2003-09-25 Wahlsteen William J. Process and device for connecting I-beams
US6829872B2 (en) * 2002-03-19 2004-12-14 William J. Wahlsteen Process and device for connecting I-beams
US20050115164A1 (en) * 2002-04-18 2005-06-02 Han Bong K. Construction method for src structured high rise building
US7647742B2 (en) * 2002-04-18 2010-01-19 Bong Kil Han Construction method for SRC structured high rise building
US20050188638A1 (en) * 2002-06-22 2005-09-01 Pace Malcolm J. Apparatus and method for composite concrete and steel floor construction
US20040050013A1 (en) * 2002-09-12 2004-03-18 Tadayoshi Okada High-strength bolted connection structure with no fire protection
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US20080022623A1 (en) * 2006-07-28 2008-01-31 Paul Brienen Coupling beam and method of use in building construction
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US8915042B2 (en) * 2012-04-25 2014-12-23 Drb Holding Co., Ltd. Steel frame structure using U-shaped composite beam
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