US1836398A - Building construction - Google Patents

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US1836398A
US1836398A US188693A US18869327A US1836398A US 1836398 A US1836398 A US 1836398A US 188693 A US188693 A US 188693A US 18869327 A US18869327 A US 18869327A US 1836398 A US1836398 A US 1836398A
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Prior art keywords
slabs
plastic
beams
ceiling
building construction
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US188693A
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Owen H Roberts
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Anthony Paul Miller
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/20Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stonelike material

Description

Dec. 15, 1931. o. H. ROBERTS BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed May 4, 1927 3 Sheets-Sheet a M W m@ MN m vfl m n m f: 0 Y B W Dec. 15, 1931. Q ROBERTS 1,836,398
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed May 4, 1927 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Owen 1? Kobe/2Z5 C-IIS Dec. 15, 1931-. o. H. ROBERTS BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed May 4. 1927 3 SheetsSheet 3 INVENTOR Owen HKoberfis BY I A LLaQCM ATTORNEYS cam a Patented Dec. 15, 1 931 UNITEDSTATES OWEN H. ROBERTS, OF ATLANTA, GEORGIAQASSIGNOR FIFTY-ONE PER CENT TO ANTHONY PAUL MILLER, OF PLEASANTVILLE,NEW JERSEY BUILDING oonsrnoc'rion Application filed. May 4,
The invention relates to walls, partitions, floors and ceilings for residences or other buildings, and also to the various elements of which they may be produced and constructed, which consist of relatively thin slabs of hardened plastic material, as concrete, cement, gypsum, and the like, together with studs and floor beams of similar plastic material.
Anobject ofmy invention is to provide a structure which shall be fireproof and weather-proof, and which may be fabricated readily of elements simple of manufacture, and by unskilled labor.
Another object is to provide a structure of the kind described which shall be structurally strong and capable of resisting wind pressure, and which shall be to a considerable extent damp-proof and sound-proof, and resistant to the transfer of heat.
A further object is to provide means whereby walls'and partitions of the kind described may readily be erected without the use of external means of temporarily retaining the several elements of which they are composed in order to bring, and retain, them in proper alignment. 7
Yetanother object of the invention is to provide walls and partitions, aswell as ceilings, sufficiently straight and true that they may be finished with one coat of stucco .or plaster, instead of several as is customary.
Still another object is to provide walls and partitions having one or more side-s constructed of slabs which are suitable to receive and hold nails. WVith these objects in view and with others which will be apparent in the following description, my invention consists of the various parts and features, and combinations thereof,and the several means of attaining them set forth in the following description and claims, and in the accompanying drawings, which illustrate preferred means of attaining the said objects, it being understood that changes in the precise embodiment of the invention may be made within the scope of the claims without departing from the spirit of the invention.
In the drawings, Figure 1 is a perspective Serial No. 188,693.
Figure 2 is an enlarged fragment of a poring the joints betweentwo adjacent slabs on eaclci sideof the wall, together with the wall stu V Figure 3 isthe same fragment shown in Figure 2, illustrating the clamps and aligning means, also the form for casting studding.
Figure 4 is an enlarged fragment showing the abutting ends of two slabs, and illustrating the preferred contour of the edges, and the means of attaching the slabs to the studs.
Figure 5 is a vertical section through the wall, as on line l101, Figure 1.
' Figure 6 is a vertical section on line 102, Figure 5, and illustrates forms for the studs, and means of retaining same.
Figure 7 is an enlarged fragment at 103, Figure 6. V
Figure 8 is a vertical section through the wall, showing the sill and header for a window or door opening. 7
Figure 9 is a vertical section through the wall and floor, showing wall construction, as well as ceiling slabsand floorand spandrel beams. V a
Figure 10 is asection on line 10 1-1O4, Figure 9. V v
Figure'll is a' section'on line 105 105, Figure, 9, showing ceiling slabs, floor beams and meansfofforming same, floor fill and finish floor. r
Figure-12 is: a perspective view showing wall slabs and studs, ceiling slabs and floor beams, spandrel beams, floor fill and finish floor.
Figure 13 is a perspective View of a slab either for walls or for ceilings, together with the form or mould in which it may be cast.
Figure 14: is a fragmentary horizontal section on line 106106, Figure 9, and shows ceiling slabs notched to allow floor beams-to bear directly on studs. 1
Like numbers indicate like parts throughout the several views.
I am aware that various systems of construction have been proposed wherein slabs tion of the wall shown in Figure 1, illustrat- V of plastic material are utilized for the construction of walls and ceilings, and Letters Patent have been grant-ed for certain of such systems. Entirely novel features, however, will be pointed out, whereby such slabs are used with a minimum of labor and falsework. It will also be shown that great accuracy in the manufacture of the slabs is not required, there being no interlocking or interfitting joints or connections. Attention will be called, however, to the desirability of manu facturing the slabs with the exposed face thereof in an approximately true plane.
In the several figures, the numeral 1 indicates the exterior side of the wall, and 2 the interior side thereof. The outer slabs 3 and the inner slabs 4 are placed on edge, in substantially horizontal courses, with the ends abutting. The exterior slabs 3 may be identical with the interior slabs 4 in form, thickness and composition, or the thickness and size may be varied as conditions require; and in certain cases it will be preferable to manufacture the slabs for one or both sides of the wall of a composition wherein cinders, fibre, or the like, is used as the aggregate or a part thereof in order that the slabs may i readily receive and hold nails. The slabs are cast or moulded and allowed to attain a certain degree of hardness before being erected. The slabs having been prepared and cured as aforesaid, a suitable foundation or footing, 5, is laid, and rods, bars or shapes, 6, are inserted into it at intervals to coincide with the vertical joints, 7, between the slabs, which joints, it will be observed, are opposite each other on the two sides of the wall. Pairs, or even more, of such rods or shapes Will ordi n'arily be preferred at each joint, but the system may be carried out with 'one such member at each joint.
Footing 5 and the rods or shapes 6 having been prepared, a course of slabs 3 on the outer side of the wall are then laid in endto'-en'd relation, as shown in F igure'l, with the ends abutting, these slabs being temporarily secured to the outerbar 6 by means of the adjustable clamp 9, an enlarged viewof which isshown in Figure 3, which simultaneously grips the rod 6 and the adjacent slabs 3 near the ends of the latter, adjustable means being provided in the nuts and washers 10 whereby the distance of the slab from'the'rod maybe fixed as desired and the slab held securely at the fixed distance. A. course of inner slabs 4 is then set up opposed to, an'dspae'ed from,the
slabs 3, and attached temporarily to slabs 8 by means of the bolts 11, the distance between the outer and inner slabs being adjusted by means of the nuts and washers 12, 13, 14 and 15. It will be perceived that no special holes, notches or recesses are required for either the clamps 9 or the clamps 11, but that they are merely laid on the top edges of T the slabs. It will also be perceived that in the 1,836,398 H l v.
manner described both the inner and the outer course of slabs will be held securely in position until the studs, which will be described presently, are poured, when the slabs will be held permanently in place.
It is of course understood that the form of the clamps used maybe varied, it'being only required that they accomplish the purpose desired and described.
Metal clips, wires,'or nails, or the like, as indicated by the numeral '1.G,"Figures 1 and 6, having been inserted in the footing 5 while the latter is yet plastic, spaced at the proper distance from the rods 6, forms 17, 17, which may be of wood or other suitable material, are inserted on either side ofrods 6 against clips 16 and clamps 11, hooks 49, Figure 1, preferably being driven into the forms 17 for temporarily holding them in place, said hooks engaging clamps 11. The space between the formsis then filled with plastic material,such as concrete, constituting the stud 18, where upon clips 20, Figures .6 and 7, the purpose of which will be described presently, are inserted in the top of the plastic stud at either side thereof.
It is to be understood that reinforcing means, 19, such as wires or rods, are embedded in the slabs. 3. and 1 andallowed to project from the ends thereof-. These rods or wires are bent into the space to .beoecupied by the stud, so that when. the plastic material of which the stud is composed is poured they will be embedded therein, thus firmly and per man'ently holding the slabs in place.
It is tobe especially noted that the reinforcement 19 projects from the ends of the slabs, as is clearly shown in the several figures,thus greatly simplifying the casting of the slabs, as is especially shown in Figure 13.
It wi ll be perceived from the foregoing descrip-tion that a. course of; slabs may in the manner described be laid toa line, straight, true and plumb, without the use of falsework or bracing of any kind.
When the plastic material has been poured between the'forms 17 and allowed to attain a proper degree of hardness the clamps 9 and 11 and the forms 17 are removed, and a second course of slabs 3 and 4 are erected inthe manner already described, and as illustrated in Figures 1, 5 and 6, and the clamps are applied and the slabs aligned as already explained; the metal clips having been bent over at substantially right angles to their original position, as shown at 20a, in Figure 7, ready to receive and retain the lower ends of the stud forms 17, as is clearly shown in Figures 6 and 7. The forms 17 are then inserted and the plastic material poured between them as before.
. Figure 1 shows at the left of the figure one course ofslabs laid, with the corner-stud poured to the height of the first course of slabs, and shows at the first stud from the corner the clamps 9 and 11 and the clips 16 in place, also'the forms 17 ready for pouring poured in a manner similar to that of forming erected in a wall, uppermost. her it will be convenient to ad ust the form 1 to receive stucco or plaster.
and pouring the stud already described. Referring to Figure 13, it will be noted that. the slabs are preferably poured fiat,
with the'side which is to be exposed when In this manfor the slab with its upper surfaces in a true plane, and the surface of the slab to be eX- posed may befloated and scratched suitably The reinforcing bars 17, which are preferably near the inner side of the slab when erected are inserted through holes drilled in the forms. When the slab has hardened sufiiciently the forms may be removed by withdrawing them laterally, leaving the slab on its pallet for further curing. The ceiling slabs, which will be referred to presently, may be manufactured in a similar manner.
The horizontal and vertical edges of the slabs are preferably formed with a rebate, 22,
on the outer. side, as shown in Figures 1, 2, 4, 30
5 and 13, and with a chamfer, 23, on the vertical edges adjacent to inner side, as shown. Thus on the exterior faces of the wall a groove is provided at the horizontal and vertical joints, into which the material of the stucco or plaster, 25, may enter, thus automatically pointing the joints, and providing an unbroken surface on the stucco or. plaster. In the case of the inner chamfer, 23, the plastic material of the studs mav enter the V- shaped groove thus formed at the vertical joints. and the reinforcing bars 19 are preferably-brought out of the slab at this chamfer,
as shown in Figures 4 and 13.
I prefer to coat the inner surface of the outer slabs 3 near the ends thereof where the said surface abuts the studs with a coating ofpitch, asphalt, or other waterproof ma terial told-prevent moisture from passing through the slab into the stud and so to the interior of the building. This waterproofing is' clearly shown in Figure 2. I also prefer to coat the'unrebated part of the horizontal edges ofthe slabs 3 with a similar waterof slabs. This is clearly shown at 27, Figure 9.
Figure 8 shows the manner in which an opening for a window or door may be formed, a stud 18 being carried up on either side of the opening,and a form 45 placed between the slabs 3 and 4 from stud to stud and a plastic sill, 47,poured in the space so formed; and a form, 46, may be similarly placed'at the top of the opening and the header, 48, poured between the slabs 3 and 4. The form 45 would remain in place, and the form 46 be removed.
v The construction of the fioor system is clearly shown in Figures 9, 10, 11 and 12.
When the walls. have been built up to the height of the proposed level of the top of the floor beams, in the case of the outer slabs, V
as at 28, Figure 9, and to the ceiling level in z the case of the inner slabs and the studs, as at 29, Figure 9, ceiling slabs, 30, are laid on a falsework, 31, supported on temporary uprights, 32, these slabs being laid with the sides and ends, respectively, of the adjacent slabs abutting, as shown, so as to form a continuous surface for the ceiling. The ceiling slabs are cast or moulded in a manner similar to that already described, as shown in Figure 13, and preferably with the chamfered and rebated edges already described in the case of wall slabs, and with reinforcing members, 34, pro ecting from two opposlte edges, which the ceiling slabs are preferably allowed to extend across the top of the inner slabs, 4, of the walls, to the inner face of the outer wall slabs, 3, as at 35, Figures 9 and 12, to receive the spandrel beam, 36, which will be described later.
The ceilingslabs having been thus prepared and laid, temporary forms, 37, which may be of wood, or other suitable material,
are placed on top of the ceiling slabs 30, and temporarily braced and stayed by tie members, 38, as shown in Figures 11 and 12. Re inforcing members, 40, are placed in the beam forms and the space between the forms filled with plastic material, such as concrete. The
beams may be constructed with flanges at the upper edges thereof, forming a T-sectaon, as
shown, if required for proper strength. Si1nilar forms, 39, Fig. 121 are placed on the top proofing material to prevent moisture from of the slabs near the'outer wall slabs and substantially parallel thereto, for the spandrel beams, 36, which are preferably poured may be removed, and a coat of plaster, 25,
may be applied to the under surface of the slabs, 30.
When the forms 34 and 39 have been re- 4- 1,ssc,see
moved the space between the beams is filled with any desired material, but preferably with a. light, non-combustible substance, such as cinders, or broken brick or tile, and the like. This filling, shown at l i, Figure 12, may be compacted as desired, after which sleepers, or nailing strips, 41, are laid and the space between them filled with cinder concrete, &2, Figures 9 and 12, in the welllznown manner, and the finish floor, 43, applied; or, a finish floor of cement or other composition may be laid directly on the fill 4- 1,
Figure 1-l is a horizontal section of line 10($l06, Figure 9, and shows the ceiling slabs, 30, with their corners notched out at the stud, 18, so that the plastic material of the beam, 33, when poured, will bear directly on the top of the stud. This construction is also illus rated in the sectional elevation shown in Figure 10.
It will be perceived from the foregoing description that a floor system at once strong, fireproof, sound-proci and durable, is produced, with no combustible material as a. permanent part of the structure. It will also be noted that the ceiling slabs pro vide a bottom form for the hoor beams and spandrel beams, and that the fill between the beams supports that part of the finish floor which does not rest directly on the floor beams. lChe rebates form grooves at all joints between the slabs, which grooves are automatically pointed when the plaster applied. The floor beams are framed monolithicly into the pandrel beams, and the floor beams intermediate of the wall studs are supported at their ends by the spandrel beams. It will also be noted that the chainfers at the ends of the ceiling slabs form grooves on the upper face of the slabs into which the plastic material of the iioor beams may flow.
Having described my invention, what I claim as new and useful, and desire to secure by Letters 1 tent is? l. A. building construction of the character described consisting of two sets of plastic slabs spaced apart, each of said sets composed of a plurality of plastic slabs disposed in juxtaposed end to endrelation in substantially horizontal courses; reinforcing members longitud illy extending through said slabs and projecting from the ends thereof, said projecting reinforcing members bentan angle to the plane of said slabs into the space between the two sets of slabs; and plastic studdings, positioned between said spaced slabs and embedding the projecting ends of said rcinfrjn'cing members.
2. A building construction of the character described consisting of two sets of plastic slabs spaced apart, each of said sets composed of a plurality of plastic slabs disposed in juxtaposed end to end relation in superimposed horizontal courses, the vertical joints of each course of slabs being directly over those of the course below, the vertical joints of one set of slabs being opposite those of the other set of slabs; reinforcing members extending through said slabs and projecting upon the ends thereof, said projecting ends of the reinforcing members being bent at an angle to the plane of the slabs into the space between the two sets of slabs; a foundation supporting said slabs; spaced vertically disposed metallic members embedded in said foundation opposite each of the vertical joints between said slabs and rising in the space between the sets of slabs; studdings positioned between. said spaced sets of slabs and embedding said vertically disposed metallic members and the projecting ends of the slab reinforcing members; and,waterproofing means on the inner face of one of the sets of slabs adjacent the ends thereof between said slabs and the studdings.
3. A building construction of the charactor des ribed consisting of two sets of plastic slabs spaced apart, each of said sets composed ef a plurality of plastic slabs disposed in juxtaposed end to end relation in substantially horizontal courses; means for retaining said of slabs in. spaced relation, bevelled chamfers at the ends of said slabs adjacent the inner faces thereof, reinforcing members longitudinally extending through said slabs and projecting from the ends thereof through said bevelled chamfers, said projecting ends of the reinforcing members being bent at an angle to the plane of said slabs into the space between said sets of slabs and in engagement with the means for retaining the bs in spaced relation.
i. A building construction of the character described consisting of two sets of plastic slabs'spaced apart, each of said sets composed of a plurality of plastic slabs disposed in uxtaposed end to end relation in substantially horizontal courses, plastic studding positioned between the slabs adjacent the meeting ends thereof, studdings retaining the sets of slabs in spaced relation, and waterproofing means on theinner face of one of said sets of slabs adjacent the end of said slabs between said slabs and the plastic studdings.
5. A building construction consisting of a plurality of plastic slabs disposed in juxtaposed end to end relation in successively contiguous rows to constitute a continuous ceiling, the ends of the adjacent slabs of the several rows each lying in a straight line, reinforcing members longitudinally extending through said slabs, projecting from the ends thereof and bent at an angle to retain said slabs, a pair of spaced forms supported on said slabs at each row of the slab ends extending from one side of the structure to the opposite side thereof and embracing said bent-up ends of said slab retaining members, reinforced plastic material positioned on said slabs between said pairs of forms to constitute beams and embedding said bent-up ends of the slab reinforcing members, and means for supporting each end of each of said beams.
6. A. building construction consisting in combination, of a plurality of plastic slabs disposed in juxtaposed relation to constitute a continuous ceiling, a plurality of spaced reinforced plastic beams disposed above and supporting said slabs, means of attaching said slabs to said beams, means of supporting the ends of each of said beams, a filling of inert material supported on said slabs between said beams, and a finish floor applied to and supported upon the tops of said beams and on said inert filling material.
7. A building construction comprising a plurality of plastic slabs disposed in abutting end to end relation, rods positioned in said slabs and extending throughout the length thereof, the extremities of said rods projecting from the opposite ends of said slabs, a studding positioned adjacent the meeting ends of said slabs, and said projecting extremities of the rods being anchored Within said studding. V
8. A building construction comprising spaced walls formed of plastic slabs, the vertical ends of said slabs being in abutting engagement, plastic columns disposed between said Walls, horizontally disposed reinforcing rods positioned in said slabs and extending throughout the length thereof, the opposite ends of said reinforcing rods projecting in- Wardly at right angles from the slabs at points from their Vertical ends, the inwardly extending portions of said rods being embedded in said plastic columns, Vertically disposed reinforcing rods arranged Within said columns and said right angular inwardly extending portions of said rods being embedded within the columns at the opposite sides of said vertically disposed reinforcing rods.
OWEN H. ROBERTS.
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5097644A (en) * 1991-02-01 1992-03-24 Hun Chung S Mold board construction
US20070028544A1 (en) * 2003-11-03 2007-02-08 Pierre Messiqua High-strength concrete wall formwork

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5097644A (en) * 1991-02-01 1992-03-24 Hun Chung S Mold board construction
US20070028544A1 (en) * 2003-11-03 2007-02-08 Pierre Messiqua High-strength concrete wall formwork
US7516589B2 (en) * 2003-11-03 2009-04-14 Polyfinance Coffor Holding S.A. High-strength concrete wall formwork

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