US1702929A - Process of combustion - Google Patents

Process of combustion Download PDF

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US1702929A
US1702929A US196690A US19669027A US1702929A US 1702929 A US1702929 A US 1702929A US 196690 A US196690 A US 196690A US 19669027 A US19669027 A US 19669027A US 1702929 A US1702929 A US 1702929A
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air
combustion
hydrocarbon
mixture
supply
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US196690A
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Jr James L Breese
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OIL DEVICES Corp
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OIL DEVICES CORP
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D5/00Burners in which liquid fuel evaporates in the combustion space, with or without chemical conversion of evaporated fuel

Description

Fe ae 19, 1929.

J. L. BRE ESE, JR

PROCESS OF COMBUSTION Filed June 6, 1927 4 Sheets-Sheet l [rave-afar films; .Z .Zireefie J7 g h M Feb. 19, 1929. i 1,702,929 J. BREESE, JR

PROCESS OF COMBUSTION Filed June 6, 1'92? 4 Sheets-Sheet 24 [RY/672,250?" @Wgs [,Jreepa J. 1.. BREESE, JR

PROCESS COMBUSTION Feb. 19, 1929. 1,702,929

Filed June 1927 4 Sheets-$heet 2 [2? Vere/0)" if .Jcmesifir e i" jaidwwziym Patented Pa, 19', 1929.

" UNITED. STATES PATENT orrlcs.

JAMES L. BREESE, IR, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNOR TO OIL DEVICES CORPORA- TION, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, A CORPORATION OF ILLINOIS.

rnocass or comausrron.

My invention relates to a process of and apparatus for burning hydrocarbons, and has for its particular purpose the provision of a mechanism for and a method or process of burning hydrocarbons, preferably in liquid or gaseous form, with a minimum of cracking of the fuel or deposit of carbon. Anot 1e r object is the provision of means for.

so burnin the fuel as to obtain a maximum heating e ect and a minimum clogging or impairing of the mechanism in which the fuel is burned. Another purpose is the provision of such a balance of fuel and air as to produce an intermediate hydroxylated mixture which is not combustible except by the addition of a further supply of air, and

vmay be burned without deposit of free carbon. Another object is the regulation of the respective supplies of fuel and primary and secondary air in such fashion as to insure the formation of an intermediate or hydroxylated incombustible or unburned mixture and to prevent cracking of the fuel.

Other ob ects will appear fromtime to time in the course of the specification and claims.

I illustrate my invention more orless diagrammatically in the accompanying drawings, wherein- Figures 1 to 5 each indicate a form of mechanism which may be employed for the 7 practice of my'method;

Figure 6 indicates an enlarged sectional view-of a portion of Figure-5; j

Figure 7 indicates another form of device for the practice of my method, wherein means are illustrated for controlling the draft through the stove mechanism and for controlling or preventing down-drafts into the mixing-chamber; N

Figure 8 is a view on an enlarged scale of the zlraft control mechanism shown in Figure Figure 9 is a transverse section of a tion of the draft-control; and

Figure 10-is a section on the line 1010 of Figure 9. v Like parts are indicated by like symbols throughout the specification and drawings. Referring tc Figures 1 and 2, A indicates por- 1927. Serial No. 196,690.

a generally cylindrical burner housing with a bottom A a top A and a flue A extending from the top. A is any suitable fuel supply pipe wherein a fuel, for example, a liquid fuel, may be supplied-to the'bottom of the burner.

Referring primarily to Figure 1,-B indicates an air 1nlet passage, the open to of which, E, extends through the top A 'o the burner. The bottom of the passage isc'losed as at B and the lower part thereof is provided with a plurality of relatively small air inlets B B indicates an enlarged portion of the member B, in communication with the interior thereof, which is pierced by a plurality of air inlet apertures B.

Referring primarily to Figure 2, C indicates the air inlet passage which in this instance admits air through the bottom of the burner as at C. C areia plurality of small air passages along thelength of the chamber C. C is a laterally expanded portion in communication with the passage member C, and C are a plurality of air inlet apertures, corresponding to the air inlet apertures B of Figure 1.

Referring to Figures 3, 4 and 5, D indicates a burner housing of generally cylindrical cross section with the bottom D and the air inlet member D D is the combustion chamber proper, indicated as of generally cylindrical cross section with the gen erally flat bottom D and the open top D. D is a fuel inlet pipe communicating, by the elbow D, with the bottom D of the combustion chamber and D is any suitable control valve therefor.-

Referring specifically to Figure 3, the walls and bottom of the chamber D are closed except for the air inlet passage E through its bottom. E is an enlargement or mushroom associated therewith, provided with the air inlet openings E E is a flange upwardly and inwardly inclined from the cylindrical wall of the housing D and overhanging the upper' edge of the member D I linkage it mag 3 except that the member stantially the same as that shown in Figure 11 correspond ing to the member E, extends to a point above the upper edges or the portions E and E". E are a plurality of small air inlet passages. E is an enlargement similar to the enlargement E and is penetrated by apertures E corresponding to the apertures lE Referring to Figures 5 and 6, the wall of the combustion chamberD is pierced by a plurality of small and scattered. air inlet apertures E. The upper edges oi the members D and D are connected as at E indicates a more or less closely spaced row of upwardly and inwardly inclined apertures.

Referring to Figure 7, G indicates an outer mlrum mounted, on legs 6- and having a closed bottom G with an air inlet G valve G controlled for example by the rod G and the handle G Through any suitable control the valve stem G for the valve 7 in a fuel line G extending from the tank G to the concave bottom G of the mixing chamber G G1" indicates a bed of sand or similar finely divided material in the bottom thereof. G13 are the primary air apertures and G are the secondary air apertures of the mixing-chain her corresponding to the apertures of the form of Figures 5 and ti.

H indicates a combustion and radiation member positioned above the mixing chamher, it being provided for example with a cover H and a flue H H indicates a back draft regulating flap of any suitablev light material which is adapted to be drawn normally against the inner abutment H". Extending from the flue is a lateral passage I. Surrounding the end of said lateral assage or air inlet branch is a split ring 1 with the outwardly turned opposed terminal flanges I through which pass any suitable securing means, for example the bolts I with the nuts I. I are any suitable spacers.

Secured within the split ring 1 is any suitable supporting ring J which preferably abuts against the outer end of the lateral inlet member. It may be held in position for example by the transverse pin J which passes through the lugs J in such ring, the opposite ends 0'1": the pin J extending outwardly through'the wall of the passage or through the split ring which continues it, for example through the relatively extended slots .l therein 5 is a limiting abutment at one side at the ring, against which abuts one edge Jtof the damper plate J pivoted for example b the pin J the ends oi which terminate wit in the ring J is a counterweight mounted upon the damper plate J, and may be situated -lior example at the end or the arm or bolt 5".

it will be realized that whereas I have described and shown a practical and operative device and method, nevertheless many changes mav be made in the size, shape, number an disposition of parts of the mechanism without departing from the spirit of my invention, and that my method may be practiced by a varictf of different mechanisms not herein descri ed. ll therefore wish my drawings to be taken as in a broad sense illustrative and diagrammatic rather than as limiting me to the particular mechanism or steps therein described and shown.

The use and operation of my invention are as follows: I

It is characteristic of my process that the hydrocarbon -liuel, whether liquidor aseous,

is burned after the final addition 0 a sec-- ondary supply of air to an intermediate mixture of a hydrocarbon whichhas been hydroxylated by the admission to it of priinary air in quantities suiiicient to ell'ect complete or substantially complete hydroxylation. It is important that the primary air so supplied be insuilicient to support full combustion, and that the draft be so controlled as to prevent down eddies of air" from above which would promote combustion at levels where combustion is not desired. In the devices above described 1 admit a hydrocarbon, either in liquid form or as a gas, into the lower portion of a mixing or a mixing and combustion zone or memher. If a liquid is to be burned, it is gasilied by the radiant heat of the combustion going on above it. The gas, or the gasified liquid, rises upwardly, for example through the cylinder A, of Figures 1 and 2, until it reaches the level of the infiowing secondary air. The primary air may be admitted from a central member, as in Figures 1 to 4, or it-1nay be admitted through the Wall of a mixing chamber, as in Figures band 6.

In either case the cross-sectional area of the holes is determined by the volume of air Ill) necessary to effect the hydroxylation of the hydrocarbon, and suliicient air should be supplied to eli'ect the complete or virtually complete hydroxylation, without at the same time supplying suficient additional air to support combustion.

The distribution of the apertures is preterably such as to effect a relatively complete mixture of the primary air with the hydrocarbon, so that the entire volume of the hydrocarbon is hydroxylated, To efiect this result, and to prevent the addition of such anexcess of air at a given point as might support local combustion, ll prefer to employ a large number or small, scat tered apertures, Also in many forms of my device, it is important that small apertures be used irl order that the cross sectional area and strength of the individual oi tion will win the race.

'Where the secondary air be insuflicient to cause down-drafts and turbulence or to effectthe-upward rise of the gas or gasified mixture.

The effect of the addition of the primary air supply is to cause the formation of, ad-

dition compounds, for example aldehydes, which, on further heating, will decompose without deposit of carbon. These mixtures can then be burned off by the addition of the secondary air supply. In'combustiomin a burner of the type herein disc1osed,- there is always a race between combustion by hydroxylation and combustion by cracking and it is the purpose of my method and device to so control conditions of air and fuel supply and to so control the intermediate mixture and the fuel product, as to insure "that combustion by hydroxyla- Draft control and back-draft' prevention may also be important to maintain the desired combustion conditions. P Y

' Assuming the completion of the hydroxylated mixture, which continues its u .ward

movement through the mixing zone, ;;;provide a secondary air supply, which may be introduced through a mushroom,as in Figures 1, 2 and 4 or through the wall of the. mixing chamber, as in Figures 5 and 6, or over the top of the wall of a mixing chamber, as in Figures 3 and 4. It is essential that the secondary air be sufiicient.

in volume to support the complete combustion of all of the hydroxylated mixture, It is not essential that a complete mingling o the hydroxylated mixture and the secondary air take place, although such mingling maytake place, since combustion may occur along the zone or plane of meeting of the secondary air and the mixture. is admitted through apertures such as B or C, the combust-ion may take place along the jets of inflowing secondary air.

Where the secondary air is directed upwardly and in- \vardly into or over the mixture, as in Figures 3, 4 and 6, a cone of flame may be fOl'l'l'lOtl the center of which, if the fuel supply issuflicient, flares up into the interior of the furnace or combustion chamber.

In a typical application of my process to the burning of a liquid fuel, as in Figure 1, the fuel may be supplied along'the' pipe A to the bottom A, where it" is exposed to;

the radiant heat of combustion taking place i in the upper portion of the'member A. As the liquid is vaporized and gasified it rises and is mixed with a primary air supply entering through the apertures B". is air supply may be controlled, either through varying the size of the passage B or their number, or otherwise, to'provide an air sup.- ply suflicient for the substantially complete hydroxylation' of the gaseous fuel. Not only isthere a mechanical mixture of this air -the total cross-sectional area of the supply with the gaseous fuel, but the oxygenunites with the hydrocarbon and forms.

compounds, under the influence of'the heat of, the adjacent combustion, in which are combined carbon molecules which might otherwise be deposited in the form of soot or might be discharged as smoke. These new compounds are in the main such that, when they are further heated they decompose or burn without the deposit of carbon.-

oxygen is thus supplied to support the combustion of the completed mixture and combustion takes place, in the main, above the lelvel of admixture of the secondary air supp y.

Figures 3, 4 and 5 indicate simply varying structures for accomplishing the same general result. As regards Figure 3 the primary air is supplied through the apertures E and the secondary air through the annular passage E As regards Figure 4 the primary air comes through the passages E and the secondary air is directed both through the passage E and the passages E,

providing a peculiarly complete admixturev of a secondary air supply for supporting combustion of the previously hydroxylated mixture.

In the form of Figures 5 and 6- the primary air enters through the passages and the secondary airis directed upwardly and inwardly through the somewhat larger passages E 4 In the forms of my device shown in Figures 3, 4 and 5, I prevent the formation of down-drafts or eddy currents which might affect the delicate balance of my process by delivering the secondary air supply both upwardly and inwardly. It will be realized that I do not-wish to be limited to any such specific practice, but it is described as a practical solution of one phase of my problem.

admitted by natural draft but I do not wish to be limited to any particular mechanism or method of introducing either the primary or the secondary air supply.

Referring to Figures 5 and 6, in employ; ing this type of mechanism, I find it preferable to so proportion the apertures that row, through which the secondary air is admitted, is greater than the total cross-sec- It will be realized that airis shown as Pr v it substantially throughout at a tem erature below that of active combustion, a mitting to the hydroxylated mixture, after. it has risen above the zone of mixture with the primary air a secondary air supply, and burning the fuel mixture after the admission of the secondaryair supply. I

4. The process of burning a hydrocarbon which includes maintaining a supply of liquid hydrocarbon, gasifying such hydrocarbon by the radiant heat of combustion, maintaining a mixing zone above said liquid hydrocarbon and delivering into said mixing zone, into the gasified hydrocarbon upwardly rising therethrough, a primary air supply suflicient to efi'ect its substantially complete hydroxylation While maintaining it substantially throughout at a temperature below that of active combustion, such air supply being admitted in a large number of scattered jets, admitting to the hydroxylated mixture, after it has risen above the zone of mixture with the primary air a secondary air supply, the secondary air supply being admitted in an even larger number of larger jets, and burning the fuel mixture after the admission of the secondary air supply.

5. The process of burning a hydrocarbon which includes maintaining a supply of liquid hydrocarbon, gasifying such hydrocarbon by the radiant heat of combustion, maintaining a mixing zone above said liquid hydrocarbon and delivering into said mixing zone, into the gasified hydrocarbon upwardly rising therethrough, a primary air supply suflicient to effect its substantially complete hydroxylation while maintaining it substantially throughout ata temperature below that of active combustion, such air supply being admitted in a large number of scattered jets, admitting to the hydroxylatcd mixture, after it has risen above the zone of 1 mixture with the primary air a secondary a carbon by air supply, the volume ofthe secondary air supply substantially exceeding the volume of the primary air'supply, and burning the fuel mixture after the admission of the secondary air supply.

6. The process of burning a hydrocarbon which includes maintaining a supply of liquid hydrocarbon, gasifying such hydrothe radiant heat of combustion, maintaining a mixing zone above said liquid hydrocarbon and delivering into said mixing zone, into the gasified hydrocarbon upwardly rising therethrough, a primary air supply sufiicient to effect its substantially complete hydroxylation while maintaining it substantially throughout at a temperature below that of active combustion, admitting to the hydroxylated mixture, after it has risen above the zone of mixture with the primary air a secondary air supply, the secondary air supply being directed upwardly and inwardly into" the normal path of upward movement of the hy droxylated mixture.

7. The process of combustion which includes providing a gaseous hydrocarbon, hydroxylating such h drocarbonwhile maintaining it substantial y throughout at a temperature below that of'active combustion, conveying such hydroxylated hydrocarbon, from its zone of hydroxylation to a'zone of combustion, admitting air to the hydroxy-' lated hydrocarbon at or near such zone of combustion and burning the hydroxylatcd hydrocarbon,

8. The process of burning a liquid hydrocarbon which includes gasifying said liquid by rocarbon by the heat of combustion, hy roxylatingthe gasified hydrocarbon by the admission of a primary air' supply theretowhile maintaining it substantially throughout at atemperature below that of active combustion, conveying the hydroxylated hydrocarbon from its zone of hydroxylation to a zone of combustion, admitting a secondary air supply to the hydroxylated hydrocarbon at or near such zone of combustion, and burning the hydroxylated hydrocarbon.

9. The process of burning a hydrocarbon which includes providing a gaseous hydrocarbon, hydroxylating such hydrocarbon and,

forming a generally homogeneous hydroxylated mixture while maintaining it substantially throughout at a temperature below that of active combustion, admitting air to such homogeneous hydroxylated mixture, after its hydroxylation, and burning the hydroxylated hydrocarbon after such admittance of air. 7

10. The process of burning a hydrocarbon which includes providing a gaseous hydrocarbon, hydrox'ylating the hydrocarbon while maintaining it substantially throughout at a temperature below that of active combustion, admitting a secondary oxygen supply, enveloping the hydroxylated mixture W1th said secondary oxygen supply, and burning the hydroxylatedhydrocarbon after such envelopmentl l 11. The process of burning hydrocarbon which includes maintaining a supply of liquid hydrocarbon, gasifying such hydrocarbon by the radiant heat of combustion, maintaining a mixing zone above said liquid hydrocarbon and delivering into said mixing zone, into the gasified hydrocarbon upwardly rising therethrough, a primary air supply sufiicient to effect its substantially complete hydroxylation while maintaining it substantially throughout at a temperature below that of active combustion, enveloping the hydroxylated mixture, after it has risen above the zone of mixture with the primary air, with a secondaryair supply, and burning the fuel mixture after such envelopment. 12. The process of burning hydrocarbon 1 mixiure fiaere- -012, bmmng 0011 after the m- "W'li0h inc'iudes pmviding gaseous hytlrohnmog emmus hydmzxyiaucarbon, hydmz hydrracmbon with, after its hytlrezcyl forming; genera y hnmagsneous FQIjElETOXD- the hycl'mxyla 'ied nyfimcfi lifted mi e whil a 1L it subsmm ltin'bio'n 05 such sna e;

" 13131 12 3? Signed at Chic? @Qumy bask and J sec- 01E Illinoisv "y" 01 Jun-"5, i922.

Ji-l 1

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2423808A (en) * 1941-02-06 1947-07-08 Miller Co Method of and apparatus for burning liquid fuel
US2517816A (en) * 1944-06-19 1950-08-08 Holland Furnace Co Air admission means and explosion relief safety door for combustion chambers
US2579293A (en) * 1947-08-29 1951-12-18 Breese Burners Inc Pilot for vaporizing burners
US2792879A (en) * 1952-01-29 1957-05-21 Edward A Kassulker Liquid fuel burner
US3045662A (en) * 1959-02-02 1962-07-24 Kohli Benjamin Heating apparatus
US3173389A (en) * 1961-11-13 1965-03-16 Internat Incinerators Inc Incinerators
US3186399A (en) * 1960-12-10 1965-06-01 Peters Josef Tubular oil-heating furnace for vehicles not running on rails
US20130252186A1 (en) * 2012-03-26 2013-09-26 Weiqun Jin Two-chamber gas burner device

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2423808A (en) * 1941-02-06 1947-07-08 Miller Co Method of and apparatus for burning liquid fuel
US2517816A (en) * 1944-06-19 1950-08-08 Holland Furnace Co Air admission means and explosion relief safety door for combustion chambers
US2579293A (en) * 1947-08-29 1951-12-18 Breese Burners Inc Pilot for vaporizing burners
US2792879A (en) * 1952-01-29 1957-05-21 Edward A Kassulker Liquid fuel burner
US3045662A (en) * 1959-02-02 1962-07-24 Kohli Benjamin Heating apparatus
US3186399A (en) * 1960-12-10 1965-06-01 Peters Josef Tubular oil-heating furnace for vehicles not running on rails
US3173389A (en) * 1961-11-13 1965-03-16 Internat Incinerators Inc Incinerators
US20130252186A1 (en) * 2012-03-26 2013-09-26 Weiqun Jin Two-chamber gas burner device
US9091435B2 (en) * 2012-03-26 2015-07-28 Weiqun Jin Two-chamber gas burner device

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