US1438363A - Wind instrument - Google Patents

Wind instrument Download PDF

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US1438363A
US1438363A US49995121A US1438363A US 1438363 A US1438363 A US 1438363A US 49995121 A US49995121 A US 49995121A US 1438363 A US1438363 A US 1438363A
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valve
valves
instrument
passage
ot
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Ernst A Couturier
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Ernst A Couturier
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D7/00General design of wind musical instruments
    • G10D7/10General design of wind musical instruments of the type with a cupped mouthpiece, e.g. cornets, orchestral trumpet, trombone

Description

E. A. COUTURIER.

wmn INSTRUMENT. APPLICATION FILED SEPT. l2 1921.

Patented Dec. 12,1922.

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Patented Dec. 1.2, 19.22.

Patented Dec. 12, 1922.

ERNST A. COUTURIER, OF LAPORTE, INDIANA.

WIND INSTRUMENT.

Application filed September 12, 1921.

T0 aZ w 7mm vit ymay concern:

Be it known that I, ERNs'r A.. Coirrnninn, a citzen ol the United States, residing at Laporte, in the county oi Laporte and State of Indiana, have invented certain new and useful improvements in lV ind Instruments, ol" which the following is a speciiication.

This invention relates in general to Wind instruments and more particularly to valved instruments, and while the principles there- 01"' are applicable to many types of instruments such as orchestra horns, ballad horns, cornets, trumpets, fluegel horns and alto horns, l have selected for illustrative purposes, a French horn in which the principles ot my invention are embodied, as will be later understood.

In instruments of this character, it has heretofore been customary to employ a long mouthpipe which yin the vordinary French horn is eighty inches or more in length betore it enters the first valve chamber. Obviously, an appreciable amount of time is required for the sound Wave produced at the mouthpiece to travel through the mouthpipe to the valve chambers, and consequently, if the valves areina.npulated simultaneously with the production of `the desired tones at the mouthpiece, the control ot the tones by the valves Will not he properly timed with respect to the production of the tones and therefore, the resultant tones delivered `from the instrument will be more or less imperfect, ThisJ lagging of the sound Waves kbetween the mouth piece and the valves can be somewhat corrected by an experienced player. who trom rlongpractfce, is able to par lly conuiensate by his tiuggcring oi' the 'valves Vtor the inherent inaccuracies ot' the instrumer', hut even prolonged practice .is unable to wholly overcome this detect. Auother ilisadvantage ot' the ordinary instrument o'lf this character resides in the fact that by reason of the long mouthpipe the ports orpass'iges through. the valve casing's must he ot consderable size. since the diam eter olf the bore ot the instrument increases with the increase o'tl distance troni the mouthpiece. This large size of the valvepassagres necessitates a longr stroke ot-the yvalve, and in the ordinary French horn. if a piston valve (which is vthe most desirable ot the valves for this purpose) is employed, a stroke ot approximately three-fourths of an inch in length is necessary to completely change the position of the vvalve passages Serial No. 499,951.

with yrespect to their communicating pipes. bviously, such a long stroke is very tiresome for the player, and in rapid Work it r1s almost impossblo 0i attainment.

vshorter stroke, their actfon is sluggish and the liability of imperfect tones is not very materially reducedyby theiruse. Furthermore, if all metal operating mechanism is used, the parts will rattle and cause an objectionable clickingr when playing. It linen threads are used in lieu of metal parts `the threads are apt to break in the midst of a passage, thus rendering the instrument use less as they cannot be quickly replaced.

One of the primary purposes ot' my present invention is to obviate the defects and disadvantages ot instruments ot the character above mentioned, .and with this end in vieu', my invention contemplates the provision of an instrument in which a very short mouthpipe, opening directly into the iii-st valve chamber, is used. This short mouthpipe brings the valves very close to the mouthpiece so that When they are manipulated practically simultaneously with `the production of the tones,as they naturally are by a player, there is `no appreciable lag in the sound waves between the mouthpiece andthe valves and the tones produced are pure and perfect instead ot being damped or prematurely cut off or abnori'nally elongated. as they customarily are in the ordinary instrument.

,'*rnother feature ot .my invention r sides in the vt that by placing* the valves close to the. mouthpiece. the horn oi' the instrument .vhere it enters the valve not nearly so largo as it i. in the ordinary instrument, consequently. the valve passages may be made correspondingly smaller and .the length ot stroke ot the valves is correspondingrly diminished` By reason of this construction. l am able to employ piston valves, which are most desirable in instruments of this character, and by reason of the small passages, the stroke of these valves may e v Lacasse be reduced to 1oint not to exceed approx iinately one-halt inch in length, thus maliing them easy to manipulate by the player and extremely speedy in their action.

Another feature oit' my invention resides in placing the tuning slide beyond the valves, or in other words, between the valves and the bell ot the instrument, as distinti; isheu from placing it in the mouthpipe where it has heretofore been customarily located. Ev tl construction, a rlxed and invariable length of mouthpipe is maintained and the manipulation ot' the valves always in perfect timed relation with the production ot the tones insteadot being; rou..nly approximated and continually varied by the player in an endeavor to compensate tor variations in the length ot the .mouthpipe resulting` from movements ot the slide in tuning; the instrument.

Still another and a very important feature of my invention is the production ot' an instrument in which the bore or the passage through which the sound waves travel will be ci continuously increasing' diameter throughout the entire length ot the instrument tJ-om mouthpiece to bell through the various valves and the valve pipes so that a gradual expansion of the sound waves and an accurate amplification oit the tones is produced irrespective of the position oit the valves, and consequently, irresiective ot any increase in travel oi sound waves throungh the various valve pipes which may he interposed in the sound passage.`

@ther objects and many of the attendant advantages ci my invention. will he readily appreciated as the saine beconiesbetter understood by reference to the following description when considered in connection. with the accompanying; drawings.

Referring to the drawings:

l is side elevation ot an instrument embodying; my invention;

' .2 is a longitudinal sectional view 1 i one or the valves; Tj. n nip; e 1s a sectional view somewhat diagrammatic in character showing the arr pnpjement oi.: the valves and the pipes con nected thereto;

4l is an end elevation ot the .tiret valve showing; the arrangement oi the passar/es therethrough;

5 is a side elevation ot the valve shown in Fig. Ll;

ltigs.` 6 and 7 are plan and side eleva tions of the sec-ond valve.;

llicjs. 6 9 are similar views ot the third valve;

F l() is a side elevation of the valve casing'fs with the various pipes communiu eating therewith, and ll is an exaggerated view of one of the valve pas- Referring now to the drawings more in detail, reference character ll indicates the mouthpiece of the instrument which may be of usual construction, detachably inserted in the receiver l2 carried by a sleeve 13 which embraces and strengthens the mouthpipe proper le'. For convenience, the mouthpipe is preferably made in two sections, the rear section l5 which communicates directly with the rst valve casing being` rigidly and permanently attached thereto and the two sections being united by a ferrule 16. lt will be observed that the mouthpipe communicates directly with the lirst valve chamber without turns or windings and is very short, beingin tact only about one-tenth as long` as the usual mouthpipe heretofore employed. This brings the valves close to the mouthpiece and obviates lagging in the sound. waves between the mouthpiece and the valves. For strengthening purposes, the mouthpipe is preferably attached hy a bracket 17 to one oit the larger convolutions of the instrument.

The tnree valve casing's embodied in this instrument are designated on the drawings in their order as first, second., and third valves, by reference letters B and C respectively, and the valve plunger-s or valves therein are designated respectively a, l) and c. lllhile the valves differ from each other,

will be evident from Tdigs. it to 9 inclusive, the general construction of all ott the valves is similar and l have therefore thought necessary to illustrate but one oil them in detail. and have selected valve A. tor this purpose, which is clearly shown in Fig. 2 to which reference is now made.

T he valve casing1 is tubular in torni and its reduced. upper end receives a snug1 fitting' tei'rule or ring i8 threaded to receive the cap 1.9 through which the valve stein 2l projects, this stem being` equipped at its up, er end with a. finger piece .Q2 provided with a tip or button 23 made olf' pearl or other preferred material. ldlithin the casing` the valve proper, or as it is sometimes termed, the plunger t is adapted to reciprocate and this valve is equipped with tubular pas sageways by which. the soundwaves are conducted to the requisite outlets, as will be eX.- plained more in detail hereafter. The upper end of the valve is closed. by a. top 9.4; into which the lower end of the stem 2l is connected and upward movement oft tl valve is limited by a butler block 25 mad e cork or other light resilient material. ihc lower end of the valve is equipped with a bottom 26 between which and a cap 27 threaded onto the lower end of the casing coiled expansion spring 28 is interposed to normally hold the valve in the elevated position shown in Fig. 2. To facilitate treedorn of movement of the valve within its casing, a vent opening,- a9 is provided. in the llG cap 27. through which air 'may enter and be expelled fromv lthe casing so as to preclude the production of pressure or a partial vacuum in the casing which would retard the action of the valve. In order to maint-ain the valve in alignment with its ports, in other Words, to prevent rotary movement thereof, one side of the casing is provided with a groove 3l adapted to receive the head of a guide 'screvv 32 which` 'travels in the groove during vthe reciprocatory movements of the valve. It should be evident that this type ofreciprocatory valve is direct in action and can be readily manipulated, and since the passages and connecting ports 'of the valves may be made relatively small, a short stroke ofthe valves is sufficient to perfectly align the various lpassages with their respective ports, thereby enabling speedy action of the valve and accurateoperation, which insures laccuracy of tone.

A cross connection 33 connects valve casings A and B and a similar connection 34' connects casings B and C. Casing A also communicates With the first valve pipe of looped formation, comprising the outbranch 3G and the return branch 37. The second valve pipe 38 communicates through the out-branch 39 and the return branch 41 with valve casing B, and the third valve pipe 42 communicates 'through the out-branch 43 and the return branch 44 with the valve casing (l. From casing C the sound waves are delivered into the coiled amplifyingr tube 45 which extends across the coils of the instrument and is provided between tivo parallel portions thereof with a tuning slide 46 telescopically connecting with these portions so that it. may be adjusted in or out to time the instrument. Beyond this second parallel portion 47 the amplifying pipe is coiled upon itself, as will be apparent from Fig. 1 and is gradually enlarged until it finally terminates in the bell 48.

The valves proper a, and o are provided with ports connected by tubular passages, as Vwill be apparent from inspection of li'igs. 4 to 9 inclusive, in which the position and arrangement of the various passages is best shown. The first valve, "that is, valve el, which disposed in casing A, is provided `with the passages 5], 52 and 53. When this valve is in its normal upperposition. as shown in Fig. 2, passage 5l is in alignment with and establishes communication bctween the section 15 of the mouthpipe and cross, connecting1r` pipe 33 leading to the see- Yond valve. When the valve is depressed, passage 52 is broughtinto registration with the monthpipe kand the sound Waves are conducted through this passage into the outbranch 36 of the valve pipe 35, thence baclr through the return branch 37 to the passage 53, t-he upper end of Which-is then in registration with the end of the return branch 37 and thence through this passage 53 into the cross-connection Depression of the valve therefore, interposes in the passage'through the instrument an additional length of 'tubing comprising the valve pipe 35 and the passages 52- and The total length of additional tubing interposed is lthe length 'of valve 4pipe plus the length of passage 52 plus the length of passage minus the length of passage 51.

Valve 'b is provided with passages 54, 55 and 56. Then this valve is in upper position direct communication between cross connecting pipes 33 and 34 is established through the passage 54. lVhen the valve is depressed, the lower end vof passage is brought into registration With 'the cross connection 33 and the sound Waves then travel through passage 55 into the valve pipe 38 through the out-branch l39 and baci: through the return branch 41 to the intake or left yhand end of passage 56 which is then in registrationwith the mouth of the return branch 41 and through this passage 56 the sound Waves are delivered into the cross connection 34.

` Valve c is equipped with passages 5T, 58 and 59. lVlien the valve is in normal upper position the sound Waves are conducted directly from the cross connection 34 through the passage 57 to the amplifier pipe Then this valve is depressed, the Sound Waves are. conducted from cross connection 34 through the passage 5S to the out-branch 43 of valve pipe 42, thence back thru return branch 44 to the upper end of passage 59, and thence through this passage to the amplifier pipe 45. It will be manifest that depression of any of these valves interposes an additional length of pipe or tubing in the bore through the instrument and by depressing one or more of these valves, the required tones are secured.

The bore through the instrument from mouthpiece to bell. lis of progressively increasing diameter irrespective of the position of the valvesn Consequently, each pipe, tube and passage is gradually tapered from its inlet to itsoutlet eud 'and the ratio of taper is such that the cross sectional area of every transverse section of the bore is 'greater than the cross sectional area of 'any outer end, which is the same size as the intalre end of the cross connection 33, so that a gradual expansion of the sound Waves through this passage is permitted. `Wl1en the valve is depressed, however, shutting oli2 the pas age 51 and cutting in passages 52 and 53 and the valve pipe 35, the same aglgre/gate enpansionis provided between the intalre end of passage and the delivery end of passage 53. Consequently, While `the total expansion through these passages4 and the valve pipe is the same as the total expansion. in passage 51, nevertheless the ratio of expansion is obviously much less since the sound Waves must travel through passage 52, valve pipe 35 and passage 53 in order to expand the same amount as they would travelingy directly through the passage 51. Each of the other valves and valve pipes are similarly constructed and prop# erly tapered so that irrespective of the position of the valves a .continuously tapered conical bore is provided entirely through.- out the length of the instrument from mouthpiece to bell. This tapered bore permits a gradual expansion of the sound Waves Without retardation or restriction at any point in their travel, and the result is that each tone is clear, pure and accurate to an extent Which is incapable of attainment in an instrumentembodyingz; either restrictions or cylindrical sections in its length.

lt is believed that my invention and many of its advantageous features will be understood from the foregoing Without 'further description, and While l have shown and described a preferred form, obviously the invention is capable of embodiment in constructions differing materially from that herein illustrated Without departing" from the essence of the invention as delined in the following claims.

ll claim:

l. A valved Wind instrument, comprisinga plurality of valves, valve pipes, a short mouth pipe connected ivith the first of said valves, and a tuning slide disposed in the passage between the valves and the bell ol the instrument, the bore of said instrument through the valves and pipes from mouthpiece to bell being ot progressively increas ing' diameter.

9i. il.. valved vrind instrument, comprising;4 a short mouthpipe of small bore connected directly with the first valve chamber, valve pipes connected with the respective valve chambers` ported valves in said chambers, and an elongated amplilfyinp,- tube leading from the last valve chamber and terminating in a bell, the mouthpipe, ported valves, valve pipes and amplifying tube being` each of progressively increasing diameter Whereincassa a plurality of connected valve casings, a 1

valve pipe communicating at both ends with each valve casing, a ported valve in each casing, an amplifying tube leading from the last casing` and terminating in a bell, and a short mouthpipe of small diameter communicating directly with the first valve casing, all of the passages through said instrument from mouthpiece to bell being of progressively increasing` diameter vto provide a conical bore entirely through the instrument irrespective of the position of the valves.

4. A valved Wind instrument, comprising a short mouthpipe of small bore connected directly With the first valve chamber, valve pipes communicating with the respective valve chambers, ported valves in said chambers, an elongated amplifying tube leading from the last valve chamber, and an adjustable tuning slide interposed in said tube, all of said elements being` constructed to provide from mouthpiece to bell of the instrument a bore of progressively increasingdiameter irrespective of the position of the various valves.V

5. A valved vvind'instrument, comprising three valve chambers arranged in transverse alignment, a short mouth pipe connected to the first chamber a ta aered ipe connect-ino' a l l) a the first and second chambers, a tapered pipe connecting the second and third chambers, a tapered ampiifying` tube leading` from said third chamber, tapered valve pipes communicating` vvitli said chambers respectively, and `a ported valve in 'each chamber, each valve havingv tapered passages disposed transversely thereof and forming portions of a continuously tapered passage extending from mouth piece to bell of the instrument.

6. A valved Wind instrument, comprising; a plurality of valve chambers arranged in transverse i alignment, a shortv mouth pipe connected to the first chamber, tapered pipes connecting` the hrst and second and second and third chambers, a tapered amplifying' tube leading from said third chamber, a valve in each of said chambers, each valve beingprovided with a plurality of tapered passages, and tapered. valve pipes communicating vvith said chambers respectively, the taper or enlargement of one of said valve aassages in each valve being,a equal to the aggregatey taper or enlargement or the other passages in said valve plus the valve pipe with which said last mentioned. passages are adapted to communicate.

ERNST A. CGUTURIER.

US1438363A 1921-09-12 1921-09-12 Wind instrument Expired - Lifetime US1438363A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE4425083A1 (en) * 1994-07-15 1996-01-18 Joseph Stengel Musical wind instrument with valves

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE4425083A1 (en) * 1994-07-15 1996-01-18 Joseph Stengel Musical wind instrument with valves

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