US1407313A - Apparatus for electrolysis - Google Patents

Apparatus for electrolysis Download PDF

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US1407313A
US1407313A US277175A US27717519A US1407313A US 1407313 A US1407313 A US 1407313A US 277175 A US277175 A US 277175A US 27717519 A US27717519 A US 27717519A US 1407313 A US1407313 A US 1407313A
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cathode
cell
anodes
anode
cathodes
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Edward A Allen
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25BELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COMPOUNDS OR NON-METALS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25B9/00Cells or assemblies of cells; Constructional parts of cells; Assemblies of constructional parts, e.g. electrode-diaphragm assemblies; Process-related cell features
    • C25B9/17Cells comprising dimensionally-stable non-movable electrodes; Assemblies of constructional parts thereof
    • C25B9/19Cells comprising dimensionally-stable non-movable electrodes; Assemblies of constructional parts thereof with diaphragms
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25BELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COMPOUNDS OR NON-METALS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25B9/00Cells or assemblies of cells; Constructional parts of cells; Assemblies of constructional parts, e.g. electrode-diaphragm assemblies; Process-related cell features
    • C25B9/70Assemblies comprising two or more cells

Description

E. A. ALLEN.
APPARATUS FOR ELECTROLYSIS.
APPLICATION FILED FEB. 15, 1919. RENEWED ocr. 21. 1921 1,407,.3 l 3. Patented Feb. 21; 1922.
. flforzgggi E. A. ALLEN.
APPARATUS FOR ELECTROLYSIS.
APPLICATION FILED FEB, 15. 1919 RENEWED OCT. 21. 1921 1,407,313. A Patented Feb. 21, 1922.
3 SHEETSSHEET 2 I? 6% 9150 r Edward efl, JZZZWE E. A. ALLEN.
APPARATUS FOR ELECTROLYSIS. APPLICATION FILED FEBI5,II919. RENEWED OCT. 21, 1921 1,407,313, I r I Patented Feb.21,1-922.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
w f I E f I I III m w w yv PATENT OFFIGE.
EDWARD A.. ALLEN, OE PORTLAND, MAINE.
APPARATUS FOR ELECTROLYSIS.
To all whom it may concern.
Be it known that I, EDWARD A.'ALLEN, a citizen of the United States, residing at Portland, in the county of Cumberland and State of Maine, have invented new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for Electrolysis, of which the following is a specification. 7
The present invention isconcerned with apparatus for: decomposing compounds by electrolysis and obtaining desired elements or derivatives of such compounds, or both elements and derivatives thereof; and it is embodied in an electrolytic cell, and in groups or batteries of such cells with connections between them and with a source of electrical energy. I can best set forth the purposes and characteristics of the invention by description and explanation of the special embodiment of such invention which is illustrated in the drawings furnished herewith as part of this specification.
In the drawings here referred to, Figure 1 is a plan view of a unitary collection-of cells and of the current conducting connections between such unit and adjacent units and the source of electric current. Figure 2 is an end elevation of the same unit collection. Fi re 3 is a cross section on line 3-3 of Flgure 1. Figure 4 is a longitudinal section of the same on line 44 of Figure 1. Figure 5 is a perspective View of a fragment of one of the associated anode guides. Figure 6 is a perspective view of one of the clamp plates or grids forming; a part of the cell structure. Figure 7 isa perspective view of the parts of one of the cathode elements prior to the final assembly thereof. Figure v8 is a perspective view of one of the clips used for making connection between an anode and a conductor. Figures 9 and 10 are elevations as seen from directions at right angles to one another of the top of the cell unit, showing a modified form of electrical connection for the same purpose.
The same .reference characters indicate the same "parts in all the figures.
The unit which I am about to describe contains in one structure a plurality of cells.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Feb. 21, 1922.
Application filed February 15, 1919, Serial No. 277,175. Renewed October 21, 1921 Serial No. 509,400i-.
and maintenance. I have shown for illustration the form which according to my present ideas combines the greatest number of advantages, and consists of four cells, havlng their individual anodes and cathodes assembled in one unit structure.
This unit-construction comprises a single box or case 11, which I call the cathode chamber, cathodes 12 contained in this chamber, an anode chamber 13, and anodes 14 passing through the anode chamber into thenecessary strength and fluid-holding quali The anode chamber here illustrated consists of slabs 15 and 16 forming side walls, slabs 17 and 18 providing the end walls, a cover slab 19 having openings to admit the anodes, cross bars 20 mortised at their ends into the side walls, top and bottom clamp plates 21 and 22 having lugs 23, and tie rods 24 with clamp nuts 25 on their ends and engaged with said lugs. The slabs 15, 16, 17,18, and 19, and the bars 20 are preferably made of slate, as that is a material having insulating qualities, suflicient strength and rigidity for the purpose, and capable of being shaped and finished so as to make tight joints between the contiguous surfaces of the several parts. I would observe, however, that I do not limit my protection to the use of slate for these parts, but include within the scope of such protection, except as otherwise indicated by the express language of the claims,- any material and any manner of construction for the anode chamber which may be utilized in such a construction as that described and enables the anodes to be insulated from the cathodes.
The clamp plates are grid-like metallic structures preferably made of cast iron, although they may be made of other materials,
and by other methods than casting, possessing a rectangular frame, which registers with the side and end walls of the anode chamber, and crossbars 26 which are regularly spaced to leave a number of wide openings 27, as shown best by the representation of the plate 22 in Figure 6.
The cathodes are tubular structures of dimensions and cross sectional outline adapting them to fit freely in and pass through the openings 27 of the lower clamp plate. They have lips or flanges 28, 28 and 29, 29 on their upper ends adapted to overlie and rest upon the bottom plate around the rims of the several openings 27. These cathode members are necessarily of conducting material, preferably soft iron, and they are perforated to permit flow of electrolyte.
A preferred construction of cathode is shown in Figure 7, being made of two parts 12 and 12", each being a blank cut from a thin sheet of metal with the ends bent up at right angles. Each of these parts has on one edge of its wide central portion an out turned flange 28, and one of them has on the adjacent edges of its turned up ends the flanges 29 previously referred to. The upturned ends or wings of one of the parts are spaced just enough wider apart than the wings of the other member to embrace such wings between them, whereby the two parts may be placed together so as to make in effect a rectangular tube having a substantially continuous lip at one end, and having the narrower side walls of double thickness. in which the cathode may be made, and while I claim the characteristics thus made as part of my invention, I do not limit the protection here sought exclusively thereto. Any construction is within the protection here sought which provides a substantially tubular cathode, whatever may be its outline in cross section, which is adapted to be supported in substantially the manner hereinafter described, and has the other characteristics pointed out in the claims. The perforations previously mentioned are indicated at 30 in Figure 7. It is to be understood that substantially the entire walls of the cathode are thus perforated, although I have not attempted to show all the perforations.
The tubular cathodes are lined with sheets 31 of insulating material which is sufliciently porous or pervious to the electrolyte to permit flow of the latter to the perforations in the walls of the cathode. Asbestos paper is preferred as the material for this purpose, although I may use any other material having the requisite qualities. When the diaphragms or lining sheets last described are of the material named, or other flexible material, their upper edges are bent over the flanges 28 and 29 of the cathode so as to overlie the same and provide compressible packings between the same and the walls of the anode chamber. The lower ends of the cathode tubes are closed by bottoms 32 of in- This, however, is only one of the ways.
sulating material, preferably blocks of wood, which are fitted to the walls of the cathodes and hold the lower ends of the aforesaid linings or diaphragms in place, also making tight enough joints with such walls to compel substantially all of the electrolyte which flows through the cell to pass through the perforations in the cathode walls. These bottoms or plugs are made fast in the cathodes by clamping means consisting of bars 33 laid against the longer sides of the cathode members, and bolts 34 passing through said bars and having nuts on their ends.
The cathodes are assembled with the anode chamber by passing them through the openings 27 in the lower clamp plate 22, setting up the walls and crossbars 20 of the anode chamber upon the flanges of said cathodes, laying the cover plate or slab 19 of the chamber on top of the walls, and the top clamp plate 21 on the cover, and then making all fast by placing the tie rods 24: in the lugs of the clamp plates and setting up the nuts on said tie rods. A sufficient number of lugs are provided on the clamp plates, as shown in Figures 1 and 6 in the positions required to tie the parts together securely; and the lugs are preferably made with open slots to enable these tie rods to be easily and v quickly put in place. The turned over edges of the diaphragms30, as already indicated, provide packings between the cathodes and the walls of the anode chamber, and in addition there may be other packings between such walls and the clamp plate 22, and also, if needed, between the walls and cover of the anode chamber, to stop leakage of liquid or air at the joints between these parts. And preferably also the contiguous faces on the upper edge of the cathode chamber 11 and the under side of the lower clamp plate are finished accurately, and a packing 35 is there inserted to make a leakage tight joint. But thevcathodes come into direct contact with the lower clamp plate 22 and make electrically conducting contact therewith, inasmuch as both this plate and the cathodes are of metal.
The anodes 14 are passed through the openings in the top and bottom clamp plates, and also through openings in the cover 19 of the anode chamber into the interior of the respective cathodes. Such anodes are preferably of carbon made in the form of flat bars. I have designed the cell to take standard forms and sizes of such bars, making the cathodes of such width as to admit two bars arranged side by side, and to provide a clear space on each side of the bars. The latter are supported on the cathode bottoms a sufficient distance above such bottoms to avoid danger of short circuiting by accumulation of conducting matter which may be detached from the carbons or precipitated from the electrolyte and settled upon the bottom plugs. A suitable means for thus supporting the anodes comprises strips 36 and 37 of.
glass, porcelain, slate, hard rubber, or other insulating material set edgewise upon the bottom pieces both longitudinally and across the same, and conveniently secured in the edgewise upright position by entering properly formed and located grooves in the blocks, as shown in Figures 3 and 4. The anodes are further guided into position and held out of contactwith the sides of the anode tubes by ide bars 38, one of which is shown in detall in Figure 5, which occupy the corners of the cathode tube and have channels 39 located to receive the outer corners of the anodes. The inner or adjacent corners of the anodes may be engaged and positioned by spacer bars 40 adapted to be set against the side of the cathode, and having two channels to receive the ad acent corners of the anodes and a rib between such channels rojecting between the anodes and holding t em apart from one another; but either or all of these guiding and spacing bars may be omitted if desire The openings in the cover plate of the anode chamber through which the anodes pass are substantially alined with the open- 1ngs of the clamp plates, but are of less dimensions than such openings in order to insure that the anodes will not come in contact with the top clamp plate. When the anodes are in place the openings in the'top plate are closed by acking material 41 or a sealing substance of any desired sort in or der to prevent entrance of air to the interior of the cell at these points. When renewal of the anodes is required this acking or sealing substance may be readi y removed, and thereafter readily replaced or substituted. By means thereof, and of the fluid tight construction of the cell as previously described, it is made ossible to operate the cell under vacuum, t at is, with its internal pressure less than atmospheric.
It will havebeen appreciated from the foregoing description that the cathodes are suspended from the anode chamber, that the anodes are supported in the cathode tubes, but the anode chamber and cathode tubes are assembled in a rigid unit construction, and that this construction is not permanently secured to the casing or box 11, nor in this particular construction secured to such box at all. Thus the upper structure can be.
lifted from the box at any time.
Each cathode with its contained anode forms essentially one cell, but the casing enclosure is constructed to contain within one set of enclosing walls, a number of such cells, which number may be relatively large.
' Thereby the capacity of the cell is increased without correspondlng, increase in its bulk and weight. That is, by this invention I have provided a means wherein the effect of a multiplicity of cells is obtained in a construction which is more compact and less expensive in first cost and maintenance than any possible collection of single/cells, each having its individual shell or case and collectively having the same capacity, can possibly be. The design also is such as to give a very large area of electrode surface, with narrow spaces between the complemental anodes and cathodes, whereby the internal efliciency of the cell is made very high: The diaphragms 31 are in effect porous partitions separating the electrolyte, which may also be* called the anode liquor, from the product of the electrolysis, which may be called the cathode liquor, in order to prevent recombination of the product with the electrolyte. Such partitions enclose compartments which are in communication with and essential parts of the anode chamber, but are offset in a manner causing them to enter the cathode chamber whereby the above described large area of opposed surfaces of anode and cathode is afforded in a compact structure having relatively small bulk. All 90. of the anodes are contained in the same common anode chamber and severally occupy the said ofiset or projecting compartments thereof; while such compartments and the cathodes complemental to the several anodes are all contained in the one common cathode chamber.
Without intending thereby to indicate, a limitation in the scope for which'I claim pro- 7 tection, I may give illustrative. dimensions and sizes as follows for a cell embodying this invention which is practically operative in a satisfactory manner. In such cell the boxor case has dimensions of 21% inches long, 18%,- inches wide and 22 inches deep, being made of cast iron with walls one-half inch a thick and with an inwardly directed flange at its upper edge. The anode chamber has the same length and width and a height of 8?; inches, made of walls which are approximately 1% inches in thickness; the cathode tubes are 21 inches long with transverse dimensions of 15;}; inches by 3 inches, and the flanges on the top edges thereof about inch wide. The clamp plates are ,5 of an inch thick, and the anodes 2 inches by 7 inches in transverse dimensions and 30 inches long.
-I will now describe the electrical connections by which current is conveyed to and from the anodes and cathodes. Referring to-Figures 1, 3, and 4, 43 and 44 represent 'the main leads or omnibus bars of one cell unit, the bar 43 being laid upon the lugs at one side of the top clamp plate and secured thereto by the upper clamping nuts 25, and the bar 44 supported either by the next cell unit or by other means. Inasmuch as both clamp plates and the tie bars 24 are of iron or steel, or other metal, and are therefore conductors, the bar 43 is thereby put into electrical connection with the cathodes. The other bar 44 is connected to all of the anodes of the cell unit in paralled by conductors 45, the latter preferabl being flat strips, although they may be any other character. Each of the conductors 45 is secured to the bar43 by a clamp bolt 46 passing through slots in these members which cross one another and thereby pennit adjustment of the connections either lengthwise or crosswise.
For connecting the conductors with the individual anodes, I have designed a clip which is adapted to permit quick and easy connection to and disconnection from both the anode and the conductor, and the preferred form of which is shown in detail in Figure 8. This clip comprises two pieces 47 and 48'bent or otherwise shaped to form jaws 49, 50 adapted to embrace the conductor, and other jaws 51, 52 on their opposite ends spread more widely apart so as to grip the end of the anode. A bolt 53 is passed through these pieces between their jaw ends and receives a wing nut 54, by turning of which the jaws may be tightened or relaxed. The clip thus is adapted to be easily fitted to conductors and anodes which vary considerably in width, and to be slipped easily on or off from the same. When the conductior is a flat bar of ribbon stock, it is preferably twisted through a quarter turn at some point between the bar 44 and the nearer anode, so that it will lie flatwise against the bar and be presented edgewise toward the anode in order most elliciently to be engaged with the clip.
A modified form of connection is shown in Figures 9 and 10, in which the conductor 45 is laid fiat upon the top ends of the anodes and is secured by screws 55 passed through the conductor into threaded holes in the anodes.
Assuming that the bar 44 is connected to the positive terminal of a battery or generator circuit, or of any source of electrical energy, and that the bar 43 is connected to the negative terminal of such circuit, then current passes to all of the anodes in the said unit, and from the latter through the electrolyte to the cathodes, in parallel. But it is not necessary that each unit be connected alone in the electrical circuit, for these units are capable of being coupled in an indefinitely extended series, and the electrical connections above described are adapted particularly for so coupling them.
Therefore the bar 43 is extended at one' end beyond the casing, and is ofi'set either laterally or vertically, or both laterally and vertically on the diagonal, and is continued on for a distance substantially equal to the bar 44. The part thus extended is adapted to be connected with the anodes of the next cell unit in the series in the same manner that the bar 44 isconnected with the anodes amie.
of the cell already described, as shown in Figure 1. The ofisetting of the bar in the manner described enables it to pass clear of the" negative omnibus bar of the next cell, when the two cells are properly placed. Similarly the bar 44 alread described may be considered as a like continuation or extension of the negative bus bar of a cell next preceding in the series, although such cell is not here shown. Thus the invention includes an improved means for connecting the electrodes of'the cell in the electrical power circuit, and as a part of such means, an extended bar which is at one end the positive lead for one cell and at the opposite end is the negative lead for a preceding cell.
One of the uses for which the cell above described is particularly well adapted is that of making chlorine gas and caustic soda from an aqueous solution of common salt. In this use chlorine collects in the upper part of the anode chamber, from which it is led away by a pipe 56, which may be set in any desired position; while caustic soda is withdrawn from a pipe 57 at the bottom. It is of advantage to operate the cell under vacuum, as thereby the life of the diaphragms within the cathode tubes is largely extended, and when it is so operated, a suitable trap will be provided for receiving the discharge from the pipe 57 and preventing infiow of air. l have not shown any such trap here, since traps satisfactory for the purpose are already available in the open market and I may use any one of a number of such traps. Substantially any steam or vacuum trap which is not dependent upon temperature variations for its operation will serve my purpose here. N ipple 58 through the bottoms of the cathode tubes, and pipes 59 leading therefrom, are provided to carry away outside of the cell any sediment which may collect on such bottoms.
For replenishing the electrolyte ll provide a filling tube or supply well 60 which is mounted on the outside of the cell and is provided with a laterally projecting branch 61 which passes through the wall of the anode chamber and is packed or sealed therein. Any suitable means in addition to this branch outlet may be provided if desired for supporting the well. The well is further a gage showing the height of liquid within the cell, and for that purpose it ma be of glass or other transparent material to permit viewing of the liquid level directly; and l may use in connection with it a float 62 carrying a visible indicator 63, and in that case the well need not be transparent in an part.
This particular cel having four cathodes or compartments has been designed to carry one thousand .amperes of current; but by enlarging the unit and providing more than the number of cathodes here shown, it can be made to run at a greater load up to any reasonable limit desired. As I have alread said, the number of cell pairs, (by which l mean the complemental anode and cathode providing the essential parts of a 'cell) may be greatly enlarged over that here shown within limits fixed only by the allowable weight and bulk of the unit structure.
Among the advantages and useful fea tures of the cell embodying the invention hereinbefore described are the following; lower first cost in proportion to capacity, less floor space occupied by units of given capacity, and therefore lower cost for buildin and lower cost of maintenance, all due to the fact that a number ofcell pairs are contained in the same box or case; the fact that the construction permits shipment of the cell from its place of origin all set up and ready to run; long life of the'diaphragms due to operation under vacuumy the fact that the cell is self-contained and its construction prevents danger of leakage of its contents; low cost of wiring due to the invention in the electrical connections above described; its strength and rigidity, making it substantially indestructible; its flexibility, due to the fact that the cell canbe made to conform to any available current; and its beauty of design. I
What I claim and desire to secure by Let ters Patent is:
1. An electrolytic cell structure, comprising a unit casing and a plurality of cell pairs contained within said casing, each of said pairs consisting of an anode and a cathode.
2. An electrolytic cell unit comprising a plurality of cell pairs each havin an anode and a complemental cathode, an a box or chamber containin electrolyte, and means for su porting sai cell pairs in a manner such t at they dip into such electrolyte. t
3. An electrolytic cell comprising a casing, a cathode formed as a metallic tube supported within said casing and having a bottom, and an anode occupying the interior of said tube and sup orted by said bottom but insulated from t 0 tube.
4. An electrolytic cell comprisin a box forming a cathode chamber, an ano e chamber supported on said cathode chamber, a cathode secured to the anode chamber and projecting therefrom into the cathode chamber, said cathode being of tubular form having perforated meta-l walls and a non-metalli'cbottom, and an anode supported by said bottom and extending thence through the anode chamber and out from the anode chamber. I
' 5. In an electrolytic cell a metal tube having perforated walls, an insulating bottom within said tube, a pervious insulating linin within the tube, means for supporting said tubeby its upper end, and an anode contained in said tube and supported by the bottom thereof, said tube being a cathode in the same circuit with the anode.
6. An electrolytic cell comprising a box forming a cathode chamber, 'a second box forming an anode chamber superposed upon the first named box and having as its bottom member a plate provided with a number of openings, metal tubular cathodes passing through said openings into the cathode chamber and having flanges .at their upper ends bearing upon the plate beside the openings, and anodes located in the interior of the several cathodes, and being connected to the positive side of an electric circuit, of which the negative side is connected to the cathodes. 7. An electrolytic cell unit comprised by a box or cathode chamber, a metal plate hav-' 1ng opnings supported upon said box and extending over the top of the same tubular cathodes passin through said openings into the interior of t e box and having flanges lymg over and resting upon the plate, an anode chamber comprlsed by walls supported by said plate and intermediate crossbars, said walls and crossbars bearin upon the flanges of the cathodes and securing the latter in place, a second plate overlying the top of said anode chamber, tie members engaged with both plates connecting the latter and the interposed anode chamber in a rigid structure, with the aforesaid cathodes secured thereto, and anodes contained partly in the interior of said cathodes and partly in said anode chamber.
8. An electrolytic cell comprising a hermetically sealed casing, a tubular metal cathode closed at one end and having perforated walls, an anode within the cathode out of contact with the walls thereof, means for admittin electrolyte to thecell, and means for wit drawing electrolyte from the cell, the cathode bein arran ed with respect to the admission-an withd rawal means to cause flow of the electrolyte into its interior through one end and out through the perforations in its walls. 1
9. An electrolytic cell comprising a case adapted to contain electrolyte and having means in its upper part for admission, and means in its lowerpart for withdrawal of electrolyte, a tubular cathode having a closed bottom and an .open upper end and perforated side walls supported in said casmg in its open end below the n'ormallevel of electrolyte, and an anode contained within the interior of said cathode out of contact with the walls thereof. 10. In an electrolytic cell a tubular cathode formed of two pieces of sheet metal having their opposite ends bent up to form wings, and being assembled with the wings of one overla ping the wings of the other.
11. 11 an electro ytlc cell, an electrode pair comprising a tu ular metallic cathode,
a bottom piece secured in one end of said cathode, an insulating support upon and rising from said bottom piece, and an anode within said tubular cathode resting on said support and extending longitudinally throu h the cathode.
12. 11 an electrolytic cell, an electrode pair comprising a tubular metallic cathode, a bottom piece secured in one end of said cathode, an insulating support upon, and rising from said bottom piece, and an anode withln said tubular cathode resting on said support and extending longitudinally through the cathode, and insulating spacers or guides interposed between the anode and the walls of the cathode in positions where they hold the anode out of contact with said walls.
13. An electrolytic cell comprising a casing, a, metallic plate interposed transversely between parts of said casing and having a number of openings, tubular cathode members passing through said openings and con nected electrically with said plate, an 0111- nibus conductor in electrical connection with said plate, a plurality of anodes each contained in the interior of one of said cathodes and protruding from the top of the casing, a second omnibus bar, and conductors secured to the several protruding anodes and joined to said second bar; in combination with a second cell having corresponding anodes, cathodes, and omnibus bars and on which the bar corresponding to the aforesaid second omnibus bar is an extension of the first named omnibus bar of the said first cell.
14. An electrolytic cell comprising a box,-
in electrical connection through the clamping means and the lower clamp plate with the cathodes, the anodes contained in the interior of the several tubular cathodes and projecting through the first named, box above the upper clamp plate, being insulated therefrom and from the cathodes, conductors attached to the several anodes, and a second omnibus conductor to which all of the last-named conductors are secured.
15. A unit anode chamber having a plurality of cell pairs each consisting of a tubular cathode and an anode therein, and a cathode chamber upon which said anode chamber is mounted removably and into which said cell pairs project.
In testimony whereof I- have affixed my signature.
EDWARD A. ALLEN.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3461057A (en) * 1964-08-20 1969-08-12 Georgy Mikirtychevich Kamarjan Diaphragm electrolyzer for production of chlorine,hydrogen and alkalies

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3461057A (en) * 1964-08-20 1969-08-12 Georgy Mikirtychevich Kamarjan Diaphragm electrolyzer for production of chlorine,hydrogen and alkalies

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