US1345756A - Talking-machine - Google Patents

Talking-machine Download PDF

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US1345756A
US1345756A US79218A US7921816A US1345756A US 1345756 A US1345756 A US 1345756A US 79218 A US79218 A US 79218A US 7921816 A US7921816 A US 7921816A US 1345756 A US1345756 A US 1345756A
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groove
record
needle
stylus
point
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US79218A
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Victor H Emerson
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Emerson Radio Corp
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Emerson Phonograph Inc
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B3/00Recording by mechanical cutting, deforming or pressing, e.g. of grooves or pits; Reproducing by mechanical sensing; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B3/44Styli, e.g. sapphire, diamond
    • G11B3/46Constructions or forms Disposition or mounting, e.g. attachment of point to shank

Description

V M. IEMIERSOWM TALKING MACHINE, APPLICATION {FILED FEB."18. 19m,
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llt'l EMERSON lPHlIll ltlGrhtAlPl-l ll'lfllltlhl.
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hpcciiication oi Itetters Ill-latent.
Patented alla e, roan Application filed ltebruary 1t, lhlt. 'flerial ltc. 'lttttlti.
new and useful Improvements in 'lalking' Machines, of which the following is a specitication. 1
My invention relates to talking machines in and has for an object to provide improved means for reproducing sounds from record grooves.
Another object of my invention is to pro vide means for supportingthe reproducing ltl needle of a sound box in such manner relative to a record groove that a side wall of the groove'may be brought into play to vibrats the needle orother similarly acting point in reproducing sounds.
ll further object of my invention is to provide means for so holding a needle in reproducing from sound record grooves that it may if desired be applied interchangeably to either wall of a record groove with which it operates, so as to prolong the period of usefulness of a record. a
ll it All further object of my invention is "to provide a talking machine in which the repr duci-ng point may be made to vibrate latertill ally in connection with sound records having the so-called vertically undulatory groove, the same as when employed with a laterally undulating groove.
lilenerically considered, my improvement:
comprises means for holding the repro ducing style or needle at a predetermined sidewise inclination relative to the plane of the record groove, so that the reproducing point may vibrate laterally whether applied ttl to a type of groove the characteristic undulations of which are similarly, that is, later ally disposed, as in the zigzag or Berliner type, or whether the vertically undulating type of groove be used therewith as found it in the llldison type of record,
l-leretofore, when employing the last above mentioned type of groove which, as pointed out, is characterized by vertical undulations, and is familiarly lrnown in the art to as the up-and-down groove, it has been the universal. practice to hold the recording point in connection with such a groove in a position designed to confine its vibrations within the vertical longitudinal plane there of. This result has been accomplished by practised in either of holding the vibrating point of the needle in such manner that it may oscillate perpendicularly to the surface of the groove, as in the earller practice in connection with cylindrical records, or to vibrate in a line inclined to the perpendicular but disposed within the vertical longitudinal plane of the groove, as more recently followed; or, to designate the latter action with greater minuteness as to the line of travel of the producing point, it may be said to describe 1n the vertical plane a microscopic are con centric with the pivotal axis of the stylus lever. Yet in operating a stylus in connec tion with a vertically undulating groove as said forms prior to my invention, the extreme point of the recording or reproducing needle may be said to rise and fall, whether it moves vertically or obliquely, as described, to produce what are known in the art as vertical vibrations of the stylus.
Likewise, both in recording sound. waves in a laterally undulating groove and in reproducing therefrom, the stylus point has heretofore been employed only in lateral vibratory action, the extreme point thereof traveling in a strictly horizontal plane as it 'traces its course within the groove of the record tablet; and in reproducing from both types of grooves a style is ern-- ployed of substantially the size and shape, in its crosssectional area, as the tool which originally cut the respective grooves.
lilence, as the reproducing stylus vibrates through either type of groove it runs along and bears upon the bottom and both. sides throughout the length thereof, thus cred up; a frictional contact with all surfaces of the groove that produces numerous sc noises which mar to a greater or less eatent the purity of the sounds sought to be reproduced thereby. lt has at all times been recognized by enperimentation in the phone graphic art that such frictional contact is excessive, but to obtain the full efficiency of the vibratory action of the vertically posed reproducing point as they have in variably been employed in the grooves, it
has been found necessary to have the point thereof thus extend to and bear upon the bottom of the groove, in which position, as pointed out, the sides of the needle hear equally against the respective side walls of the groove.
till
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It tl By the simple means, therefore, of constructing the sound box supporting arm of my mechanism so as to hold the needle at an angle to the groove, preferably inclined at approximately forty-five degrees relatively to the perpendicular plane thereof, the reproducing point will thus not come into contact with the bottom of the groove at any period of its vibrations. The style on the contrary will rest upon the side wall of the groove while the extreme point bears against the other wall, the two sides of the groove being made to sustain the entire weight of those members in the same manner as does the bottom of the groove when the style is held vertically as heretofore practised.
Having reference to the drawings illustrative of a preferred embodiment of my invention:
Figure 1 is a partial plan of a talking machine showing a disk record and a sound box held in position to operate therewith;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged partial view of a record having'a style point entering the groove thereof as shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view on line 3-3 of Fig. 2; and
Figs. t and 5 are similar views of the record shown in Figs. 3 and 2, with explanatory lines, and with the reproducing needle replaced by a recording stylus in Fig. 4. i
The embodiment of my invention which is illustrated in the drawings is shown in connection with one type of groove only, namely, that to which reference has been made as the Edison vertical record groove; also, it will be seen, this form of my improvement is shown in one of two similar positions in either of which it may be em ployed with the vertical type of groove illustrated and also with the laterally undulating form of record groove (not shown), to which reference has also been made.
Referring again to the drawings, A represents the top of the phonographic mechanism to which my invention relates, which may be any type of talking machine, although the present form of my improvement is illustrated in connection with the disk type of machine. The table A is shown in partial plan view above which is shown a disk sound record 1 supported upon the usual turn-table mechanism the upright shaft. or stud of which is seen at the center of the disk. The turntable of which the stud shown at the center of the record disk 1, is an integral part, is rotated in the ordinary manner of phonographs, and in the face of the disk is shown the groove 2 in the usual spiral form of disk records upon which rests the sound-box 8 secured to the free end of swinging tone arm 9.
The sound-box 8 employed in connection res 'iectively;
with my invention is a familiar type of phonographic speakers, having the usual diaphragm and a reproducing needle 0 constituting the end of a vibratile lever which is held in a plane substantially parallel with that of the diaphragn'l. ln many types of sound box constructions the needle end of the vibrating lever is inclined at various angles to the plane of the diaphragm, as it projects from the pivotal axis of the style lever.
But whatever type of speaker may be employed in the practice of my invention, that member should be so adjusted that thereby it will be brought into the relative position of the needle (3, as illustrated in the drawings in connection with the groove 2 of the sound record 1. (See Figs. 1, L and 1 Thus the sound box is, in the form shown, integrally attached to the end of the tone arm 9 which in turn is pivotally attached to the table A so as to be maintained in a definite position as it swings horizontally over the face of the record 1, which also is supported horizontally on the table of the talking machine.
The speaker or shown, be attached whose inner tube communicates with the chamber of the sound box, or it may be otherwise supported as seen in many forms of talking machines, it being considered important only to point out in this connection that the sound box should b attached to its supporting means in such manner that it may be rotatably adjusted upon the longitudinal axis thereof into a position in which the needle (3 stands on the record disposed within a plane that is inclined at substantially 45 to the vertical longitudinal plane of the groove.
The needle (3, when held laterally inclined in the manner described, rests with its lowermost side bearing upon the side wall 4 of the groove 2 and using that side of the groove as a fulcrum, raises the extreme point 7 of the needle into contact with the opposite wall 5 of the groove. lf now the record is rotated in the usual manner to cause the groove to pass under the needle, the undulations along the side 4- will cause the needle to vibrate laterally while the corresponding vibrations of the other wall .3 will impart similar vibratory impulses to the needle 6, but in the direction of the longitudinal axis thereof. Inasmuch as the sound-box 8 is so designed and constructed that the needle (3 is adapted to communicate in the usual manner its laterally vibratory movements directly to the diaphragm, it will therefore be seen that by the simple device of inclining the needle in the manner described a vertically undulating groove may be made to reproduce the sounds rcsound box 8 may, as
directly to a tone arm ti inseam/5e them into single impulses upon the air hav-' ing the frequencies of vibration corresponding to each and the united strength of both terms of vib 'atory action.
The added impulses above described increase the volume of the tone and to a like extent affect the qualities of the vibrations of a sound box held in the prescribed manner when used with different types of hit titi
grooves, but such improvement in tone properties is more appreciable in connection with records having a vertically undulating groove that has been formed by the usual round-nosed or V-shaped cutting tool and which therefore increases or decreases in width in the same proportion as it varies in depth.
To illustrate with greater clearness the features of the vertically undulatory type oi groove now under consideration, Figs. a and 5 have been added to the drawings on which intersecting lines of three imaginary planes have been projected, which planes are conceived ascutting the groove 2 vertically. llhat is, the position of a vertical plane centrally disposed as to the groove of the record 1 is shown on the respective lines tL-t] in both of said figures, and the positions of two transversely disposed vertical planes are indicated as intersecting the suriiace oi the record containing the groove on lines ltd-19 and D-l) respectively, at Fig. 5: the line l)-l) in Fig. l re1' resenting the point of intersection of the plane shown in the similarly indicated line DD in Fig.
lln Fig. 4t the nose of the li -shaped cutting style 10 is shown resting in the groove at a position, it may be assumed, in which its cutting edge coincides with the plane ill-4D in Fig. 5, where (Z reprehents the point at which one side of the style cuts the surface plane of the groove and, likewise, the point of contact with the style at the bottom oi the groove in the same position, may be indicated by the character 0. tlhould the style then be moved forward into the parallel position designated by the line D it), at which the groove is both wider and deeper, the point of contact between the side oi the style with the surface of the record may tilt similarly be marked bythe character cl and the bottom by Referring then to Fig. l, in comparison with Fig. 3, it will be seen that the needle 6, in the latter figure, is resting at a point in the groove corresponding to that marked by the character (Z in Figs. L and 5, and if the record be caused to move under the needle held in the same position against the side alof the groove, it will thereupon drop to the point marked by the character d in said figures; and it will be observed, the distance from the point (Z to the point d measured upon the line D-l) of Fig. t, indicates an amount of movement equal to the vertical distance measured from c to 0' upon the line C-C of said figure. l/Vhile the lateral movement oi? the needle is'thus passing from the first mentioned to the latter position is, as a matter of fact, not measured upon the line D-D but upon a line substantially perpendicular to the wall of the groove, yet the diflierence is slight comparatively and its eil'ect may therefore be eliminated from the present consideration oi the relative action of the sides and bottom oi the groove upon the reproducing style.
Thus at all points along the groove 2 the horizontal distances, which may be used to measure the amplitude of the curves along either side of a so-called vertically undulating groove, are substantially equal in width to the depth of corresponding curves at the bottom of the groove. Hence, a groove of this type made with a cutting tool oi? approximately the form of the style 10 will have at its respective sides two distinct but similar sound records whose undulations correspond in amplitude, frequency and arrangement ot over-tone representations with those at the. bottom oi the groove.
it is therefore apparent that in placing the needle at such angle oi contact with the groove that it shall be broughtinto operable contact with the sides only oi. a groove which has been made by a vertically vibrating recording style having the general features of the type shown in Fig. 41-, that, thereupon lateral vibrations will be produced which substantially correspond in all particulars to the vertical viln'ations caused thereby; and it will furthermore be apparent that the longitudinal. vibrations which will be imparted to the end of the needle (5, also in operable contact with the urululations of a side wall ot a groove 1., will in like manner and to the same degree correspond with the laterally vibratory actuations thereof as above described.
Having thus examined with more or less attention to details the correlated features oil? the respective side and bottom surfaces oi a vertically undulatory groove, it has not been deemed necessary similarly to illuslltlti and frequency,
trate the characteristics of a laterally undulatory groove, or of the universal type of groove having both lateral and vertical undulations. It may be pointed out, however, that as the side walls of a laterally undu-- latin groove also correspond in amplitude the one with the other, that a needle 6 inclining upon a side wall of such a groove, in the same manner as shown in Figs. 3 and t, will correspondingly elevate the point 7 thereof to the same extent as occurs in connection with the vertically undulatory groove shown in the drawings. Hence, if a zigzag groove be caused to travel under the needle in the manner above described with reference to the up-and-down groove type, the point will also ride upon and bear against the undulations of the op posite wall which being of like amplitudes and frequencies will transmit corresponding longitudinal thrusts to the needle to be communicated to and imparted by th diaphragm in the same manner and with substantially the same effect as has been described relatively to the other type of groove.
In the application however of a sound box apparatus of my invention to. a universal type of groove which has only one wall and the bottom thereof indented with undulations, the needle will bear upon the groove with its side resting on the undulatory wall, and with its point elevated into contact with a smooth wall, that is, one without sound record undulations. In such a case while the point does not receive the supplemental impacts upon its end which has been alluded to, it possesses the other advantages pointed out in connection with the adaptation of my improvement to other types of grooves.
The preferred angle of declivity at which the reproducing needle may be held in connection with my invention, is illustrated as at substantially forty-five degrees to the surface plane of the groove. This particular angle is, however, given as that at which in connection with prevailing types of grooves the highest efficiency may be obtained with a sound box of my improved construction. As the design of the groove may to a considerable degree vary in the cross sectional dimensions thereof, the plane in which the needle 6 is most effectively held may change accordingly, and hence the essential features of my invention would apply with equal force in all reasonable degrees of variation of the lateral angle at which the needle and sound box may be inclined.
The drawings (Figs. 1, 2 and 3) show the sound box, and needle inclined in one way only, i. 0., to the left side as viewed from the front of the usual phonograph machine. It has been pointed out, however, that the same results would obtain if the positions were reversed and those partsv tipped to substantially the same degree in the opposite direction. An especial advantage results from thus reversing the angle of the parts, in that the needle 6 bears upon ditlerent parts of the groove in the respective adj ustments, so that whatever tendency that instrument may have to wear upon the surfaces of the groove when in the position shown in the drawings, for example, will not affect those parts of the groove called in to use when indicated in the position opposite thereto.
Any convenient means may be employed to effect and determine the modification of the angle of the style to obtain the beneficial action of my improved mechanism. In the form illustrated this result is obtained by means of a stud' or screw 11 projecting from the tone-arm 9 and entering a eircumi'ereit tial slot 12 in the relatively stationary or hinged member 13 of the tubular support of the tone-arm. The slot 12 has a minimum operable length of 90 allowing an inclination of the sound box 8 of 45 to either side of the vertical plane thereof. Thus the sound box, which holds the recording needle at a predetermined angle, is in its turn integrally attached to and supported by the tone-arm so that when the latter is rotated within its socket in the hinged member 13 to the required angular position, the screw 11 may be set to retain the parts in such relative position.
Having described my invention what I claim is:
1. In a talking machine provided with a record having record grooves therein, a sound box having a stylus, a tone arm, means for supporting said sound box on said tone arm and permitting a shifting of the soundbox with respect to the tone arm from a position in which the side of the stylus tracks upon one edge wall of the record groove to a position in which the side of the stylus tracks upon the other edge wall of the record groove, substantially as described.
2. In a talking machine provided with a record having record grooves therein, a sound box having a stylus, a tone arm, means for rotatably mounting said sound box on said tone arm and permitting rotation of said sound box on said tone arm from a position in which the side of: the stylus rests upon one edge wall of the record groove to aposition in which the side of the stylus rests upon the other edge wall of the record groove.
3. In a talking machine provided with a record having record grooves therein. a sound box having a stylus, a tone arm, a member carrying said sound box and rotatably mounted on said tone arm, said tone arm and member having co-acting means for permitting movement of said box into two different positions on said tone arm, in one w is inclined to the same Eli ' the other of a plane of which positions the stylus is inclined to a plane tangent to the-record groove at the point of contact of stylus and groove and perpendicular to the plane of the record, and in the other of which positions the stylus plane but on the opposite side thereof. v
4'. In a talking machine provided with a record having record grooves therein, a sound box having a stylus, a tone arm, a member carrying said sound box and rotatably mounted on the tone arm, said member and tone arm having also a pin and a slot connection for limiting the movement of said sound box on the tone arm to two extreme positions in which the side of the stylus tracks uponeither edge wall of the record groove.
5. In a talking machine provided with a record having record grooves therein, a tone arm, a sound box having a stylus mounted on said tone arm and shiftable to cause the stylus to move from one side to the other of a plane which is tangent to the record groove at the point of contact of the stylus therewith and perpendicular to the plane of the record.
. 6. In a talking machine provided with a record having record grooves therein, a tone arm, a sound box having a stylus, a member carrying said sound box, said member being rotatably mounted on said tone arm to permit movement of the sound box on said tone arm to shift the stylus from one side to tangent to the record point of contact of the stylus perpendicular to the plane of groove at the therewith and the record, said member and tone arm having co actmg means for limiting the movement of the box to the above described extent and for securing the box in adjusted positions.
7. In a talking machine provided with a record having record grooves therein, atone arm, a sound box having a stylus mounted on said tone arm and shiftable between two positions, in one of which the point of the stylus tracks upon one side wall of the groove and the side of the stylus simultaneously tracks upon the adjacent opposite side wall, and in the other of which positions the point of the stylus tracks upon the said adjacent opposite side wall and the side of the stylustracks simultaneously upon the first mentioned side wall.
8. In a talking machine provided with a record having record grooves therein, a tone arm, a sound box having a stylus mounted on said tone arm and shiftable between two positions, in one of which the point of the stylus tracks upon one side wall of the groove and the side of the stylus simulta neously tracks upon the adjacent opposite side wall, and in the other of which positions the point of the stylus tracks upon the said adjacent opposite side wall and the side of the stylus tracks simultaneously upon the first mentioned side wall, and means for securing said sound box in either of said positions on said tone arm.
In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification, in the presence of two subscribing witnesses, this first day of February, 1916.
VICTOR II. EMERSON.
Witnesses EDIT ENNIssoN, ELIZABETH Horn.
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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE741332C (en) * 1931-09-30 1943-11-10 Philips Miller N V Device for cutting out an optically reproduced vibration recording from a carrier
US2584922A (en) * 1949-07-20 1952-02-05 Avco Mfg Corp Universal reproducing stylus
US2819089A (en) * 1952-01-11 1958-01-07 Dictaphone Corp Recording method using translating head and stylus
US3118977A (en) * 1960-07-01 1964-01-21 Rca Corp Multi-groove stereophonic sound recording and reproducing system

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE741332C (en) * 1931-09-30 1943-11-10 Philips Miller N V Device for cutting out an optically reproduced vibration recording from a carrier
US2584922A (en) * 1949-07-20 1952-02-05 Avco Mfg Corp Universal reproducing stylus
US2819089A (en) * 1952-01-11 1958-01-07 Dictaphone Corp Recording method using translating head and stylus
US3118977A (en) * 1960-07-01 1964-01-21 Rca Corp Multi-groove stereophonic sound recording and reproducing system

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