US1213468A - Sound-record. - Google Patents

Sound-record. Download PDF


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US1213468A US6716515A US6716515A US1213468A US 1213468 A US1213468 A US 1213468A US 6716515 A US6716515 A US 6716515A US 6716515 A US6716515 A US 6716515A US 1213468 A US1213468 A US 1213468A
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Victor H Emerson
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Emerson Radio Corp
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Emerson Phonograph Inc
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    • G11B3/00Recording by mechanical cutting, deforming or pressing, e.g. of grooves or pits; Reproducing by mechanical sensing; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B3/68Record carriers
    • G11B3/70Record carriers characterised by the selection of material or structure; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for manufacturing record carriers


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To all whom it may concern;
Be it known that I, Vm'roa H. Emerson, citizen of the United States, residing at No. 435 Riverside Drive, city, county,and-State of New York, have invented new and useful Improvements in Sound-Records, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to phonographic records of the groove type, or more particularly described, to the form or structure of the record groove employed in devices, of the class referred to, and'has for an object to provide a sound record groove having unduations representative of sound vibrations which, with reference to the plane of the record, are adapted'to actuate a reproduce:- style both vertically and'laterally, whereby the same record may be emplo ed in connection with difl'erent types 0 reproducing machines.
Another object of my invention is to produce a sound record groove which while actuating a verticallly operatin adapted to im art a (litional vi rato'ry impulses thereto y reason of supplemental lateral vibrations; and which, similarly, while actuating a laterally vibrating stylus, will impart thereto vertical vibratory impulses, which supplemental impulses of both forms, while of comparatively reduced amplitude, correspond exactly in frequency with the principal vibration actuating the stylus.
Heretoforerecord rooves of two ty s have come into genera use, requiring one a reproducer especially adapted to operate therewith. The first form of groove thus loyed, now generally termed the hillemf an -dale type,has as its operable portion a vertically undulating bottom, and requires a,
vertically actuated reproducing device espe-- cially designed to coact with those undulations. .The other type, the zigzag groove record, so-called, requires that the sound box diderently adjusted and equi ped so as to vibrate laterally in rep ucing the sounds 1 recorded thereon. Consequently many forms of attachments have been designed in order to nip a vertically operating machine sc-that it can" reproduce from a laterally undulating cove, and also to convert machines from t e latter to the former mode of operation. Such converting devices not only entail additional expense in connection with the use of talking machines, but require more or less skill to adjust the stylus is osity at its respectied parts properly with relation to the difierent types of grooves. Thus, a definite degree of care must be exercised and in making frequent changes back and. forth this task of adjustment becomes irksome and annoying to the operators of talking machines. All these objections may be entirely elimina by using a record of the form contemplated by my invention, which, generally w i comprises a ve having one side wall and bottom simi arly undulatory to produce the required sounds, with the other side thereof having been made entirely neutral and mute, or provided with relatively slight undulations of the same frequency as the first mentioned side wall, which groove is adapted to reproduce with substantially ual fidelity w nether the so-called vertical or ateral type of reproducer be employed in connection therewith.
Having reference to the drawings: Figure 1 is a plan view of a familiar dislrtype, containing in the usual spiral form an emiment of my improved sound record Mve; Fig. 2 is an enlarged partial plan of t e disk shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a sectional view on line 3-3 in Fig. 2; Fig. 4 is an enlar partial plan view of a supposititious disk showing types of grooves, and Fi s. 5 and 6 are respective sectional views on ines 5-5 and M at Fi 4.
Inasmuch as the groove of my improved record has characteristics which are present in both the hill-and-dale and the zig-zag types of groove, to which reference has been made, I have accordingly represented both of those types in the drawings for the convenience of comparison, and in order to point out more definitely the structural differences between the groove of the present invention and those of the two prevailing types now in public use. Therefore, referring to Figs. 4, 5 and 6 of the drawings, A rep resents a supposititious form of flat sound record tablet having the three grooves 2, 2 and 2", the first named grooved 2 representing a preferred form of my irn rovw sound record ve shown also in ig. l and in enlarged sectional view in Figs. 2 and 3. The groove 2 is of the familiar hill-and-dale type and is represen made with -'a symmetrically formed tool of a tapering or rounded cross-sectional area,
and therefore a w riding sinusueb a.
groove-if considered in its longitudinal aspect, would show an uneven depth formed by the point of the stylus as it vibrates vertically relatively to the plane or tangent of the record, while traveling longitudinally thereof. The other type of record 2", shown in said disk A, is of the zigzag form'of construction made by a stylus to which lateral vibrations are imparted as it likewise travels longitudinally in forming this groove. The groove 2", were it projected in longitudinal section, would be seen to have an even depth throughout its length, the undulations there of being confined to its side walls wholly, which it will be seen by referring to Fig. 4 are parallel and therefore are of substantially identical curvature at all transverse cross-sectional points, and hence the curves of one side of a zig-zag groove correspond exactly with the wavelike variations of the opposite side, in the direction, frequency and amplitude thereof, and therefore the opposite walls function harmoniously when operating upon a sound-producing, point. As pointed out, the hill-and-dale 'type of groove 2 has also laterally undulating wiills 5*, but while the lateral undulations of'the respective side walls of this type of groove are similar in amplitude and frequency, they are oppositely disposed, thereby radically differing from the relative arrangement of corresponding undulations of the-respective walls of the zigzag groove; and furthermore the groove 2 has a bottom line 3 with undulatio'ns corresponding to those of the sides, while on the contrary the bottom of the Zigzagzgroove 2 is devoid of such undulations, but of even depth throughout its entire length.
Considering functionally the grooves of these respective types, the hill-and-dale groove 2" is adapted to actuate the reproduc ing stylus vertically as its point glides over the undulations along the bottom 3*, to produce the sound vibrations at all accurately or correctly. ()n the other hand, in employing the zig-zag groove 52 to its full efliciency, a laterally reproducing stylus is required'to be used therewith for the reason that the controlling undulations are all of that type. needle, however, be introduced into a groove of the vertically undulating type :2, because of the lateral undulations 5 also present at either side thereof, the needle will accordingly be caused to vibrate laterally, yet not in the orderly and regular manner necessary to reproduce the sounds recorded therein. This result is due to the fact that the undulations of the respective sides of the hilland-dale groove being oppositely disposed are adapted to nel'itralizc, the impulses of one side against those of the others, so that umntelhgnble. discordant ,tones, result, although -in many instances-they are appar- Should a laterally vibrating having the vertical undulations 3 at its bottom and the similar undulations 5 formed upon one side only, but disposed in exactly the same manner and form as in the corresponding side wall a of the groove 2* shown in supposititious record A, Fig. 3. The opposite wall 4 of the groove 2, however,
has none of the irregularities of either type,"
and is therefore neutral and mute. face 4, however, is not without its use, as it may serve as a guiding wall, whenever it comes into contact with the reproducing needle, and also performs the highly important function of protecting the other portions of the groove. ()n the other hand, it is more or less 'conjectnral to assert what contributory function the wall 4 performs in producing sounds, owing'tothe fact that The surthe vibrations of the needle thus employed" are highly rapid in periodicity and minute inamplitude. For this and similar reasons, I find difficulty in locating with absolute certainty thetheoretically exact position of the neutral wall 4 andthereby establish the operable Width of the bottom 3 of the groove 2 with erual accuracy althou h for all practical purposes it has been sufficiently determined. Thus it will be noted .there is no dividing line of demarcation between the bottom 3 and the oblique wall v5, unless it be established by an imaginary plane similar to the wall 4 but oppositely disposed at an equal distance from the vertical medial plane of the groove. Generally described, the position of the wall 4 is so disposed within a vertical or inclined plane as to cut the bottom along the vertically undulating line m-w in Figs. 4, 5 and 6, at a distance from the medial line y-y substantially equaling in width the maximum depth of the vibrations of the lesser amplitude. It will be understood, therefore, that the es sential features of the groove of my invention in their broad aspect, comprise an undulatory side and bottom, the latter slightly flattened or rounded, with a neutral or mute side wall 4, that is, one having no sinuosity, which may be vertical or even equally inclined to the undulatory wall. As'to the declivity of the oblique wall 5, I have found by careful experimentation, the best results are produced when employed in connection with a stylus vibrating laterally relative to larity' of substantially-45. When the inclination of the wall 5 is carried beyond the angle in the direction of the vertical plane, it loses proportionately in the lateral amplitude of the vibrations measured upon the horizontal face of the record, so that for the best results substantially the 45 angle specified would define the upward limit of the inclination for operating a laterally vibratory needle. although reasonably good results may be obtained by carrying the inclination as high as with reference to the plane of the record. Likewise, when carried in the op osite direction, that is with a tendency to atten the undulatory wall 5, a larger margin of variation of a proximately 15 may be employed and the wall still retain the capacity or operating the laterall undulatory stylus. While the 45 angle eclivity of the wall 5 produces the best results for the reasons indicated, and the groove should preferably conform in this particular to the construction described, I do not wish to be held absolutely to the- 45 angle specified. The opposite wall 4, whether made substantially vertical or at an angle appreciably widening the groove toward the top, will conform longitudinally to the comparatively strai ht line of the spiral or helical curvature o the respective flat and cylindrical records respectively; or instead of conforming strictly to the longitu- -dinal spiral or helical lines referred to, a
slight undulation may be given to the wall 4 b the cutting tool when it is so desired, wit the-result that the opposite walls at the surface of the record have a sinuosity remotely suggestive of the general character of the side walls of the so-called zigzag groove of even depth. Yet the important distinction should be borne in mind in connection with the case last supposed, namely, that the bottom 3 of the groove 2 in all of its forms has undulations substantially corresponding in depth, amplitude and frequency to the opposite or oblique wall 5.
It IS obvious that the groove of my invention may be cut, traced, pressed, stamped, engraved, or otherwise formed into the sub stance of the record blank of which it is to constitute a part, of whatever material and in whatever manner employed: and also that it may be applied to a cylinder or disk type of record in the same manner that the lateral and the vertical grooves are now employed.
It is a fundamentally recognized fact that to operate a reproducing sound box properly it is necessary to vibrate the diaphragm of I that device by means of the bodily movement of the needle lever which is pivotally attached to the box to vibrate normally in the manner known to. all familiar with the art. Consequently the best results are ob tained when the recording needle is introduced into a groove which actuates the needle was,
and diaphragm according to the above mentioned principle of the construction of said re reducing mechanism. Hence, to employ this mechanism most eiliciently with a ertically undulating groove, it will be held in. one position and when a laterally undulatiu ve is employed therewith the box wil be shifted practically through. 90 to rmit vibrations ina plane corresponding therewith. However, it is found that a reproducin mechanism adjusted to the osi- 'tion required for the best results as a ove outlined in connection with a vertically undulating, groove will, when applied to a zigzag groove, still re reduce the sounds recorded therein, alt ough in a materially subdued form. This is due to the fact that although the groove of this type has an even depth following the zigzag course thereof, et in the general direction thereof as a nee le tends to travel longitudinal] o the groove, it is constantly crossing an re-. crossing the narrow grooves formed at the extreme bottom thereof at substantially the frequency 1 of the primary undulations, which may tend to producethe result referred to. This same efiect is obtained but in a more pronounced degree, when a groove of my improved form is employed under the same conditions as those just supposed,
for the reason that the undulations at the bottom of such a groove are of greater amplitude and otherwise conform m'oze aceurately to those at the side of the groove by means of which a laterallyundulating reproducing needle is normally and marily operated, and therefore the vertical vibrations are communicated to the recording mechanism with augmented force and consequently contribute more effectively to the improved result thus obtained. A somewhat similar efiect is to be observed in connection with a recording mechanism which has been adjusted to operate with a vertically undulatory groove whereby supplemental lateral vibrations are imparted thereto by the oblique wall of my improved groove, which principal vibrations are not interfered with by the oppositely disposed undulations that occur in the ordinarily; provided vertically undulating groove of the type 2 illustrated in connection with the disk A (Figs. l-5). Thus whether employing the recording device in the one form or the other, a'double vibrating impulse is in'aparted as the needle passes over each undulation.
In the cases supposed in addition to transmitting the normal vibrations to the diaphragm by appreciable lateral movement of the vibratory needle lever upon its pivot, that member receives impacts in a direction opposite to that of its said pivotal movement and apparently transmits through internal molecular vibrations those impulses to the diaphragm and, combined with those of the primary actuations thereof, those impulses increase the sound reproducing capacity thereof. But while thus seeking to explain the probable actions the mechanisms referred to, I do not co sider all the possible factors producing this result have necessarily been specified. But whatever the cause the beneficial result is found to exspecificationiin this particular is not deemed necessary.
Havmgthus described my invention what I claim is: s
l. A sound record having a groove wltha rounded bottom and unduhitions representative of sound vibrations in said bottom and one side thereof, the other side having sound waves re .:ordcd thereon oi. relatively slight amplitude.
2. A sound record having a groove with a rounded bottom and undulations in said bottom and one side thereof, said undulations similarly disposed and representative of sound vibrations, the other side being relatively straight.
3. A sound record having a groove with (We wall relatively straight; and an oblique wall inclined at approxiumtely lorty live degrees to the vertical plane thereof, said oblique wall having undulations representative of sound vibrations, the bottom thereof having sound umlulations therein of apsaid vertical wall said bottom and oblique wall having vibrations of equal frequency and said bottom having greater width than the amplitude of the vibrations recorded thereon.
5. A sound record having a groove of unequal depth and widening toward the top, said groove having one wall disposed approximately at forty-five degrees decli'vity relative to the vertical plane merging into a bottom of appreciable width and having in the side and bottom of said \vall undulations of substantially equal frequency. I r
6. A sound record having a groove of unequal depth with'sid'e walls having approximately parallel undulations of similar frequency and unequal amplitude.
7. A sound record havinga record groove therein, said groove having a rounded bot tom varying in depth according to sound un-- dulations, and also having one relatively straight wall and an oblique wall, said oh lique wall having undulations therein corresponding to the undulations in said bottom.
In testimony whereof, I have signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses, this eighth day of December, 1915. v
US6716515A 1915-12-16 1915-12-16 Sound-record. Expired - Lifetime US1213468A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2665918A (en) * 1946-07-26 1954-01-12 Jameson William Record storage and player apparatus

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2665918A (en) * 1946-07-26 1954-01-12 Jameson William Record storage and player apparatus

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