US126770A - Improvement in apparatus for generating gas and vapors from petroleum - Google Patents

Improvement in apparatus for generating gas and vapors from petroleum Download PDF


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US126770A US126770DA US126770A US 126770 A US126770 A US 126770A US 126770D A US126770D A US 126770DA US 126770 A US126770 A US 126770A
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    • C10G9/00Thermal non-catalytic cracking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils


2 snmp-sheen.
p n AMBLER. 4improvement in Apparatus fen Generating Gas and vapors from Ptroieum.
Patented May 14, 1872i.
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Inventor JWM JM Witnesses @fwwM/J@ 6%/ MW 2 Sh t -.Sh t 2.
A. l. Amman. m ee Imprvverpent in Apparatus for Generating Gas and vapors from Petroleum.`
Patented May/14,1872.
e RNN7 AM, f'Hora-LlrHc'cnAPH/s a0. N. z (ossola/15's PROCESS) UNITED S'rnxrnsV PATENT GFFICE.
Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 126,770, dated May 14, 1872.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I. AUGUSTIN I. AMBLER,
of `the city 6i' VVa'shington, in the District of' Columbia, have invented a new and Improved Mode of Manufacturing Gas from Petroleum .ings forming a part of this speciiication, in 'which- Figure 1 represents a sectional view of the oil or supply-tank taken in line of center. Fig. 2 represents a sectional view of the generator proper, or that part of the apparatus in which the gas is generated andliberated fromthe oil. Fig. 3 represents the receiver for receiving the gas or vapor after it is made and liberated from the oil. Fig. 4 represents the gasometer for the purpose of holding the gas for use. Fig. 5 represents a force-pump to force the gas from the receiver to the gasometer, so as to pack the gas in the gasometer for use. Fig. 6 represents the tire-box of an engine, showing liame, burners, pocket, 'and air-jets. Fig. 7 represents a sectional view of the ratchet cog-rim in the lower steam-space ot' the generator, Fig. 2, for
the purpose of reaction and of adding force to the centrifugal arms. All of the iigures are shown in a sectional view and taken in the center line. y
Similar letters of reference in the several gures indicate corresponding parts.
Figure S represents, tirst, the inner oil-chamber, as shown substantially in Fig. 2, D. Secondly, it also represents the steam-tube, as shown by shaft E" in Fig. 2, through which the steam enters into the oil this may be with a dome top or a square top, as indicated in the drawing. The object ot this concave dome is to deiiect and cause the oil and steam to pass downward in easy lines.
The nature of my invention consists in so constructing a machine or apparatus for the purpose of producing gas from petroleum or other oleaginous substances as to use and 'render available steam heat and steam force in generating and liberating gas from the sub stance or substances aforesaid, and to utilize the same for all the purposes of heat and light. It is also the object of this invention to render practical and safe the use of the same, and thus place the apparatus within the reach of all; and for this purpose the steam can be used and made available at both a low and high temperature, and a low and high pressure.
'Io enable others skilled in the art to make and use my invention, I will proceed to describe its construction and mode ot' operation.
My oil or supply-tank A is constructed with a steam-chamber, B, at the bottom, so as'to let in and out steam by means of the pipes A and B and the exhanstpipe A. It is also provided with an opening at the top, shown at A, for the admission of oil, which is required to be closed steam-tight, and for which any suitable means may be employed. I show a cap, bar, mit, and screw-bolt, the bolt being permanently fastened to the cap, the screwbolt passing through the bar, and the nut screwed down thereon. From this oil-tank A there is also a pipe, AH, communicating with the oil-chamber of the generator, so as to keep up a steady supply of oil in the generator. The steam-space B is used to keep the oil hot and secure a constant pressure thereon, so as to feed the generator without further auxiliary force.
Here it may, however, be stated that a suitable force-pum p might be an advantage in connection with the pipe A, to force the oil into the generator for the purpose of supply thereto. Steam-pipe B is the main steam-pipe, connecting all parts of the apparatus with the high steam of the boiler; and pipe A is the pipe which carries back the condensation or low steam to the lower. part of the boiler for circulatio'h. This tank may be constructed of boileriron or any suitable material, and of any size to meet the object for which it is constructed.
The generator C is made with a dome and globe or spheretop, I, of such suitable material as may be adapted to the use intended, either of iron or copper; and the same may here be said of both receiver and gasometer. O is the steam-space round the generator for heat ing the oil. C is a double-coil steam-pipe, communicating with the steam-space C at the bottom of the oil-chamber D. D is the oilchamber between the inner oil-chamber D and gas or vapor. the journals of this steam-shaft E should be the steam-space C. This oil-chamber has no top or obstruction whatever to prevent the gas from ascending up and into the dome and sphere. D is an oil-chamber in the center of the generator perforated with holes at the bottom, but gas and steam-tight at the top. In the center ot' this chamber, and from the bottom of the genera-tor up and into the dome, a cylindrical steam-shaft E is introduced. This shaft has at the bottom, and in a steam-space or chamber,'F, two or more hollow or cylindrical arms, E', the hollow or hole of which communicates with the shaft E. At the top of the oil-chamber D', and attached to anda part of the shaft E, there are two or more cylindrical arms, E, the hollow or bore of which communicates with the shaft E precisely the same as the arms E at the bottom. All of these a-rms E and E are so constructed as to receive steam at the shaft E and discharge the same at the opposite ends of the arms, thus obtaining a centrifugal force and discharge of the steam into the steam-space F at the bottom, and into the oil-chamber D at the top, steam being let into this shaft E at the bottom of the generator by means of the steam-pipe B". Upon this shaft, and in the oil-chamber I), there is a thin perforated worm-plate, B", running round the shaft from the bottom to Ythe top for the purpose of stirring and beating the oil, and thus thoroughly mixing the steam and oil in the oil-chambers D and D, and, by means of themotion and friction thus produced, aid in generating and liberating the It will be understood that all made steam-tight, so as to prevent the oil or steam from escaping through them. I have shown in the drawings suitable stuffing-boxes therefor, as shown at G G, at top and bottom of the oil-chamber D. There should also be a suitable bearing-journal for the bottom of the shaft, as indicated at G. This need not be steam-tight, as the steam-pipeB will be steamtight, and steam cannot pass out for the reason that a suitable stop-cock is placed there to let on and turn off steam. Upon the top of the shaft E, and in the dome of the generator, there is a cone-shaped wire-netting, H, to whip the oil or vapor into the tinest possible spray; and this cone also acts as a preventive to the oil from rising in a body into the dome and passing out with the gas into the receiver. The steam-space F at the bottom is constructed with a ratchet cog-rim round the same on the -insidefor the purpose of addingforce and power to the centrifuga-l discharge of steam from the arms E. The steam-space or chamber F also has an exhaust near the center F', as shown. I make' this part of the generator of cast-iron as the most economical material, and bolt the upper-'part ofthe generator thereto by suitable tlanges and packing. I also flange out the main body of the generator and the dome, and pack and bolt the same so that I can readily take the generator apart. The globe I orsphere at the top is suitably applied, and needs no I explanation beyond what the drawings clearly afford; it may be cast-iron or made of copper.
The object of the sphere is to allow the gas t0 expand in passing out, and to allow the oil, if any ascends, to descend'or fall back into the dome or upper part of the generator to again .undergo the process of generating and liberating the gas. This generator should be supplied with pipes suitable to blow out, blow oit', and discharge the same, and a glass tube, J, to show the amount of the oil in the generator. There should also be attached to the generator a suitable gauge to give the force of pressure, as indicated at I 5 also, a suitable spirit-thermometer to indicate and show the heat attained, as represented at J.
The generator is connected with the receiver by means of a suitable pipe from the top of the one to the l other. In this pipe there is a stop-cock to break the connection and stop the flow of gas either from or to the generator. The' receiver K is constructed with a steam-space at the bottom to generate the drippings into gas, with suitable pipe connections to let the steam in and out, and an exhaust-pipe for discharge, as shown at b and c; also a pipe and stop-cock, d, to blow oif the gas from the receiver. The receiver has two connections with the gasometer; one by means of the connecting-pipe K at the top with its stop-cock K,
and another by means of the pipe and forcepump, as shown at and by Fig. 5; this forcepump being used only when it is desirable to compress or pack the gas in the gasometer for supply in starting again after fire is extinquished and the steam has gone down. gasometer is constructed precisely as the receiver is, and is connected with it by means of the pipes and force-pump aforesaid. The tirebox is the ordinary tire-box of an engine in common use. The gas is carried to the lower part of the tire-box by means of a suitable tube, when it enters the box or pocket L, the pipe ascending in the box so as to discharge the gas above any water. condensation, or drippings that may reach the same. This box or pocket L is constructed 0f cast-iron as the most economical material, from a pattern, in such form and size as may be required to suit the tire-box to which it is to be applied. Upon the top of this box L and communicating with the inside of it I put as many tubes, tips, or burners as may be needed to supply the proper amount of llame and heat to the tirebox for the purpose of generating steam as high as the service demands. There should also be air-jets round the fire-box with a sliding cover, and to the extent required, made of hollow or tubular stay-bolts through the waterspace or water-leg of the lire-box for the admission of air to secure the most perfect combustion ot' the gas generated.
Upon the tirst trial or operation, steam being raised in the boiler, steam is let o n by the` operator by means of the cock Bf at the boil`vv er, communicating with all the branch pipes and steam-chambers for heating purposes- The Y ofthe stop-cock M.
`N lets on the steam for heat by closing the that is, the steam is let on and continues to flowfrom the high steam of the boiler through all the pipes, branches, and steam-chambers or steam-space for heating purposes, and back as steam condenses into the lower part of the boiler, so as to complete a perfect circulation; and this should continue until the heat in the generator has attained the desired maximum, as shown by the thermometer, when steam should then be let onto the centrifugal force` shaft E and its connections by means of the steam-'pipe communicating therewith. The eX- haust then should be opened, so as to discharge as much steam as necessary at the center of t-he steamspace or chamber F to work the force freely, and this can be subsequently regulated to suit the demand. The steam thus entering the shaft E at the bottom will pass up and diverge so as to pass out at the arms E', striking the ratchet-cogs round thespace F, and thus give a rotary motion or force to the shaft E, and
with such speed as may be desired, ca-rrying with it the thin perforated worm-plate round the shaft, as clearly shown in the drawing. The steam will also ascend the shaft E and enter the arms E" at the top of the oil-chamberD', and be discharged at the extremities thereof into the oil with such force and in such quantity as may be needed to perform the service desired. The' steam thus discharged from the arms E" is thoroughly mixed with the oil, as it is compelled to descend to find an outlet, and steam and gas descend to the bottom of the chamber D', where they find holes for escape into the main body ofthe oil in the oilchamber D. The steam and gas and expanded oil continue to rise until they come into contact with the cone-nettin g H in the dome, where they are lashed and whipped into spray and the finest possible particles, when, meeting the heat ofthe dome and sphere or globe, they pass out at the top and enter the receiver by means of the pipe O, passing on through the receiver by means of the connecting-pipe at the top, and leaving in the receiver any drippings or condensation to be again generated into gas and steam by means of the steam heat in the steam-space at the bottom, upon the top plate of which it will fall, and, passing into the gasometer, iilling both receiver and gasometer with gas and vapor. The operator then lets on his gas slowly by means of the stop-cock M, the gas liowing at once into the box or pocket L in the iirebox and out at the tips or burners, when a lighted match thrown into the tire-box through the door at once ignites the gas, and the fire-box and iues are rapidly filled with llame This stop-cock M regulates the flame as desired thc same as the stop-cock regulates the common gas in use. T o stop the fire instantly turn off the gas-supply by means rlhe handle or stop-cock stop-cock N'. The stop-cock 13"" lets on the steam for heat by stopping or closing thestopv cock N' and opening the ystop-cock N.
It should be here observed that all the stopcocks should be brought within easy reach of the engineer or operator by means of suitable rod connections or otherwise.
The force-pump as represented in Fig. 5 may be a rotary and operated by steam, or any other suitable force-pump of capacity sufficient to compress or pack the gas, as heretofore indicated, for supply and use.
It may be also proper here to sayl that for some purposes the centrifuga-l force employed and described, and the attachments thereto, may be left off, and the machine or apparatus Worked without them, as follows, to Wit: The steam to be used in the oil-chamber D' may enter a tube, as shown in Fig. 8, from the steam-pipe at the bottom, passing through the steam-space F", which should, in such case, have a communication with the steam-space C' up in the oil-chamber D', to the top, and discharge the steam from the end of the tube or hollow shaft E, through a perforated plate at the top, against a concave surface, so as to direct the steam down through the oil in the chamber D' to the holes at the bottom and out through the main oil-chamber D, as before, for use. The feature in this is, that thestea-m is thus compelled to pass down through the entire body of oil in the oil-chamberD', in order to escape into and through and out of the oilchamber D, thus generating and forcibly carrying forward the gas and vapor for use, as indicated in the former operation.
It may also be observed that this shaft E,
y with its arms E" might be operated by many other mechanical contrivances well known and employed in mechanics outside of the generator, and the same result be substantially obtained therefrom; the object of the lower arms E' being solely to give rotary motion to the shaft E and arms E" for the purpose of ejecu.
in g steam by means of a rotary motion into the oil for a more perfect and complete distribution Y and circula-tion of the steam in the oil, and to beat the oil by means of the perforated wormplate B' round the shaft E.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is
l. The gas-generator C, when constructed with an oil-chamber, D, and an inner oil-chamber, D', havingfa closed top and holes or perforations for the discharge of oil and steam at the bottom, when combined with. astea-mshaft, E, Fig. 2, or steam-tube E"', Fig. 8, for the admission of steam therein, substantially as shown, and for the purpose set forth.
2. The oil-chamber D', beingclosed at the top and open at the botiom, and an oil-chamber, D, having an open top into the dome, in combination with steam-pipe E, Fig. 2, or steam-tube E'", Fig. S, and heating-surface C' and C", substantially as shown, and for the purpose set forth.
3. The steam-shaft E, the arms E' and E", and the steam-space F, when combined with oil-chambers D and D', and heating-surface C' and C", substantially as shown.
4. The conical Wire-netting H, when combined with sha-ft E, oil-chambers D und D, and heating-surfaces C and C, substantially as shown, and for the purpose set forth.
5. The plate B, when combined with a rotary shaft, E, oil-chambers D and Df, and heatingsurf'uces C and C, substantially us shown, and for the purpose set forth.
6. The receiver K, when constructed with heating-surface F to evaporate the drippings, and connected with and :t part of u. gusgener ntor, in combination with :n gasometer and forcepump, substantially as shown, and for the purpose set forth.
7. The apparatus, substantially its herein shown and described, consisting of the combinution of the oil-tank A, gas-generator C, receiver K, gesometer and fire-box L, for the purposes herein set forth.
1Washington city, D. C., January 24, 1870.
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