US1010899A - Automatic firearm. - Google Patents

Automatic firearm. Download PDF

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Publication number
US1010899A
US1010899A US63377011A US1911633770A US1010899A US 1010899 A US1010899 A US 1010899A US 63377011 A US63377011 A US 63377011A US 1911633770 A US1911633770 A US 1911633770A US 1010899 A US1010899 A US 1010899A
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Prior art keywords
bolt
breech
tube
plunger
driving rod
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US63377011A
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Clifford Robert Stephen John Halle
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Clifford Robert Stephen John Halle
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A5/00Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock
    • F41A5/18Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock gas-operated

Description

G. R. S. J. HALLS.
AUTOMATIC FIREARM.
APPLICATION FILED JUNE 17, 1911.
1,010,899, Patented Dec.5, 1911.
' s SHEETS-SHEET 1.
Even-Z07 Z 6dr wuwaam le' U. R. S. J. HALLE.
AUTOMATIC FIREARM.
APPLICATION 11.21) 111111: 17, 1911.
1,010,899. PatentedDec. 5, 1911.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
c. R. s. 1. HALL.
AUTOMATIC FIREARM.
APPLICATION FILED JUNE 17 1911.
1,010,899. Patented Dec. 5, 1911.
\ 3 SHEETS-$111131 3.
Widfid'fiiali AUTOMATIC FIREARM.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Application filed June 17, 1911.
Patented Dec. 5, 1911.
Serial No. 633,770.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, CLIFFORD ROBERT STEPHEN JOHN HALLE, a subject of the King of Great Britain, residing at London, England, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in or Connected with Automatic Firearms, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to automatic smallarms for sporting and other purposes of the type in which a portion of the powder gas is taken from the barrel during the flight of the bullet down the barrel and used for the purpose of compressing a spring or air, the power thus stored being utilized for the purpose of working the mechanism subsequently to the bullet having left the barrel and the gas pressure being relieved.
In order that the return or cooking spring may be of ample power, and that what is usually termed the main spring may not have to do the double work of opening the breech and at the same time compressing the return spring, the present invention provides mechanism whereby both the opening and return springs are compressed simultaneously and directly by the action of the single plunger on which the gases act. This renders the spring mechanism generally simple and compact and besides the advantage already specified it can be so arranged that the functioning of the weapon can be delayed at the will of the firer, so that the weapon, although always ready to unload and reload itself automatically, when fired, will not do so until a button is pressed by the flier.
In order that when worked by hand, the weapon may function in the same manner as an ordinary magazine rifle, I have devised means whereby the automatic spring mechanism is thrown out of operative relation with the bolt, whenever the knob of the handle is lifted, and is thrown into operative relation again immediately the handle knob is turned down. The handle itself has been made separate from the bolt and lying alongside of the bolt in a separate tube. Besides throwing the automatic mechanism into gear when the knob of the handle is turned down, the turning of the knob frees the handle from the bolt, which is therefore able to fly back without taking the handle with it, thus enabling the case to be entirely inclosed and protected from the entry of dirt or sand.
In order to minimize the possibility of corrosion of the plunger tubethe usual gas tight plunger has been dispensed with and a loose plunger is provided which is moreover ringed or coned so that the minimum surface thereof may at any time come in contact with the guiding tube as is compatible with its being efiiciently guided. In order to be able to do this only the kinetic energy of a certain weight of gas impinging on the face of the plunger which is pressed by the springs against the orifice from which the gas issues is utilized. The gas is allow-ed. to exhaust freely into the air immediateiy after impact on the plunger. Lubrication of the plunger at any time may be effected through the large exhaust hole in the tube.
In the annexed drawings illustrating the invention, Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional elevation of the mechanism. Fig. 2 is an elevation with the wooden stock removed; Figs. 3 to 8 inclusive are detail views, as will be hereafter explained; Figs. 9 and 10 are fragmentary views of a firearm showing modified arrangements of the catches; Figs. 11 and 12 are detail views of the means employed for locking the plunger head to its tube; Figs. 13 and 14 are fragmentary views of the fire-arm in side eleva-v tion and plan view respectively illustrating the handle by which the same may be manipulated manually; and Figs. 15 and 16 are detail views showing the lever for locking the bolt sleeve in open position.
a is the barrel, which has, as close to the muzzle as convenient, a cone shaped projection a. Through this projection there is a hole of a size sufiicient to permit the passage of the required amount of the powder gases. The projection is tapped for a screw. In rear of this cone a is a tube h, which is connected to the said cone by means of a socket member h. perforated to take the threaded locking pin This socket member is j. and is coned at the top to fit over the cone a, the upper end of the pin j being engaged in the threaded portion of the cone. It is evident that when the coned portion of the socket member h is placed on to the cone a, and the pin 7' is screwed into a the joint is gas tight and firm.
into the air from the tube in the front ofv the stock. This arrangement simplifies the stripping of the weapon, as it w1ll be evident that by unscrewin the pin 9' the tube can easily be slipped o the gun.
Inside the tube It there is a loose plunger 9 which forms the end of the tube g. The other end of the tube 9 is shaped as shown at g, viz., with a thickened rim projecting back, and having a bevel at the side for the purpose of engaging with one catch and releasing another catch in its travel. This tube 9 telescopes over the end of another tube 7, which is screwed into the body of the rifle, as shown. There are springs f and 9' in these tubes which compress as the tubes telescope. The plunger g is screwed on to the solid end of the tube 9 and is prevented from turning by a washer 9* which is fitted over the threaded end of the tube 9 and has a flattened side 9 which engages a plane surface 9 on such tube,
a pin 9 locking the washer to the plunger 9 The driving rod Z is fashioned as shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, viz: It is a flat bar, with abroad ring Z at the side, which ring slides loosely on the tube 9 and between this ring and the plunger head there is the spring 8 The ring Z is capable of rocking on the tube so as'to give the rear endof the driving rod a certain amount of vertical play. The driving rod has a claw l which engages with a downward projection 03 from the bolt sleeve d. It also has a nick Z in which the catch m normally engages. It has a claw piece Z in which the end of the lever 0, Fig. 8, engages. It also has a projection Z at the side, which runs in a guiding slot in the body of the rifle. k is a simple spring catch attached to the body of the rifle side by side with the catch m, the catches 7c and m being fixed to and turnable with a common pivot. In the under side of the tube It there is a'large opening k to allow of the gases exhausting freely into the air immediately after their impact has shot the plunger forcibly against the springs f and g. The amount of gas requisite for the functioning of the weapon is such a small proportion of that generated by the discharge that an amount far in eX-,
cess of what could possibly be required could be taken without in any way aifecting the velocity of the bullet. v
'71., thus compressing the springs f and g" contained in the tubes f and 9. These tubes telescope, and as the driving rod Z is held from rearward movement by the catch m the tube 9 shoots as it were through the ring Z, thus compressing the spring 8 between the plunger head and the ring I. At the end of its travel the shaped head 9 of the tube 9 depresses and passes the catch in, the bevel of the head g on the end of the tube 9 thereby releasing the catch m, the head 9 becoming locked by the catch-k. The driving rod l is thus free to travel and pushes back the bolt sleevethus unlocking the breech and extracting the cartridge shell. When the bolt has almost reached the back of the gun the ring Z reaches the catch is and causes it to release the head 9, thus setting free the springs f and y contained in the tubes 1 and g. These springs then expand, and the tube 9 carries forward the driving rod to its original position, thus loading a new cartridge and cocking the gun-the cocking being eflected by the firing pin catching on the sear p as the bolt travels forward.
For military purposes it might be thought desirable to delay the functioning of the mechanism with a view to preventing waste of ammunition and facilitating fire drill. This modification is shown in Fig. 9 a thumb piece m being attached to the catch m and the inclined plane on the rear of the tube 7 is omitted. The catch m will remain locked until the thumb piece m has been depressed, when the rifle will automatically eject the empty shell and load a fresh cartridge. The rifle can also if desired be so constructed as to work at will either automatically, or as last describedysuch a construction being shown in Fig. 10. The inclined plane on the rear of the tube 9 is employed in this -instance,but an extra catch m is arranged in the depressed position the mechanism functions automatically at each discharge. The bolt is actuated by the well known device of a sleeve 01 fitted with a cam working on a projecting pin. This sleeve is. however, made with a downward projection d on the left side and a slot d on the right.
gages in the claw of the driving rod, and thus the bolt sleeve is pushed backward and pulled forward by the driving rod.
The handle w, Fig. 7, is not normally attached to the bolt, but is contained in a tube a: lying alongside the bolt. This handle w .hasa projection 'w near the end, which projection runs along a slot in the containing tube :2, and the handle w has also an eccentric projection 10 at the end; when the handle is forward. and the knob w turned down, the side projection w is clear of the slot d in the bolt sleeve while the eccentric projection e0 has forced down the sliding piece 23, Fig. 8, thereby depressing the right end of the lever 0, the left end of which is in the claw piece of the driving rod Z. Thus the driving rod Z is pushed up into engagement with the downward projection d of the bolt sleeve (5 while the handle 10 is free.
The gun therefore functions automatically without any movement of the handle. If. however, the knob w of the handle is turned up, the projection 10 at the front raises the sliding piece 6 thereby depressing the left arm of the lever 0, and pulling the driving rod clear of the bolt sleeve. At the same time the side projection 40 of the handle enters the slot d in the bolt sleeve and thus becomes attached to the bolt which can then be worked by hand entirely independently of the springs, just like an ordinary straight pull rifle. By turning the knob of the handle down when in the forward position, the gun is placed again in the position for automatic firing. The arrangement of the handle 'w enables the rifle to be absolutely protected from dust by the cover a in which the bolt operates and this cover need only be removed for the purpose of cleaning the bolt. The trigger and trip piece r and r are hinged together and function in the known manner of such pieces.
y, Fig. l, is a safety pin of the usual type, which when turned locks the-trigger r.
The magazine calls for no special description. One which contains two rows of cartridges side by side as shown is advisable.
The magazine platform is turned up at the end in the usual manner so as to hold the bolt open when the last cartridge has been fired. The loading is by an ordinary clip, but, in order that the bolt may not fly forward when the platform is pushed down by the cartridges, there is a lever y pivoted at 3 on the side of the body. So soon as the firer sees that the bolt is open, he presses in the rear end 3/ of this leverthus holding the bolt open independently of the platform. After loading, he presses in the front end y of the lever, and the bolt immediately flies forward, when the gun is locked and ready for firing. This lever is also useful \tridges thereto and extracting shells therefrom, and means for actuating the breech mechanism comprising a cylinder, a piston movable therein and operatively connected to the breech mechanism, a socket member fitted to the forward end of said cylinder and having a bore for conducting gas to the cylinder, the barrel also having a bore for the discharge of gas therefrom, and a pin for maintaining a gas-tight connection between said socket member and the barrel and also having a passage for establishing communication between the bore of the barrel and said cylinder when the pin occupies one position and for discharging gas from the barrel to the atmosphere when said pin is turned into a different position.
2. In an automatic firearm, the combination of a barrel, breech mechanism therefor, and means for actuating the breech mechanism comprising a cylinder, a piston movable therein and operatively connected to the breech mechanism, a socket member fitted to the forward end of said cylinder and having a bore for conducting gas thereto, said socket member also having a conical seat, the wall of the barrel also having a conical projection adapted to engage in said conical seat of the socket member and also provided with a passage leading through said conical projection, and a pin extending through the socket member and threaded into the conical projection on the barrel, said pin serving to secure the socket member in cooperative relation with the barrel and also having a passage for controlling communication between the barrel and said cylinder and the atmosphere.
3. In an automatic firearm of the class described, the combination of a barrel, breech mechanism therefor embodying a breech bolt, a driving rod connected thereto, a spring connected to said rod for opening the breech bolt, means for actuating the breech mechanism comprising a cylinder having a passage for conducting gas thereto from the barrel, the cylinder also having an exhaust port in its wall at a point adjacent to its forward end, a plunger operative upon said spring and engaging loosely in said cylinder so as to be projected rearwardly by the kinetic energy of the gas entering said cylinder from the barrel to compress said spring, such gas being exh austed through the exhaust port in the Wall of the cylinder when such port is uncovered by the piston, means operative dlrectl on said driving rod to lock said rod om breech opening movement, and means operative to hold said spring under compression after said plunger is projected by the gas to compress said spring.
4. In an automatic firearm of the class described, the combination of a barrel, breech mechanism embodying a breech bolt, a driving rod connected thereto and carrymg an operating collar, a reciprocatory plunger operative by gas from the barrel and carrying a tube slidable through said collar and having a controlling head thereon abuttlng against said collar, a breech opening spring interposed between said plunger and the operating collar on the driving rod, a breech closing spring bearing upon said plunger to restore it to initial position, and a catch operative directly 'upon. said driving rod to lock it from breech opening movement during operation of said plunger to simultaneously compress the breech opening and closing springs.
5. In an automatic firearm of the class described, the combination of a barrel, breech mechanism therefor, and actuating means for the breech mechanism including a recip-- rocatory bolt, a driving rod for said bolt,
said driving rod being adjustable to'engagc and disengage it With respect to the bolt, a bolt handle for actuating the bolt manually, and means operative by the bolt handle for controlling the operative connection between the bolt and said driving rod;
6. In an automatic fire-arm of the character described, the combination of a barrel, a reciprocatory bolt sleeve, automatic mechanism operative by gas from the barrel for actuating the bolt sleeve, a handle separate from the bolt, and means for operatively connecting said handle to the bolt sleeve and for disconnecting the automatic mechanismtherefrom to permit manual operation of the bolt sleeve and for disconnecting the handle and connecting the automatic mechanism to the bolt sleeve to permit automatic operation of the bolt sleeve.
7. In an automatic firearm of the class described, the combination of a barrel, breech mechanismembodying a breech bolt, a driving rod connected thereto and carrying an interposed between said plunger and the opcrating collar on the driving rod, a breech closing spring bearing upon said plunger to re'storeit to mitial osition, a catch operative directly upon said driving rod to lock it from breech opening movement during .0 eration of said plunger to simultaneous y compress the breech opening and closing springs, and a device for retaining both of said springs under compression and opera- .tive by said controlling head to disengage said catch and release said driving rod.
8. In an automatic firearm of the class-described, the combination of a barrel, breech mechanism embodying a breech bolt, a driving rod connected thereto and carrying an operating collar, a reciprocatory lunger operative by gas from the barrel an carrying a tube slidable through said collar and having a controlling head thereon abutting against said collar, a breech opening spring interposed between said plunger and the operating collar on the drlving rod, a breech closing spring bearing upon said plunger to restore it to initial position, a catch operative directly upon said driving rod tolock it from breech opening movement during operation of said plunger to simultaneously compress the breech opening and closing springs, and a device for retaining both of said springs under compression and operative by said controlling head to disengage said catch and release said driving rod, sald device being actuated automatically by said collar on the driving rod after the latter has opened the breech to release the compression on said springs and permit closing of the breech In testimony whereof I have hereuntoset my hand in presence of two subscribing Witnesses. v I
CLIFFORD ROBERT STEPHEN JOHN HALLE.
Witnesses:
G. P. LIDDoN, R. WILLIAMS.
US63377011A 1911-06-17 1911-06-17 Automatic firearm. Expired - Lifetime US1010899A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2585195A (en) * 1949-01-08 1952-02-12 Remington Arms Co Inc Breech closing construction for firearms
US2981158A (en) * 1956-12-07 1961-04-25 David C Fletcher Power system for firearms
US3776096A (en) * 1971-10-21 1973-12-04 J Donovan Gas operated firearm
US4409883A (en) * 1981-06-03 1983-10-18 Edouard Nyst Gas operated firearm

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2585195A (en) * 1949-01-08 1952-02-12 Remington Arms Co Inc Breech closing construction for firearms
US2981158A (en) * 1956-12-07 1961-04-25 David C Fletcher Power system for firearms
US3776096A (en) * 1971-10-21 1973-12-04 J Donovan Gas operated firearm
US4409883A (en) * 1981-06-03 1983-10-18 Edouard Nyst Gas operated firearm

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