US10037770B1 - Method for providing a magnetic recording write apparatus having a seamless pole - Google Patents

Method for providing a magnetic recording write apparatus having a seamless pole Download PDF

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US10037770B1
US10037770B1 US14/939,934 US201514939934A US10037770B1 US 10037770 B1 US10037770 B1 US 10037770B1 US 201514939934 A US201514939934 A US 201514939934A US 10037770 B1 US10037770 B1 US 10037770B1
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trench
insulating layer
pole
layer
method
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Krishna Bahadur Chetry
Ming Sun
Jinqiu Zhang
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Western Digital Fremont LLC
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Western Digital Fremont LLC
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B5/00Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B5/127Structure or manufacture of heads, e.g. inductive
    • G11B5/1272Assembling or shaping of elements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B5/00Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B5/127Structure or manufacture of heads, e.g. inductive
    • G11B5/1278Structure or manufacture of heads, e.g. inductive specially adapted for magnetisations perpendicular to the surface of the record carrier
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B5/00Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B5/127Structure or manufacture of heads, e.g. inductive
    • G11B5/17Construction or disposition of windings
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B5/00Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B5/127Structure or manufacture of heads, e.g. inductive
    • G11B5/31Structure or manufacture of heads, e.g. inductive using thin films
    • G11B5/3109Details
    • G11B5/3116Shaping of layers, poles or gaps for improving the form of the electrical signal transduced, e.g. for shielding, contour effect, equalizing, side flux fringing, cross talk reduction between heads or between heads and information tracks
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B5/00Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B5/127Structure or manufacture of heads, e.g. inductive
    • G11B5/31Structure or manufacture of heads, e.g. inductive using thin films
    • G11B5/3163Fabrication methods or processes specially adapted for a particular head structure, e.g. using base layers for electroplating, using functional layers for masking, using energy or particle beams for shaping the structure or modifying the properties of the basic layers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49002Electrical device making
    • Y10T29/4902Electromagnet, transformer or inductor
    • Y10T29/49021Magnetic recording reproducing transducer [e.g., tape head, core, etc.]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49002Electrical device making
    • Y10T29/4902Electromagnet, transformer or inductor
    • Y10T29/49021Magnetic recording reproducing transducer [e.g., tape head, core, etc.]
    • Y10T29/49032Fabricating head structure or component thereof
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49002Electrical device making
    • Y10T29/4902Electromagnet, transformer or inductor
    • Y10T29/49021Magnetic recording reproducing transducer [e.g., tape head, core, etc.]
    • Y10T29/49032Fabricating head structure or component thereof
    • Y10T29/4906Providing winding

Abstract

A method provides a magnetic write apparatus. The method includes providing a pole including a pole tip, a yoke, a pole bottom and a pole top. The pole is seam free and formed vertically in a direction from the pole bottom toward the pole top. At least one coil for energizing the pole is also provided. In some aspects, providing the pole may include removing a portion of an intermediate layer to form a trench therein. The trench has a shape and location corresponding to the pole, a bottom, a top and sides. A conductive layer is deposited in the trench and on a top surface of the intermediate layer. Insulating layer(s) are provided on the sides of the trench. Only part of the conductive layer on the trench bottom is exposed. Pole material(s) are grown on the exposed portion of the conductive layer to provide the pole.

Description

BACKGROUND

FIGS. 1A and 1B depict air-bearing surface (ABS) and yoke views of a conventional magnetic recording apparatus 10. The magnetic recording apparatus 10 includes a main pole 20, intermediate layer 14, and top gap 16. The main pole 20 resides on the underlayer 12 and includes sidewalls 22 and 24. Below the underlayer 12 may be a leading shield. As can be seen in FIGS. 1A and 1B, portions of the main pole 20 recessed from the ABS in the stripe height direction are wider in the cross track direction than at the ABS.

In order to form the pole 20, a trench is provided in the intermediate layer 14. The magnetic material for the pole 20 is typically grown in the trench. Because the growth may be substantially conformal, the material(s) for the pole may grow in from the sides and bottom of the trench. Where the materials meet, a seam 21 may be formed. In some cases, the seam 21 may be approximately two nanometers wide.

Although the conventional magnetic recording head 10 functions, there are drawbacks. In particular, the conventional magnetic recording head 10 may not perform sufficiently at higher recording densities. The seam 21 may be viewed as analogous to defects in the magnetic material(s) forming the pole 20. The seam 21 thus has a lower magnetic moment than remaining portions of the pole 20. Although the seam 21 is not very wide, at higher recording densities, the seam 21 occupies a larger fraction of the pole 20. Stated differently, the width of the pole 20 shrinks for higher recording densities, but the width of the seam 21 may stay substantially the same. As a result, the magnetization of and magnetic field output by the pole 20 may decrease. Performance of the pole 20 at higher recording densities may, therefore, suffer. Accordingly, what is needed is a system and method for improving the performance of a magnetic recording head.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS

FIGS. 1A-1B depict ABS and yoke view of a conventional magnetic recording head.

FIG. 2 depicts a flow chart of an exemplary embodiment of a method for fabricating a portion of a magnetic recording write apparatus.

FIG. 3 depicts an exemplary embodiment of a magnetic recording disk drive.

FIGS. 4A and 4B depict ABS and yoke views of an exemplary embodiment of a magnetic write apparatus.

FIG. 5 depicts a flow chart of an exemplary embodiment of a method for fabricating a pole for a magnetic write apparatus.

FIG. 6 depicts a flow chart of an exemplary embodiment of a method for providing an insulator during fabrication of a pole for a magnetic write apparatus.

FIG. 7 depicts a flow chart of another exemplary embodiment of a method for providing a pole for a magnetic write apparatus.

FIGS. 8A, 8B and 8C depict ABS, yoke and plan views of an exemplary embodiment of a magnetic write apparatus during fabrication.

FIGS. 9A and 9B depict ABS and yoke views of an exemplary embodiment of a magnetic write apparatus during fabrication.

FIGS. 10A, 10B and 10C through 13A, 13B and 13C depict ABS, yoke and plan views of an exemplary embodiment of a magnetic write apparatus during fabrication.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

While the various embodiments disclosed are applicable to a variety of data storage devices such as magnetic recording disk drives, solid-state hybrid disk drives, networked storage systems and/or other data storage devices, for the sake of illustration the description below uses disk drives as examples.

FIG. 2 depicts an exemplary embodiment of a method 100 for providing a magnetic write apparatus. For simplicity, some steps may be broken into substeps, omitted, interleaved, and/or combined. The method 100 is also described in the context of providing a single magnetic write apparatus that may be used in a magnetic recording disk drive or other data storage device. However, the method 100 may be used to fabricate multiple magnetic write apparatuses at substantially the same time. The method 100 is also described in the context of particular layers. A particular layer may include multiple materials and/or multiple sub-layers. The method 100 also may start after formation of other portions of the magnetic recording apparatus. For example, the method 100 may start after a read apparatus, return pole/shield and/or other structures have been fabricated.

A seam-free pole is provided, via step 102. Step 102 includes providing a pole including a pole tip region and a yoke region wider than the pole tip region. The pole also has a pole bottom and a pole top. The pole tip region is between the yoke region and the ABS. Further, a portion of the pole tip region may occupy part of the ABS. In some embodiments, step 102 is performed such that the top of the pole tip is wider than the bottom. The yoke may also have its top wider than its bottom. In addition, step 102 is performed such that the pole is seam free. In some embodiments, this corresponds to depositing/growing the material(s) for the main pole vertically, in a direction from the pole bottom toward the pole top. For example, the pole may be plated from the bottom to the top. Thus, the pole formed in step 102 is seam free.

Step 102 may include using one or more damascene processes. For example, a trench may be formed in an intermediate layer. In some embodiments, the intermediate layer may be insulating. In other embodiments the trench may be formed in another layer, including but not limited to a shield layer. The trench may be fabricated such that portions of the trench sidewalls form angles that are analogous to those of the main pole. Once the trench has been formed, a seed layer may be provided. A portion of the seed layer in the trench may be covered by one or more insulating layers. The pole material(s) may then be provided on an exposed portion of the seed layer as part of step 102. The exposed portion of the seed layer is in the bottom of the trench. The pole materials thus grow from the bottom of the trench upward in all portions of the trench. Eventually the trench is filled. Thus, both the pole tip region and the yoke region of the pole are seam-free. In other embodiments, other methods might be used to fabricate the seam-free pole.

The coil(s) are provided, via step 104. Portions of step 104 may be interleaved with the remaining steps of the method 100. For example, portions of the coil may be provided before the formation of the pole. However, other portions of the coil may be provided after some or all of the main pole has been formed. Step 104 may also include depositing and patterning the material(s) used for the coil(s). Step 104 may include forming a helical coil or one or more pancake/spiral coils. In such embodiments, a spiral coil may include other turns far from the ABS.

Using the method 100, performance of the pole may be enhanced. The pole is substantially free of seams. The pole materials grow vertically from the bottom up in step 102. In regions in which the pole is grown in this manner, a seam is not formed. At least a portion of the pole, and in some embodiments all of the pole, may thus be seam free. The defects associated with the seam are, therefore, not present in the pole. Consequently, the pole formed using the method 100 may provide a higher magnetic field. Performance of the pole and magnetic write apparatus may thus be improved. This improvement may be particularly beneficial at higher recording densities where a seam might occupy a significant portion of the pole tip.

FIG. 3 depicts a side view of an exemplary embodiment of a portion of a disk drive 200 including a write apparatus 220 and which may be fabricated using the method 100. FIGS. 4A and 4B depict ABS and yoke views of the write apparatus 220. For clarity, FIGS. 3, 4A and 4B are not to scale. For simplicity not all portions of the disk drive 200 and write apparatus 220 are shown. In addition, although the disk drive 200 and write apparatus 220 are depicted in the context of particular components other and/or different components may be used. For example, circuitry used to drive and control various portions of the disk drive 200 is not shown. For simplicity, only single components 202, 210, 220, 230 and 240 are shown. However, multiples of each components 202, 210, 220, 230 and 240 and/or and their sub-components, might be used. The disk drive 200 may be a perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) disk drive. However, in other embodiments, the disk drive 200 may be configured for other types of magnetic recording. In other embodiments, the pole formed using the method 100 may be in other data storage device(s)

The disk drive 200 includes media 202, a slider 210 and a write apparatus 220. Additional and/or different components may be included in the disk drive 200. Although not shown, the slider 210 and thus the write apparatus 220 are generally attached to a suspension (not shown). The write apparatus 220 is fabricated on the slider 210 and includes a media-facing surface. In the embodiment shown, the media-facing surface is an air-bearing surface (ABS) that is proximate to the media 202 during use. In general, the disk drive 200 includes the write apparatus 220 and a read apparatus. However, for clarity, only the write apparatus 220 is shown. The write apparatus 220 includes a main, or write, pole 230, intermediate layer 224, top tap 226, and coils 240. The main pole 230 resides on underlayer 222. Different and/or additional components may be used in the write apparatus 220.

The coil(s) 240 are used to energize the pole 230. Two turns 240 are depicted in FIG. 3. Another number of turns may, however, be used. Note that only a portion of the coil(s) 240 is shown in FIG. 3. If, for example, the coil(s) 240 form a helical coil, then additional portion(s) of the coil(s) 240 may be located on the opposite side of the main pole 230 as is shown. If the coil(s) 240 is a spiral coil, then additional portions of the coil(s) 240 may be located further from the ABS. Further, additional coils may also be used.

The pole 230 includes a pole tip region 232 close to the ABS and a yoke region 234 recessed from the ABS. The yoke region shown in FIG. 4B and the pole tip region shown in FIG. 4A are both free of seams. This is in contrast to the conventional pole depicted in FIGS. 1A and 1B, which may have a seam 21 in both the yoke and pole tip regions. The pole tip region 232 is shown as having top and bottom bevels, near the ABS. Thus, the height of the pole 230 (distance along the down track direction) changes in the yoke direction perpendicular to the ABS. Further, the yoke region 234 may be wider (distance in the cross-track direction/out of the plane of the page in FIG. 3) than the pole tip region 232. In addition, the pole 230 includes sidewalls 236 and 238 in the cross track direction. The sidewalls may be configured such that the pole 230 has a bottom and a top wider than the bottom. The sidewalls 236 and 238 form sidewall angles with the down track direction. In some embodiments, the sidewalls 236 and 238 are symmetric.

The magnetic disk drive 200 may exhibit improved performance. The pole 230 may be substantially free of seams in both the pole tip region 232 and the yoke region 234. Consequently, the pole tip 230 may be free of defects that would otherwise deplete the magnetization. Consequently, the pole 230 may provide a higher magnetic field. Performance of the pole 230, magnetic write apparatus 220 and disk drive 200 may thus be improved. This improvement may be particularly beneficial at higher recording densities where a seam might occupy a significant portion of the pole tip 232.

FIG. 5 depicts an exemplary embodiment of a method 110 for providing a pole for a magnetic write apparatus. For simplicity, some steps may be broken into substeps, omitted, interleaved, and/or combined. The method 110 is also described in the context of providing a single pole for a magnetic write apparatus, such as a writer in a disk drive. However, the method 110 may be used to fabricate multiple poles and/or multiple magnetic write apparatuses at substantially the same time. Further, the method 110 may be used to manufacture other magnetic write apparatuses used in other data storage devices. The method 110 is also described in the context of particular layers. A particular layer may include multiple materials and/or multiple sub-layers. The method 110 also may start after formation of other portions of the magnetic write apparatus. For example, the method 110 may start after a read apparatus, return pole/shield and/or other structures have been fabricated. The method 110 also starts after an intermediate layer has been provided. In some embodiments, the intermediate layer is an insulator, such as aluminum oxide. In other embodiments, the intermediate layer may be other nonmagnetic material(s).

A trench is formed in the intermediate layer, via step 112. Step 112 may include providing on the intermediate layer a mask having an aperture therein. The portion of the intermediate layer exposed by the aperture is removed. The trench may have the desired location and profile for pole to be fabricated. Thus, the top of the trench may be wider than the bottom of the trench.

Once the trench has been formed, a conductive layer is deposited in the trench and on a top surface of a remaining portion of the intermediate layer, via step 114. The conductive layer is generally desired to be nonmagnetic. The conductive layer may be a seed layer, such as Ru. Step 114 may be carried out by chemical vapor deposition (CVD).

At least one insulating layer is provided on the sides of the trench, via step 116. As a result, only a portion of the conductive layer on the bottom of the trench is exposed. Step 116 may be carried out by depositing an insulating layer only on the sides of the trench. In some embodiments, the insulating layer may also be on the top surface of the intermediate layer. In other embodiments, multiple insulating layers are used. One insulating layer may be used to cover the sides of the trench while another insulating layer may be cover the top surface of the intermediate layer. For example, one insulating layer may be blanket deposited and a portion of the insulator removed. The portion of the insulating layer at the bottom of the trench may be removed. In addition, the insulating layer may be removed on the top surface of the intermediate layer. A second insulating layer may be deposited. This insulating layer may over only the top surface or may also cover other portions of the write apparatus. Alternatively, an insulating layer may be blanket deposited then removed only from the bottom of the trench. As a result, the conductive layer may be covered by an insulator except at the trench bottom.

The pole materials may then be provided, via step 118. In step 118, the pole materials are provided such that they are only grown on the exposed conductive layer. As a result, the pole materials grow up from the bottom of the trench. In some embodiments, step 118 includes electroplating CoFe and/or other high saturation magnetization material(s). Thus, the pole may be formed.

Using the method 110, performance of the pole may be enhanced. The pole may be substantially free of seams. Because of the manner in which the pole materials may grow (vertically from the bottom up) in regions in which the pole is grown, a seam is not formed. At least a portion of the pole, and in some embodiments all of the pole, may thus be seam free. Consequently, the pole formed using the method 100 may provide a higher magnetic field. Performance of the pole and magnetic write apparatus may thus be improved. This improvement may be particularly beneficial at higher recording densities where a seam might occupy a significant portion of the pole tip.

FIG. 6 depicts an exemplary embodiment of a method 120 for providing the insulating layer of the methods 100 and 110. For simplicity, some steps may be broken into substeps, omitted, interleaved, and/or combined. The method 120 is also described in the context of providing a single pole for a magnetic write apparatus, such as a writer in a disk drive. However, the method 120 may be used to fabricate multiple poles and/or multiple magnetic write apparatuses at substantially the same time. Further, the method 120 may be used to manufacture other magnetic write apparatuses used in other data storage devices. The method 120 is also described in the context of particular layers. A particular layer may include multiple materials and/or multiple sub-layers. The method 120 also starts after the trench formed in step 112 of the method 110 has been formed and the conductive layer deposited.

A first insulating layer is deposited, via step 122. Step 122 may include depositing a layer of at least one of aluminum oxide, silicon oxide and silicon nitride. The insulating layer may be conformally deposited in step 122. For example, atomic layer deposition (ALD) may be used. However, another deposition method might be employed in another embodiment. The layer deposited may be at least 1.5 nanometer thick. In other embodiments, the insulating layer may have another thickness. The insulating layer provided in step 122 is desired to be sufficiently thick to electrically isolate subsequent layer(s) from the underlying conductive layer.

A portion of the first insulating layer is removed, via step 124. At least the part of the insulating layer that is on the bottom of the trench is removed in step 124. In some embodiments, the insulating layer is also removed from the top of the intermediate layer. Thus, step 124 may employ an anisotropic etch, such as an anisotropic reactive ion etch (RIE). Such an RIE may remove material in a direction perpendicular to the top surface of the intermediate layer and, therefore, perpendicular to the bottom of the trench. Thus, the conductive layer on the bottom of the trench and on the top surface of the intermediate layer might be exposed.

A second insulating layer is provided, via step 126. The second insulating layer may also include aluminum oxide, silicon oxide or silicon nitride. In some embodiments, the same material is used in step 122 as in step 126. In alternate embodiments, different materials might be used. The second insulating layer is deposited in step 126 such that it does not reside on the bottom of the trench. For example, the second insulating layer may be provided only on the top of the intermediate layer. In other embodiments, some portion of the second insulating layer may also be on the sidewalls of the trench. However, the bottom of the trench remains substantially free of insulator such that the conductive layer is exposed. In some embodiments, step 126 is performed via ion beam deposition at a low deposition angle from the top surface of the intermediate layer. The specific deposition angle used may depend upon the width of the trench in the yoke and pole tip regions. In some embodiments, the second insulating layer is deposited at a deposition angle of not more than ten degrees from the top surface of the remaining portion of the intermediate layer. In some embodiments, the angle is greater than zero degrees and does not exceed five degrees. Use of a shallow angle may allow for the second insulating layer to be provided outside of the trench bottom. The thickness of the insulating layer(s) on the trench sidewalls and top surface of the intermediate layer is sufficient to provide electrical isolation. Thus, pole materials may not be grown on the insulating layer(s) provided in the method 120.

Using the method 120 in conjunction with the methods 100 and/or 110 allows the conductive layer to be exposed only on the bottom of the trench. The trench sidewalls and top of the intermediate layer are electrically insulated. Thus, pole materials may not be plated on these surfaces. As a result, the pole can be grown from the bottom of the trench/pole to the top. The seam-free pole of the methods 100 and 110 may then be provided. Performance of a magnetic write apparatus fabricated using the method 120 may thus be improved.

FIG. 7 depicts an exemplary embodiment of a method 150 for providing a magnetic write apparatus 250 having a pole that is seam-free in at least the pole tip region. In some embodiments, the pole is also seam-free in the yoke region. For simplicity, some steps may be omitted, interleaved, and/or combined. FIGS. 8A-8C through 13A-13C depict an exemplary embodiment of a magnetic write apparatus 250 during fabrication using the method 150. The magnetic write apparatus 250 may be part of the disk drive 200. Alternatively, the magnetic write apparatus 250 may be part of another data storage device. For clarity, FIGS. 8A-8C through 13A-13C are not to scale. For simplicity not all portions of the magnetic write apparatus 250 are shown. In addition, although the magnetic write apparatus 250 is depicted in the context of particular components other and/or different components may be used. For example, circuitry used to drive and control various portions of the magnetic write apparatus 250 is not shown. For simplicity, only a particular number and type components may be shown. However, other numbers and types of components and/or and their sub-components, might be used. The magnetic write apparatus 250 may be a PMR write apparatus. However, in other embodiments, the magnetic write apparatus 250 may be configured for other types of magnetic recording. The method 150 is also described in the context of providing a single magnetic write apparatus 250. However, the method 150 may be used to fabricate multiple magnetic write apparatuses at substantially the same time. The method 150 may also be used to fabricate other magnetic write apparatuses. The method 150 is also described in the context of particular layers. A particular layer may include multiple materials and/or multiple sub-layers. The method 150 also may start after formation of other portions of the magnetic write apparatus. For example, the method 150 may start after a reader, return pole/shield, intermediate layer and/or other structure have been fabricated.

A trench is formed in the intermediate layer, via step 152. In some embodiments, the intermediate layer may be an insulator such as aluminum oxide. In some embodiments the trench is formed using a reactive ion etch. The trench may have the desired location and, for at least some portions, profile for pole to be fabricated. FIGS. 8A-8C depict ABS, yoke and plan views of the write apparatus 250 after step 152 has been performed. Thus, underlayer(s) 252 are shown. In some embodiments, the underlayer(s) 252 is formed of a single layer. However, in other embodiments, the underlayer(s) 252 may be multiple layers. The underlayer(s) 252 may also include a leading shield. Also shown is intermediate layer 254 in which a trench 256 has been formed. The trench 256 also corresponds to an aperture in the mask 255 that is labeled only in FIGS. 8A and 8B. The ABS location depicted in FIG. 8C corresponds to the surface which, after fabrication is completed, forms the ABS. For example, the write apparatus 250 may be lapped to the ABS location.

Once the trench has been formed, at least one conductive layer is provided, via step 154. In some embodiments, the conductive layer is a nonmagnetic seed layer, such as Ru. However, in other embodiments, other material(s) may be used. In some embodiments, the seed layer may be deposited over the entire trench and intermediate layer 254 in step 154. Stated differently, step 154 may involve a blanket deposition step over the device area. This deposition step may, but need not, be conformal. In some embodiments, a CVD Ru deposition may be carried out. However, other material(s) and/or deposition process(es) might be used.

A first insulating layer is conformally deposited, via step 156. An ALD deposition of aluminum oxide may be performed in step 156. In other embodiments, the conformal deposition may take place using another technique and/or another material. The insulator(s) used for the first insulating layer may be desired to be reactive ion etchable. For example, silicon nitride and/or silicon oxide might also be used. FIGS. 9A and 9B depict ABS and yoke views of the magnetic write apparatus 250 after step 156 is performed. Thus, a conductive layer 268 has been formed in step 154. In addition, a conformal insulating layer 260 has also been provided. After step 156, the conductive layer 258 may be completely covered by the first insulating layer 260. The insulating layer 260 is thick enough to electrically insulate the underlying conductive layer 258. In some embodiments, the thickness of the insulating layer 260 is at least 1.5 nm. In some such embodiments, the insulating layer 260 is at least five nanometers thick and not more than ten nanometers thick. However, other thicknesses are possible.

The first insulating layer 260 is anisotropically removed, via step 158. The insulating layer 260 is preferentially removed from horizontal surfaces, via step 158. Step 158 may thus include performing a RIE. The etch conditions may be configured such that the RIE is anisotropic, etching more of the insulating layer 260 in a vertical direction. FIGS. 10A-10C depict ABS, yoke and plan views of the write apparatus 250 after step 158 has been performed. Because the insulating layer 260 is anisotropically etched and because the insulating layer 260 was conformally deposited, the insulating layer 260 has been removed from horizontal surfaces. Thus, the insulating layer 260 is no longer present on the bottom of the trench 256 or on the top surface of the conductive layer 258. Because the insulating layer 260 on the sidewalls of the trench 256 is oriented substantially vertically, little to none of this portion of the insulating layer 260 has been removed.

A second insulating layer is deposited on the top surface of the conductive layer 258, via step 160. Step 160 may include ion beam depositing the second insulating layer at a small (glancing) angle from the top surface of the conductive layer 258. In some embodiments, the angle may be greater than zero degrees and not more than five degrees. However, the angle may be configured based upon the geometry of the trench 256. The angle is selected to be sufficiently low that the insulating material being deposited does not land on and adhere to the bottom of the trench. FIGS. 11A-11C depict ABS, yoke and plan views of the write apparatus 250 while step 160 is performed. Thus, the ion beam deposition is at a deposition angle, θ, from the top surface of the conductive layer 258. As can be seen in FIGS. 11A-11B, this deposition angle is sufficiently small that material being deposited does not reach the bottom of the trench 256 (not labeled in FIGS. 11A-11B). The second insulating layer does 262 is shown. The second insulating layer 262 resides primarily or completely on the top surface of the conductive layer 258. Although not shown, a portion of the second insulating layer 262 might extend into the trench 256. However, because of the deposition method, the second insulating layer 262 does not cover the bottom of the trench. Thus, the conductive layer 258 remains exposed at the bottom of the trench, but not on the top surface of the intermediate layer 258 in at least the region around the pole being formed. The second insulating layer 262 may be made of the same material(s) as the first insulating layer. However, this is not required. Further, in some embodiments, the second insulating layer 262 need not be RIEable.

The material(s) for the pole being formed are grown, via step 162. In some embodiments, step 162 includes electroplating the pole materials. The materials provided in step 162 include high saturation magnetization material(s) such as CoFe. However, other materials including but not limited to nonmagnetic material(s) might be used. For example, the pole being formed may be a laminated pole including multiple layers. One or more of these layers might be nonmagnetic. In other embodiments, a single material is grown in step 162. Because the conductive layer 258 is only exposed at the bottom of the trench 256, the material(s) for the pole grow vertically, from the bottom of the trench/pole up.

FIGS. 12A-12C depict ABS, yoke and plan views of the write apparatus 250 while step 162 is performed. Thus, the pole material(s) 270 have started to grow in the trench 256 (not labeled in FIGS. 12A-12C). In both the pole tip region shown in FIG. 12A and the yoke region shown in FIG. 12B, the pole material(s) grow from the bottom toward the top. FIGS. 13A-13C depict ABS, yoke and plan views of the write apparatus 250 after step 162 has been performed. In some embodiments, other steps such as a planarization may have been performed. Thus, the pole 270 has been grown and fills the trench 256. As can be seen in FIGS. 13A and 13B, the pole 270 may be seam-free in both the pole tip region and the yoke region.

Using the method 150, performance of the pole 270 and magnetic write apparatus 250 may be enhanced. The pole 270 may be substantially free of seams. Because of the pole materials may grow vertically from the bottom of the trench 256 up, in regions in which the pole 270 is grown, a seam is not formed. At least a portion of the pole 270, and in some embodiments all of the pole 270, may thus be seam free. Consequently, the pole formed using the method 150 may provide a higher magnetic field. Performance of the pole and magnetic write apparatus may thus be improved. This improvement may be particularly beneficial at higher recording densities where a seam might occupy a significant portion of the pole tip.

Claims (20)

What is claimed is:
1. A method for fabricating a magnetic write apparatus comprising:
forming a trench in an intermediate layer, the trench having a shape and location corresponding to a pole, the trench having a bottom, a top, and a plurality of sides;
depositing a conductive layer on the bottom, the top, and plurality of sides of the trench and on a top surface of a remaining portion of the intermediate layer;
depositing a first insulating layer over the conductive layer on the plurality of sides of the trench,
depositing a second insulating layer over the conductive layer on the top surface of the remaining portion of the intermediate layer, with the conductive layer on the bottom of the trench being exposed, wherein the second insulating layer is deposited at a deposition angle of not more than ten degrees from the top surface of the remaining portion of the intermediate layer; and
growing at least one pole material on the exposed conductive layer on the bottom of the trench to provide the pole.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of growing the at least one pole material further includes:
electroplating the at least one pole material.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein the at least one pole material grows from the bottom of the trench vertically toward the top of the trench.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of depositing the first insulating layer comprises:
conformally depositing the first insulating layer; and
removing a portion of the first insulating layer on at least the bottom of the trench.
5. The method of claim 4 wherein the step of depositing the first insulating layer further includes:
atomic layer depositing an aluminum oxide layer.
6. The method of claim 4 wherein the step of removing the portion of the first insulating layer removes an additional portion of the first insulating layer on the top surface of the remaining portion of the intermediate layer.
7. The method of claim 6 wherein the step of removing the portion of the first insulating layer further includes: anisotropically reactive ion etching the first insulating layer such that the portion of the first insulating layer on the bottom of the trench and the additional portion of the first insulating layer on the top surface of the remaining portion of the intermediate layer are removed.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the first insulating layer includes at least one of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and silicon oxide.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein the second insulating layer includes at least one of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and silicon oxide.
10. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of depositing the second insulating layer further includes:
ion beam depositing the second insulating layer at the angle of not more than ten degrees from the top surface.
11. The method of claim 10 wherein the second insulating layer is an aluminum oxide layer.
12. The method of claim 1 wherein the first insulating layer is at least 1.5 nanometers thick.
13. The method of claim 1 wherein the top of the trench is wider than the bottom of the trench in a pole tip region of the trench.
14. A method for fabricating magnetic transducer comprising:
forming a trench in an intermediate layer, the trench having a shape and location corresponding to a pole, the trench having a bottom, a top and a plurality of sides;
depositing a conductive layer in the trench and on a top surface of a remaining portion of the intermediate layer;
depositing at least one insulating layer on the plurality of sides of the trench, the depositing of the at least one insulating layer comprising:
atomic layer depositing a first insulating layer, the first insulating layer being conformal to the conductive layer;
anisotropically reactive ion etching the first insulating layer to remove a portion of the first insulating layer, thereby exposing a first portion of the conductive layer on the bottom of the trench and a second portion of the conductive layer on the top surface; and
ion beam depositing a second insulating layer at an angle of not more than ten degrees from the top surface such that the second insulating layer covers the second portion of the conductive layer, the first portion of the conductive layer remaining exposed;
growing at least one pole material on the first portion of the conductive layer that is exposed to provide a pole by electroplating the at least one pole material from the bottom of the trench vertically such that the at least one pole material is seam-free; and
providing at least one coil for energizing the pole.
15. A method comprising:
forming a trench in an intermediate layer, the trench having a bottom surface and side surfaces;
depositing a conductive layer on the side surfaces and the bottom surface of the trench, including depositing the conductive layer on a remaining top surface of the intermediate layer;
depositing a first insulating layer over the conductive layer on the side surfaces of the trench, resulting in the first insulating layer extending on the conductive layer on the side surfaces of the trench leaving the conductive layer on the bottom surface of the trench exposed;
depositing a second insulating layer different from the first insulating layer over the conductive layer on the remaining top surface of the intermediate layer after the step of depositing the first insulating layer such that the conductive layer on the bottom surface of the trench remains exposed; and
growing a pole material on the exposed conductive material on the bottom surface of the trench for forming a pole of a magnetic write apparatus.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein a portion of the second insulating layer extends to the side surfaces of the trench.
17. The method of claim 15, wherein the first insulating layer does not extend to the remaining top surface of the intermediate layer.
18. The method of claim 15, wherein the second insulating layer does not extend to the side surfaces of the trench.
19. The method of claim 15, wherein the pole is seam free.
20. The method of claim 15, wherein the first insulating layer is formed of a first material and the second insulating layer is formed of a second material that is different from the first material.
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