US1002067A - Flying-machine equilibrium apparatus. - Google Patents

Flying-machine equilibrium apparatus. Download PDF


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US1002067A US1909532419A US1002067A US 1002067 A US1002067 A US 1002067A US 1909532419 A US1909532419 A US 1909532419A US 1002067 A US1002067 A US 1002067A
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Augustus F W Macmanus
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Augustus F W Macmanus
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    • B64C17/00Aircraft stabilisation not otherwise provided for



Patented Aug. 29, 1911.


Patented Aug. 29, 1911.






1 ,002,067, 1 Patented Aug. 29, 1911.

' 4 sums-sum a.


AYPLIUA'HOH FILED D30. 10, 1900.

ramming-29, 1911.




Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented Aug. 29, 1911.

Application filed December 10, 1909. Serial No. 532,419.

TooZZ whom it may concern:

Beit known that I, Aimtisips F. ll. Mao,

MANUs, ofthe Unit l' StatesiArmy, a citi-' zen of the'Unit'ed S' s,havelinvented new, and, useful Improvements in Flying-Machine Equilibrium Amer-mm, of which the following is a specification.

This invention relates to electrically 0perat'ed' mechanism 'for controlling the equilibrium of aeroplanes, flying machines, airships, and similar machines. I

It is generally applicable to all forms of power driven machines for aerial n'aa'igatiozi in which propellers driven by engines or other sources" of 'energycarried, by the ma: chine are reliedupon to give motive force to ()VfliCOlllGall resistance, and where alterations of equilibrium occur due to steering st-rains, shifting of load, and variationsin air pressure from various causes tend .to vary the normal center of gravity, or tilt and derang the relative normal navigating position of the machine in the air; lYhcn applied to such machines under the above conditions, the invention opcratesto restore normal conditions, overcomes defective equilibrium and retains the machine under all conditions in its proper'relativenavigating position.

As the invention is especially applicable to'well knotm forms of aeroplanes, it will be described and illustrated inconnectiontherewith, but it will be understood that it,is not intended. thereby tolini'it the use of the inof machines alone.

invention consists. in providing automatlo electrically operated mech anism.

wherebyumusual or abnormal conditions of equilibrium in an aeroplalie or similande .vice are restored to normal, and combining with such mechanism a controll ng device operated automatically by the tilting of the machine, to actuate the electrically operated mechanism;

' More specifically it consists. in providing amachinelof the kind described, with a series of propellers or'similardevices appropriately placed to exert pressure tore'elstablish equilibrium when rotated, separate driving means for cac of: the series of propellers, andgoverning-thel op 'eration of the driving means by-a control: mechanism forautomatically selecting and operatively connecting the driving mocha;

vention to the forms shown or to this-class lprovid ingnism in accordance with the variation from normal equilibrium of the machine.

The invention consists specifically in the arrangement of propellers, whereby equilibrium is restored in relation to the" planes of the aeroplane, and the arrangement and construction of the controlling device Whereby they are operated, and in general in the details of construction and arrangementqde scribed in detail in thefollowing specificar tion, and further defined in the following claims.

In the accompanying drawings: Figure 1 is a perspective outline of a Wright biplane flying machine provided with propellers and a controlling device arranged in accordance driving 10 and 11K" gPltlllC provided with two fans.

with my invention, theelcctrical connections on account of the small scale beirlg omitted.

is a. perspective diagram illustrating a diff ent arrangement of propellers. Fig. 3 asimilar perspective view illustrating a third arrangement of propellers. Fig. 4: is a s-ideelevation of the controlling device. Figs. 5 and 6 are-detail sections on similarly numbered lines on Fig. 4, looking in the direct'ionof the arrow. Fig. 7 is a side elevation of a modified form of thecontrolling device. Fig. 8 is a bottom plan of Fig. 7

with parts broken away; Fig.- 9 is a'ldia I gram'shmving the controlling circuit for a Fig. 101s a diagram of a Curtiss b plane in which the means for generating the controlling current is directly coupled to the engine, and Fig. 11 is a plan view of a Bleriot monoplane With extension frames provided .With' equilibrium devices in accordance with. my invention.

Referring to the drawings, A indicates E} =an' aeroplane comprising upper and lower planes B -B, vertical control planes C. C and a horizontal control or steering rudder, D. These parts are connected and-sup ported by a suitable frame E and themec'hi-ne is driven or propelled byan engine br motor F connected or propellers V .1 1 In Fig. '1 Ihav'e omitted the motor and propeller, which are shown .in Figs.

A' s'eries of small fan s propellers 1,. 2',

3,;4- are mounted on the machine and are preferably arra ged 5S5; shown, in. Fi i v1,:

B, and under the vertical control planes to a driving propellen that is, beneath th'bnds-oftlie main planes carried by the machine. A L H is separately connected to thesourc'e of energy-is normally 1nact1ve and operated 25 site corners of the It is obvious that 5, fingjlrws 7g of insulating material.

being v-provide are arranged horizontally and are driven by small electric motors H fllIlllShQd with power by; a centrally located storagewbatteryor other source of electric energy I Each of themotors by a control mechanism J operated :by ab normal displacement or tiltmg action of the 10 'ina'chine in its moi emcnt through the air to properly select and connect thed iiterent motors and rotate the propellers m such manner as to set up pressure in opposition to the displacement" or t'ilt of the machine.

. v l Various arrangement-s of these n'opel1e1 s or 'fans may be adopted, as for instance those sl rown in diagram in I igs;j2 'n where the fans are arranged both. 'abgye d "below the mfainplanes' and vertical control 2e planes in which case the upper fans-arc rotated to exert downwardpressure on said planes while the lower fans are arranged to exert'a'n upward pressure. And the connectionsare so arranged that the fans in oppof planes-act in pairs to restore equilibrium as indicated by the ar- "rows in Figs; 2 and 3.

placed as far as possible from the center ot the machine in order to exert the greatest small' superficial" leverage. In inacl'lines'of area this leverage may be increased by inountingt-he fans-on extensions K. K, built out from the frame oft-he air machine as :shownin diagram in the machine'of' the" ldleriot type illustrated in Fig. 1].;

-The'mcchanism for automatically controllingtheoperation o'lith'e fans 1, 2Iand 3 and 4:- t-hrough the motors Hand for establish- 4o iing connection with the. battery or other source of energy I consists as shown in Figs; =4, 5 land 6 of a freely suspended pendulum .=:L. depending from. a base or support M to The 46 Zpenduluinhy lfs'sivinging motion-is adapted tooperate. circuit closing devices operating to close' circuits including themotors H and c1, the'battery I, its-indicated in diagfain-in The circuit .-elosing devices consist of evers' N piyotally se'curedto depending :bars O, mounted on the base M adjacent to The outer ends of the ,levers N are provided with contact screws 12 55.,adapted to,v make, connection with angular c nvil{blocks.P, mounted on the based. -;,The anvil blocks 1 are provided-with; uid adapted to receive the outer ends or, the levers N. to

prevent their lateral displacement and" to rnsureproper contact'between the screws '11 and the anv l blocks P... The anvil'blo :ks

also carry depending armacr" brackets 71'. xtendmgfbehind the levers N. Said arms a tQ' screws 22 vsa id bars the fans should insulated from the arnlsN by blocks N byewhich motion of the levers in breaking contact is limited and adjusted. The weight of the leversN is partially sustaimd by springs 72, attached at one endto with adjusting screws a passing through. the levers, whereby their tension may be regulated, and the consequent force required to operate the lovers changed or varied.

The levers N are operated tomake contact'by elbow levels 0, pivoted at their lower ends to the lower ends of the do pendinghars O, and interposed between the and the pendulum L.

cheekplates r/ which embrace the short, endsof the levers N, and thereby retain th'e'tiro members" in operative relation; and r with 'l'i'lyocks g against which the'pe ululum 85 L strl kes to rock the levers oirth ei'l"Pivots and thereby?acthate the levers N to make Contact I't is 'to he understood that. the HH'HIlJOF'Of contact levers provided as thenumh'er of motors and fans to be controlled." The relative :urrangement of the controlling members in relation to the planes of the mat-:hine', being such that one pair of control levers is in incident with the line of flight and the sccondflpair' at right angles thereto. If only one pail:- of fans are to be. controlled the levers will be arranged in a line at right i angles to'the'line of flight.

As- Will. be seen by reference to Fig. 9, the connections necessary to controlthe motors 'and fans are very simple. The

penduh'nu L, is connected to one pole o'fa source ot'cnclgzy', m -this case a st-orage bat- 105 tery .l: and each of the anvilsrepresented in the diagram by the. stop screws S. S." coir n'e'cted to a loop passing through the motor armature and comiecte'd to the opposite pole the, battery I: It will be readily under' 1.

stood that there must be many loopsyas the number of fans to be controlled, and that the relative arrangementwill be varied.

to meet various conditions; Instead-I of the battery 1' shown in Fig.- 9,- a dynamo'l as shownin Figs; IOaIid' l-I may be-utilized to furnish the current necessary to operate'the the depending -bats O, and at. their-w thereuds provided v The upper '85 ends of the elbow levers are pro-i-udedaivrth will be the .san'le' line with, or co- 95 the" engine which and f the drawingsfinivhieh onare replaced by's i 18% Ill i the motor F as ll adapted to make contact and close circuits through contact SOL .ws V carried in. brackets e setuu-ed to the supportingbase. The operation of this device is similar to the one previcmsly (it. ihed. I

In the application of the invention to a (lurti s bi 'ilanemachine shown in Fig. 10, in which 13 are the ailerons tor manual lateral .col'itrol, and in which I have shown the dyintuno T directly ctu'mected with the shaft of l. tore destu'ibed, the fans 1, 3 and 4- are arranged, above the ends ot the main plane 15 and control (.l and D instead of below these parts as shown in Fig. 1.

Many other n'mdifications will occur to the skilled mechanic. fully within the scope of the invei'ition. For instance the fans might be driven by power shafts connected to the engine which drives the machine, and electriczillly controlled clutch mechanism used for connecting: the fans to the power shaft, the clutch controllii'ig devices being actuated by the pendulum and contact devic in a precisely similar n'ianner to their present use. The controlling device may be located in any convei'iient position on the planes of the machine. but should be near the center and is prc'lerahly located in a biplane under the center ot' the upper plane as shown.

It will be understood that the fans may be located to meet conditioim, although the preferred location is shown in the drawings.

.lilavingr thus described my invention what l claim and desire to secure by

cu i

.1. in an aeroplane or similar mechanisl'n, pro u'llers arranged to control the tilting motion of the am'oplane in one general direction. motor mechai'iism vtordriving said lll'Ullt-llllllh, electric circuits controlling said motor mechanism, pivotally mounted circuit closing levers, 'nvotally mounted operating multiplied in the levers for actuating said circuit closing levers, and a controlling device influenced by the reverse tilting motions of the aeroplane in said general direction for actuating one or the other of said operating levers.

2.. In a flying machine controlling mechanism of: the kind described, a main support-- ing plane, a horizontal rudder, a vertical rudder, fans arranged adjacent the extremities of the main plane, fans mounted in the line of flight adjacent the vertical and hort- Zontal riildders, motors whereby said fans may be operated to direct blasts of air against said adjacent parts to oppose tilting mot-ion of the machine, normall open circuits leiuling from said motors'toia source of energy, contacts included in said circuits liiy which they may be closed motors and drive said fans, and a pendulum actuated by the tiltor displacement of the machine to select and operatively connect through said contacts one or more of said motors and thereby oppose said displace" ment and restore equilibrium. i

, 3. A circuit closing device adapted to be operated bythe tilting of an air ship, acroplane or similar machine, raid circuit closing device con'iprising afrcely suspended pendulum, a series of contact operating 15 vers adapted to be operated by the movements of said pendulum, contacts adapted to be closed bythe movements of said levers, and intermediate levers interposed between the pendulum and contact levers \vl'iereby relatively slight motion inthe penduhim is circuit closing devices.-

In testimony whereof I aflix my signature in presence oftwo Witnesses.


J. E. \VELLs, W. S. An'ruonr.

to operate said.

US1002067A 1909-12-10 1909-12-10 Flying-machine equilibrium apparatus. Expired - Lifetime US1002067A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2433344A (en) * 1943-05-29 1947-12-30 Rca Corp Aeronautic positioning device

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2433344A (en) * 1943-05-29 1947-12-30 Rca Corp Aeronautic positioning device

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