TWI229349B - Semiconductor device with a negative voltage regulator - Google Patents

Semiconductor device with a negative voltage regulator Download PDF

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Publication number
TWI229349B
TWI229349B TW093105761A TW93105761A TWI229349B TW I229349 B TWI229349 B TW I229349B TW 093105761 A TW093105761 A TW 093105761A TW 93105761 A TW93105761 A TW 93105761A TW I229349 B TWI229349 B TW I229349B
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Taiwan
Prior art keywords
voltage
transistor
output
negative
electrically connected
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TW093105761A
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Chinese (zh)
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TW200531071A (en
Inventor
Yin-Chang Chen
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Amic Technology Corp
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Publication of TW200531071A publication Critical patent/TW200531071A/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05FSYSTEMS FOR REGULATING ELECTRIC OR MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G05F3/00Non-retroactive systems for regulating electric variables by using an uncontrolled element, or an uncontrolled combination of elements, such element or such combination having self-regulating properties
    • G05F3/02Regulating voltage or current
    • G05F3/08Regulating voltage or current wherein the variable is dc
    • G05F3/10Regulating voltage or current wherein the variable is dc using uncontrolled devices with non-linear characteristics
    • G05F3/16Regulating voltage or current wherein the variable is dc using uncontrolled devices with non-linear characteristics being semiconductor devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M3/00Conversion of dc power input into dc power output
    • H02M3/02Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac
    • H02M3/04Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters
    • H02M3/06Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using resistors or capacitors, e.g. potential divider
    • H02M3/07Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using resistors or capacitors, e.g. potential divider using capacitors charged and discharged alternately by semiconductor devices with control electrode, e.g. charge pumps
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05FSYSTEMS FOR REGULATING ELECTRIC OR MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G05F3/00Non-retroactive systems for regulating electric variables by using an uncontrolled element, or an uncontrolled combination of elements, such element or such combination having self-regulating properties
    • G05F3/02Regulating voltage or current
    • G05F3/08Regulating voltage or current wherein the variable is dc
    • G05F3/10Regulating voltage or current wherein the variable is dc using uncontrolled devices with non-linear characteristics
    • G05F3/16Regulating voltage or current wherein the variable is dc using uncontrolled devices with non-linear characteristics being semiconductor devices
    • G05F3/20Regulating voltage or current wherein the variable is dc using uncontrolled devices with non-linear characteristics being semiconductor devices using diode- transistor combinations
    • G05F3/24Regulating voltage or current wherein the variable is dc using uncontrolled devices with non-linear characteristics being semiconductor devices using diode- transistor combinations wherein the transistors are of the field-effect type only
    • G05F3/242Regulating voltage or current wherein the variable is dc using uncontrolled devices with non-linear characteristics being semiconductor devices using diode- transistor combinations wherein the transistors are of the field-effect type only with compensation for device parameters, e.g. channel width modulation, threshold voltage, processing, or external variations, e.g. temperature, loading, supply voltage
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M3/00Conversion of dc power input into dc power output
    • H02M3/02Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac
    • H02M3/04Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters
    • H02M3/06Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using resistors or capacitors, e.g. potential divider
    • H02M3/07Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using resistors or capacitors, e.g. potential divider using capacitors charged and discharged alternately by semiconductor devices with control electrode, e.g. charge pumps
    • H02M2003/071Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using resistors or capacitors, e.g. potential divider using capacitors charged and discharged alternately by semiconductor devices with control electrode, e.g. charge pumps adapted to generate a negative voltage output from a positive voltage source

Abstract

A semiconductor device with a negative voltage regulator. The device includes a negative voltage regulator. The negative voltage regulator comprises a driver, two operational amplifiers, two n-type triple-well MOS transistors, and a biasing circuit. The negative output voltage feeds back to the negative voltage regulator from the biasing circuit so as to be regulated by the negative voltage regulator.

Description

1229349 发明 Description of the invention: [Technical field to which the invention belongs] The present invention provides-a semiconductor with a negative voltage regulator circuit (negative νοι_ regulator), especially-a kind of- An oxide semiconductor (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor, MOS) transistor is a semiconductor element used to output a negative voltage regulator circuit after a negative voltage is stabilized. [Previous technology] Among various electronic products currently on the market, The regulator circuit is turned off to perform voltage adjustment work, and provide a stable voltage to the components set outside the regulator circuit. In order to provide a stable voltage, increase the stability of circuit components and ensure the performance of electronic devices, many circles have proposed many Different suspensions, such as Tanzawa et al.

Patent 6,600,692, Semiconductor Device with a Voltage Regulator ". In general, most circuits need to boost or bias the voltage to a higher positive voltage to make the circuit have better performance. However, , There are still = copies of circuits that need to use negative voltage (negative v〇itage), such as the most important non-volatile memory devices in modern information products: electrical erasable programmable read only memory (electrical erasable programmable read only memory, EEPROM) and flash memory. When the flash memory is used to erase written data, a negative voltage is required. However, the research and invention of voltage stabilization circuits from all walks of life are currently focused on the positive Regarding voltage stabilization, there has not been sufficient evolution regarding the voltage stabilization technology for negative voltages, as described in US Patent 6, 600, 692,

"Semiconductor Device with a Voltage Regulator" is not suitable for negative voltage regulation. Generally, a negative pump is used to generate a negative voltage in the circuit. Please refer to Figure 1. One is a schematic diagram of a conventional negative voltage 1229349 voltage generating circuit 100. 110 is an oscillator, and 120 is a negative charging circuit. The oscillator 110 inputs its output to the negative charging circuit 120, and the negative charging circuit outputs a negative voltage. Vom. Please refer to Figure 2. Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of a conventional negative voltage regulator circuit. The negative voltage regulator circuit 200 includes an AND gate 230, a voltage dividing unit 24, and two comparison states 250. Vre⑵ and Vref22 are Two reference voltages, R21 and R2 are two voltage-dividing resistors. Compared to the unregulated V ° UT1 in Figure 1, the voltage-dividing unit 240 uses the voltage-dividing resistors R21 and R22 to divide the output of the negative charging circuit ', and v_ divide the voltage, and then compare the voltage ratio generated by this divided voltage to 25o with the reference voltage ", the output of the comparator 250 is input with the output of the oscillating 210 and the gate is 23o, and the output of the 23o is again Input negative charge The circuit 220 is opened into a voltage stabilization circuit in this way, ν〇υτ2 is a regulated negative output voltage (regulated negative output voltage). For a circuit that requires high performance, Figure 2 shows the negative voltage regulation circuit 200 But ^ two sub-ideas. As shown in Figure 2, the operation of the negative voltage regulator circuit is such that when the level of ° 9 ^ _ is lower than the target level, the feedback voltage% will be pulled down and the output will be digital G (low level). This will cause the loss of 210 and 210 of the gate 230 to be eroded / said that when the level of 丄 ⑽, Tian V〇LT2 is at the standard level, the feedback voltage VLi will be dried out. The output of 25G is digital 1 ( High level), this will make the ratio of Hezha 230 to be described as limited by the comparator 25G and the comparison yoke of Hezha 230, similar to a digitally large level touch, '使 细 1 If you touch it, there is still a bias ... to charge h to meet the requirements of the circuit using negative voltage. [Summary of the Invention] A semiconducting circuit having a negative voltage regulator circuit. Therefore, the main object of the present invention is to provide a body element to improve the above problems. 1229349 According to the patent application scope of the present invention, a semiconductor device with a negative voltage regulator is disclosed, which includes a negative voltage regulator for stabilizing the negative input voltage (Negative I_VQltage). After the voltage is pressed, the two outputs are the output node output (negative output). ^ The negative voltage regulator circuit includes a driving unit (dHver), which is used to adjust the negative output voltage. The first transistor, the second transistor, the first node, and the rain node are electrically connected to the fourth point. -A voltage source, and an output operational amplifier (卿 ationai: V,: ler) which is electrically connected to the negative voltage stabilizing circuit of the output node: it includes; a first receiving end, a second receiving end, and an output end , Divided into two T: ¾ ^ Lck Voltage) '_Reference voltage (Reference 〇agej and the -transistor' The first-operational amplifier is based on the feedback voltage and ^ test voltage in order to output at the output-crane The voltage is controlled to flow through the first transistor 2 = 2 two operational amplifiers. The second operational amplifier includes a first receiving terminal and an output terminal, which are electrically connected to the reference voltage, and the feedback voltage is Λ ΐΓ. "Second transistor" The second operational amplifier is based on the reference electric circuit ^ ^ ^ to the output terminal to output a driving voltage to control the flow through the second electric current source (_ 心 〇job) to provide the crane Cell current, η type! F triple-well metal oxide half ΓΓ Gr, Hall, metal-oxide-semiconductor) transistor, in which the two n-type body finders are electrically connected to the drain of the first transistor and ΐΓ and the two-n-channel triplet metal-oxide semiconductor The source of the crystal is connected to the first mountain η tr; and the voltage-dividing unit includes a first end point and ^ feedback ^, the feedback node is electrically connected to the second and second receiving end of the _ operation amplifier, the branch The voltage unit is used to divide the level of the voltage source and the negative output voltage to form a continuum voltage. Τ 1 ^ The voltage is applied to the first-operation amplifier and the second operation to output 3 times = the first- The transistor and the second transistor and the positive transistor control the current flowing through the body to stabilize the negative output voltage. 1229349 [Embodiment] Refer to Figure 2 for details. FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a semiconductor device 300 having a negative voltage regulator circuit according to the present invention. FIG. 30 is a negative voltage regulator circuit according to the present invention. The voltage unit 34o, a driver unit 35o, and two operational amplifiers 361 and 362. Need to be regulated by the negative input voltage (N_1㈣Ut V〇lt_ via the input node (I_t Node). Input negative electricity, voltage regulator circuit 3G, "after the negative voltage regulator circuit 3Q voltage regulation at the output node (〇Ca 〇〇e output of the regulated negative output voltage (the industry ^ Voltage) —. 330 is a reference voltage generator (Band as detailed) included in the present invention with a negative voltage stability 300 Generating component 3001: The reference voltage required by each circuit (Satoshi Satoshi), including one of the reference voltages Vref31 and Vref32 as shown in Figure 3. The two in the order of the present invention have a negative voltage. The structure and power of each part of the semiconductor element of the voltage stabilizing circuit. The voltage source stabilizing circuit is connected to the node ί The voltage source Vs. The electrical residual circuit 31G includes -p-type channel metal oxidation

^^^ (ΜβΙαΙ-〇χΜβ ^ χ ^ αοΙοΓ, MOS-QperatiQnal —ifier) 363. Transistor% is based on its source and read source, such as a high level power supply for the entire circuit ^ It is connected so that its drain is electrically connected to the node Ns; the operational amplifier A || The details are shown in Figure 3. The ends are electrically connected to the terminal (-η) of transistor P3 and the reference voltage generator. One of them is the voltage Vrei31, and its output terminal is electrically connected to the gate two (g ^ e) of the transistor p3. The voltage source voltage regulator circuit 31 can fix the voltage level of the transistor's drain. The quasi-fine is independent of the influence of the non- 敎 power source, and provides a stable Γ Luna includes two n-type channels triple wells Ph Ph gold body nl fine 2, the current passing through the transistor nl fine 2 is a fixed proportion ^ The source of the electric body nl and n2 is connected to the input node Nw, and it is a triple-well (tHple-well) metal-oxygen semi-electric crystal, so it can be connected to the source with its drain 11 1229349. Negative voltage, negative wheel The human voltage VlN3 g 卩 is composed of the transistor nl and the source circuit 30. The voltage dividing unit 340 is a negative voltage stabilizing circuit 30 'for negative output voltage. There are a few fields in the embodiment of the present invention. As shown in Figure 3, the method of dividing fresh elements and 'Figure ^ shows the simplest knife & early 7Ld40 contains two voltage-dividing resistors R31 disk, which is electrically connected to The output node of the negative voltage stabilizing circuit 30 '^ Voltage «ΐVoltage ν " After 3 points of voltage, the negative node red feedback circuit 3G is input to the feedback node N. The driver unit 35G is introduced again. The driver unit 35 and p2 The sources of the transistors pl and p2 are electrically connected to section two and receive the gift source Vs. The gates of the transistors pl and p2 are electrically connected to the output terminals of the operating amplifiers 361 and 362, respectively. The output voltages of the operating amplifiers 361 and 362 are The currents flowing through the transistors pi and P2 are controlled respectively [and 丨 2. The operating amplifiers 361 and 362 each = the reference voltage U generated by the reference voltage generator C is received at its-receiving end, and the other receiving end is used to power The NFEro connected to the feedback node receives the feedback voltage Vfm3. According to Figure 2 and the description of the company, the operation of the Zhenxia voltage stabilization circuit of the present invention can be described as follows. First, the voltage source voltage stabilization circuit and the voltage division unit 34 ( ) After properly setting =, the value of the Dakau voltage is also matched with the selected value. When the negative output is When the v_ target level is pressed, the feedback voltage v_ will rise and become higher than v_; at this time, the output voltage of the operation amplifier 361 is high and the output voltage of the operation amplifier 362 is low, resulting in the transistor pi The current h flowing becomes smaller and the current i2 flowing through the transistor pl becomes larger. However, the current flowing through the transistor nl and n2 is proportional to each other, so the current I! Flowing through the transistor pi becomes smaller. When the current L flowing through the transistor pl becomes larger, a current must flow from the voltage dividing circuit 34G through the output node N to the transistor nl to compensate for the current h. This current will cause the feedback voltage yFEBK3 and The negative output voltage ν〇υτ3 is all pulled down, that is, the negative output voltage ν_ which is originally higher than the target standard position is lowered to the return standard position through the feedback of the negative voltage stabilization and voltage circuit 30. Conversely, if the negative output voltage VguT3 is lower than the standard level, the feedback voltage Vfem3 will decrease and fall below Vref32. At this time, the output voltage of the operational amplifier 361 is low and the output voltage of the amplifier 362 is known to be high. As a result, the current I1 ′ flowing on the transistor pl is not large and the current I2 flowing on the transistor pi becomes small. Similarly, if the current 121229349 ^ flowing on the transistor pi becomes larger and the current l2 flowing on the transistor pl becomes smaller, part of the current of the current L will flow from the output node, point N, to The voltage dividing unit 34〇; This current will make both the feedback voltage and the negative output voltage V㈣ be increased, that is, the negative output voltage ν_tune that was originally lower than the target standard level will be adjusted by the feedback of the voltage regulator 3 (). High-return standard position. The present invention is that the present invention returns the partial voltage% of the negative output voltage ν_ to the negative voltage 稃 f circuit 30 to control the current flowing through the transistors Pl and ρ2 of the driving unit; and 12 Then, by adjusting the current L · and 12 to adjust the level of the negative output voltage ν_, the standard position will be turned. Among them, the present invention is characterized by the use of a two-n-type channel triple ^ di, semi-transistors nl and η2. As is well known, the source and base of the transistor are preferably biased on the same plate ^? 1. Therefore, in the present invention, an n-channel triple-well metal-oxide semi-transistor M is used to form a current source circuit. The sources and drains of the transistors nl and n2 are both acceptable as "^ ❿Take the source of the body nl and n2 as the second negative voltage surface circuit of the present invention," and « The drain of the crystal nl serves as the output point of the negative voltage observation circuit of the present invention, which is suitable for negative input voltage and realizes the voltage stabilization function of the negative voltage. Apricot > One of the semiconductor elements of the circuit is preferably f =. When the present invention is implemented, the voltage dividing unit _ is connected to the output node ^:-terminal: it can be electrically connected to a reference voltage ν_ different from Vs, and the voltage dividing unit 34〇 The structure of the package can also be changed. 'As long as it can be properly designed so that it can be used in the feedback section _ can be used in conjunction with the reference to control the operational amplifier 361 ~ Voltage source voltage regulator circuit can also be omitted or replaced by other voltage regulator circuits, If you want to provide a stable voltage source, you can provide a stable voltage source Vs. The embodiment of, =: = Γ can also be replaced by other circuits that have different structures but can achieve the same effect on the negative voltage I of the control voltage divider __. In summary, the present invention _ Mie Jingjing The characteristics of the transistor provide a way to make the relay system stable and stable. And according to actual verification, if the input negative input voltage is -negative 7 13 1229349 volts (-7V) and there is a 200 millivolt (mV) disturbance voltage on it, after the voltage is stabilized by the negative voltage regulator circuit of the present invention, Can output a stable electric voltage of -7V with only less than 50mV perturbation. The negative voltage regulator circuit of the present invention can greatly reduce the noise on the negative voltage and provide% ^ good voltage regulation effect, which supports fast Operational requirements of flash memory. ′, ^ The above are only the preferred embodiments of the present invention, and any equivalent changes and modifications made in accordance with the scope of the patent application of the present invention shall fall within the scope of the patent of the present invention. [Brief description of the diagram] Brief description of the diagram Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of a conventional negative voltage generating circuit. Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of a conventional negative voltage regulator circuit. Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the semiconductor components of the stable voltage town of Zhenzhenxia. Symbol description 100 200, 30 300 U 0, 210 12 0, 220 230 240, 340 250 310 320 Negative voltage generation circuit Voltage circuit semiconductor element oscillator negative charge circuit and gate voltage divider unit comparator voltage source voltage regulator circuit current source 1229349 330 350 361, 362, 363 R21, R22, R31, R32 V〇UTl, V〇UT2, VfEBK2, Vref21, Vref22, Vref31, Vref32, VdD, V〇UT3, VlN3 NiN, NoUT, NfEBK3 Reference voltage generator drive unit Operational amplifier resistance voltage node 15

Claims (1)

1229349 Patent application scope: 1. A semiconductor device with a negative voltage regulator, which includes: _ A negative voltage regulator circuit, which is used to convert a negative input voltage (Negative Input voltage). ) Output a negative output voltage (Negative Output Voltage) at an output node after voltage stabilization. The negative voltage stabilization circuit includes: a driver unit for adjusting the negative output voltage. The driver unit includes A first transistor and a second transistor, a first node and an output node, wherein the first node is electrically connected to a voltage source, and the output node is electrically connected to an output node of the negative voltage regulator circuit; An operational amplifier includes a first receiving end, a second receiving end, and an output end, which are electrically connected to a Feedback Voltage and a reference voltage respectively. And the first transistor, the first operational amplifier is based on the feedback voltage and the reference voltage to output a driving voltage at the output terminal to control the flow The current of the first transistor; a first operational amplifier, the second operational amplifier comprising a first receiving end, a second receiving end and an output end, which are electrically connected to a reference voltage, the feedback voltage and the A second transistor, the second operational amplifier is based on the reference voltage and the feedback voltage to output a driving voltage at the output terminal to control the current flowing through the second transistor; a current source circuit Is used to provide the drive unit current. The current source circuit includes a two-n-type triple-well metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (M0S, metal-oxygen half) transistor. The drains of the n-channel triple-well metal-oxide semiconductor transistor are electrically connected to the drain of the first transistor and the second transistor, respectively, and the source of the two-n-channel triple-well metal-oxide semiconductor transistor. The source is connected to the negative input voltage; and the knife voltage unit includes a first terminal, a second terminal, and a feedback node, of which 16 1229349 is the first terminal electrically connected to the voltage source, The second terminal is electrically connected to the point, and the feedback_electrically connected to the first of the first operational amplifier and the second receiving end of the second operational amplifier. The voltage dividing unit is a bit of the voltage source and the negative Turn out the Xiafen voltage to form the feedback voltage ^ and output the feedback voltage to the first operation amplifier and the one or two operation amplifiers at the feedback node to adjust the control flow through the first transistor and the second crystal. Current to stabilize the negative output voltage. … 2. The semiconductor device described in item 1 of the scope of patent application, wherein each of the first and second transistor systems is a p-channel metal-oxide semiconductor transistor. The transistor and the third semiconductor device described in item 1 of the patent scope, wherein the first transistor two transistors are each -p-channel metal-oxide semiconductors, and the first transistor = (Source) and the source of the second transistor are electrically connected to the first voltage source, the gate of the _ = body is electrically connected to the output terminal of the -operation amplifier II, and the second electrode is electrically connected At the output of the second operational amplifier. _ 4. The semiconductor device described in item 3 of the scope of patent application, wherein the system is the brother of the transistor. Output node of the driver 5. The semiconductor device as described in item 3 of the scope of patent application, wherein the output of the driver is the drain of the diode. 6. The semiconductor device as described in item 1 of the patent application, wherein the base of the two-channel three-metal-oxide semi-transistor is electrically connected to the two n-types of its respective source (source). Channel Mie Well Metal Oxygen Semi-Electricity-The n-channel Mie Well Metal Oxygen Semi-Electricity = Zhi Wuji is electrically connected to '(Gate), and the ^ -type channel Mie Well Metal Oxide Semi-Electric Crystal is another The drain of the n-channel double-well metal-oxide semiconductor transistor is electrically connected to the wheel output point of the driver. 17 1229349 7. The semiconductor device described in item i of the scope of patent application, which further includes an oscillator and a negative charging circuit, wherein the oscillation cries at the input terminal of the negative charging circuit, and The negative electric charging circuit is privately connected to the source of a child-type n-transport double-well metal-oxide semiconductor transistor. 8. As described in the semiconductor device described in item 丨 of the patent scope, it further includes-the reference voltage is generated for To generate the reference voltage of the -operation amplification || second operation voltage. The semiconductor device described in the item of the patent claim M1, wherein the driving unit and the subunit are electrically connected to The same voltage source. 10. The semiconductor device as described in item 1 of the scope of the patent application, further comprising:-a voltage source voltage stabilizing circuit that generates a source electrically connected to the first node of the driving unit, the voltage source The voltage stabilizing circuit includes: a P-type transit metal-oxygen semi-electrical sun-dual body 'connected to the first voltage source by its source and electrically connected to the first node of the driving unit by its drain; and one to three Operational amplifier, which The first receiving terminal, the second receiving terminal, and an output terminal are electrically connected to the drain of the p-channel metal-oxide semiconductor transistor, respectively, and a first reference voltage is used to make the p-type metal-oxide semiconductor transistor. The gate, the third operational amplifier is used to fix the voltage level of the drain of the p-channel metal-oxide semiconductor transistor to the level of the first spring test voltage. The semiconductor element described in the item further includes a _reference voltage generator for generating a reference voltage of the first operational amplifier, the second operation amplifies the reference voltage, and the first reference voltage. ⑽ 12 · Please request a patent range The semiconductor device described in the item! Is a flash memory (flash ° 18
TW093105761A 2004-03-04 2004-03-04 Semiconductor device with a negative voltage regulator TWI229349B (en)

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TW093105761A TWI229349B (en) 2004-03-04 2004-03-04 Semiconductor device with a negative voltage regulator
US10/709,524 US6888340B1 (en) 2004-03-04 2004-05-12 Semiconductor device with a negative voltage regulator
US10/906,705 US7015684B2 (en) 2004-03-04 2005-03-02 Semiconductor device with a negative voltage regulator

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US20050194956A1 (en) 2005-09-08
US6888340B1 (en) 2005-05-03
US7015684B2 (en) 2006-03-21

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