RU2688317C1 - Method of liquid separation into fractions and device for its implementation - Google Patents

Method of liquid separation into fractions and device for its implementation Download PDF

Info

Publication number
RU2688317C1
RU2688317C1 RU2018127235A RU2018127235A RU2688317C1 RU 2688317 C1 RU2688317 C1 RU 2688317C1 RU 2018127235 A RU2018127235 A RU 2018127235A RU 2018127235 A RU2018127235 A RU 2018127235A RU 2688317 C1 RU2688317 C1 RU 2688317C1
Authority
RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
liquid
heat exchanger
fractions
circuit
radiators
Prior art date
Application number
RU2018127235A
Other languages
Russian (ru)
Inventor
Александр Александрович Деркач
Original Assignee
Александр Александрович Деркач
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Александр Александрович Деркач filed Critical Александр Александрович Деркач
Priority to RU2018127235A priority Critical patent/RU2688317C1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of RU2688317C1 publication Critical patent/RU2688317C1/en

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D3/00Distillation or related exchange processes in which liquids are contacted with gaseous media, e.g. stripping
    • B01D3/14Fractional distillation or use of a fractionation or rectification column
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12FRECOVERY OF BY-PRODUCTS OF FERMENTED SOLUTIONS; DENATURED ALCOHOL; PREPARATION THEREOF
    • C12F3/00Recovery of by-products

Abstract

FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry. Device for separation of liquid into fractions is made in form of heat exchanger, which contains, as a rule, thermally insulated housing with at least one inlet and / or outlet branch pipe and forming second circuit of heat exchanger, wherein first heat exchanger circuit is arranged inside housing, made in form of tube with installed external radiators located in heat exchanger second circuit, wherein the tube cavity is looped by the pipelines mainly through the installed pump and completely filled with the working fluid. Method for liquid separation of fractions using said device.EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of using heat energy during separation of liquid into fractions and thereby high efficiency of the whole process.12 cl, 7 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the chemical industry, and can be used, for example, to obtain alcohol from alcohol-containing raw materials.
One of the problems of modern technologies for the separation of liquids into fractions is to increase the efficiency of using thermal energy required for this process.
A method of obtaining carbon-like material from biomass, in which the reaction mixture containing biomass is heated by bringing into contact with steam, and the steam moves counter-current to the reaction mixture, with the formation of the reaction mixture containing activated biomass, followed by the polymerization of activated biomass with the formation of the reaction mixture containing carbon-like material (see application RU 2011132925, IPC C10L 5/44, the date of publication of the application: 03/20/2013. Byul. No. 8).
Known installation for the continuous distillation of alcohol-containing raw materials, made as a vertical column, equipped with floor-mounted inside the contact elements, each of which consists of a pipe and fan plate lattice installed at its base with the formation of a drain gap, each pipe in the form of a truncated cone and provided with a fender ring fixed at its upper base, while the contact elements are located throughout the cross section of the column and each of the overlying fittings is inserted den the lower base to a certain depth in the flange ring below, thus forming a series of sections-columns communicated between the flange rings, (see application RU 2011132925, IPC C10L 5/44, date of publication of the application: 03/20/2013. Bull. №8).
There is a method of separating a liquid into fractions, based on an increase in its temperature due to heat exchange in a heat exchanger (see USSR AU No. 1013461, publ. From 04.23.83, class C12F 1 \ 00 - prototype).
A device for separating a liquid into fractions is known, made in the form of a heat exchanger containing a thermally insulated body with at least one inlet and outlet nozzle (see RF patent №2119814 dated 10.10.98, cl. В01Д 53 \ 18 - prototype ).
A common disadvantage of the known technical solutions is the low efficiency of using thermal energy necessary for the process of separating a liquid into fractions.
The technical result of the proposed inventions is to eliminate the noted disadvantage, namely to increase the efficiency of using thermal energy in the process of separating the liquid into fractions and thereby increasing the efficiency of the whole process.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of separating a liquid into fractions based on an increase in its temperature due to heat exchange in a heat exchanger according to the invention, the cavity of the first circuit of the heat exchanger for the heated working fluid is looped, mainly through a pumping device, this cavity is completely filled with working fluid boiling point above the boiling point of a fractioned liquid, the working liquid is heated, on the upper radiators in the second circuit a heat exchanger and a fractional liquid under pressure greater than the vapor pressure in this circuit is supplied, heating is carried out by heat exchange as it moves down the radiators, the heating power is coordinated with the amount of liquid supplied and the fraction of the product obtained evaporates, the amount of fractionated liquid at the bottom of the second the circuit is optimized according to the maximum efficiency of the process (i.e. it is necessary that the liquid at the bottom of the second circuit be sufficient to block the outlet opening in front of the exhaust valve, of not too much to accumulated liquid does not overlap a large number of radiators in the loop), and the resulting product is withdrawn from the heat exchanger.
A variation of the proposed method is that after the passage of the heat-exchanger liquid that is divided into fractions and the evaporation of the obtained product from it, the liquid is removed from the heat exchanger.
The next kind of the proposed method is that the heating of the liquid divided into fractions is carried out up to the maximum temperature established by the technology of its separation into fractions.
A further variation of the proposed method is that after draining from the heat exchanger the fractioned liquid, it already without the product obtained, heat the liquid supplied to the heat exchanger radiators divided into fractions, for example, by feeding it into a separate heat exchanger.
A further variation of the proposed method is that the product obtained from the heat exchanger heats up the liquid that is divided into fractions, for example, by feeding it into a separate heat exchanger.
The next kind of the proposed method is that the process is controlled by means of sensors, and the information coming from them is processed on an automated device.
A further variation of the proposed method is that the heating process is duplicated, in which case, the resulting product is used as a fractional liquid.
To implement the method, a device for separating a liquid into fractions is proposed, made in the form of a heat exchanger containing, as a rule, a thermally insulated housing with at least one inlet and / or outlet nozzle and forming a second heat exchanger circuit in which, according to the invention, the first the circuit of the heat exchanger, made in the form of a tube with installed external radiators located in the second circuit of the heat exchanger, moreover, the cavity of the tube is looped around pipelines and mainly h Res pump installed and completely filled with liquid, in addition, at least one pipe has thermal contact with a heater disposed, generally, outside of the tube.
A variation of the proposed device is that the tube with external radiators is made of heat-conducting material, for example, copper.
The next type of the proposed device is that the outlet or pipes are connected to the inlet of an additional heat exchanger, the second circuit of which is connected to the cavity of the body in which the liquid is divided into fractions.
The next version of the proposed device is that the connection with the cavity of the body is made in the form of a common pipe, namely the inlet for the fractioned liquid, and the outlet for the resulting product.
A further variation of the proposed device is that the additional heat exchanger or heat exchangers are located axisymmetrically on the outer or inner side of the housing.
This set of features exhibits new properties, which consist in the fact that their use increases the efficiency of using thermal energy expended for the process of separation of a liquid into fractions and. thereby increasing the efficiency of the entire process.
As an example of the implementation of the proposed solution of the technical problem, the devices in FIG. 1-3, where:
FIG. 1 - a device for implementing the method according to claim 1 (with variations),
FIG. 2 - a type of device according to claim 11,
FIG. 3 - a type of device according to claim 12,
FIG. 4-7 - types of radiators.
In these figures, the following notation is introduced:
1. case
2. inlet
3. outlet pipe
4. outlet
5. heat pipe
6. perforated radiators
7. working fluid
8. heating device
9. stopcock
10. additional heat exchanger
11. pipeline
12. fractional liquid
13. shut-off valve
14. heat insulating layer
15. temperature sensor
16. bottom float of fluid level sensor
17. Top float of fluid level sensor
18. capacity for finished product
19. capacity for fluid separated by fraction
20. pump
21. pipeline
22. pump for working fluid
23. capacity for working fluid
To implement the method of claim 1, a device is proposed (see FIG. 1), made in the form of a heat exchanger comprising a thermally insulated housing 1 with one inlet 2 and two outlet nozzles 3, 4 and forming the second circuit of this heat exchanger. Inside the case is the first circuit of the heat exchanger, made in the form of a tube 5 with installed external perforated radiators 6 located in the cavity of the second circuit of the heat exchanger (radiators of the second circuit, which are supplied to the fractional liquid, can be of different shapes and devices. Their main task: to ensure the maximum transfer of heat energy from the heating device of a fractional liquid. Otherwise, the shape and various versions of the radiators only change to this or that side efficiency of the system). The cavity of the tube 5 is filled with a working fluid 7, which can be heated using a heating device 8 located mainly on the periphery, and a pipe 21 is connected to its upper part, circulating it through a pump 22 and a container for working fluid 23 with its lower part. The tube 5 with external radiators 6 is made of heat-conducting material, for example copper. In addition, the outlet nozzle of the finished product 3 is connected to the inlet of an additional heat exchanger 10, the second circuit of which is connected by a pipe 11 to the cavity of the housing 1, in which the fluid 12 divided by fractions is located, the nozzle 4 for its outlet is located in the lower part of the housing 1 (on it located shut-off valve 13). A heat-insulating layer 14 is applied to the housing 1. Sensors 15, 16, 17 are located in the lower part of the housing. In addition, the device is equipped with a container for the finished product 18 and a container 19 with a pump 20 for the liquid divided by fractions. In the tank 23 is located the heating device 8.
The radiators of the second circuit, to which the liquid is divided into fractions, can be of various forms and structures (see Fig. 4-7). Their main task: to ensure the maximum transfer of thermal energy from the heating device of a fractional liquid. Otherwise, the shape and various versions of the radiators only change in one direction or another, the efficiency of the system. In this regard, the radiators must be made of heat-conducting material (for example, copper), have good contact with the central tube, which is also made of heat-conducting material and receives thermal energy from the heating device, and ensure that the radiators and fractional liquid. It is also necessary to ensure that there is no bypass of the fluid that is divided into fractions past the radiators and the direct flow of fluid to the bottom of the system where the waste fluid should be (falling through several radiators into the radiator through holes located one above the other, overflowing the fluid through the edge of the radiator and other cases).
There are several examples of the execution of radiators:
The first embodiment (Fig. 4) is perforated plates, arranged horizontally, with a rim at the edges, which prevents the liquid from flowing to the bottom of the system.
The second embodiment (Fig. 5) is perforated plates arranged horizontally with a slope, arranged with alternation: with a slope downward of a smaller diameter, with a slope upward of a larger diameter.
The third option (Fig. 6) is similar to the second, except that the plates have a special design, providing a certain movement of fluid through them (for example, spiral channels on the plates).
The fourth embodiment (Fig. 7) is a heat-conducting spiral channel through which fluid flows down through the system, passing a relatively long path.)
To start the operation of the proposed device, it is necessary to turn on the heating device 8 and the circulation pump 22, wait until the working fluid heats up, and the heating device 8 upon reaching the desired temperature temporarily turns off. Run the rest of the system nodes to work.
The fractions of the liquid from the tank 19 through the pump 20 enters the additional heat exchanger 10 as a coolant, taking the heat from the steam coming from the outlet nozzle 3. The pump 20 is turned on when the float of the sensor 17 is in the lower position (down). The heated fractionally separated liquid enters the tube in the second circuit of the heat exchanger and enters the perforated radiators 6, heats up and partially evaporates, losing low-boiling fractions. After evaporation, the waste liquid flows to the bottom. It is delayed by means of a shut-off valve 13, which opens if the float of the sensor 16 is in the upper position (surfaced) and the temperature sensor 15 indicates the temperature above the set one. If it shows the temperature below the set point, then the valve 13 is closed, and the waste liquid continues to warm up, evaporating the necessary low-boiling fractions. If the upper float 17 of the liquid level sensor goes to the upper position (the liquid has not warmed up and the valve 13 is not open yet), the pump 20 stops working and the liquid stops flowing into the system. The steam entering the additional heat exchanger transfers the heat of the fluid separated by fractions and enters the receiving tank 19 as the final product. The stop valve 13 opens only if the float 16 is in the upper position (floated) and the temperature sensor 12 indicates the temperature above the set one. If the temperature sensor 12 shows the temperature below the set point, then the stop valve 13 is closed, and the liquid continues to warm up, evaporating the necessary fractions. If the float 16 is omitted, then the stop valve 13 is also closed, thereby creating a water seal in the lower part of the housing 1. This prevents the evaporated fractions from escaping through the stop valve 13, which is designed to discharge the spent liquid. (When this situation occurs, the system eliminates possible losses of the separated fractions during the discharge of waste liquid, in which the desired fractions have not yet completely evaporated (if the temperature of the waste liquid has not reached the established technical process for a particular shared liquid), and the system will also prevent an excess of waste liquid in the secondary circuit, which will result in the overlapping of a large number of radiators, which ultimately can completely disrupt the technical process.If in this situation the process of supplying the liquid is not stopped, then at the first stage the system efficiency will be significantly reduced and the amount of recoverable fractions will be reduced to a minimum, and in the future the system will overflow, and the initial liquid will flow into the final product. Temperature conditions are determined separately for each divided liquid by the boiling point of its components, and also taking into account the fact that the temperature of the active evaporation liquid at boiling of individual fractions differs significantly from the temperature of the active evaporation liquid of these same fractions at boiling a mixture of components with different boiling points. Thus, the temperature limits are selected as follows: the lower temperature limit is set by the initial phase of active evaporation (which has a positive effect on the interaction of all system components), the upper limit is determined by the maximum boiling point of the liquid, at which all the necessary fractions have evaporated. For example, when separating the sugar must fermented by yeast cultures to extract the maximum amount of ethyl alcohol from it, it is possible to set temperature limits of 60-120 degrees Celsius. The narrowing of these limits for a given fluid is possible, but losses of the drawn fluid are possible. The upper limit is too high to compensate for changes in boiling at overpressure. For other liquids, such as petroleum products, other temperature limits are selected.) The working fluid constantly circulates mainly with the help of a circulation pump 22. Without a pump (for example, due to the tendency of masses with a higher temperature to rise), efficiency may decrease due to a decrease in the transfer of thermal energy from the heating device, divided into fractions of the liquid.
System features
External heating of the working fluid allows the use of various methods of heating it (electricity, gas, firewood), both individually and collectively.
FIG. 2 shows a variety of devices characterized in that the connection with the cavity of the housing 1 with the entrance of an additional heat exchanger 10, is made in the form of a common pipe, namely, the inlet for the fractioned liquid, and the outlet for the resulting product. And the rest of his work is similar to the functioning of the described devices.
FIG. 3 shows a type of device, characterized in that the additional heat exchanger or heat exchangers are located axisymmetrically on the outer or inner side of the housing 1. Its operation is similar to the functioning of the described devices.
Thus, this set of features, their use, increases the efficiency of using thermal energy expended for the process of separating a liquid into fractions, thereby increasing the efficiency of both the technology and the installation as a whole.

Claims (12)

1. A device for separation into fractions of a liquid, made in the form of a heat exchanger containing a predominantly thermally insulated housing with at least one inlet and / or outlet nozzle and forming the second circuit of the heat exchanger, temperature sensor, level sensor floats, capacity of the finished product, capacity with pump for on fractions of a liquid, characterized in that inside the case there is a first contour of the heat exchanger, made in the form of a tube with installed external radiators located in the second contour e exchanger, wherein the tube cavity is looped through conduits installed advantageously pump and completely filled with liquid, in addition, at least one pipe has thermal contact with a heater disposed mainly outside of the tube.
2. The device according to p. 1, characterized in that the tube with external radiators made of heat-conducting material, for example copper.
3. The device according to p. 1, characterized in that the outlet or nozzles are connected to the inlet of an additional heat exchanger, the second circuit of which is connected to the cavity of the housing in which the liquid is divided into fractions.
4. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that the connection with the cavity of the body is made in the form of a common pipe, namely, the input for the fractioned liquid, and the output for the resulting product.
5. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that the additional heat exchanger or heat exchangers are located axisymmetrically on the outer or inner side of the evaporator tower.
6. The method of separation into fractions of a liquid, using the device according to claim 1, based on increasing its temperature due to heat exchange in a heat exchanger, characterized in that the cavity of the first circuit of the heat exchanger for the heated working fluid is looped, mainly through a pumping device, this cavity is completely filled the working fluid with a boiling point above the boiling point of a fractional liquid, the working fluid is heated, to the upper radiators in the second circuit of the heat exchanger serves to separate liquid fractions under pressure greater than the vapor pressure in this circuit are heated by heat exchange as it moves down the radiators, the heating power is matched with the amount of liquid supplied and the fraction of the resulting product evaporates, the amount of liquid divided into fractions at the bottom of the second circuit is optimized maximum efficiency of the process, and the resulting product is removed from the heat exchanger.
7. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that after the passage of the heat exchanger divided into fractions of the liquid and evaporation of the obtained product from it, the liquid is removed from the heat exchanger.
8. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the heating of the liquid divided into fractions is carried out up to the maximum temperature established by the technology of its separation into fractions.
9. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that after draining from the heat exchanger the fractioned liquid to it, already without the product obtained, heat the liquid supplied to the heat exchanger radiators divided into fractions, for example, by feeding it to a separate heat exchanger.
10. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the product obtained from the heat exchanger heats the fractional liquid, for example, by feeding it into a separate heat exchanger.
11. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the process is controlled using sensors, and the information coming from them is processed on an automated device.
12. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the heating process is duplicated, and in this case, the resulting product is used as a fractional liquid.
RU2018127235A 2018-07-24 2018-07-24 Method of liquid separation into fractions and device for its implementation RU2688317C1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
RU2018127235A RU2688317C1 (en) 2018-07-24 2018-07-24 Method of liquid separation into fractions and device for its implementation

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
RU2018127235A RU2688317C1 (en) 2018-07-24 2018-07-24 Method of liquid separation into fractions and device for its implementation

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
RU2017137703A Division RU2664470C1 (en) 2017-10-27 2017-10-27 Method of heating fractional liquid and device therefor (options)

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
RU2688317C1 true RU2688317C1 (en) 2019-05-21

Family

ID=66636897

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
RU2018127235A RU2688317C1 (en) 2018-07-24 2018-07-24 Method of liquid separation into fractions and device for its implementation

Country Status (1)

Country Link
RU (1) RU2688317C1 (en)

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2075020C1 (en) * 1995-05-30 1997-03-10 Дмитрий Львович Астановский Apparatus for heat exchange and diffusion processes
RU2102104C1 (en) * 1995-08-21 1998-01-20 Альберт Фаритович Сайфутдинов Method of separating multicomponent mixtures of closely boiling and mutually soluble liquids
RU2119814C1 (en) * 1997-11-19 1998-10-10 "Дочернее акционерное общество "Центральное конструкторское бюро нефтеаппаратуры" Liquid-gas contact apparatus
RU2422368C2 (en) * 2008-12-15 2011-06-27 Борис Алексеевич Зимин Method for distillation of multi-component liquids
EA026632B1 (en) * 2014-01-27 2017-04-28 Сергей Евгеньевич УГЛОВСКИЙ Method for separating multi-component mixtures into fractions

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2075020C1 (en) * 1995-05-30 1997-03-10 Дмитрий Львович Астановский Apparatus for heat exchange and diffusion processes
RU2102104C1 (en) * 1995-08-21 1998-01-20 Альберт Фаритович Сайфутдинов Method of separating multicomponent mixtures of closely boiling and mutually soluble liquids
RU2119814C1 (en) * 1997-11-19 1998-10-10 "Дочернее акционерное общество "Центральное конструкторское бюро нефтеаппаратуры" Liquid-gas contact apparatus
RU2422368C2 (en) * 2008-12-15 2011-06-27 Борис Алексеевич Зимин Method for distillation of multi-component liquids
EA026632B1 (en) * 2014-01-27 2017-04-28 Сергей Евгеньевич УГЛОВСКИЙ Method for separating multi-component mixtures into fractions

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4552208A (en) Heat actuated system for circulating heat transfer fluids
BR112012015389B1 (en) Apparatus for energy recovery from a hot environment and method for recovering energy from a hot environment
RU182022U1 (en) Device for producing alcohol
EA201492147A1 (en) Rectification column with inner heat and mass transfer and method of separation of multicomponent mixtures in fraction with use of rectification column with internal heat and mass production
US20170205114A1 (en) Water heater with thermally isolating preheater and method of use
RU2688317C1 (en) Method of liquid separation into fractions and device for its implementation
US4517057A (en) Method and apparatus for short-path distillation
CN204601659U (en) Integrated form fractionating column
RU2664470C1 (en) Method of heating fractional liquid and device therefor (options)
US20080257535A1 (en) Shower trap heat recovery apparatus
CN203429138U (en) Heavy and light component fractionating system
RU147398U1 (en) Film evaporator
US1284406A (en) System for supplying drinking-water.
CN203861929U (en) Low-temperature concentration device
RU2463097C1 (en) Heat exchanger
RU60932U1 (en) Distillation unit
CN209138005U (en) A kind of improved Distallation systm automatic sewage discharging device
CN103585774B (en) Negative pressure steam heating apparatus and heating method thereof
CN208785789U (en) A kind of forced circulation high-efficiency foam remover
CN206853147U (en) Forced circling evaporator
CN202366491U (en) Water circulation device for reboiler
RU2629671C2 (en) Hydrocarbons distillation plant
US991570A (en) Method of distilling.
Tyagi et al. Thermal Analysis of Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
CN208803050U (en) Wine liquid circulation heat exchanger