RU2422368C2 - Method for distillation of multi-component liquids - Google Patents

Method for distillation of multi-component liquids Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2422368C2
RU2422368C2 RU2008149074/05A RU2008149074A RU2422368C2 RU 2422368 C2 RU2422368 C2 RU 2422368C2 RU 2008149074/05 A RU2008149074/05 A RU 2008149074/05A RU 2008149074 A RU2008149074 A RU 2008149074A RU 2422368 C2 RU2422368 C2 RU 2422368C2
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Russia
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liquid
distillation
vapour
centrifugal
steam
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RU2008149074/05A
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Russian (ru)
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Борис Алексеевич Зимин (RU)
Борис Алексеевич Зимин
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Борис Алексеевич Зимин
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Abstract

FIELD: chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for distillation of multi-component liquids and can be used in distilling oil into components (benzene, kerosene, naphtha etc), while obtaining pure alcohol (ethyl or methyl alcohol) from washing on hydrolysis plants, as well as in chemical industry for separating liquids with different boiling points and in food industry. The liquid is heated in a vapour generator by bubbling water vapour coming from outside through a layer of rotating liquid with condensation of water vapour and increase in temperature of the liquid to temperature higher than the boiling point, with reduction of pressure and formation of secondary vapour from the liquid and condensation of that vapour. The formed secondary vapour is fed into a distillation column with multiple shelves with bubble cap or sieve trays.
EFFECT: simple technique of evaporating liquid with improvement of the quality of the end product, low power consumption, high efficiency, low labour input in operating and repairing the equipment.
2 cl, 3 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the petrochemical and alcohol (food and hydrolysis) chemical industries - to the distillation of liquids in order to separate multicomponent liquids into separate components. It can be used in the distillation of oil into components (gasoline, kerosene, etc.), in the distillation of mash in hydrolysis plants in order to obtain pure alcohol (ethyl and methyl).
The distillation of multicomponent liquids in a known manner is usually carried out in batch or continuous distillation units, where the liquid is heated and evaporated in a container, the steam formed during the boiling of the multicomponent liquid is taken to a distillation column. These are the settings shown in Figs. 19-14; 19-15; 19-16 (L.1. A.N. Planovsky, V.M. Ramm, SZ Kagan "Processes and devices of chemical technology. Publishing house" Chemistry ", Moscow, 1968, p. 684, 685 708, L. 2. P. D. Lebedev, A. A. Schukin “Heat-using installations of industrial enterprises”, “Energy”, Moscow, 1970), pp. 168, 169, Figs. 3-12, 3-13, 3 -5). In these installations, the process of rectification of liquids is as follows. The multicomponent mixture is heated in a container (in an evaporation unit, which is a container with heating surfaces of the liquid with heating steam), above the boiling point, secondary vapors of the multicomponent liquid will be obtained, they will be directed to a distillation column where some of the vapors condense, the remaining vapors condense in the diffuser, directing part condensate - phlegm back to the column, and part is removed from the installation in the form of distillate, the original liquid is added to the container and one stripped off residue is removed.
A known method of distillation of liquids, when water vapor is in contact with a multicomponent liquid and absorbs the vapor of other substances (L.1, p. 708).
Hydrolysis plants produce hydrolysis alcohol by passing alcohol mash and water vapor countercurrently through the absorber column (mash from top to bottom and steam from bottom to top). The steam heats the mash and absorbs alcohol vapor on itself. Get 20 percent rough alcohol, which is sent to a distillation column and get 95 percent alcohol.
A disadvantage of the known methods is that when combining the processes of heating and evaporation and with the countercurrent of steam and liquid, liquid droplets fall into the vapor, which sharply affects the quality of the vapor and the quality of the distillate. The multicomponent initial liquid (oil, mash) has the property of forming scale on heating surfaces, especially at high temperatures (above the boiling point). This disrupts the process, requiring frequent stops to clean the heating surfaces. The aim of the present invention is to eliminate the disadvantage of the above method while improving the quality of the final product, increasing productivity, reducing labor costs during the operation and repair of equipment. This disadvantage is eliminated in the method of distillation of liquids described in the patent of the Russian Federation 2090512, which is selected as a prototype.
In this known distillation method, the liquid is heated at a certain pressure to prevent the liquid from boiling. Then the liquid is passed through a device in which the liquid acquires a rotational movement with a decrease in pressure and boils with the formation of steam. This can be done in a steam generator (see AS USSR No. 419687, No. 1453113). With this distillation method, the liquid evaporation process is separated from the liquid heating process. Then the liquids give a rotational movement with a decrease in pressure with a rotating phase boundary. The liquid boils. Vapor bubbles are ejected beyond the phase boundary by centrifugal forces. Centrifugal forces return the separated drops of liquid to the interface.
The aim of the present invention is to eliminate these disadvantages of the above methods, as well as simplifying the technology of distillation of liquids while improving the quality of the final product, reducing energy consumption, increasing productivity, reducing costs during operation and repair.
The real goal is achieved in that the multicomponent liquid is heated in a centrifugal-vortex steam generator - (heat and mass exchanger) by bubbling water from the outside through a layer of rotating multicomponent liquid with condensation of the heating water vapor and with an increase in the temperature of the liquid above the boiling point, with a decrease in pressure and with the formation of a secondary vapor containing components of the vapors of the original liquid and water, as well as the fact that the formed secondary vapor or distillate of this vapor, for example lyayut at least one distillation apparatus in which a distillate desired fluid components.
The proposed method can be implemented using the installation shown in figure 1, which includes a centrifugal vortex steam generator, shown in figure 2. and figure 3 (simplified version).
The installation (Fig. 1) contains: a container 1 of a distillable liquid (shared mixture), a circulation pump 2, which performs multiple circulation of a liquid in a closed circle (tank 1 - CVP - tank 1), a discharge circulation pipe 3 with a liquid level regulator 4, centrifugal vortex steam generator 5 (CVP) - (heat and mass exchanger), steam heating pipe 6, circulation pipe 7 with a water trap 8 for removing partially evaporated liquid from the CPU in tank 1 through a heat exchanger 26, the installation of which is optional, secondary steam pipeline 9 with a locking and regulating body 25 and a steam line 9a to a distillation column with valves, a breathing pipe 10 connecting the super-liquid space of the tank 1 with a pipe 9, a pipe 11 for replenishing the tank 1 with fresh portions of evaporated (shared) liquid, and a pipe 12 for draining the residue (evaporated liquid) from the tank 1, the pipe 13 for emptying the tank 1, the condenser 14 with the discharge pipe of the distillate (condensate) 15 (the condenser can be of the same contact type when cooled condensate is supplied to the condenser for direct contact with steam and its condensation), a distillate (condensate) collection tank 27 and a distillate (condensate) pump 28 and a pump for supplying it to consumers, supplying 16 and leaving 17 refrigerant pipelines (the coolant can be water from the heating network providing heat supply to consumers), distillation column 18, a pipe 19 for removing vapors from the column 18, a differential reflux condenser 20, a low-boiling liquid distillate pipe 21 with a refrigerator 22, a pipe 23 and a high-boiling liquid tank 24. In triple mixtures, low-boiling liquid from pipeline 22 can be sent to the subsequent column (see L.1, p. 685, Fig. 19-16).
The centrifugal vortex steam generator (CVP) - (heat and mass exchanger), shown in figure 2 has: a cylindrical body 29 with a top cover 30 and a bottom cover 31 with a hole in the center. The housing 29 has at least one inlet tangential pipe 32, through which the evaporated liquid is supplied, which acquires a rotational movement inside the housing. Inside the housing through the caps 30 and 31 passes the pipe 33 of the secondary steam. Below the tangential pipe 32 in the wall of the housing there are tangential nozzles or radial holes 34 around which there is an annular collector 35 of heating steam, to which a pipe 36 of heating steam is connected. Inside the housing 29, below the holes 34, an annular partition 37 (washer) is installed, due to which a certain thickness of the rotating liquid layer is provided. With a decrease in the swirl radius of the liquid, the rotation speed increases (according to the law of conservation of momentum), due to which the pressure of the rotating liquid drops and the liquid boils. Below the washer in the housing 29 there are symmetrically located holes 38 (windows). Below the housing 29 is a centrifugal separator (cyclone) 39 with a lower cover 40 (bottom), made in the form of a disk with an upper annular cover 41 (partition) separating the separator from the manifold 35. The output of the secondary steam from the separator is through the pipe 33. The separator has a discharge tangential pipe 42 (in the embodiment of figure 3, pipe 42 is attached to the bottom of the separator 39).
A simplified version of the DPC, shown in figure 3, does not have a separator. The number 43 denotes the phase boundary of the rotating liquid and steam. The method allows for many options for the distillation of liquids.
The CVP operates as follows. The distilled liquid (the mixture to be separated) is supplied to the CVP 5 through the tangential pipe 32 and acquires a rotational movement with a vertical phase boundary. Through the pipe 36 and the collector 35, water vapor is bubbled through a layer of rotating fluid and heats it above the boiling point. Washer 37 provides a certain thickness of the rotating fluid layer. According to the law of conservation of angular momentum, the pressure in the rotating fluid stream decreases with decreasing spin radius, and the rotation speed increases. By reducing the pressure, the multicomponent liquid boils with the formation of secondary vapor (the secondary vapor contains pairs of liquid components - alcohol (hydrocarbon vapors during distillation of oil) and a small amount of water vapor (water boils at a higher temperature than alcohols or gasolines). the pressure of the liquid drops and it boils. Vapors of low-boiling liquids break out through the interface, and droplets of the separated liquid are returned due to centrifugal forces. the lower part of the casing (below the washer 37) and through the windows 38 enter the centrifugal separator (cyclone) 39. The rotational movement of the fluid is retained. The fluid enters the tangential pipe 42 and then into the pipeline 7. Secondary vapors are discharged through the central pipe 33 into the pipeline 9. Pressure the secondary steam in the steam line 9 is regulated by a shut-off regulating body 25. In the condenser 14, the secondary pairs condense, giving off heat to the cooling water. Condensate (distillate) is discharged into the condensate collector 27. Next, the mixture of condensates (distillates) is discharged The pump 28. Distillate liquid is separated from evaporated steam condensate, for example in a rectification column. As the low boiling fractions are evaporated from the liquid, their concentration in the evaporated liquid decreases. The evaporated liquid is removed through line 12. Through line 11, a source liquid is continuously or periodically supplied to tank 1. The process can be carried out both continuously and periodically (cycles), bringing the liquid to a certain degree of evaporation.
Getting alcohols from mash.
In the proposed method, the mash is placed in a container 1 and the process of distillation of alcohols through the CVP is performed. The secondary steam obtained in the CVP is sent via line 9 to a condenser 14, where crude 50-60 degree alcohol is obtained, which is then sent to a distillation column to obtain pure alcohol. Or, secondary vapors are sent via line 9a to distillation columns for separation into ethyl and methyl alcohols and water. The remainder in the tank 1 (post-alcohol stillage) is poured into the sewer (to the sewage treatment plant).
Separation of oil into fractions (production of gasoline, and other hydrocarbon liquids).
The distillation of oil (its separation into fractions) can be carried out in the same way as the distillation of mash into alcohols. The initial oil is poured into tank 1 and, evaporating, distilled into tank 27, separating the oil into light fractions (a mixture of gasoline, kerosene, legroin, hydrochloric oil in tank 27) and heavy fuel oil in tank 1. Vapors of the mixture of light fractions can be sent through pipeline 9a immediately to distillation columns to separate fractions by boiling point, but can also be directed to distillation and liquid mixtures from tank 27. Moreover, the distillate of the mixture of light fractions can be re-passed through a similar installation containing CVP and divided into two fractions. The process can be conducted periodically or continuously.
A method of distillation of multicomponent liquids, in which the source liquid is heated above the boiling point by supplying water vapor to a rotating liquid stream when it is circulating in a closed loop — a tank — a pump — a centrifugal vortex steam generator — a vessel and the formation of secondary steam in a centrifugal vortex steam generator with the subsequent removal of partially evaporated liquid and the resulting secondary vapors with the formation and removal of distillates, allows the multi-component liquid to be heated without shock s in RJC by direct contact with steam. There are no surface heat exchangers, heaters and scale formation in them. The water condensate contained in the secondary vapors settles well and is separated from oil products, which simplifies the technology of oil distillation due to the rejection of surface heaters and evaporators. In the production of alcohol, distillation of alcohol vapors with water vapor greatly simplifies the distillation process and increases efficiency. The residual alcohol content in the post-alcohol stillage is reduced.

Claims (2)

1. The method of distillation of a multicomponent liquid, in which the source liquid is heated above the boiling point and its circulation in a closed loop capacity - pump - centrifugal-vortex steam generator - capacity and the formation of secondary steam in a centrifugal-vortex steam generator with subsequent removal of partially evaporated liquid and the resulting secondary vapors with the formation and removal of distillates, characterized in that the heating of the multicomponent liquid is higher than the boiling point, followed by the formation of secondary vapors from a multicomponent liquid is carried out in a centrifugal vortex steam generator by bubbling water vapor through a rotating layer of the original multicomponent liquid and its condensation.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the swirling of the initial multicomponent liquid, heating it with water vapor, obtaining secondary vapors is carried out in a centrifugal vortex steam generator (heat and mass exchanger), made in the form of a cylindrical body with upper and lower end caps, with supply and outlet tangential nozzles of the initial fluid, with a water vapor inlet, an annular steam manifold, tangential steam nozzles or radial holes, a centrifugal separator in the form of a shell, nennym with the interior of the housing through openings in the bottom of the housing to the nozzle outlet vapor from the separator, passing through the housing.
RU2008149074/05A 2008-12-15 2008-12-15 Method for distillation of multi-component liquids RU2422368C2 (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2612290C1 (en) * 2016-04-06 2017-03-06 Негосударственная Академия Наук И Инноваций Method for processing fluids and device to this end
RU2664470C1 (en) * 2017-10-27 2018-08-17 Александр Александрович Деркач Method of heating fractional liquid and device therefor (options)
RU2688317C1 (en) * 2018-07-24 2019-05-21 Александр Александрович Деркач Method of liquid separation into fractions and device for its implementation

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
КАСАТКИН А.Г. Основные процессы и аппараты химической технологии. ГНТИ Химической литературы. - М., 1961, с.562-565. *

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2612290C1 (en) * 2016-04-06 2017-03-06 Негосударственная Академия Наук И Инноваций Method for processing fluids and device to this end
RU2664470C1 (en) * 2017-10-27 2018-08-17 Александр Александрович Деркач Method of heating fractional liquid and device therefor (options)
RU2688317C1 (en) * 2018-07-24 2019-05-21 Александр Александрович Деркач Method of liquid separation into fractions and device for its implementation

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MM4A The patent is invalid due to non-payment of fees

Effective date: 20121216

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MM4A The patent is invalid due to non-payment of fees

Effective date: 20141216