RU2658119C1 - Telescopic pneumatic adaptive electromagnetic radiation converter - Google Patents

Telescopic pneumatic adaptive electromagnetic radiation converter Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2658119C1
RU2658119C1 RU2016152562A RU2016152562A RU2658119C1 RU 2658119 C1 RU2658119 C1 RU 2658119C1 RU 2016152562 A RU2016152562 A RU 2016152562A RU 2016152562 A RU2016152562 A RU 2016152562A RU 2658119 C1 RU2658119 C1 RU 2658119C1
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RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
shell
mirror
frame
primary
gas
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RU2016152562A
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Russian (ru)
Inventor
Николай Львович Попов
Николай Александрович Макеев
Александр Петрович Шанин
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Акционерное общество "НОРМА-ЭНЕРГОИНВЕСТ"
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Priority to RU2016152562A priority Critical patent/RU2658119C1/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B17/00Systems with reflecting surfaces, with or without refracting elements
    • G02B17/02Catoptric systems, e.g. image erecting and reversing system
    • G02B17/06Catoptric systems, e.g. image erecting and reversing system using mirrors only, i.e. having only one curved mirror
    • G02B17/0605Catoptric systems, e.g. image erecting and reversing system using mirrors only, i.e. having only one curved mirror using two curved mirrors
    • G02B17/061Catoptric systems, e.g. image erecting and reversing system using mirrors only, i.e. having only one curved mirror using two curved mirrors on-axis systems with at least one of the mirrors having a central aperture
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B7/00Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements
    • G02B7/18Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements for prisms; for mirrors
    • G02B7/182Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements for prisms; for mirrors for mirrors
    • G02B7/183Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements for prisms; for mirrors for mirrors specially adapted for very large mirrors, e.g. for astronomy, or solar concentrators
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V7/00Reflectors for light sources
    • F21V7/10Construction
    • F21V7/16Construction with provision for adjusting the curvature
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B17/00Systems with reflecting surfaces, with or without refracting elements
    • G02B17/02Catoptric systems, e.g. image erecting and reversing system
    • G02B17/06Catoptric systems, e.g. image erecting and reversing system using mirrors only, i.e. having only one curved mirror
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B23/00Telescopes, e.g. binoculars; Periscopes; Instruments for viewing the inside of hollow bodies; Viewfinders; Optical aiming or sighting devices
    • G02B23/02Telescopes, e.g. binoculars; Periscopes; Instruments for viewing the inside of hollow bodies; Viewfinders; Optical aiming or sighting devices involving prisms or mirrors
    • G02B23/06Telescopes, e.g. binoculars; Periscopes; Instruments for viewing the inside of hollow bodies; Viewfinders; Optical aiming or sighting devices involving prisms or mirrors having a focussing action, e.g. parabolic mirror
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B5/00Optical elements other than lenses
    • G02B5/08Mirrors
    • G02B5/10Mirrors with curved faces
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B7/00Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements
    • G02B7/18Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements for prisms; for mirrors
    • G02B7/182Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements for prisms; for mirrors for mirrors
    • G02B7/185Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements for prisms; for mirrors for mirrors with means for adjusting the shape of the mirror surface
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B7/00Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements
    • G02B7/18Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements for prisms; for mirrors
    • G02B7/182Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements for prisms; for mirrors for mirrors
    • G02B7/185Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements for prisms; for mirrors for mirrors with means for adjusting the shape of the mirror surface
    • G02B7/188Membrane mirrors
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B26/00Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating
    • G02B26/08Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light
    • G02B26/0816Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements
    • G02B26/0825Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements the reflecting element being a flexible sheet or membrane, e.g. for varying the focus
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B7/00Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements
    • G02B7/18Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements for prisms; for mirrors
    • G02B7/182Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements for prisms; for mirrors for mirrors

Abstract

FIELD: electronic equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in devices that convert the energy of electromagnetic radiation into other types of useful energy, as well as in optical telescopes, radio telescopes and radar. Converter comprises a support frame and a primary and secondary mirror, the optical axes of which are aligned. Support frame is a sealed gas-filled chamber made of a shell and has a shape close to the torus. On the opposite parts of the frame are made two basic supporting surfaces in the form of a flat ring. Shells realizing the functions of the concave primary and secondary convex mirrors are sealed on opposite base support surfaces of the frame. Third shell is fixed tightly on the second shell along the ring centered on the optical axis of the primary mirror with a radius, equal to the radius of the secondary mirror, on the surface of the second shell, which is opposite to the surface facing the primary mirror. Sealed cavities between the shells are filled with gas under pressure.
EFFECT: technical result is the creation of a converter with a large aperture diameter for placement, including in the high layers of the atmosphere and in space.
1 cl, 2 dwg

Description

The invention relates to devices for receiving, transmitting and concentration of electromagnetic radiation, and can be used in devices that convert the energy of electromagnetic radiation into other types of useful energy (thermal, electric, etc.), as well as in optical telescopes, radio telescopes and radars with a large diameter aperture, which can be placed including in high layers of the atmosphere and in space.

A device is known, described in the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2482523 and taken as an analogue.

This device consists of a gas-filled chamber made in the form of a flexible shell having a shape close to a sphere.

Inside the sphere, near the plane of its symmetry, there is a rigid carrier frame made of lightweight strong material and having a shape close to the ring, with a longitudinal section close to the ring, or another shape that ensures the strength of the entire structure of the device.

The supporting frame is tightly connected with a flexible shell around its perimeter.

The internal cavity of the chamber is divided into two sealed cavities by two flexible partitions mechanically interconnected.

Partitions are hermetically attached to the supporting frame around the perimeter.

One of the partitions is a primary concave mirror and has a shape (spherical, parabolic, etc.), which provides reflection of the radiation incident on it onto the secondary convex mirror.

The secondary hard mirror is made by known methods and is installed inside the gas-filled chamber on the corresponding rigid trusses or mounted directly on the flexible shell of the gas-filled chamber.

Electromagnetic radiation passes through a flexible transparent shell of the chamber, falls on the primary concave mirror, then on the secondary convex mirror and then on the radiation receiver located inside the gas-filled chamber.

The required shape of the primary mirror is ensured by the corresponding difference in gas pressure inside the two sealed cavities, as well as by mechanical action on it by means of a second partition or by a set of threads fixed on the back of the primary mirror, which transmit an external control mechanical effect to the mirror.

The disadvantages of the analogue include the following:

- to obtain and maintain a given shape of the primary mirror, a complex control mechanical action is required on the first flexible partition by means of a large number of mechanically connected elements (frame of threads, connecting elements, auxiliary mesh, second auxiliary partition, etc.), which is a complex engineering task, however, the mentioned complexity increases significantly with an increase in the total diameter of the primary mirror; accordingly, the total weight, material consumption, and the total cost of the device increase;

- the need to use a light, but at the same time strong and rigid bearing frame, which is designed to ensure the strength of the design of the device as a whole, as well as to ensure the preservation of the required shape of the primary mirror during the operation of the device in real conditions of negative external impact, which is also a difficult engineering task, while said complexity increases significantly with an increase in the total diameter of the primary mirror; accordingly, the total weight, material consumption, and the total cost of the device increase;

- the use of a rigid secondary mirror made according to the so-called traditional technology of glass, metal, composite materials, etc., while the secondary mirror must be initially positioned and its predetermined location relative to the primary mirror must be maintained by means of appropriate rigid trusses or by fixing it to the shell a gas-filled chamber, which is a task of no less complexity than the aforementioned tasks.

The first of the above disadvantages is overcome in the device described in the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2236730 and adopted for the prototype.

This device consists of a base bearing ring, which serves as a rigid frame, to which two round sheets of film (polypropylene, lavsan, polyimide, etc.) are hermetically attached to the inner perimeter; on the working surface (except for the central part) of one of the sheets, a mirror coating is applied, and the necessary curvature of the primary mirror is obtained by creating a pressure difference at the media boundary, separated by a film by pumping the corresponding gas with the pump into the resulting volume, while the exact value of this pressure difference controlled by appropriate pressure sensors.

A secondary mirror made rigid by the so-called traditional technology, a corrective lens and a radiation receiver is also attached to the bearing ring by means of brackets (rigid trusses), while both mirrors and the corrective lens are positioned so that their optical axes are aligned and the working gaps are guaranteed by constructive tolerances.

Electromagnetic radiation passes through the first transparent sheet of film, falls on the second sheet of film, which is the primary concave mirror, on the secondary convex mirror, on the corrective lens and then on the radiation receiver located behind the corrective lens.

In the device adopted for the prototype, only the first of the disadvantages of the analog is overcome.

The target technical result of the present invention is the possibility of creating a converter of electromagnetic radiation (telescope, radio telescope, radar, concentrator) with a relatively large aperture diameter, which can be placed including in high atmospheric layers and in space and which does not have the disadvantages of the analogue described above and prototype.

The technical result of the invention is achieved as follows.

The main elements of the converter are made exclusively of shells having predetermined geometric and mechanical characteristics and which are made on the basis of flexible thin films.

In FIG. 1 and 2 respectively show the first and second embodiments of the inventive device in section.

1. The function of the support frame 1 is performed by a shell filled with gas (gas mixture) under a pressure exceeding the pressure in the surrounding space;

geometric and mechanical characteristics of the shell, its gas permeability, internal gas pressure are selected so as to ensure the preservation of a predetermined shape of the frame during normal operation of the inventive device in real time using an appropriate compressor device and control system;

the supporting frame 1 may have a shape equivalent to a torus, which varies depending on the specific functions that the converter is designed to perform, and the specific conditions of its operation;

the axial section of the gas-filled cavity may have a shape close to a circle or ellipse;

on the opposite parts of the frame are two basic supporting surfaces each in the form of a flat ring;

basic supporting surfaces are intended for fastening the converter shells to them;

To increase rigidity and stabilize the shape of the frame, its internal cavity can be divided by longitudinal and / or transverse membranes into a given set of cavities, and the frame can also consist of two or more gas-filled shells sealed together tightly.

2. A first embodiment of a telescopic converter is shown in FIG. 1 and comprises a support frame 1 described above, a shell 2, a shell 3, a shell 4;

the function of the primary concave mirror is performed by the shell 2, which, with or without preliminary predetermined tension, is hermetically fixed to the frame 1 on its base abutment surface in a ring; this shell is metallized to provide maximum specular reflection, while the region of the shell of a given area around the optical axis of the mirror can be transparent to the radiation incident on it;

the function of the secondary convex mirror is performed jointly by the mirror part of the shell 3 and the shell 4;

the casing 3 with or without pre-set tension is hermetically fixed on the support frame 1 on its base support surface along the ring opposite to the attachment line of the casing 2; the central region of this shell 3 with a radius equal to the radius of the secondary mirror around the optical axis of the primary mirror is mirror and acts as a reflective surface of the secondary mirror;

the shell 4 is mounted hermetically on the shell 3 in a ring centered on the optical axis of the primary mirror (shell 2) with a radius equal to the radius of the secondary mirror (mirror part of the shell 3), on the surface of the shell 3, which is opposite to the surface facing the primary mirror;

the space between the shell 2, the supporting frame 1 and the shell 3, between the shell 3 and the shell 4 is filled with gas (gas mixture) under pressure; the values of gas pressures in the spaces between these shells using a complex of measuring sensors, compressors and an adaptive control system (not shown) are provided so as to be continuously, in real time, higher than the pressure in the surrounding space;

the relationship between the pressure in the surrounding space and the pressure in the spaces between the shells, the ratio between the pressure in each of the sealed cavities, the geometric and mechanical characteristics of each of the shells are provided such that the shape of the shell 2 (the shape of the primary concave mirror) and the mirror part of the shell 3 (the shape of the secondary convex mirror) consisted mainly of paraboloids of revolution with predetermined parameters and so that the optical axes of the primary concave the mirrors and the secondary convex mirror were combined, and the foci of the mirrors, depending on the tasks that the device as a whole is intended to solve, can be combined or located at a given distance from each other along the optical axis.

3. A second embodiment of the telescopic converter is shown in FIG. 2 and comprises a supporting frame 1, a shell 2, a shell 3, a second supporting frame 5, a shell 4;

the second embodiment (FIG. 2) differs from the first embodiment (FIG. 1) in that it comprises a second support frame 5, which is similar to the support frame 1 and has a radius close to the radius of the secondary mirror (mirror part of the shell 3);

the second supporting frame 5 is hermetically attached to the shell 3 on the base supporting surface along a ring centered on the optical axis of the primary mirror (shell 2) with a radius equal to the radius of the secondary mirror (mirror part of the shell 3), on the surface of the shell 3, which is opposite to the surface facing to the primary mirror, while the axis of symmetry of the second supporting frame 5 coincides with the optical axis of the primary mirror (shell 2);

the casing 4 is hermetically attached to the second supporting frame 5 on its base supporting surface in a ring opposite the line of attachment of the second supporting frame 5 to the casing 3;

the space between the shell 2, the supporting frame 1 and the shell 3, between the shell 3, the second supporting frame 5 and the shell 4 is filled with gas (gas mixture); the values of gas pressures in the spaces between these shells using a complex of measuring sensors, compressors and an adaptive control system (not shown) are provided so as to be continuously, in real time, higher than the pressure in the surrounding space;

the relationship between the pressure in the surrounding space and the pressure in the spaces between the shells, the ratio between the pressure in each of the sealed cavities, the geometric and mechanical characteristics of each of the shells are provided such that the shape of the shell 2 (the shape of the primary concave mirror) and the mirror part of the shell 3 (secondary convex mirror) consisted mainly of paraboloids of rotation with predetermined parameters and so that the optical axis of the primary concave mirror the hall and the secondary convex mirror were combined, and the focuses of the mirrors, depending on the tasks that the device as a whole is intended to solve, can be combined or located at a given distance from each other along the optical axis.

The initial geometric and mechanical characteristics of each of the shells are provided such that after they are tightly bonded to the frame and with each other and filled up with the corresponding gas (gas mixture) under pressure, each of the shells takes and retains the required shape during the operation of the devices (for example, paraboloid of rotation, torus, etc.).

In the process of functioning of the above-described embodiments, the mechanical characteristics of each of the above shells are within the region of elastic deformation.

The gas (gas mixture) that fills the space between the shells, the gas permeability characteristics of the shells are selected depending on the specific application and the specific environmental conditions of the application of the devices described above.

Accessories: a supporting frame on which the aforementioned supporting frame 1 is mounted, a compressor system, an electromagnetic radiation source or receiver, power supply sources, a spatial orientation system with appropriate drivers, a computer control system for operating the device in a given mode, a processing system for the received or transmitted signal, etc. .p., is selected depending on the specific field of application of the described devices and the results required from their application.

The devices described above, manufactured using extremely flexible shells that have predetermined geometric and mechanical characteristics, the space between which is filled with a gas (gas mixture) having the required characteristics, together with specialized auxiliary equipment allows the implementation of devices designed for reception, transmission and concentration electromagnetic radiation that can be used in optical telescopes, radio telescopes, radars and concent Ator with a large aperture diameter, which can be placed not only on land but also on various aircraft including the high layers of the atmosphere and outside the atmosphere - in space.

In addition to the relative simplicity of manufacturing the claimed devices, their relatively low weight, relatively low cost, one of the main advantages of the claimed devices used in conjunction with specialized equipment is the ability to adapt these devices in real time to changing external negative influences in order to preserve the required, predetermined design parameters using a complex of measuring sensors, a compressor system and the corresponding adaptive control system Eden.

The shape of the mirror surfaces of the above devices in practice will not completely coincide with the calculated shape of these surfaces, i.e. will have corresponding errors (aberrations). In order to compensate for these errors and in order to obtain the resulting electromagnetic signal of the required quality, it is possible to use elements and systems that implement methods known in the prior art for linear or nonlinear adaptive (active) optics, as well as methods for a posteriori signal processing.

Each of the above characteristics of the present invention is known and has been repeatedly put into practice individually and in various combinations, however, the use of these signs in the described - new - combination of them allows you to get the super-total effect, which consists in achieving the above new technical result.

Claims (14)

1. A telescopic electromagnetic radiation converter comprising a support frame and a primary mirror and a secondary mirror mechanically connected to the support frame, the optical axes of which are aligned and the focuses of the mirrors coincide or are spaced apart by a predetermined distance along the optical axis, characterized in that
the main elements of the converter are made exclusively of shells having predetermined geometric and mechanical characteristics and which are made on the basis of flexible thin films,
wherein the support frame is a sealed gas-filled chamber made of a shell and has a predominantly close shape to a torus,
and on the opposite parts of this frame there are two basic supporting surfaces each in the form of a flat ring, intended for fastening the converter shells to them;
at the same time, the shells that implement the function of the primary and secondary mirrors of the converter, with or without preliminary predetermined tension, are hermetically attached to the opposite base supporting surfaces of the frame,
the primary concave mirror is a fully or partially mirror first shell, hermetically attached with a predetermined tension or without it to the supporting frame on its base supporting surface along the ring,
the secondary convex mirror is the central part of the second shell, which is transparent, with the exception of its central part, which is hermetically attached to the support frame on its base support surface along a ring opposite to the attachment line of the primary mirror shell with a predetermined tension or without it,
and the third shell is sealed on the second shell in a ring centered on the optical axis of the primary mirror with a radius equal to the radius of the secondary mirror, on the surface of the second shell, which is opposite to the surface facing the primary mirror,
while the sealed cavities between the shells are filled with gas (gas mixture) under pressure,
and the pressure of the gas (gas mixture) in each hermetic cavity with the help of a complex of measuring sensors, executive compressors and an adaptive control system is provided so as to obtain and maintain in real time the required shape of the supporting frame - mainly the shape of the torus - and the required shape of the reflecting surface of the primary and secondary mirrors - mainly a paraboloid of rotation with predetermined parameters.
2. The Converter according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises a second support frame made similar to the first support frame, located between the second and third shells, which are hermetically attached to it on its opposite base support surfaces along the ring,
the diameter of the second frame is close to the diameter of the secondary mirror,
wherein the sealed cavity formed by the second shell, the second supporting frame and the third shell is filled with gas (gas mixture) under pressure,
and the pressure of the gas (gas mixture) in this cavity with the help of a complex of measuring sensors, executive compressors and an adaptive control system is provided so as to obtain and save in real time the desired shape of the second supporting frame - mainly the shape of the torus - and the required shape of the reflecting surface of the secondary mirror - convex or concave paraboloid of rotation with predetermined parameters.
RU2016152562A 2016-12-29 2016-12-29 Telescopic pneumatic adaptive electromagnetic radiation converter RU2658119C1 (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
RU2016152562A RU2658119C1 (en) 2016-12-29 2016-12-29 Telescopic pneumatic adaptive electromagnetic radiation converter

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
RU2016152562A RU2658119C1 (en) 2016-12-29 2016-12-29 Telescopic pneumatic adaptive electromagnetic radiation converter
DE102017131358.3A DE102017131358B4 (en) 2016-12-29 2017-12-28 Telescopic, air-controlled, adjustable electromagnetic radiation converter
CN201711472888.9A CN108254851A (en) 2016-12-29 2017-12-29 Telescopic pneumatic self-adaptive electromagnetic converter

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DE (1) DE102017131358B4 (en)
RU (1) RU2658119C1 (en)

Citations (3)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2236730C2 (en) * 2002-02-20 2004-09-20 Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие "Московское орденов Октябрьской Революции и Трудового Красного Знамени конструкторское бюро "Электрон"- МКБ "Электрон" Method for producing mirror-lens optical system directly on orbit and mirror-lens optical system built around flexible mirrors
US20090071466A1 (en) * 2007-09-17 2009-03-19 Cristian Penciu Apparatus for collecting solar energy for conversion to electrical energy
RU2436208C1 (en) * 2010-07-08 2011-12-10 Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие "Научно-производственное объединение им. С.А. Лавочкина" Unfoldable large-sized space reflector (versions)

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4177083A (en) * 1977-09-06 1979-12-04 Acurex Corporation Photovoltaic concentrator
IL157716D0 (en) * 2003-09-02 2004-03-28 Eli Shifman Solar energy utilization unit and solar energy utilization system
RU2482523C1 (en) 2011-11-10 2013-05-20 Евгений Куртович Долгих Solar radiation concentrator (versions)

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2236730C2 (en) * 2002-02-20 2004-09-20 Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие "Московское орденов Октябрьской Революции и Трудового Красного Знамени конструкторское бюро "Электрон"- МКБ "Электрон" Method for producing mirror-lens optical system directly on orbit and mirror-lens optical system built around flexible mirrors
US20090071466A1 (en) * 2007-09-17 2009-03-19 Cristian Penciu Apparatus for collecting solar energy for conversion to electrical energy
RU2436208C1 (en) * 2010-07-08 2011-12-10 Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие "Научно-производственное объединение им. С.А. Лавочкина" Unfoldable large-sized space reflector (versions)

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CN108254851A (en) 2018-07-06
DE102017131358A1 (en) 2018-07-05

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Effective date: 20181230