RU2615241C1 - Method for producing active fractionated coal in chamber on grate - Google Patents

Method for producing active fractionated coal in chamber on grate Download PDF

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RU2615241C1
RU2615241C1 RU2015154912A RU2015154912A RU2615241C1 RU 2615241 C1 RU2615241 C1 RU 2615241C1 RU 2015154912 A RU2015154912 A RU 2015154912A RU 2015154912 A RU2015154912 A RU 2015154912A RU 2615241 C1 RU2615241 C1 RU 2615241C1
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layer
grate
heating
cooling
chamber
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RU2015154912A
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Russian (ru)
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Константин Владимирович Осинцев
Владимир Валентинович Осинцев
Ахмет Курманбекович Джундубаев
Алмаз Ильясович Бийбосунов
Владимир Иванович Богаткин
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федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Южно-Уральский государственный университет (национальный исследовательский университет)"
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B80/00Combustion apparatus characterised by means creating a distinct flow path for flue gases or for non-combusted gases given off by the fuel
    • F23B80/02Combustion apparatus characterised by means creating a distinct flow path for flue gases or for non-combusted gases given off by the fuel by means for returning flue gases to the combustion chamber or to the combustion zone
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C1/00Combustion apparatus specially adapted for combustion of two or more kinds of fuel simultaneously or alternately, at least one kind of fuel being either a fluid fuel or a solid fuel suspended in a carrier gas or air
    • F23C1/04Combustion apparatus specially adapted for combustion of two or more kinds of fuel simultaneously or alternately, at least one kind of fuel being either a fluid fuel or a solid fuel suspended in a carrier gas or air lump and gaseous fuel

Abstract

FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for producing active fractionated coal in a chamber on a grate by prelimiminary connection of the chamber to a gas path of a fuel combusting device and filling the grate with a layer of fractionated coal particles, their subsequent activation by heating passed through the layer through the flue gas flow with an oxygen content of 16% and a temperature of 900-1300 °K and separation of moisture and volatile combustibles, the supple of the latest in a fuel-burning arrangement, layer blowdown by steam, cooling by flue gas flow introduced under the grate and fed across the layer below with oxygen content of 16% and a temperature of 400-500 °K and output from the grate of heat-treated activated carbon particles freed from moisture and volatiles. While activation the heating flue gas flow is directed into the top layer, and under the grate cooling flue gases are simultaneously introduced at a rate of V1=(0.4-0.6)Vheat. Moreover, the bottom layer is periodically blown with the same gases with a rate V2=(0.8-1.2)Vcool with a simultaneous cutting-off of supply of the heating gas layer during the blowdown where Vheat and Vcool are heating and cooling costs in periods of gases activating and coal particles cooling, ncbm/s.
EFFECT: invention improves the reliability of the equipment used and the effectiveness of activating.
4 dwg

Description

The invention relates to energy and can be used in fuel-burning plants, in particular in boilers of thermal power plants and industrial boiler rooms, as well as in kilns when combining steam production, production of building materials, metal products and coal activation.

There is a method of producing activated carbon by phasing the introduction of coal particles in a mixture with air, natural gas and gaseous products of combustion into an installation for activating, oxidizing natural gas with heat and forming a gas flame, activating coal particles by heating with the release of moisture and volatile combustible substances, and producing coke the remainder, the collection of coke particles, blowing them with steam, cooling and output to the consumer (X. Kinle, E. Bader. Active carbons and their industrial application. - L .: Chemistry, 1984. - S. 34-57). To improve the quality of the final product, to reduce the rock mineral inclusions in it, the source and activated carbon are enriched, otherwise they are anesthetized.

The disadvantage of this method is the high consumption of expensive natural gas and significant heat loss with the products of combustion discharged into the atmosphere.

A known method of producing active powdered coal in a vertical tetrahedral prismatic furnace by flaring natural gas in the furnace, introducing 2-4 mm coal particles into the gas flare, separating moisture and combustible volatile substances from them, burning the latter in a gas flare, and removing particles with coke the remainder in the gas-air cooler of the fluidized bed with steam blowing them, collecting and transferring the finished activated product to the consumer, collecting and supplying the exhaust gaseous products to the furnace (RF patent No. 2500003; F23C 1 / 12, F23C 5/08 of June 4, 2012; published in BI No. 34 on December 10, 2013).

The disadvantage of this method is the limited scope of application only with a particle size of 2-4 mm and boilers with flare combustion chambers.

There is a method of producing activated carbon in a multifunctional furnace device by flaring natural gas in a furnace, introducing 2-4 mm coal particles into a gas flare with separating moisture and combustible volatile substances from them, burning the latter in a gas flare, removing particles with coke residue in gas-air fluidized bed cooler with steam blowing, collecting and transferring the finished activated product to the consumer, collecting and supplying exhaust gaseous products to the furnace (RF patent No. 2500004; F23C 1/12, F23C 9/00, F23C 10/20 from 04.06.2012 g .; about UBL. №34 10.12.2013 BI in city).

The disadvantage of this method is due to the limited scope and possibilities of reconfiguration according to the fractional composition of the source coal.

A known method of producing and using active unfractionated coal dust in the furnace of a steam boiler by grinding in mills while heating with separation of moisture and volatile combustible substances by a hot stream of flue gases with an oxygen concentration of up to 16%, followed by feeding the resulting active dust to the main combustion burners to form a coal dust torch, and the separated moisture and volatile substances in the discharge nozzles above the main burners for the oxidation of volatile substances and additional heat (Designed ... E furnaces with solid slag removal Guidelines for Issue 42. Ed VV Mitor, JL Marshak L .: VTI-CKTI, 1981. - v. 102-106).. Limiting the oxygen concentration to 16% in flue gases ensures a stable, non-oxidizing process of grinding and activating solid fuels, without explosions and burning.

The disadvantage of this method is the inability to obtain fractionated, a certain size of coal particles, which leads to a decrease in the quality of the resulting activated product with a large burn of small particles and the presence of a significant amount of volatile substances in large particles.

There is also a method of producing and using active unfractionated coal dust in the furnace of a steam boiler by grinding in mills with simultaneous heating with the separation of moisture and volatile combustible substances by a stream of flue gases with an oxygen concentration of up to 16% and a temperature of 900-1300 K, followed by feeding the obtained activated dust to the main combustion burners for the formation of a pulverized coal torch, and the separated moisture and volatile substances - into the discharge nozzles above the main burners for the oxidation of volatile substances and obtaining additional heat (The study of burning low-ash Birch coal in a low-temperature tangential combustion chamber / Yu.L. Marshak, S.I. Suchkov, E.P. Dick, etc. // Thermal engineering. - 1981. - No. 7. - P. 9- fourteen). The indicated temperature range is useful. With a decrease in gas temperature below 900K, the efficiency of separation of volatile substances, especially resinous heavy fractions, decreases. With an increase in gas temperature above 1300K, the probability of burning particles, especially small ones, increases. That is, deviations from the range of 900-1300K to a greater or lesser extent lead to a deterioration in the active properties of heat-treated carbon particles.

The disadvantage of this method is the low quality of the obtained activated product in the absence of the possibility of obtaining fractionated, a certain size of coal particles.

There is a method of increasing the reliability of fuel-consuming units by supplying flue gas streams with an oxygen concentration of up to 16% and a temperature of 400-500K to the nodes of high heat stress (Burning of natural gas in a low-shielded furnace of a Babkok-Vilkoks boiler with hearth burners / K.V. Osintsev, V.V. Osintsev, M.P. Sukharev, CB Pashnin, A.P. Okunev, V.A. Sabelfeld // Power plants. - 2010. - No. 6. - S.8-14). The indicated temperature range is useful. At temperatures below 400K, the probability of acidic destruction of metal structures increases, at temperatures above 500K, cooling efficiency decreases, and ventilation energy costs increase.

The disadvantage of this method is the inability to obtain active fractionated coal.

Known closest to the proposed method for producing active fractionated coal in a chamber on a grate by first connecting the chamber to the gas path of the fuel burning device and filling the grate with a layer of fractionated coal particles, their subsequent activation by heating a flue gas stream through the layer with oxygen content up to 16% and a temperature of 900 -1300K and separation of moisture and volatile combustible substances, supplying the latter to a fuel-burning device, purging the layer with steam, cooling m under the grate and a stream of flue gases with an oxygen content of up to 16% and a temperature of 400-500K and passed through the bottom layer from the grate of heat-treated activated carbon particles freed from moisture and volatiles (Production of activated carbon using TPP equipment and boiler houses / K. V. Osintsev, V.V. Osintsev, A.K. Dzhundubaev, T.A. Akbaev, S.P. Kim, G.T. Almusin, V.I. Bogatkin. Heat Power Engineering, 2013, No. 8, p. 1 -8).

The disadvantage of this method is the limitation of the scope of the steam boiler with a prismatic furnace for flaring fuel, high capital costs for its implementation, insufficiently high degree of reliability of the equipment used, insufficient activation efficiency and quality of the product.

The objective of the invention is to increase the reliability of the equipment used, the effectiveness of activation, the quality of the product, with the expansion of the scope and lower initial capital costs.

The problem is solved by the method of producing active fractionated coal in a chamber on a grate by first connecting the chamber to the gas path of the fuel burning device and filling the grate with a layer of fractionated coal particles, their subsequent activation by heating a flue gas stream through the layer with oxygen content up to 16% and a temperature of 900-1300K and separation of moisture and volatile combustible substances, supplying the latter to the fuel burning device, blowing off the layer with steam, cooling supplied under the sieve and a flue gas stream passing through the bottom layer with an oxygen content of up to 16% and a temperature of 400-500 K and the output from the lattice of heat-treated activated carbon particles freed from moisture and volatiles, in which, according to the invention, when activated, the heating flue gas stream is directed to layer on top of and under the grate simultaneously with the flow rate V 1 = (0,4-0,6) V LOAD is fed cooling the flue gases, in addition, the same gas flow rate V 2 = (0,8-1,2) V ohl periodically purge the layer from the bottom while stopping during uvki supply heating gas to the bed, where V and V LOAD OHL - heating and cooling costs of gases during periods of activation, and cooling of the coal particles, Nm 3 / s.

By organizing reverse purging of a layer of coal particles with a heating flue gas stream, and from above with cooling flue gas flows from below, the space and grating area necessary for purging technology are minimized, supply of cooling gases under the grate during purging of the layer with heated gas increases the reliability of metal structures of the grate, gas ducts and ventilation system , and periodic purging of the layer with cooling gas from the bottom ensures uniformity of the process of moisture and volatile substances , improves the quality of the final product, reduces the time for full activation, energy consumption for fan blasting. Moreover, the claimed ranges of consumption of flue gases with a temperature of 400-500 K V 1 = (0.4-0.6) V heat and V 2 = (0.8-1.2) V cool , where V heat and V cool - the costs of heating and cooling gases during periods of activation and cooling of coal particles are of practical importance. If V 1 <0,4V heating of the cold metal, the effect is negligible. When V 1> 0,6V LOAD increased energy consumption for blast at excessively high cooling effect. When V 2 <0,8V OHL efficiency increasing intensity separating moisture and volatile matter is insignificant. At V 2 > 1.2V cool , the energy consumption on the blast increases. Thus, the ranges V 1 = (0.4-0.6) V heat and V 2 = (0.8-1.2) V cool are useful and optimal, contribute to the solution of the task of the invention to improve the reliability of the equipment used, the efficiency activation, product quality. The method allows you to change the fractional composition of the input coal and to regulate the processes of activation and cooling, both by periods of reverse purging, and by the flow rates of V heat and V cool , nm 3 / s. In addition, it becomes possible to connect the chamber with the grill to various fuel-burning sources with heat generation and to expand the scope, focusing on the indicated temperature parameters of the flue gas flows and oxygen concentration up to 16%.

The proposed method for producing active fractionated coal in a chamber on a grate is illustrated by drawings.

In FIG. 1 shows a diagram of a fuel burning device — a steam boiler with a camera connected to it, equipped with a mechanical chain grill, a longitudinal section; in FIG. 2 is a section Α-A in FIG. one; in FIG. 3 is a diagram of a combustion chamber for combined burning of coal on a grate and natural gas using wall burners; in FIG. 4 is a diagram of a chamber with a grill connected to a fuel burning device — a kiln.

The steam boiler of FIG. 1, 2 has a combustion chamber 1 with walls 2, 3, 4, 5, ceiling and hearth ceilings 6, 7, shielding pipes 8 with circulating steam and water medium, burners 9 for burning the main fuel, in particular natural gas with the formation of a torch 10, adjacent to the ceiling 6, a window 11 in the wall 3 for outputting combustion products - flue gases 12 and connecting to the duct 13 with a surface economizer 14, superheater 15, air heater 16; the gas duct 13 is connected to a treatment plant 17, a smoke exhauster 18 and a chimney 19. The hearth floor 7 of the combustion chamber 1 is made in the form of a two-sided confuser having a central window 20; a vertical chamber 21 is connected to the window 20 with walls 22 having sealing sand compilers of the vertical stroke 23 of the combustion chamber 1. adjacent to the window 20. The lower part of the chamber 21 is equipped with a hearth floor box 24 with a mechanical chain grill 25, a pipe is connected to one side of the box 24 26 with a feeder 27 for supplying fractionated coal, to the other, a pipe 28 with a feeder 29 for outputting the finished activated product. Box 24 is equipped with windows 30, 31 for input and output of flue gases; the windows 30 and the exhaust fan 18 are connected by ducts 32 to a fan 33 and a flow regulator 34; windows 31 are connected to boxes 35 and discharge nozzles 36; boxes 35 are equipped with a fan 37 and a flow regulator 38. In the walls 22 of the chamber 21 are installed nozzles 39 for introducing steam.

A method of producing activated fractionated carbon in a chamber on a grate is implemented using the nodes and elements shown in FIG. 1, 2, by pre-connecting the chamber 21 to the gas path 1, 13, 17, 18, 19 of the steam boiler and fill the lattice 25, a layer 40 of fractionated coal particles 41, subsequent activation of the heat passing through the bed 40 stream 42 of flue gas flow rate V LOAD , with an oxygen content of up to 16% and a temperature T load = 900-1300K and separation of moisture 43 and volatile combustible substances 44, supplying the latter to the discharge nozzles 36 of the furnace 1 of the steam boiler, blowing the layer 40 with steam through the nozzles 39, cooling supplied under the grate 25 and passed through the layer 40 from below the flow th 45 with the flue gas flow rate V OHL, an oxygen content of 16% and a temperature T = 400-500K OHL and output grating 25 heat treated, freed from moisture and volatiles activated carbon particles 46. A feature of the method is to organize the activation process. By activating the heating flue gas stream 42 is directed into the bed 40 from above and under the grating 25 together with the flow rate V 1 = (0,4-0,6) V LOAD is fed cooling flue gases 45, moreover, the same gas at a rate of 45 V two = (0,8-1,2) V OHL purged periodically from the bottom layer 40, while during the purge termination in the supply of heating gas layer 40 where V and V LOAD OHL - heating costs 42 and 45 of the cooling gas during the periods of activation and cooling coal particles 41, 46, nm 3 / s.

By organizing reverse purging of a layer of coal particles by a heating flue gas stream 42 from above, and by cooling flue gas flows 45 from below, they minimize the space and working area of the grate 25 necessary for supplying cooling gas 45 under the grate 25 while blowing the layer 40 with heated gas 42 increases the reliability of metal structures the grilles 25, gas ducts 35 and the ventilation system 37, and the periodic purging of the layer 40 with cooling gas 45 from below ensures uniformity of the process of moisture evolution 43 and 44 and volatile matter, increases the quality of the final product, it reduces the activation time, power consumption for the fan blast 33, 37. Thus the claimed ranges with the flue gas flow rates temperature 400-500K V 1 = (0,4-0,6) V LOAD and V 2 = (0,8-1,2) V OHL where V and V LOAD OHL - heating costs 42 and 45 of the cooling gas during periods of activation, and cooling of the coal particles are of practical importance. If V 1 <0,4V LOAD cooling metal 24, 25, 35, 37, the effect is negligible. When V 1> 0,6V LOAD increased energy consumption for blast at excessively high cooling effect. When V 2 <0,8V OHL efficiency increasing intensity separating moisture and volatile matter 43 44 negligible. When V 2> 1,2V OHL increased energy consumption for blast 33. Therefore, the ranges V 1 = (0,4-0,6) V heating and V 2 = (0,8-1,2) V are useful and OHL optimal, contribute to solving the problem posed in the invention to improve the reliability of the equipment used, the effectiveness of activation, the quality of the product. The method allows you to change the fractional composition of the input coal and to regulate the processes of activation and cooling, both by periods of reverse purging, and by the flow rates of V heat and V cool , nm 3 / s. In addition, it becomes possible to connect the chamber with the grill to various fuel-burning sources with heat generation and to expand the scope, focusing on the indicated temperature parameters of the flue gas flows and oxygen concentration up to 16%.

The production of activated carbon does not violate the basic technology of steam generation by the boiler. In FIG. 1 shows the main flows of feed water 47 generated in the combustion chamber 1 of steam 48 and in the superheater 15 of superheated steam 49. To maintain combustion, natural gas and air 50 heated in the air heater 16 are supplied from the fan 51. Ready activated carbon obtained by the proposed method , used in water treatment technologies. To improve the quality of the final product for other purposes, the initial and activated fractions are additionally enriched, removing rock mineral inclusions from them, otherwise they are anesthetized. In the application volume, these additional stages of enrichment technologies are not considered.

In FIG. 3 with a diagram of a combustion chamber with a grill for heating water 47, the same designations are introduced as in FIG. 1, 2. Here, the flooring 7 and the window 20 are aligned in one horizontal plane, and the walls 22 of the chamber 21 are aligned with the walls 2, 3, 4, 5 of the combustion chamber 1. When fractionated coal 41 is activated on this equipment, the above-described production method is implemented activated carbon 46, when implementing the method is not violated the basic technology of heating water 47 in the furnace 1.

In FIG. 4, the camera with the grill has the same designations as in FIG. 1, 2. Here, the activation chamber 21 is connected to the gas path 52 of the fuel burning device of the kiln 53 for heat treatment, for example, building materials, metal products 54. In FIG. 4 shows a diagram of a chamber 21 with a manual grill 25. Activated carbon is obtained in the same manner as described above, without violating the basic technology of firing materials.

Practical use of the proposed method is associated with existing or planned fuel combustion technologies, where it is possible to place an additional chamber with a grill, or to use an existing chamber with a grill included in another technology. Structural feature is the presence of equipment to be connected to the movable gas path flue gas stream having an oxygen concentration of 16% (O 2 <16%) and the temperature in different parts of flues LOAD T and T = 900-1300K OHL = 400-500K, where it is possible to fractionation and supply of coal particles with a narrow range of sizes (2-4 mm, 4-6 mm, 6-8 mm, 8-13 mm, etc.), output and acceptance of the finished activated product. In particular, such technologies and equipment are illustrated in FIG. 1, 2, 3, 4, and their description is given above. Compared with methods for producing activated carbon in plants with individually organized fuel combustion, the proposed method with a combination of technological processes significantly reduces the total fuel consumption and expenses for own needs. When fractionated particles of coal are activated, the quality of the finished product increases due to a reduction in the burning of fines and an increase in the proportion of volatiles in large particles. The choice of the values of V heat and V cool , the height of the layer in the lattice, the speed of its filling and withdrawal, as well as the time periods for activating purges and cooling, depend on the individual properties of the activated carbon and is associated with adjustment. The active properties of the obtained product after heat treatment of the initial coal fractions are determined by the degree of removal of volatile substances, moisture from them, and are improved with additional preliminary or post-thermal enrichment, which is not considered in the application volume, with the conclusion of rock mineral inclusions.

Claims (1)

  1. A method for producing active fractionated coal in a chamber on a grate by first connecting the chamber to the gas path of the fuel burning device and filling the grate with a layer of fractionated coal particles, their subsequent activation by heating a flue gas stream through the layer with oxygen content up to 16% and a temperature of 900-1300 K and separation moisture and volatile combustible substances, feeding the latter into the fuel burning device, blowing off the layer with steam, cooling supplied under the grate and passed through the layer of sn from a flue gas stream with an oxygen content of up to 16% and a temperature of 400-500 K and the removal from the grate of heat-treated activated carbon particles freed from moisture and volatiles, characterized in that when activated, the heating flue gas stream is directed into the layer from above, and under the grate simultaneously with the flow rate V 1 = (0,4-0,6) V LOAD is fed cooling the flue gases, in addition, the same gas flow rate V 2 = (0,8-1,2) V OHL purged periodically from the bottom layer, while termination during the purge period, the supply to the layer of heating gases, where V heating and V OHL - heating and cooling costs of gases during periods of activation, and cooling of the coal particles, Nm 3 / s.
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US4335660A (en) * 1980-06-02 1982-06-22 Research Cottrell Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for flue gas recirculation in a solid fuel boiler
RU2126113C1 (en) * 1996-07-31 1999-02-10 Акционерное общество закрытого типа "Автоматизированные котлы малой мощности" Solid fuel combustion unit
EP1757859B1 (en) * 2005-08-24 2010-11-03 Georg Eisenzopf Boiler for granular fuel
RU2500953C1 (en) * 2012-06-04 2013-12-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Южно-Уральский государственный университет" (национальный исследовательский университет) Method to activate powdered coal in vertical tetrahedral prismatic furnace
RU2500954C1 (en) * 2012-06-04 2013-12-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Южно-Уральский государственный университет" (национальный исследовательский университет) Multifunctional furnace unit
CN104748104A (en) * 2015-03-13 2015-07-01 江苏盛凯环保工程有限公司 Coupling staged combustion and smoke recirculation low NOx chain grate furnace

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US4335660A (en) * 1980-06-02 1982-06-22 Research Cottrell Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for flue gas recirculation in a solid fuel boiler
RU2126113C1 (en) * 1996-07-31 1999-02-10 Акционерное общество закрытого типа "Автоматизированные котлы малой мощности" Solid fuel combustion unit
EP1757859B1 (en) * 2005-08-24 2010-11-03 Georg Eisenzopf Boiler for granular fuel
RU2500953C1 (en) * 2012-06-04 2013-12-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Южно-Уральский государственный университет" (национальный исследовательский университет) Method to activate powdered coal in vertical tetrahedral prismatic furnace
RU2500954C1 (en) * 2012-06-04 2013-12-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Южно-Уральский государственный университет" (национальный исследовательский университет) Multifunctional furnace unit
CN104748104A (en) * 2015-03-13 2015-07-01 江苏盛凯环保工程有限公司 Coupling staged combustion and smoke recirculation low NOx chain grate furnace

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